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Italian II Study Guide CHAPTER 7 Vocabulary: Pg. 151 Pg. 152- cibi Pg.

154- numeri The plural of mille (thousand) is mila The number is all one word Ex: 1420 is millequattrocentoventi Milione uses di" when no other number follows it Ex: un milione di euro Grammar: Reflexives pg. 156-157 Reflexives verbs are verbs whose actions refer back to the subject. Ex: I fall asleep is io mi addormentaro List of reflexives are on pg. 157 Divertirsi- to enjoy oneself, have fun Io mi diverto Noi ci divertiamo Tu ti diverti Voi vi divertite Lui/lei si diverte Loro si divertono When a reflexive verb follows a conjugated verb, you drop the e at the end of the reflexive and add the reflexive pronoun. Ex: Preferisce fermarsi a Ferrara. In the past tense the reflexive verb will always be conjugated with essere. The past participle has to agree with the verb. Alzarsi- to get up Mi sono alzato/a Ci siamo alzati/e Ti sei alzato/a Vi siete alzati/e Si alzato/a Si sono alzati/e Imperatives pg. 159-160 -ere -ire Credi! Mettiti! Non credere! Non metterti! Chieda! Si metta! Non chieda! Non si metta! Crediamo! Mettiamoci! Credete! Mettetevi! Chiedano! Si mettano! Dormi! Sentiti! Non dormire! Non sentirti! Dorma! Si diverta! Non dorma! Non si diverta! Dormiamo! Sentiamoci! Dormite! Sentitevi! Dormano! Si divertano!

-are Tu Tu (negativo) Lei Lei (negativo) Noi Voi Loro Compra! Alzati! Non comprare! Non lavarti! Guardi! Si svegli! Non guardi! Non si svegli! Compriamo! Alziamoci! Compate! Alzatevi! Guardino! Si sveglino!

-ire (isc) Pulisci! Non pulire! Pulisca! Non pulisca! Puliamo! Pulite! Puliscano!

List of irregular imperative verbs are on pg. 160: The Lei form of those verbsSia (essere) Abbia (avere) Vada (andare) Faccia (fare) Dia (dare) Stia (stare) I Partitivi some or a few Alcuni/e + (a plural noun) ex: alcune mele Qualche + (a singular noun) ex: qualche mela Un po di (do NOT use an article with the noun) ex: un po di aqua Di + larticolo determinativo

1. 2. 3. 4.

When to not use a partitive: 1. When there is a given quantity a. Ex: Bevo tre Coca-Cola 2. When the verb is negative a. Ex: Non bevo il vino 3. When you are asking a question (this is optional)

Ex with di:

Del prosciutto Dello zucchero Dellolio doliva Della carne Dei piselli Degli spinaci Delle patate

Culture: Here is pg.150, 169 and 171 translated using google translator 150 The local markets are open or covered properly distributed in various central and peripheral regions of the Italian city. They play an important role in the sale of vegetables, fruit, meat and fish. Some of these markets were once specialized in the sale of particular products which gave its name to the market. An example is Campo de 'Fiori in Rome, where many decades ago, the women came in every Tuesday city from the countryside to sell flowers. With the development of the supermarket, the importance of the local market is diminished. The modern woman, who is into the world of work, does not have time to go to the market every day and found it more convenient to shop at the supermarket once a week. But for many people the local market, in addition to exercising a certain charm folklore remains the place where it is still possible to buy fresh food and cheap. 169 Liguria is a region with very specific geographical features. To the south of Liguria is the Ligurian Sea, to the west by France, Piedmont and north east there are the Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. In this region, the Alps and the Apennines joins so that the Ligurian territory is very mountainous and hilly. Cultivated in terraces, the soil gives products of the Mediterranean type. On the terraces are cultivated olive groves, vineyards, fruit and citrus. On the coast instead grow flowers and tropical plants.

The coastal area of Liguria is narrow and full of rocks. Genoa, the regional capital, divides the coast Rivera di Levante Riviera di Ponente. With its sandy beaches and its picturesque bays, the Ligurian Rivera is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy. The area's mild climate promotes tourism in the winter months. Portofino, Portovenere, Rapallo and Sanermo Ligurian towns are always attract many visitors. Portofino promontory is a very impressive with its little harbors and scenic roads. Sanremo, with its flowers, large hotels and beautiful villas, due to its favorable climate, is the favorite place of the holidays for many Europeans. The sea is certainly the wealth of Liguria; makes the mild climate of the region and attracts millions of tourists annually. The Ligurian Sea is also an excellent way of communication and is rich in fish 171 Genova called "the Magnificent", has a glorious historical tradition mainly due to its geographical position. Luck and the prestige of Genova are associated with the sea. The Genoese have always been seafarers. In the Middle Ages have a large fleet and are good sailors, merchants, financiers and bankers. Today Genova is the most important seaport of Italy and is also a major commercial and industrial center. Genova is the birthplace of many famous people such as Simon Boccanegra, Columbus, Goffredo Mameli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Eugenio Montale and Niccol Paganini. Liguria, and Genova in particular, have also contributed to the goodness and variety of Italian cuisine. A particular contribution is the pesto sauce. This condiment is made of basil leaves, pine nuts and garlic crushed, pecorino cheese, Parmesan cheese and olive oil. The pesto is kept here mainly to flavor pasta dishes. CHAPTER 8 Vocabulary: Pg. 175 Pg. 176-177 la famglia Il parigno= il nuovo marito della madre La matrigna= la nuova moglie del padre Il suocero= il padre della moglie La suocera= il madre dello sposo Il genero= il marito della figlia La nuora= la moglie del figlio Pg. 178 viaggiare Grammar: Dovere- must, to have to, ought Devo Devi Deve Dobbiamo Dovete Devono Modal Verbs Potere- can, able to Posso Puoi Pu Possiamo Potete Possono Volere- to want, to wish Voglio Vuoi Vuole Vogliamo Volete Vogliono

Io Tu Lei Noi Voi Loro

Past tense: o Avere/essere + volute, dovuto, potuto + infinitave Ex: Ha dovuto finire i compiti. Use essere if the infinitive is in the house of essere, if it isnt than use avere. When you use essere make sure the modal verb agrees with the subject.

