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Computer software
Overview

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Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 1)


The following presents an overview of various aspects and types of computer software: Computer (disk) operating system(s) Graphical user interfaces The popular family of Microsoft Windows operating systems in particular Utility software packages Local area network software

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Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 2)


Application software packages (excluding software to build presentations with slides, software to create web sites, because these are discussed in more detail in other chapters) General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages

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Computer software: summary/overview/abstract (Part 3)


Computer file formats in general Computer file formats for text only Computer file formats for graphics/images Computer file formats for documents with text and images Compression, archiving and conversion of computer files

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read the chapter about Read the chapter about software software in in Introduction to automation for librarians. Introduction to automation for librarians. by William Saffady by William Saffady Chicago ::ALA, 1999. Chicago ALA, 1999.

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Computer software
Computer (disk) operating systems

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Computer operating systems: functions


A computer operating system brings many basic functions to a computer: Process management Memory management File input/output Device input/output

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Computer operating systems are NOT user interfaces only


Do not confuse a user interface with a computer operating system. An operating system often comes with a particular interface for the use of many functions, which causes this confusion.

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?? Question ??

List and discuss widespread List and discuss widespread computer operating systems computer operating systems for small, personal microcomputers. for small, personal microcomputers.

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Computer operating systems for microcomputers


For microcomputers with Intel compatible CPU DOS; DOS + Windows 3.x; Windows 95; Windows 98; Windows 98 SE; Windows ME, (OS/2) Windows NT 4 Workstation; Windows 2000 Professional; Windows XP; Linux, Apple operating systems

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?? Question ??

Name widespread, famous operating systems Name widespread, famous operating systems for server computers. for server computers.

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Computer operating systems for server computers


Unix (and variants such as Linux and Solaris) Windows NT 4 server; Windows 2000 server; Windows 2003 server; ...

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Computer operating systems: properties


Operating system Multi-user? Multitasking? Long descriptive file names? Unix DOS DOS + Linux Windows 3.x + + + OS/2 Windows 95 Windows 98 + + Windows NT Windows 2000 + + +

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?? Question ??

Why can multitasking on computers Why can multitasking on computers be useful? be useful? (even though people mostly work (even though people mostly work on 1 activity at the same time) on 1 activity at the same time)

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Multitasking: uses
Switching among programs the ability to load several programs and easily and quickly switch among them Running tasks in the background for instance: downloading data, printing, monitoring disk space, receiving electronic mail,...

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?? Question ??
Unix and Linux Unix and Linux have many positive properties, have many positive properties, but have not been used but have not been used on most microcomputers. on most microcomputers. Why? Why?

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Computer operating systems: Unix: problems and drawbacks (Part 1)


The code requires more disk space than most operating systems developed for small personal computers up to 2000. The system is suited for more multiple users on the same computer, and therefore it is more complex than most operating systems developed for small, single-user personal computers.

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Computer operating systems: Unix: problems and drawbacks (Part 2)


Does not support as many microcomputers hardware devices and commercial applications as Microsoft Windows. The many versions and interfaces may confuse users.

*---Example

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Computer operating systems: Unix: character-based interface commands


cat cd cp ls -la man mkdir more mv rm rmdir Views the contents of text files Changes directory Copies files Lists files Accesses the reference manual online Makes a new directory Displays a text file, 1 page at the time Moves or renames files Removes a file Removes a directory

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?? Question ??
Windows 2000, XP Windows 2000, XP have many positive properties in comparison have many positive properties in comparison with older Windows operating system software, with older Windows operating system software, but they should not be used on most older, low-end PCs. but they should not be used on most older, low-end PCs. Why? Why?

*---Example

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Computer operating systems: DOS: character-based interface commands


cd copy dir Mkdir, md rename rm rmdir del xcopy Changes directory Copies files Lists files Makes a new directory Renames files Removes a file Removes a directory

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User interface software for DOS: some character-based packages


DOSShell PCTools / PCShell Norton Commander Desqview ...

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User interface software for DOS: some graphics-based packages (GUIs)


DOSShell Microsoft Windows 1, 2, 3.x Norton Desktop for Windows ...

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?? Question ??

Which operating system Which operating system are you mainly using? are you mainly using?

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Computer operating systems: evolution


More user-friendly interfaces Increasing power Bigger in size because of more sophistication More Web enabled

(Parallel evolution for application software)

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Computer software
Graphical user interfaces = GUI

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Graphical user interface = GUI: description


The interface on the display is built up using individual picture elements (= pixels) in an array. Suitable for the application of WIMP techniques: Windows, informative Icons, a Mouse or another pointing device, Pull-down menus / Pointing

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?? Question ??

