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# Semester Study Guide - Ch.

1 Nature of Science
Vocabulary you need to know! Fill in the blanks 1 Using one or more of your senses to gather information. 2 Making a statement or claim about what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence. 3 When you explain or interpret the things you observe. 4 Creating representations of complex objects or processes. 5 Involves comparing observations and data to reach a conclusion about them. 6 The grouping together of items that are alike in some way. 7 A way of learning about the natural world.

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An observation that deals with numbers or amounts. An observation that deals with descriptions that cannot be expressed in numbers or amounts. Means that personal feelings have entered into a decision or conclusion. Means that you make decisions and draw conclusions based on available evidence. A measurement system based on the number 10. A measure of the force of gravity acting on an object. A measure of the amount of matter in an object.

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The distance from one point to another. The amount of space an object or substance takes up. A measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume. An approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions. Refers to how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value. Refers to how close a group of measurements are to each other.

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A picture of your data. The numerical average of a set of data. The number that appears most often. The middle number in a set of data. The difference between the greatest value and the least value in a set of data.

Short Answers: 1. The official SI unit for length is _________________. 2. To determine how close an experimental value is to the true value, you would use a _______________________. 3. The SI unit for mass is _____________. 4. The middle number in an ordered set of data is the _____________.

5. Factors that can change in an experiment are called ______________. 6. If someone decides something is true just because they think its better that something 7. How do you calculate the volume of a regular shaped object? __________________ 8. Each unit in the SI system is _________ times larger than the next smallest unit. 9. Density is the measure or how much _________ is contained in a given volume. 10. The average number of a set of data is called the _______________.
else they are being ___________________.

## Ch.2 The World of Science

Vocabulary you need to know! Fill in the blanks

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A public disagreement between groups. Any representation for a model or process. A statement that scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. Output that changes the system in some way.

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The data and observations that have been collected through scientific processes. Explains how something works or why something happens. A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results. What happens within a system. An idea that may be formed from evidence but has not been confirmed by evidence. A group of parts that work together to perform a function or produce a result. The material or energy that comes out of a system. The material or energy that goes into a system.

Short Answers: Fill in the blanks! 1. A ______________________________ is an idea that may be formed from evidence. 2. Controversy refers to a public disagreement between ________________________. 3. A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results is called a ________________________ ____________________. 4. ______________________ are used to show something that is hard to see or explain. 5. A group of parts that work together is called a _________________________________.

6. Future testing can still prove an accepted scientific __________________ to be incorrect. 7. The property that describes what happens in a system is called a ___________________. 8. Data and observations collected through scientific processes are called ______________________ evidence. Ch.9 Waves and Light
Vocabulary you need to know! Fill in the blanks

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A disturbance that involves the transfer of electric and magnetic energy. The energy that electromagnetic waves transfer through matter or space. Occurs when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface. A copy of the object formed by reflected or refracted rays of light. An imaginary line that divides a mirror in half, much like the equator that divides Earth into northern and southern halves. The distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of another wave. The number of waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time. Forms when light rays actually meet. A measure of how much a light ray bends when it enters that medium. A lens that is thinner in the middle than at the ends.

The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order by increasing frequency. Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and the shortest frequencies. Occurs when parallel rays of light hit an uneven surface. A flat sheet of glass that has a smooth, silver colored coating on one side. The point at which rays parallel to the optical axis reflect and meet. Electromagnetic waves with shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than radio waves. Electromagnetic waves that have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than microwaves. A mirror with a surface that curves outward. An image of a distant object caused by refraction of light. A lens that is thicker in the center than at the edges.

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## Electromagnetic waves that you can see.

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Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths shorter than visible light but longer than x-rays. An image that forms where light seems to come from. A mirror with a surface that curves inward like the inside of a bowl. Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies. A straight line that represents light waves. A curved piece of glass or other transparent material that refracts light.

Chapter 10 Review Energy Word 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The energy that results from the shape or position of an object. The energy that results from the motion of an object. Potential energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom. The sun, nuclear power plants, nuclear bombs all release this type of energy. The total energy of the particles in an object. The energy that results from the flow of electrons. Lightning, static electricity are two examples of items containing this type of energy Energy that travels through space in waves. Sunlight, x-rays, gamma rays, microwaves, radio waves, ultraviolet light and infrared are all examples. Potential energy found in the bonds between atoms. Food, wood, plants; a match, and batteries all contain this type of energy. Remember if it can be set on fire and burn then it has this type of energy. A change from one form of energy to another form of energy. In a system energy is neither created nor destroyed it only changes form. The force that one surface exerts on another surface when two surfaces rub against each other A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particle in an object. If heat is removed from an object then its temperature will decrease. If heat is added to an object its temperature will increase. The temperature in which all motion of particles in an object stop. The total energy of all the particles in an object. It depends on the objects temperature, number of particles, and arrangement of particles. The transfer of thermal energy from a warm object to a cooler object. A type of heat transfer that occurs only in fluids like liquids and gasses. Warm air or liquid will rise and cool air or liquid will sink. The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. It is the only form of heat transfer that does not require matter. The transfer of heat from one object to another by direct contact.

Show the transformation of energy that take place in the following systems below to show how energy is conserved in a system. 18. 19. 20.