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SOLID MECHANICS LAB LAB-REPORT NO.

ANIL KUMAR CHEJARA ROLL NO. - 09003022

IMPACT TEST
OBJECTIVES: 1. To become familiar with the tension test methodology and equipment. 2. To determine the value of impact toughness for specific given materials. 3. To develop understanding of ductile and brittle materials properties and their behaviour. 4. To develop the understanding of notch sensitivity of material for ductile-Brittle behaviour.

APPARATUS: Charpy Impact Testing Machine, Anvil, Centering Tongs, Samples of various materials.

STANDARDS: ASTM E23-02

THEORY: The Charpys Impact Test was invented by Georges Augustine Albert Charpys (18651945). The Charpy impact test is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material's toughness and acts as a tool to study temperature-dependent brittle-ductile transition. The specimen is broken by a single overload event due to the impact of the pendulum. A stop pointer is used to record how far the pendulum swings back up after fracturing the specimen. The impact toughness of a metal is determined by measuring the energy absorbed in the fracture of the specimen. This is simply obtained by noting the height at which the pendulum is released and the height to which the pendulum swings after it has struck the specimen. The height of the pendulum times the weight of the pendulum produces the potential energy and the difference in potential energy of the pendulum at the start and the end of the test is equal to the absorbed energy.

TOUGHNESS: Material toughness is defined as the amount of energy per volume that a material can absorb before rupturing. It is also defined as the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed.

CHARPY TEST MACHINE:

TEST SPECIMENS: Specimens provided for the experiment are having a particular type of notch. Every specimen has different kind of notch as they depend on their property. Notch provides stress concentration so that the material acts as brittle material. Each notch has particular dimension and angle associated with them. The standard Charpys Test specimen consist of a bar of metal, or other material, 55x10x10mm having a notch machined across one of the larger dimensions. V-notch: 2mm deep, with 45 angle and 0.25mm radius along the base. U-notch and keyhole notch: 5mm deep notch with 1mm radius at base of notch. 1) V-Notch: - (Brass)

2) Sawcut notch:- (Alluminium)

3) Key hole notch: -(Mild steel)

Specimens having standard proportions but different absolute size produce different values for toughness. This results because the stress states adjacent to the flaw changes with the specimen thickness until the thickness exceeds some critical dimension.

PROCEDURE: 1) Visually examine the striker and anvils for obvious damage and wear. 2) Check zero position of the machine. 3) To ensure that the friction and windage losses are within allowable torlances. So raise the pendulum to the latched position move the pointer to the negative side

of zero and release the pendulum and allow it till 5 cycles and record the value of pointer. 4) Note down the current angle, absorbed energy, impact strength, pendulum energy from the digital screen of machine. 5) Check the specimen dimensions and ascertained that it satisfied our standards. 6) The test specimen is positioned on the specimen supports against anvils. 7) Now the pendulum is released without vibration and the specimen is impacted by the striker. 8) Note down the readings from display. 9) Repeat the whole process for all the specimens. 10) Make a table in which the readings of corresponding specimens.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: For Free Run of Pendulum:

Current angle Absorbed energy (due to frictional) Impact strength Pendulum Energy

-148.5 o -2.30 -28.80 150

Toughness (Actual absorbed energy) = Absorbed energy + loss = Absorbed energy + 2.30

Table for specimens which are at room temperature: Specimen Aluminium Brass Mild steel Reading S.no. 1 2 1 2 1 2 Current Angle -148.5 -148.5 -148.5 -148.5 -148.5 -148.5 Absorbed Energy 3.92 3.67 .67 .52 24.3 22.4 Pendulum Energy 150 150 150 150 150 150 Impact strength 49.02 45.90 8.35 6.48 228.20 224.20 Toughness 6.22 5.97 2.97 2.82 26.60 24.70

Table for cold specimens:

Specimen Aluminium Brass Mild steel

Reading S.no. 1 1 1

Current Angle -148.5 -148.5 -148.5

Absorbed Energy 3.07 .18 21.70

Pendulum Energy 150 150 150

Impact strength 67.18 31.06 287.89

Toughness 5.37 2.48 24.00

RESULT OF IMPACT ON SPECIMENS:

Table for specimens which are at room temperature:

SPECIMEN Aluminium 1 Aluminium 2 Brass 1 Brass 2 Mild Steel 1 Mild Steel 2 TOUGHNESS ORDER: Mild steel > Aluminium > Brass Table for cold specimens: SPECIMEN Aluminium 1 Brass 1 Mild Steel 1 TOUGHNESS ORDER: for cold specimens

EFFECT OF IMPACT Not Broken Not Broken Broken Broken Broken Not Broken

EFFECT OF IMPACT Unbroken Broken Unbroken

Mild steel > Aluminium > Brass But the magnitude of toughness decreased compare to specimens at room temperature.

DISSCUSSION:

Ductile materials will withstand large strains before the specimen ruptures; brittle materials fracture at much lower strains. The yielding region for ductile materials often takes up the majority of the stress-strain curve, whereas for brittle materials it is nearly nonexistent.

A triaxial state of stress is developed at the root of a notch and hence notched specimens are used in these tests. The tendency of brittle failures in the presence of notches is called, Notch sensitivity and hence the notched impact tests measure the notch sensitivity of the material. Variation of this condition is achieved. by using different types of notches or the same notch such as V and varying the angle of V. The effect due to temperature is assessed by testing the specimens at low temperatures. The temperature at which a ductile material fails in a brittle manner is called Ductile Brittle transition temperature.

CONCULSIONS:

1) It can be seen that at low temperatures the material is more brittle and impact

toughness is low. 2) At high temperatures the material is more ductile and impact toughness is higher. 3) The transition temperature is the boundary between brittle and ductile behavior and this temperature is often an extremely important consideration in the selection of a material. 4) Ductile fracture is better because of the following reasons:

a) More energy needed in the ductile fracture because it is a tough material b) Brittle fracture happens quickly without warning while the ductile fracture took a longer time before the whole process to happen.

Under certain situations, a ductile material fails in a brittle manner in theservice and such a failure is characterized by low absorption of energy. The factors which contribute to the brittle type of failure are: (i) Triaxial state of stress (ii) Low temperature and (iii) High strain rate or rapid rate of loading.

Bibliography:-

ASTM E23 - 07ae1 Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials Wikipedia NDT Resource Center website. Introduction to physical metallurgy By Avner. From Charpys to present impact testing By D. Franois, Andr Pineau