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Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 1 6 1

Abstract: This paper represents a new technique for

designing 2D FIR digital filters with flat magnitude and

sharp transition band with low arithmetic complexity.

Considering wide range usage of filters with these parameters

in communication, signal processing, medicine and etc,

nowadays optimized designs of these filters has been

considered. In addition, filters with these details on cut off

band of high pass, band pass and band stop filters with

arbitrary pass band should be done extend. In order to

flatting the pass band, we used Gaussian approximation in

design FIR filters and concluded that ripple in pass band of

filters those were designed using Gaussian approximation

with attenuation constant coefficients in cut off band, were

less than filter designed with Parks_McClellan method and In

order to sharpen the transition band, filters frequency

response modeled by using of trigonometric functions of

frequency and transfer function calculated in time and

frequency domains. Typically we cannot design a 2D

filter from nonsymmetrical impulse response, then we

have create a 2D low pass FIR filter by using of

chebyshev polynomials.

Keywords: : Two-Dimension FIR filter, Flat Magnitude,

Sharp Transition Band, Nonsymmetrical Impulse

Response, Chebyshev Polynomials.

1. INTRODUCTION

Different ways has been applied for designing of two-

dimensional FIR digital filters. One of them is windows

way and another one is frequency transform. McClellan

has introduced frequency transform for symmetrical two-

dimensional FIR digital filters. By this way one-

dimension FIR digital filters transforms to two-dimension

filters by symmetrical impulse response by using of

transform frequency[1]. Also Karam defined two-

dimension filters with complex coefficients by transform

frequency. In this way, designed filters could have

complex coefficients and also he has generalized those

filters to multi-dimension filters. But none of those could

not be used in nonsymmetrical filters [2]. In this paper we

propose a new method for transforming frequency of one-

dimension FIR digital filters with nonsymmetrical

impulse response to state of two-dimension FIR digital

filters.

2. GAUSSIAN APPROXIMATION METHOD IN

DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

In designing of a digital low pass FIR filter with

transition band of

c

and stop edge frequency of

s

,

filters frequency response present in ideal form in below

formula:

s

c

H

>

s

=

0

1

) ( (1)

One of the ways of approximation of ideal frequency

response is use of Gaussian functions

) ( ) ( ) (

i i r

i

G C H

- =

(2)

Where is the impulse unit function, * is the

convolution introducer and ) (

i

G is normal (Gaussian)

function[3],[4]

2

2

2

2

1

) (

= e G

i

i

(3)

i

In above formula is of Gaussian distribution.

Collection of Gaussian functions that approximate a FIR

filter presented in figure 1.

parameters

i i i

C , ,

formula,

) (

r

H

In should be chosen to

minimize the tolerance of approximation. For that,

Gappizi and his co-workers suggested [3]-[10]

) ( 735 . 0

c s

= (4)

In other word, they said is a constant coefficient and

presented

i

in below formula

num num i i

i

,..., 2 , 1 . 0 . 1 . 2 ,..., = A = (5)

Where

A

was calculated by

( ) = A 1 ln 2 2

2

(6)

Design a linear phase 2D low pass FIR digital

filter with flat magnitude and sharp transition

band with non symmetrical impulse response

Davood Ghaderi

1

, Niloufar Rajabiyoun

2

1,2

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Islamic Azad University,

International Jolfa Branch, Jolfa, Iran

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 1 6 2

)

2

1

( cos

1

1

0

A k

t

c

+ =

) ( 2

z

s

k

=

2

1

+ =

(

A

=

c

c

num

Max num

p p pm

k H

s s + = 0 cos

2

1 ) (

in above formula o is the maximum permissible ripple in

filters pass band,

( )

r

H

in result is

( )

( )

=

=

num

num i

r

i

e

Max

H

2

2

2

2

1

(7)

Also

(8)

By using of Inverse Fourier Transform, filter impulse

response comes from

(9)

Figure 1 Collection of Gaussian functions that

approximate a FIR filter

Fig. 2. presented a digital FIR filter with N=61 (N is FIR

filters order), 3 . 0 =

c

,

33 . 0 =

s

that designed by

Gaussian approximation and is showing a comparison

with a similar Parks_McClellan method and that showing

the ripple in pass band of filters those designed with

using of Gaussian approximation to attenuation constant

coefficients in cut off band are less than similar filters in

which designed with Parks_McClellan method.