Which benefits offer GUIs ? Which benefits offer GUIs ? (in contrast with (in contrast with character-based interfaces) character-based interfaces)

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Graphical user interfaces: benefits (Part 1)


The display can offer better WYSIWYG: What You See (on the display) Is What You Get (on printed paper) The user can change the size of windows on the information continuously. The user can choose and use various types and sizes of characters in the user interface.

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Graphical user interfaces: benefits (Part 2)


The user can address every single pixel (using a pointing device such as a mouse) to generate an action by the computer. The computer can create detailed icons. ...

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?? Question ??

Which disadvantage Which disadvantage have GUIs? have GUIs?

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?? Question ??

How can WYSIWYG work well? How can WYSIWYG work well? Why did earlier systems Why did earlier systems not offer WYSIWYG as well? not offer WYSIWYG as well?

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Graphical user interfaces: disadvantage


Requires a relatively fast computer system: fast processor, fast video, fast hard disk, (caching hard- and software,) ...

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?? Question ??

What is easier to do What is easier to do with a mouse with a mouse than with a keyboard? than with a keyboard?

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Mouse is complementary to the keyboard


Drag to change size and/or shape of objects (windows, graphics, ...) Point and click to activate Drag and drop: Make selection, drag selection, and paste or put elsewhere Select a document by its name or icon, drag it to the programs name or icon, release the button to make the program work with the document Free-hand drawing

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Computer software
Microsoft Windows: an operating environment

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Microsoft Windows: an operating environment


Layers for Windows 1.x, 2.x, 3.x: Application programs + Utility programs

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Microsoft Windows: benefits with all applications (Part 1)


Offers a graphical user interface. Allows multi-tasking of programs. The Windows package includes utility programs. Due to the multi-tasking, utility programs provided by Windows can be used by application programs, so that each application program does not have to offer these utilities.

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Microsoft Windows: benefits with all applications (Part 2)


The Windows package includes basic application programs for text editing, word processing, communications, file management, calculations, bitmap editing (painting, photo editing,) ...

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Microsoft Windows: benefits with all applications (Part 3)


Allows cut and paste or copy and paste of data in the same document managed by the same program! between various documents managed by the same program!! between various documents managed by various programs!!!

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Apply copy and paste in Apply copy and paste in the same document the same document managed by the same program. managed by the same program.

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Apply copy and paste Apply copy and paste between various documents between various documents managed by the same program. managed by the same program.

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Apply copy and paste between Apply copy and paste between different programs. different programs. For instance: For instance: copy aaresult from Microsoft Windows Calculator copy result from Microsoft Windows Calculator (such as aalong number) (such as long number) into aadocument of Microsoft Word. into document of Microsoft Word.

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Microsoft Windows (all versions): benefits with Windows applications


Interface is more uniform, consistent, standardised. Saves time during installation of programs + saves space on the hard disk, by providing drivers for output to video display(s), printer(s), sound board(s),... which can be used by all programs for Windows. Allows software development which is more independent of display hardware. DDE / Dynamic Data Exchange among documents

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Microsoft Windows from version 3: benefits with Windows applications


OLE = Object Linking and Embedding later evolved into ActiveX Provides access to more than 640 K RAM, starting from version 3.0. Provides TrueType technology for output to video display and printer, starting from version 3.1. Allows drag and drop of files to the icons representing application programs.

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Success of Microsoft Windows


Horizontal = multi-purpose software inexpensive many millions of copies of this package have already been distributed internationally.

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Microsoft Windows tutorials


Computer-assisted learning about Windows is offered by the Windows package itself.

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Evolution of Microsoft operating systems for PCs from 1981 to 1994


1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 DOS 1

DOS + Windows 1

DOS + Windows 3 DOS + Windows 3.1

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Evolution of Microsoft operating systems for PCs from 1995 to


1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Windows 95 Windows NT 4 (also for servers = multi-user) Windows 98 Windows 98 SE Windows ME

Windows 2000 (also for servers = multi-user) Windows XP (also for servers = multi-user) Windows 2003 (for servers = multi-user)

Windows Vista beta version

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?? Question ??

How can you rename a collection of files in a folder, How can you rename a collection of files in a folder, in 1 action, with the operating system that you use? in 1 action, with the operating system that you use? In which case is this useful? In which case is this useful?

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Computer software
Utility software packages

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Utility software packages: definition


Not a well defined term One meaning is: Software which helps to run the computer system, but which is not directly useful on the application level. Operating systems include utility programs; others can be installed besides these or can replace these.

