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SEMINAR REPORT ON GREEN ELECTRONICS

ABSTRACT

Green refers to the development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs . Electronics made life easy for us. Though electronic devices are a complex mixture of several hundred materials, many of which can contain hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals highly toxic compounds of lead, mercury or cadmium hexavalent chromium, beryllium, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) or the chlorinated plastic, polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Green Electronics focuses on elimination of harmful chemicals, elements and components, and recycling of electronic products at the end of life. Green electronics mainly concerned with embrace the principle of Individual Producer Responsibility by taking financial responsibility for their products at the end of life. Designing the products by eliminating hazardous substances, replacing harmful ingredients through use of safer alternatives or design changes and to reduce the climate impact of electronics products and provide technology solutions to help significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.
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The popularity of green electronics is on the rise. Consumers are increasingly interested in investing in features that have a lower environmental impact, according to a recent study by the Consumer Electronics Association. Up until now, energy efficiency has been the basis for most green product claims, but some of the chemicals used in electronic products also have a significant impact on the environment.

Many Parliaments of the different Countries has passed the legislation to restrict the use of Lead and other harmful materials for the manufacture of electronic products.

INTRODUCTION

Electronics made life easy for us. It has its wings in every field of science. With the advent development in the wireless and IT industry the demand for the electronic devices is so high .But electronic devices are a complex mixture of several hundred materials, many of which can contain hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals- highly toxic compounds of lead, mercury or cadmium hexavalent chromium, beryllium, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) or the chlorinated plastic, polyvinyl chloride (PVC),which has adverse effect on the environment. The worlds booming consumption of electronic and electrical goods has created a corresponding explosion in electronic scrap, much containing toxic and persistent. Recycling of electronics devices is one way of reducing environmental hazards associated with early production stages. However, recycling in this case is not the whole solution; because of hazardous chemicals currently being used in the manufacture of electronics products, recycling can bring its own problems. so the need for the GREEN ELECTRONICS arises.

Green refers to the development that meets the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs according to the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Developement .Green Electronics focuses on elimination of harmful chemicals, elements and components, and recycling of electronic products at the end of life. Green electronics mainly concerned with embrace the principle of Individual Producer Responsibility by taking financial responsibility for their products at the end of life. Designing the products by eliminating hazardous substances, replacing harmful ingredients through use of safer alternatives or design changes and to reduce the climate impact of electronics products and provide technology solutions to help significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. The popularity of green electronics is on the rise. Consumers are increasingly interested in investing in features that have a lower environmental impact, according to a recent study by the Consumer Electronics Association. Up until now, energy efficiency has been the basis for most green product claims, but some of the chemicals used in electronic products also have a significant impact on the environment. Week 2:

The Many Dimensions of Green Electronics Are its materials safe and sustainable? Is it conservative of energy? Is it designed for responsible recycling? Is there a way to reuse and recycle it? Is that way environmentally responsible? Will it last? Can it be upgraded? Is the packaging environmentally friendly? What about corporate practices?

Environmental Aspects of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) :


When looking at the environmental aspects of electronics, there are four main areas
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of interest: Use of Raw Materials Use of Energy Waste deposit/incineration Chemical Substances Environmental aspect Use of Materials Environmental impact Pollution and energy use from mining and refining of raw materials, use of non-renewable resources, destroying beautiful scenery etc. Pollution from power plants (acid rain, NOx-gases, radioactive and other waste etc.), use of nonrenewable fossil fuels Potentially toxic to humans and eco-systems. Emissions can occur during the whole life-cycle(mining and refining of raw materials, production, in the use- and end-of-life phases) Pollution of soil and ground water by leakage from waste deposits or ashes and slag, removal of non-renewable resources from circulation

Use of Energy

Chemical Substances

Waste deposit/ incineration

Legislation needed to green the industry:


Extended Producer Responsibility means that the cost of waste management is incorporated into the product price, thereby enacting the polluter pays principle. Producers either absorb the additional costs (evaluated at 0.1% of the price of a PC and 0.01% of a mobile phone), or increase the product price to take account of these costs. In a competitive market this will motivate producers to design more environmentally friendly products in order to lower the end-of-life costs. To be effective, such a programme should be aligned as close as possible to Individual Producer Responsibility, meaning that each company pays for its own-branded discarded products. EEE has the authorities attention, primarily because of the rising amounts of waste and the connected disposal
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problems. This is the reason why since the beginning of the nineties there has been an ongoing work on legislation in this field, starting in Germany, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, as well as on the EU-scale. The regulations are primarily concerned with: 1. establishing collection systems and securing correct handling of waste, which means recycling and regaining of resources 2. safe separation and disposal of environmental hazardous parts 3. certain hazardous substances, which will either be banned or restricted in use The regulations also introduces a producer responsibility for the disposal, and demands information from the producer to the recycler about e.g. the content of environmentally hazardous parts and possibilities for recycling.