3. FILTER DESINING

The proposed model for the pseudo-magnitude of the

filter transfer function is formulated for equiripple pass

band and sharp transition using trigonometric functions

of frequency[11],[12]. In the proposed model for a linear

phase, equiripple pass band, sharp transition, low pass

FIR filter the various regions of the filter response are

formulated as follow.

In the pass band region, the frequency response is:

) 10 (

Where the frequency variable,

( )

pm

H

is the pseudo-

magnitude of the filter response, o is pass band loss,

p

k

(a) (b)

Figure 2 Comparison Gaussian approximation (a) with

Parks_McClellan method (b)

an integer is a filter parameter in the pass band and

p

is

the end of ripple channel frequency.

Transition region spans part of the pass band

( )

p c

as

well as part of the stop band

( )

s z

where

c

is the

cutoff frequency and

s

e

is the stop band edge frequency.

In the transition region, the frequency response is

(11)

z p t pm

k A H s s = ) ( cos ) (

0

Where

t

k an integer is a filter parameter in the

transition region, A is amplitude parameter and is chosen

greater than 1, is the frequency at which ( )

pm

H

equals A,

z

( )

pm

H

is zero in

the stop band region.

In the stop band region, the frequency response :

s s =

z z s

s

pm

k H ) ( sin

2

) (

(12)

Where

s

is the stop band loss,

s

k is the filter parameter

in the stop band region.

From(10)

0 cos =

p p

k

(13)

P

p

L

k

2

=

(14)

Where L is odd, i.e., 1,3,5 to give negative slope due to

roll off.

(15)

) ( cos 0 ) (

0

= =

z t pm

k A H

) 16 (

) ( 2

0

=

z

t

k

) ( sin

2 2

) (

z s

s s

pm

k H

= =

(17)

(18)

From (11), ( ) 1 =

pm

H we obtain

(19)

Also,

(20)

Cut-off frequency

(21)

( )

( )

( )

(

+ =

=

num

i

i

n

n e

Max

n h

1

2

2

1

cos

1

2

) ( cos

1

0

=

p t

k

A

)

1

( cos )

1

(

1

0

A k

t

p

=

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 1 6 3

} ] cos cos ) 1 [(

) ( 2

sin

2

) cos

1

(cos 2

) ( 2

.

) ( 2

) cos( sin

)

2

1

(

2 2

2

2 2 2 2

z z s

k k

s

s s

p

p z t

t p

p p p

k k

k k

k

k

kA

k

A

A

k k

k k

A

k k

k k

k

k

k

N

h

s

+ =

+

}

+

=

d H n h

pm d

) (

2

1

) (

Stop band edge frequency

) 22 (

Transition region width

(

(

(

(

=

)

2

1

( cos )

2

( cos

1

1 1

A A k

s

t

c s

(23)

In the stop band,

) 24 (

t

z

z

k

k

2

) 1 4 (

0

+

+ =

Where ,... 2 , 1 , 0 k

z

= choose for 0 k

z

= narrowest

transition band of the low pass filter.

The magnitude response

( ) e

pm

H

is as shown in figure 3.