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Utility software packages: some categories: anti-virus


Anti-virus shielding and scanning + anti-spyware + local network and Internet firewall (checking incoming and outgoing data)

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?? Question ??

Which concrete anti-virus software Which concrete anti-virus software protects your pc? protects your pc?

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read Read Brain, Marshall Brain, Marshall How computer viruses work. [online] How computer viruses work. [online] Available from: Available from: http://computers.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm http://computers.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm [cited 2005] [cited 2005]

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?? Question ??

Which concrete anti-virus software Which concrete anti-virus software protects your pc? protects your pc?

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?? Question ??

What is the meaning of: What is the meaning of: keeping your anti-virus-software up-to-date? keeping your anti-virus-software up-to-date?

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?? Question ??

How do YOU concretely How do YOU concretely keep YOUR anti-virus software up-to-date keep YOUR anti-virus software up-to-date on YOUR specific computer system? on YOUR specific computer system?

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!! Task - Assignment !!

You can read about attackers You can read about attackers that threat your computer security: that threat your computer security: Kanabar, Dina, and Kanabar, Vijay Kanabar, Dina, and Kanabar, Vijay Security. The attackers. Security. The attackers. Computers in Libraries, May 2003, p. 25. Computers in Libraries, May 2003, p. 25.

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read Read Pike, Sarah Pike, Sarah Antivirus. Antivirus. PC Magazine, August 3, 2004, p. 88. PC Magazine, August 3, 2004, p. 88.

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read Read Coustan, Dave Coustan, Dave How spyware works. [online] How spyware works. [online] Available from: Available from: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/spyware.htm/printable http://computer.howstuffworks.com/spyware.htm/printable [cited 2005] [cited 2005]

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read Read Clyman, John Clyman, John Antispyware. Antispyware. PC Magazine, August 3, 2004, p. 89. PC Magazine, August 3, 2004, p. 89.

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Utility software packages: some categories: text-searching


Searching for files on your computer, by searching for text within the files. Examples of programs for a pc, available free of charge: included in the operating system Windows since version 95 offered by Microsoft since 2005 offered by Copernic since 2004 offered by Google since 2004 offered by Yahoo! since 2005

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?? Question ??

How do you search for a particular file on your pc? How do you search for a particular file on your pc?

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Utility software packages: some categories: file management


Making space by searching and deleting files that are not used or that are not useful Compression / decompression of files Archiving / de-archiving of files Checking disk integrity/quality Backing up data Transferring files and settings to another computer

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read and apply the advice concerning PC maintenance Read and apply the advice concerning PC maintenance offered by offered by Jackson, Peter Jackson, Peter The ultimate PC tune-up. The ultimate PC tune-up. PC World (UK), April 2007, pp. 52-55. PC World (UK), April 2007, pp. 52-55.

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Search for useless files on your computer and delete these. Search for useless files on your computer and delete these. Do this regularly. Do this regularly.
To accomplish this, you can: To accomplish this, you can: use aautility for disk cleanup use utility for disk cleanup search for old temporary files with the file name extension .tmp search for old temporary files with the file name extension .tmp for instance, in Windows XP, delete useless old files for instance, in Windows XP, delete useless old files from the folder named Local Settings from the folder named Local Settings which is aasubfolder of your working folder which is subfolder of your working folder in the folder documents and settings in the folder documents and settings

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read: Read: Paterson, Craig Paterson, Craig Data backup: test your safety net. Data backup: test your safety net. (Backing up data and making sure you can retrieve it (Backing up data and making sure you can retrieve it is a necessary chore, is a necessary chore, so heres some advice so heres some advice on which method to use and how to do it successfully.) on which method to use and how to do it successfully.) Personal Computer World (England), May 2004, pp. 91-94. Personal Computer World (England), May 2004, pp. 91-94.

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?? Question ??

How do YOU concretely How do YOU concretely maintain your data backing-up system? maintain your data backing-up system?

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Utility software packages: some categories: visualisation


Visualizing the size-distribution of subfolders within a folder, for instance to get an idea of how many bits are devoted to which subject/interest on a hard disk or in a web site.

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Utility software packages: some categories: visualisation: screenshot

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Utility software packages: some categories: monitoring


Monitoring CPU-use, disk-space left, disk reading and writing, use of network, battery power in the case of portable computers... (Encoding / decoding of files) (Defragmenting files on the hard disk)

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Computer software
Network software packages

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Network software packages


See the chapter on networks, data communication and Internet

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Computer software
Application software packages

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read the article Read the article From clay tablets to integrated suites. From clay tablets to integrated suites. Personal Computer World (UK), March 2001, pp. 208-209. Personal Computer World (UK), March 2001, pp. 208-209.