Singular mi- me Ti- you Lo- him it La- her, it, you (formal)

Direct Object Pronouns Plural ci- us vi- you li- them (m) Le- them (f)

The D.O.P is replaced by a pronoun to avoid repetition. o Ex: Luciana, conosci Angelo? Si, lo conosco. The D.O.P usually precedes a conjugated verb. o Ex: Mi aspetti dopo la lezione? (Will you wait for me after class?) When a D.O.P is used in an infinitive phrase the infinitive phrase, the infinitive drops its final e and the pronoun is attached o Ex: I genitori? Li vedo spesso. Ho voglia di vederli adesso. When D.O.P are used with a modal verb and is followed by an infinitive, the pronoun may either precede the conjugated verb or be attached to the infinitive o Ex: Ho studiato linglese, ma lo voglio imprare meglio. OR Ho studiato linglese, ma voglio imprarlo meglio. When the D.O.P lo, la, li and le precede a verb in the past tense the verb agrees with the D.O.P. o Ex: Ha scritto la lettera e lha spedita. o The agreement with ci, vi, mi and ti is optional. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns Demonstrative adjective quello Singular Plural Quel ragazzo Quei ragazzi Quello student Quegli student Quellamico Quegli amici Quella ragazza Quelle ragazze Quellamica Quelle amiche Ex: Quella signora la moglie dellambasciatore francese. Demonstrative pronouns questo and quello Singular Plural Singular Questo Questi Quello Questa Queste Quella Quest (optional) Ex: Quel passaporto mio, ma quello di mia moglie. (Agg) (Noun) (Pro) Preferisci questi zucchini o quelli?

Plural Quelli quelle

Culture: 191 Venice one of the most beautiful in fascinating cities in the world is built on one hundred and eighteen islands. In this city there are no cars, buses or scooters. The streets of Venice are canals. Boats, speed boats, motor boats and beautiful and romantic gondolas are the means which lead people from one part to another of the city. In Venice there are one hundred and fifty channels and four hundred bridges. The Venetians call the channel "rio" square, "campo", a small square "Campiello" and street "calle." The most famous bridge is elegant Rialto Bridge that crosses the Grand Canal, the largest canal in the city. Then there is the Bridge of Sighs connects the Doge's Palace and the Palace of Prisons. In this palace was a prisoner Giacomo Casanova. Called the "Serenissima", or the city of San Marco or Venice Winged Lion was one of the most prosperous maritime republics of the Middle Ages. Today, this city attracts many tourists and foreign visitors who come to see Italian beauty of its art and participate in its various cultural activities. The center of life in Venice is Piazza San Marco, a beautiful outdoor sitting-room, where citizens and tourists go to socialize and admire the beautiful architecture of the city. In this square is located the Basilica of San Marco with its beautiful mosaics, the Campanile and the Doge's Palace. In St. Mark's Square there are many nice shops and cafes. Here is also the famous Caff Florian, frequented by artists and writers in the past but now by foreigners. 193 Veneto is one of the richest regions of Italy. In the plain of the Po dominates agriculture and the Veneto hills produce famous wines such as Valpolicella, Soave and Bardolino. Near Venice, on the mainland, there are many chemical and steel industries and oil refineries. Companies in the Veneto produce textiles and clothing, footwear and leather goods. Missoni and Benetton, two well-known names in the world of international fashion, are Venetian. The Wind also manufactures furniture and eyewear brand sold all over the world. In the last twenty years, many small businesses were born in Venuto and their products are exported to European countries and beyond. Even the articles of Veneto, such as Murano glass and Burano lace, are highly sought after. The Veneto region attracts a lot of tourism and each year the Veneto receives a large number of Italian and foreign visitors. In addition to Venice, even Verona, Vicenza and Padua attract the attention of tourists. The heroes of Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, and the Arena, the Roman amphitheater wonderful, are the two largest attractions of Verona. The numerous architectural masterpieces of Andera Palladio instead are the attractions of Vincenza, also called the Palladian city. In Padua, then there is the Shrine of St. Anthony. In this city you can also admire the beautiful frescoes by Giotto and Mantegna. In Veneto there are also beautiful beaches and mountains. The Lido di Venezia is the most elegant beach of the Adriatic. Cortina d'Ampezzo, the center of winter and summer resort of the Dolomites, is one of the most beautiful mountain resorts of Italy. Ruga- store lined Piscina- street that use to be a canal Ramo- dead end Sotoportego- walking under, passageway La vita bella Key words: Il carro armato- tank La principessa- princess lindovinello- riddle il premio- prize le regole del gioco- game rules i concorrenti- competitors ebreo- Jewish