EU-directives:
There mainly three directives set up by the EUROPIAN UNION(EU).They are 1. WEEE Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2. RoHS - Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substance in electrical and electronic equipment 3. EuP Energy using Products, a framework Directive for setting eco-design requirements for energy-using products

Week 3: WEEE : The WEEE Directive covers the design and production of electrical and electronic equipment to aid repair, possible upgrading, re-use, disassembly and recycling at end-of-life. The Directive covers a wide range of equipment falling into ten broad product categories with a voltage of up to 1,000 AC and 1,500 DC. From August 2005, it makes producers of such equipment responsible for financing at least the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment from central points, specialist treatment, and meeting the targets for re-use, recycling and recovery RoHS : The RoHS Regulations ban the placing on the EU market of new Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) containing more than the set levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and both polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from1 July 2006. There are a number of exempted applications for these substances. EuP - directive for energy using products: Eco-design of energy using products This initiative aims at improving the environmental performance of products throughout their life-cycle by systematic integration of environmental aspects at the earliest stage of their design. The Directive will deliver long-lasting and increasing energy savings beneficial to consumers that will also contribute to a reinforced security of energy supply for the Community Three North American Eco-labels for Electronics: ENERGY STAR: ENERGY STAR is a U.S. government backed program dedicated to helping individuals protect the environment through superior energy efficiency

EcoLogo : A Private, for profit eco-label organization Under a Partnership with Environment Canada Develops standards Certifies products Helps market certified products Standards developed through open, public process Approved by Environment Canada TerraChoice issues/promotes the standards Third-party certification of products by Terrachoice with onsite audit License agreement with manufacturer to use label EPEAT (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool): An environmental procurement tool designed to help institutional IT purchasers address environmental concerns in their purchasing of desktop computers, laptops and monitors. The EPEAT System: 1) IEEE Standard 1680-2006 for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products Standard ANSI Standard Comprised of 51 environmental criteria

Hazardous chemicals in electronic products:


1. Lead can be found in solders, although decreasingly, in the glass of cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and as a stabiliser in PVC. Lead is highly toxic and exposure to lead can result in irreversible damage to the nervous system, particularly in children, which can lead to intellectual impairment. 2. Mercury, used in lighting devices for most flat screen displays, can damage the brain and during early development. 3. Cadmium, used in rechargeable computer batteries, contacts and switches and in older CRTs, can accumulate in the body over time and is highly toxic, primarily affecting the kidneys and bones. Cadmium and its compounds are also known human carcinogens. central nervous system, particularly

4. Beryllium, used as a metal alloy in electrical contacts and as beryllium oxide in the semi-conductor industry, is a human carcinogen and inhalation of fumes and dusts can cause lung disease. 5. Compounds of hexavalent chromium, used in the production of metal housings, are highly toxic and are human carcinogens. 6. Some BFRs19 used in circuit boards and plastic casings do not break down easily and can build up in the environment, and some BFRs are also highly bio-accumulative (build up in the body). Long term exposure to certain poly brominated diphyenylethers (PBDEs) has been linked to abnormal brain development in animals, with possible impacts on learning, memory and behaviour. Some BFRs can also interfere with thyroid and oestrogen hormone systems and exposure in the womb has been linked to behavioural problems. Incineration or any kind of burning of plastics containing BFRs can cause the release of persistent dioxins and furans. 7. PVC is a chlorinated plastic used in some electronics products, including for insulation on wires and cables. Although not directly toxic, PVC is a major source of pollution and chemical hazard at all stages of its life cycle. In its softened form (as found in cables), PVC requires the use of additives such as hazardous phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-nbutyl phthalate (DBP), which are known as reproductive toxins. Incineration or any kind of burning of PVC can cause the release of persistent and toxic chlorinated dioxins and furans.

Eco-design - How to get started?