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Categories of application software packages


Text editing...Word processing...Desktop publishing Spreadsheet Presentation creation Graphics (bitmap/pixels and vector/object or mixed) Multimedia authoring + distribution Data communications (basic layers + applications) Portable document software Database management systems ...

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Software for text editing: categories


Simple text editors Simple word processing software Powerful word processing software Page-layout software / Desktop publishing software

**--Examples

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Software for word processing: examples


For DOS Microsoft Word WordPerfect For Windows Microsoft Word for Windows (Microsoft) WordPerfect for Windows Word (Corel) (Lotus-IBM) (Microsoft)

Word processing module of StarOffice, OpenOffice

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Software for word processing: screen shot

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Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 1)


Is the general appearance attractive (not messy)? Does the text look well (not squashed up)? Do the pages have a basic shape? Is there adequate white space? Is the line length short enough? Are letters in CAPITALS avoided? Is underlining of letters avoided? Are fonts chosen well? Is the character size OK?

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Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 2)


Is the typography consistent throughout the document? Are colours used well? Are illustrations/graphics/pictures used well?

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Design of documents on paper: a brief checklist (Part 3)


Is it easy to see the main points? Are there a sufficient number of chapter and sub-chapter headings? Are the headings informative? Is the number of heading levels not too high? Are the differences in heading levels well supported by differences in formatting of chapter numbers and characters?

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?? Question ??

What are the benefits What are the benefits of using paragraph styles of using paragraph styles in word processing? in word processing?

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Software for word processing: the advantages of paragraph styles


In comparison with more manual formatting, styles offer a way to format paragraphs that is easier, faster and more consistent. Using heading styles allows outlining = outline view automatic sorting of paragraphs automatic creation of a table of contents saving a document as a file in HTML format, which is formatted automatically according to the heading levels in the original document

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?? Question ??

What is the relation in word processing What is the relation in word processing between paragraph styles and outline view? between paragraph styles and outline view?

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Learn about styles Learn about styles in the program that you use for word processing. in the program that you use for word processing.

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!! Task - Assignment - Exercise !!


Create a document with chapters, using heading styles. Create a document with chapters, using heading styles.
For instance, select some document that you have to write anyway, For instance, select some document that you have to write anyway, or that you have already written; or that you have already written; take the chapter titles (that is: the headings), take the chapter titles (that is: the headings), and format these with heading 1, 2, 3styles; and format these with heading 1, 2, 3styles; assign different fonts and sizes and colours to the styles. assign different fonts and sizes and colours to the styles.
In case that you do not have aatext available, In case that you do not have text available, then use the file that should be available from the WWW through then use the file that should be available from the WWW through http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/courses/chapters/software-exercise-styles.doc http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/courses/chapters/software-exercise-styles.doc (note: BIBLIO and not biblio) (note: BIBLIO and not biblio)

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!! Task - Assignment - Exercise !!

Choose a document with heading styles, Choose a document with heading styles, and apply outlining. and apply outlining.

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Choose a document with chapters, Choose a document with chapters, using heading styles, using heading styles, and create a table of contents on 1 page, and create a table of contents on 1 page, using styles. using styles.

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Software for word processing as a database system: tools


Styles for paragraphs (for instance Heading level 1, 2, 3,) Outline view (hiding levels low in the hierarchy) Tables with rows and columns Sorting + combinations of these

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Software for word processing as a database system: input methods (1)


Each (small) database can correspond with a whole document created with a program for word processing OR with a chapter of a document created with a program for word processing; then outlining can be used to view and select these chapters.

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Software for word processing as a database system: input methods (2)


Methods to work with database records and fields in records: Using a table OR Using paragraphs formatted with styles!

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Software for word processing as a database system: using a table


Methods to work with records and fields: Each record in one row Each field of each record in a column. (This allows sorting of the records based on the content of a selected field.)

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Build a table and Build a table and sort the rows (records //items), sort the rows (records items), based on the contents based on the contents of the columns (fields). of the columns (fields).

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Software for word processing as a database system: using paragraphs


Using paragraphs formatted with styles Each record consists of several paragraphs. Each field corresponds to one of these paragraphs. (This allows sorting the records based on the first field, by using heading styles and outlining.) As an example of a document formatted with heading styles, see
http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/courses/bibliography/software.rtf

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Use heading styles Use heading styles to create a small structured list, to create a small structured list, such as a directory or bibliography. such as a directory or bibliography. Use outline view to look at this list. Use outline view to look at this list. Add a record out of order in normal view; Add a record out of order in normal view; go to outline view and sort all the records. go to outline view and sort all the records.

