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M1.

(a)

(i)

2 H2 + O22H2O (allow H2 + O2H2O) both circled for 1 mark


1

(ii)

4 A1 + 3 O22A12O3 all circled for 1 mark


1

(b)

idea that: must end up with the same number of atoms otherwise matter is shown to be lost/gained doesnt show correct amount of each element/compared each for 1 mark
2

(c)

idea that: oxygen has 2 electrons short in outer shell ) in words or chlorine has 1 electron short in outer shell ) indicated on diagram (shared pair/covalent bond with) hydrogen atom supplies one further electron* *(but do not allow hydrogen gives away electron or ionic bond) for 1 mark each
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M2.

(a) reference to hydrogen (atoms) ) nitrogen (atoms) ) each for 1 mark ratio of 1N to 3H atoms for 1 further mark

but not molecules

or 1 nitrogen atom and 3 hydrogen atoms (ignore any incorrect statements about nature of bonding)
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(b)

evidence of H=1 N = 14 O = 16 gains 1 mark but H=1 N = 14 O = 16 3 or 48 gains 2 marks but 63 gains 3 marks
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M3.

(a)

10.86 accept answers between 10.64 to 10.9 if answer is incorrect allow 1 mark for rfm FeSO4 = 152 2 marks for 152 4/56
3

(b)

2 Fe + 3 H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2 accept other correct multiples for balancing


1

[4]

M4.

(a) Quality of written communication: All scientific words used correctly (covalent, bonds, atoms)
1

any two from large numbers of covalent bonds allow giant lattice / structure between atoms do not accept between molecules (covalent) bonds strong accept need much energy to break
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(b)

each carbon has 4 electrons


1

one shared pair


1

four shared pairs


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##
(a) (2) : (6) : (2) All 3 correct gains 2 marks 2 correct gains 1 mark
2

(b)

no water present/moist air cannot enter/do not thoroughly mix/ must be in solution etc. for 1 mark
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(c)

(i)

hydroxide (ion) / OH for 1 mark


1

(ii)

hydrogen (ion) / H+ for 1 mark


1

(iii)

water/H2O/hydrogen oxide for 1 mark


1

[6]

M6.

(a)

Gas A = Chlorine / Cl2 not Cl and Gas B = Hydrogen / H2 not H for 1 mark

Solution C = sodium hydroxide/NaOH/spent brine for 1 mark


2

(b)

(i)

2, 2 for 1 mark

(ii)

2, 2 for 1 mark
2

(c)

water/H2O/hydrogen oxide not hydrogen hydroxide for 1 mark


1

(d)

ions/positive ions/negative ions/cations/anions not charged particles/positive particles/negative particles not H+ / Cl-/Na+ / OHAllow hydrogen ions etc. not sulphate ions for 1 mark
1

[6]

M7.

(a)

C16 H34 for 1 mark


1

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(b)

electron gains 1 mark but shared electrons gains 2 marks


2

[3]

M8.

(a)

4 HCl / 2H2O, allow multiples or fractions if whole equation balances for 1 mark
1

(b)

germanium tetrachloride + water = germanium oxide + hydrochloric acid If symbol equation given it must be correctly balanced Allow germanium for 1 mark
1

(c)

to purify the germanium oxide/remove impurities/give in pure product/to make pure germanium for 1 mark
1

ensure complete reaction/reaction does not give a good yield not to increase efficiency/to purify germanium for 1 mark
1

(d)

(i)

remove oxygen/addition of hydrogen/gain up electrons allow remove oxygen molecules GeO2 = 73 + (2 16) = 105 mass of germanium = 525 (73/105) = 365 g (or alternative methods) apply consequential marking for 1 mark each
3

(ii)

(e)

(i)

germanium is shiny/lustrous conducts a small amount of electricity * germanium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid (and) metal oxides react with acid metal oxides are basic metal oxides are reduced by hydrogen Information must be taken from the passage. Apply the list principle if more than three answers are given. Assume the word it refers to the metal. any 3 for 1 mark each
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(ii)

germanium is brittle germanium tetrachloride is a (volatile) liquid made of molecules germanium tetrachloride has covalent bonding or when two non-metals react they have covalent bonding GaC14/the salt of germanium undergiven hydrolysis/reacts with water germanium is not a good conductor of electricity* * conductivity mark can only be given once any 3 for 1 mark each
3

[13]

M9.

(a)

H+(aq) + OH (aq)H2O(l) or

H3O+(aq) + OH(aq)H2O(l) mark for correct equation mark for state symbols any other symbols = 0 marks accept correct spectator ions e.g. Na+(aq) + OH (aq) + H+(aq) + Cl (aq)Na+(aq) + Cl (aq) + H2O(l)
2

(b)

(i)

nitric acid and ammonia (solution) HNO3 NH3 / NH4OH mark for both accept ammonium hydroxide / NH4OH instead of ammonia do not accept ammonia hydroxide do not accept hydrogen nitrate solution accept correct formulae
1

(ii)

provides oxygen or oxidising (agent) or oxidant do not accept it contains oxygen alone or rich in oxygen
1

[4]

M10.

(a)

2Mg + O22MgO accept correct multiples / fractions


1

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(b)

electrons do not need to be paired accept dots / circles / e instead of crosses do not allow 2.6 without diagram
1

(c)

electrons do not need to be paired allow without bracket s/ must have the charge accept dots / circles / e instead of crosses ignore extra empty outer shells ignore nucleus do not allow [2.8]2+ without diagram
1

(d)

oppositely charged (ions / atoms) allow positive and negative(ions / atoms)


1

(they) attract must be in correct context accept held by electrostatic forces ignore ionic bonding maximum 1 if they refer to intermolecular forces / attractions / covalent bonds
1

(e)

magnesium chloride accept MgCl2 (if correctly written)


1

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