3.1 Impulse Response Coefficients

Let ( ) 1 0 , s s N n n h , be the impulse response of an N-

point linear phase FIR digital filter. The linear phase

condition implies that the impulse response satisfies the

symmetry condition [7],

(25)

The frequency response for a linear phase FIR filter for

odd N is given by:

(26)

Where the pseudo-magnitude response

( )

pm

H

is

(27)

The impulse response sequence determined by this

frequency response is obtained from

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3 (a) Magnitude response of the proposed model

for low pass filter, (b) Magnitude view of the pass band,

(c) Magnitude view of the stop band

(28)

The impulse response coefficients h(n) for the resultant

filter are obtained by evaluating the integral (28) using

equations (10), (11) and (12). Modeling the pseudo-

magnitude response , ( ) e

pm

H

in the pass band region,

transition region and the stop band region respectively.

According that, we obtain the impulse response

coefficients as

(29)

4. Designing Two-dimension FIR Digital

Filters With Flat Magnitude and Sharp

Transition Band

Transfer function of a one-dimension linear digital FIR

filter comes from bellows formula

=

N

n

n

Z n h Z H

0

) ( ) (

(30)

Totally H(z) a filters transformations function suppose

with a nonsymmetrical impulse response where as every

function could be written as set of one even function and

a odd function, therefore H(z) could be written like bellow

) ( ) ( ) ( Z H Z H Z H

a S

+ =

(31)

Which in it ( ) z H

s

related to transformation function of a

filter with a even symmetrical impulse response and

( ) z H

a

related to transform function of a filter is a odd

symmetrical impulse response.

( ) z H

s

and

( ) z H

a

could

be reached by bellow form1 2 ula:

)) ( ) ( (

2

1

) (

1

+ = Z H Z Z H Z H

N

s

(32)

)) ( ) ( (

2

1

) (

1

= Z H Z Z H Z H

N

a

Filters frequency response comes out from below formula

)

2

( cos

1

1

0

A k

s

t

s

+ =

,.... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) 1 ( ) ( = = n n N h n h

) ( . ) (

)

2

1

(

pm

N

j

j

H e e H

=

)

2

1

(

1

cos )

2

1

( 2 )

2

1

( ) (

N

n

pm

n n

N

h

N

h H

z s

s

s

t p

p

k

k k

A A

k

n

h

cos

2

1

2

)

2

1

(

2

+ + =

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 1 6 4

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

0 0

2

a s

N

j

j

jH H e e H + =

(33)

In which in it

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) M N n b H

n a H

M

n

n s

M

n

n s

2 cos sin

cos

0

0

0

= =

=

=

=

(34)

Now we can develop ( ) n cos e according to ( ) cos by

chebicev polynomial

( ) ( ) ( ) cos cos

n

T n = (35)

So we can write frequency response of a favorite filter as

below

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )] cos cos 1

cos [

1

0

2

0

=

=

+ =

M

n

n n

M

n

n n

jM j

T b

T a e e H

(36)

By above formula clearly you can see we can transform

above-mentioned filters to a two-dimension FIR digital

filter by replacing

cos(w)

with two-dimension function

like ( )

2 1

, F . Every function which comes with

( ) 1 ,

2 1

s F

condition could be used. But as a some

limitation of Karam [2] bellows condition must be applied

with above-mentioned condition

(a)

(b)

Figure 4 designed 2-dimension flat magnitude filter

comparison (b) with conventional filters in cutoff

frequency (a)

( ) ( )

2 1 2 1

, , F F = (37)

With above-mentioned condition as an example we can

use bellows function

) cos( ) cos(

2

1

) cos(

2

1

) cos(

2

1

2

1

) , (

2 1 2 1 2 1

+ + + = F

(38)

5. Simulation Results

In this part we present some of simulation which has been

done in this field.