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Software for word processing as a database system: retrieval features


Searching / retrieval / queries can be made By sequential string searching (fast enough with a fast computer and a small database) (can be slow with a slow computer or a large database) Retrieval of record after record; no selection of a record set No Boolean retrieval; no positional operators

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Test the speed of string searching Test the speed of string searching with the hard- and software with the hard- and software that you use to store information. that you use to store information.

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Software for word processing as a database system: output features


No sorting or relevance ranking of selected records in output. Databases perform better in this area. When records consist of several paragraphs together using styles for paragraphs allows efficient formatting of fields in such records outlining allows to output only the first parts of records

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Prepare aaprintout on 11sheet of aatable with visible borders, Prepare printout on sheet of table with visible borders, and 44cells, 22rows of 22columns, that contain and cells, rows of columns, that contain 1) an image of an animal, 1) an image of an animal, 2) the name of that animal, 2) the name of that animal, 3) your name, 3) your name, 4) aavery brief description of the origin of the animal file 4) very brief description of the origin of the animal file (To avoid that everyone does the same work, (To avoid that everyone does the same work, the name of the animal should start with the name of the animal should start with the same character as your family name.) the same character as your family name.)

**--Examples

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Spreadsheet software packages: examples


For DOS (without Windows): Lotus 1 2 3 Quattro ... For Windows: Lotus 1 2 3 Quattro Excel ...

*---Example*

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Spreadsheet software packages: screen shot

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Program types that handle graphics


Word processing programs...Lay-out programs Presentation programs Portable document software ... Bitmap / pixel oriented editing programs Vector graphics / object oriented programs Hybrids of the above ...

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?? Question ??

Give 5 reasons why graphical image bitmap files Give 5 reasons why graphical image bitmap files are NOT ideal are NOT ideal for the storage and distribution for the storage and distribution of formatted text documents? of formatted text documents?

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Portable document software: What is it? (Part 1)


Ideally, this type of programs allows the distribution of a formatted document, while maintaining the visual integrity of the document is independent of computer platform, (computer, operating system, application software, or fonts) that is used to create the document, and to view (read, search, ...) the document compresses the document

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Portable document software: What is it? (Part 2)


allows printing the document allows searching for character strings in the document allows zooming in, without loss of details in the characters allows copying text fragments allows integration with a WWW browser allows hyperlinks / WWW links in the document ...

***-Examples

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Portable document software: some programs


Adobe Acrobat !
Viewer software is available free of charge Software to create PDF files is NOT free of charge. A free trial has been possible through the WWW at http://www.adobe.com/

(Catchword RealPage)

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Portable document software: applications


On-line help documents coming with software. Electronic publications on CD-ROM and on-line, in particular when a version printed on paper also exists!

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Display a scientific electronic journal article Display a scientific electronic journal article that is made available as a PDF document file; that is made available as a PDF document file; apply searching for text; apply searching for text; zoom in. zoom in.

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?? Question ??

Which disadvantages of PDF do you see Which disadvantages of PDF do you see (in comparison with other document file formats)? (in comparison with other document file formats)?

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!! Task - Assignment !!

Read Read Ozer, Jan Ozer, Jan Optimizing PDF files. Optimizing PDF files. (Here are nine tips for creating the best PDFs.) (Here are nine tips for creating the best PDFs.) PC Magazine, July 2005, p. 76. PC Magazine, July 2005, p. 76.

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Software for database management: overlapping categories


Relational Object-oriented Text-oriented For an overview see http://www.searchtools.com/tools/tools.html Graphics-oriented ...

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Database systems: definition


A database (management) system is a program or set of programs, providing a means by which a user can easily store and retrieve data in the form of databases.

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Information retrieval software: related terms


Software for information storage and retrieval (ISR software) Text(-oriented) database management systems (Text-DBMS) Text information management systems (TIMS) Document retrieval systems Document management systems

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Information retrieval software: applications (Part 1)


Archives Documentation centres Libraries Musea Medical files Marketing departments Schools Bibliographic databases Archived documents Documents Books / Documents Objects / Books / ... Patients histories Clients / Potential clients Courses / Teachers Publications / ...

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Information retrieval software: applications (Part 2)


Meeting calendars Product information Laboratories Personal documentation Patent office Co-operating information networks ... Meetings = conferences Product descriptions Recipes Documents Patents Documents / Persons / Institutes / Events / ...

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Text-information management systems: characteristics and definition


The information in the database is text oriented. Therefore, several features are required: ability to store relatively long blocks of texts ability to retrieve items in which specific words or terms occur anywhere

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Text-information management: from free-form to structure


Free form text information without structure

Text database with information (each record) is further structured in fields, sub-fields, with links/relations among records... (Ideally, each fields is repeatable = can be multi-valued, = can occur more than once in each record.)

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Text-information management: records with or without field structure


Unstructured records Cheap to create and manage Allows only a simple index and simple retrieval Easy and cheap to import or export

Records structured in fields

Expensive to Allows a complex create and index and thus manage powerful searches that can be limited to the contents of a field

Difficult and expensive to import or export: conversion profiles/scripts are needed when standards for filed structure are not applied completely

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Functions of database management software


Input / edit using keyboard or batch input Indexing of the database(s) Browse or Search data from database Output (Sort / Display / Print to file / Print to paper) + Export / Import

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The various formats of records in a database


Input format(s) = Edit format(s) Internal format for long term storage Format to facilitate retrieval = inverted file

Display formats Display formats Display formats for outputformats Display to for output to for output file display,for output file printer, to display, printer, to display, printer, file display, printer, file

Format for exchange/export purposes

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Indexes in books and databases: a comparison


Book
Index_term_1 Index_term_2 ... page x1, y1, z1,... page x2, y2, z2,...

Printed Invisible

Database

Index_term_1 record nr. x1 / field type nr. x1 / field occurrence x1 / position x1 record nr. y1 / field type nr. y1 / field occurrence y1 / position y1 ... Index_term_2 record nr. x2 / field type nr. x2 / field occurrence x2 / position x2 record nr. y2 / field type nr. y2 / field occurrence y2 / position y2 ... ...

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Hierarchy in the use of a database

Database structure Input / Editing Searching / Output

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Security / privacy / protection of databases


Password for searching specific database(s) and / or fields and / or record Password for editing specific database(s) and / or fields and / or records Password for changing database structure input and modification work sheets sort and print formats of data in records sort and print formats of records in a selection

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read: Read: Database management systems. Database management systems. In IMARK Information Management Resource Kit. In IMARK Information Management Resource Kit. Module on Management of Electronic Documents. Module on Management of Electronic Documents. On CD-ROM. On CD-ROM. Available free of charge from FAO, Roma, Italy. 2003. Available free of charge from FAO, Roma, Italy. 2003. For more information see http://www.fao.org/IMARK/ For more information see http://www.fao.org/IMARK/ Lesson 1. What is a database? Lesson 1. What is a database? Lesson 2. Using a database for document retrieval. Lesson 2. Using a database for document retrieval. Lesson 3. Using a database for document management. Lesson 3. Using a database for document management.

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?? Question ??

Which programs do you know Which programs do you know that can quickly offer an overview that can quickly offer an overview of pictures stored on a pc? of pictures stored on a pc?

**--Examples

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Software for image database management: some programs


Recent versions of Microsoft Windows Google Picasa ACDSee PaintShop Pro ThumbsPlus Commercial operating system

Freeware Shareware Shareware Shareware Commercial software Commercial software

Adobe Photo Album Adobe Photoshop

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Speech recognition software: functions


Recognition and transfer of spoken commands to other programs. Recognition of spoken text to create documents.

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Speech recognition software

Ariadne / Campbell

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Computer software
Open source software

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Open source software: advantages


Software source code is open, readable and modifiable, which allows changes and additions of features to meet unique local needs translation into local languages Open source community support is available for troubleshooting. In many cases cheaper than commercial closed, proprietary software.

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Open source software: disadvantages


Costs are associated with new or additional training, when switching to open source software. Resistance to change at individual and organizational level may hinder the introduction of open source software as alternatives for better known, commercial computer programs.

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read: Read: Surman. Mark and Diceman, Jason Surman. Mark and Diceman, Jason Multimedia Training Kit: Multimedia Training Kit: Introduction to open source handout. Introduction to open source handout. [online] [online] Available from: Available from: http://www.itrainonline.org/itrainonline/mmtk/opensource.shtml http://www.itrainonline.org/itrainonline/mmtk/opensource.shtml 2003 [cited 2005] 2003 [cited 2005]

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Computer software
General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages

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?? Question ??

Which general factors Which general factors should you consider should you consider in the evaluation //selection of in the evaluation selection of any software package? any software package?

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 1)


Which operating system is required by the application software? How good and reliable is the software producer: history, reputation, future? How good and reliable is the software supplier / distributor / dealer? How many installations and users are there in the country? in the region? in the world?

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 2)


To which extent is the software compatible with hardware that is already available (such as computers, displays, printers)? To which extent does the software require new hardware? Does the software allow an efficient usage of a mouse? Is the software package easy to use? Ergonomic aspects are important, as training of personnel is expensive and time consuming.