Figure 5 Two-dimension designed filter in cutoff

frequency 25 . 0

Figure 6 designed filter with conventional ones

comparison in cutoff frequency 25 . 0

5. Conclusion

The comparison between Figure 4(a) and 4(b), we can see

the magnitude of the filter which designed by frequency

transformation method is flatter than pass band of filter

which designed by conventional methods. According to

[12] with a trigonometric method we can design a sharp

transition band filter and according to our method a new

model is introduced to produce a 2D low pass FIR filter

with flat magnitude and sharp transition band using

simple mathematical formulas and linear phase. we

concluded that , ripple in pass band of filters designed

using Gaussian approximation with attenuation constant

coefficients in cut off bands are less than filters designed

with parks-McClellan method. Above mentioned design

has been done by MATLAB software, and eventually our

results were close to the theoretical results including

I nt ernat i onal Journal of E mergi ng Trends & Technol ogy i n Comput er Sci ence (I JE TTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 1, Issue 4, November December 2012 ISSN 2278-6856

Vol ume 1 , I ssue 4 November - December 2 0 1 2 Page 1 6 5

ripple maximum 0.005db in pass band and 03 . 0 in

transition band.

REFERENCES

[1] J.H.McClellan, The Design of Two-Dimensional

digital filter by transformations, in prov. 7th Annual

Princeton Conf. on Inform. Sci. and Sys., pp.247-

251, 1973.

[2] L.J. Karam, Design pf Complex

multidimensional FIR filters by Transformations ,

IEEE Proceedings.

[3] T.I. Laakso, V. Valimaki, M.Karajalainen, and

U.K Laian, Splitting the unit delay, IEEE Signal

processing Mag. Vol. 13, pp. 30-35, jan 1998.

[4] I.W. Selesnick and C.S. Burrus, Maximally flat

low-pass FIR filters with reduced delay IEEE Trans.

Circuits Syst. II, vol.45, pp. 53-68 , Jan 1998.

[5] S. Samdi, I. Nishihara and H. iwakura, Universal

maximally flat iow-pass FIR systems , IEEE Transe.

Signal processing, vol. 48, pp 1956-1964, july 2000 .

[6] O. Herrmann, un approximation program in no

recursive digital filter design, IEEE Trans Circuit

theory, vol. CT- 18, pp. 411-413, May 1971.

[7] H. Baher, FIR digital filters with simultaneous

conditions on amplitude and group delay Electron.

Lett., vol. 18, pp. 296-301, Apr. 1982.

[8] R. I. Gopinath, Least squared error FIR filters

with flat amplitude or group delay constraints ,

IEEE Signal Processing, Lett. Nov. 2002 .

[9] R. I. Gopinath, Low-pass Delay Filters with Flat

Magnitude and Group Delay Constraints , IEEE

Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, pp. 182-192, Jan.

2003.

[10] J. S. Lim, Two Dimensional Signal and Image

Processing , Englewood Cliffs, NG:Premtice Hall,

1990.

[11] Pardeep Kaur, Optimization of FIR Filters

Design using Genetic Algorithm, International

journal of Emerging Trends& technology in

computer science(IJETTSC), Volume 1, Issue 3, pp.

228-232, September October 2012.

[12] J. Rodrigues, Synthesis of Linear Phase Sharp

Transition FIR Digital Filter, ECTI Transaction on

Computer and Information Technology vol.1, no.2

November, pp. 96-99, 2005

AUTHOR

Davood Ghaderi received the B.S and

M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from

Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran,

in 2006 and 2009, respectively. From 3 years

ago he had begun a wide research in field of

ideal filters in FIR & IIR domains and

expanding them to optical devices. His favorite

fields are DSP, filters and image and signal

processing and have several papers and survey projects in these

fields. He had taught in different branches of Islamic Azad

University in Iran, such as Jolfa and Ahar branches from five

years ago.

Niloufar Rajabiyoun received the B.S.

and M.S. degrees in Electrical

Engineering from Engineering Faculty

of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz

Branch, Iran, in 2006 and 2009,

respectively. Her main field in M.S. was

speech signals and Blind Source Separation (BSS)

analysis and has extensive study in these fields with more

than 10 different papers and survey projects. She had

taught in different branches of Islamic Azad University

and private institutes of technology in Iran, from four

years ago.

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