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 3)


Does the program use random access memory and other computer system resources efficiently? Are good and up to date manual(s) for the package available? Is an online tutorial (computer-based training) available? Does the software provide online help? (in context?)

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 4)


What is the initial price per user, per site? Are regular and substantial updates available? Online or only offline? At what price? Is good training and support available in your area, from the producer directly, or from the distributor, or from others? At what price? Is communication with other users easily available for discussions and to solve problems? Online? Through the Internet?

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 5)


Can the user program extensions? When some computer system is already used, can existing, available data be exported from that system and can they be imported to be managed by the new system?

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 6)


How well can data be exchanged with other persons, institutes, computer systems, databases: import of data? Example: downloading of database records from an available database/catalogue of books, compact disks, films, videos export of data? Example: contributing database records to a union catalogue of journals, books

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 7)


Is the software compatible with standards used in data input, import from other systems, export to other systems Examples: availability in the case of software for a database system of a thesaurus module with standard relations among thesaurus terms book database record formatting according to Unimarc for export to another database import and export of HTML files used on a web

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 8)


Is the software suitable for use in an Internet context? Examples: create or export files in HTML format to make them available through the WWW or an intranet the creation of e-mail messages by the software to alert users of problems, things to do / actions to undertake

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General evaluation criteria in the case of software packages (Part 9)


Is using an ASP (Application Service Provider) / networking / co-operation / considered as an alternative for in-house implementation and development of computer software? Examples: computer networks for libraries electronic mail through the WWW

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Computer software
Introduction to file formats

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147

The relations between programs and file formats


Programs to edit/create/develop/maintain a file in a particular format File stored in a particular format Programs to read/view files in a particular format + Programs to save=convert=export files from one format to another

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The program functions editing, viewing, converting


A program can incorporate only 1, 2, or all 3 of the functions Editing / creating Reading / viewing / interpreting Converting / saving / exporting for particular file formats.

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149

Examples of programs for editing, viewing, converting


Examples: Microsoft Word can create/edit + view/read + convert the file in the formats DOC, RTF, HTML. Adobe Acrobat Reader can only view / read (but not create/edit or convert/save) files in PDF format.

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Computer software
File formats for text only

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File formats for text only: examples


Type Files containing unformatted ASCII text Files with text coded by the Hypertext Markup Language Normal file name extension .TXT

.HTML or .HTM

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?? Question ??

Why can HTML files be considered as text only, Why can HTML files be considered as text only, even when many web pages made with HTML even when many web pages made with HTML contain graphics/images/photos? contain graphics/images/photos?

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Computer software
File formats for documents with text and images

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154

?? Question ??

Which concrete file formats Which concrete file formats for storage of documents for storage of documents with text and images with text and images do you know? do you know?

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Documents with text and images: available file formats (Part 1)


Many! Too many? Examples: formats of the various programs for word processing and page design, in their various versions (DOC,) Rich Text Format (RTF) PostScript (PS) Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)

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Documents with text and images: available file formats (Part 2)


bitmap-related format, primarily for graphics, but they can also show characters: BMP, GIF, JPG/JPEG, PCX, PNG, TIFF... SGML, HTML, XML... considered here together with the graphics files that they link to

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?? Question ??

Which properties of computer file formats Which properties of computer file formats for storage of documents for storage of documents with text and images with text and images can be considered as important? can be considered as important?

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Documents with text and images: properties of file formats (Part 1)


Is the format platform independent/agnostic? (for instance usable with software on Windows, Macintosh, Unix) Is the format not proprietary but open? Is the format rich, allowing to derive less rich formats from a file in this format? (for instance from Microsoft Word to RTF or HTML or PDF, from SGML to XML to HTML...)

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Documents with text and images: properties of file formats (Part 2)


Are files in this format small in comparison to the corresponding files in other formats? If compression is applied with this file format, is this compression without loss of information? Are viewers (programs) for users easily available? Does the format allow text retrieval? Is the content of a file in this format searchable on a microcomputer?

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Documents with text and images: properties of file formats (Part 3)


Does the format allow text retrieval by common Internet indexes? Is the contents searchable through the WWW or through an intranet? Can a file in this format be loaded in a program and be edited and saved? (or can it only be derived from a master file in another format?) Can the text be reformatted to another size or font?

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161

Documents with text and images: properties of file formats (Part 4)


Can a selection be made from the displayed contents of a file in this format, by copy or cut, to be pasted in another document? Does the format not suffer from the existence of various versions that may confuse the users and that require an appropriate, up-to-date program? Is the format suitable when hard-copy documents are converted to computer-based documents?

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Documents with text and images: properties of file formats (Part 5)


Is a program to produce the format already available or at least not expensive, affordable? Most documents are structured in sections with headings followed by body text and with fields such as title, author, revision date, summary/abstract Does the file format allow a computer to recognize and use this structure for better formatting, reformatting, retrieval?

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Discuss the properties Discuss the properties (advantages and disadvantages) (advantages and disadvantages) of each important file format of each important file format DOC, RTF, PS, PDF, SGML/XML, HTML, GIF, JPG, TIFF DOC, RTF, PS, PDF, SGML/XML, HTML, GIF, JPG, TIFF for storage of documents with text and images? for storage of documents with text and images? Summarize all this in the form of a table! Summarize all this in the form of a table!

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!! Task - Assignment !!
Read Read Fioretti, Marco Fioretti, Marco Format wars. Format wars. File formats: the past, the present and a possible future. [online] File formats: the past, the present and a possible future. [online] Free Software magazine, No. 1, February 2005, 5 pp. Free Software magazine, No. 1, February 2005, 5 pp. Available free of charge online. Available free of charge online.

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165

?? Question ??

What is the main conclusion What is the main conclusion of the overview of the properties of the overview of the properties of file formats for storage of text and images? of file formats for storage of text and images?

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166

File formats: the problem of exchange


The differences in all the file formats cause the requirement of filter / conversion programs, when a file must be viewed or edited by an application program that is not exactly the same as the one used to create the file.

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167

?? Question ??

What is a common property What is a common property of the file formats of the file formats HTML, PDF, JPG? HTML, PDF, JPG?

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168

Computer software
File compression, archiving and conversion

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169

File compression, archiving and conversion


Compression to make files smaller Archiving to keep related files together Conversion for transfer via computer networks
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170

?? Question ??

Which benefits are offered Which benefits are offered by compression of files? by compression of files?

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171

Data compression: benefits


Storage capacity required on magnetic or optical disks is smaller In data communication: transmission times are shorter transfer of less bits less network congestion

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172

!! Task - Assignment !!
Read Read Harris, Tom Harris, Tom How file compression works. [online] How file compression works. [online] Available from: Available from: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/file-compression.htm http://computer.howstuffworks.com/file-compression.htm [cited 2005] [cited 2005]

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173

?? Question ??

Why can Why can raw digital still image information be compressed raw digital still image information be compressed using a computer? using a computer?

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174

?? Question ??

Why can Why can raw digital video information be compressed raw digital video information be compressed using a computer? using a computer?

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175

Data compression: redundancy


Compression is (in many cases) based on the elimination of redundancy present in the source data: Spatial redundancy: repeated occurrence of the same text or picture elements Temporal redundancy: occurrence of the same picture elements in subsequent pictures in animation / video

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176

Data compression: lossless versus lossy


Compression without loss of data / quality: lossless compression Compression with loss of data / quality: lossy compression

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177

?? Question ??

What is redundancy What is redundancy (in the domain of computers)? (in the domain of computers)?

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178

?? Question ??
Give examples of applications Give examples of applications where one prefers compression where one prefers compression -- without loss of data -- without loss of data -- tolerating some loss of data -- tolerating some loss of data

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179

?? Question ??

Name 5 properties Name 5 properties that MP3, MPEG and JPG have in common? that MP3, MPEG and JPG have in common?

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180

?? Question ??

Which concrete products, Which concrete products, tools and methods for file compression tools and methods for file compression do you know? do you know?

**--Examples

181

Data compression: some types of compressed files (1)


Compression without loss of data, and archiving: ARC, BOO, CAB, LHZ, PARchive, RAR, ZIP, ZOO... Compression of picture files, without loss of information: GIF (but maximum 256 colours), TIFF... Take care: all in various versions!

**--Examples

182

Data compression: some types of compressed files (2)


Compression of picture files losing information: JPEG... in various versions Compression of video with sound, losing information: AVI, MPEG/MPG, Quicktime/MOV, RM, WMV... in various versions with various CODECs

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183

!! Task - Assignment !!

Find a file in .ZIP format Find a file in .ZIP format and decompress it. and decompress it.

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184

?? Question ??
Why is it not useful Why is it not useful to apply a compression procedure to apply a compression procedure like ZIP for instance, like ZIP for instance, to a video file to a video file in formats like AVI or MPG? in formats like AVI or MPG?

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185

Essential skills in computer use


Task File management Finding files on a computer Text editing and formatting Copy and paste from one document to the same or to another document Printing Software used Operating system Operating system Word processing software (e.g. Word for Windows) Operating system + applications software Operating system + applications software

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