There are three mains steps to take: Establish specific and measurable environmental targets for each product-type, and specify these targets in the requirements specification Include the environmental issues in the agenda for design reviews during the development phases Establish metrics in order to make the environmental performance of the products visible and measurable

Use less materials:


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1. Minimise the equipment weight: This can be achieved by using the printed
electronics. --Smart cards(=microprocessor, memory, packaging) in a flexible strip manufactured in continuous reel to reel process. Week 4:

--RFID ( = antenna + some electronics) is a printed foil manufactured in a continuous reel to reel process

--Flexible solar cell

--Flexible displays

2. Specify materials with established recycling systems (steel, aluminium, pure thermoplastics etc.) 3. Specify the use of recycled materials (primarily polymers) 4. Consider alternatives to materials listed as limited resources 5. Minimise material waste during production

Reduce energy use:


1. Design with automatic power-down and stand-by functions. 2. Switch off parts of the circuit, which are not in use all the time 3. Change clock-frequencies dependant on the need for speed. 4. Consider power consumption when choosing components and component-families 5. Priorities high efficiency in power supplies

Chemicals:
1. Phase-out or minimise use of substances/chemicals, which are mentioned in lists of banned or restricted substances (including lists from customers) 2. Map and evaluate the use of substances/chemicals, including their influence on occupational health and safety, when choosing manufacturing processes(cleaning, soldering, gluing, welding, etc.), also when applied at supplier Components which are mainly used in production of present day electronics which has effect effect on environment are Pb(lead) BFR(brominated flame retardance ) PVC(polyvinyl chloride)

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Week 5: LEAD: Lead is mainly used in Solders Glasses and ceramics Polymers, rubbers, paints & inks Lubricants Other metallic uses of lead

The current lead based solders will have to be replaced by leadfree systems. Solders e.g. based on silver are available - however, they require a processing temperature which is about 30 C higher than lead based solders. Therefore, the resin formulations of halogen free wiring boards and components have to be adapted to withstand these higher temperatures.

Challenges-General Pb-free Electronics:


No exact drop-in replacement for Pb-based materials/components. Solder alloy selection may vary based on application. Replacements likely to see wide adoption include SnAgCu Reflow SnCu Wave SnAgCu or SnAg - Rework Changes in component finishes, die attach materials, solders joints Higher processing temperatures (pop-corning, board warpage, delamination) Compatibility with Pb-free processing (mixed technology) Indirect failure mechanisms (tin whiskers, creep corrosion) Solder joint reliability (durability, intermetallic growth)

Technical Issues:

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Many of the technical issues have been solved, and lead-freeproducts are being developed and sold. Some remaining concerns are with: Mixed solder technologies (cross contamination) Rework Secondary failure mechanisms (tin and zinc whiskers) Reliability test standards Very long term reliability, i.e. >8 years

Board-level Issues:
Pb is present as an etch resist and as a plating -Hot Air Solder Level (HASL). Likely switch to pure tin for etch resist. Pb-free PCB surface finishes, replacements for HASL (cost: 1.0) Organic solderability preservative (OSP) Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) Immersion tin (Sn) Immersion silver (Ag) Boards can be susceptible to damage in a high-temperature Pb-free manufacturing process (Tg,, delamination, PTH, solder mask, inks, markings, adhesives). One-third of the U.S. industry has switched to higher Tg materials 170C vs

140C for a greater margin in rework. With single-sided boards, FR-2 can be soldered Pbfree with care.

Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and HASL Boards:


A CALCE Study showed a weakened interface on HASL boards, which were soldered with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu. After high temperature aging, the failure mode in shear testing shifted from the bulk solder to the interface (left) and over time, void bands were observed (right).

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Shear testing failure at the interface between interface between SnAgCu and intermetallic on HASL T after after 1000hrs aging 100 hours at 0.9Tm (168oC)

voids observedat the SnAgCu and intermetallic aging at 0.9Tm

The most probable cause is tin depletion at the interface as tin from the HASL coating migrates toward the pad and forms intermetallics with copper, creating a weaker localized Pb rich region in the coating.

Action Items for Pb-free Implementation:


1. Determine an approach to regularly monitor the release/revisions of legislative/regulative requirements (worldwide) and required implementation deadlines 2. Determine materials/components in final product, which may contain RoHS restricted substances. For instance, Pb in tinned cables, plastic additives, PVC wiring. Brominated flame retardants in the polymers for plastics housing, connectors and switches. 3. Obtain necessary information from component suppliers and assembly facilities (e.g., material selection, allowable reflow temperature, and Moisture Sensitivity Level). Identify the finishes of components (in case of every package type) and PCBs. 4. Determine a list of Pb-free materials/components, based on availability and design requirements 5. Determine a timeline for your product release with consideration of material/component availability and qualification schedule

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6. Determine if you want to place any restrictions on components, based on their finishes. Determine additional processes for component finishes, if necessary, e.g., re-plate, solder-dip, and heat treatment. Also determine any modifications necessary for assembly equipments due to changes in materials/process. For example, removal of dross built-up in the solder pot may be required more often than the case of Sn-Pb solders 7. Determine the licensing agreements of your Pb-free solder suppliers 8. Identify the end-of-life of Sn-Pb materials/components offerings, which may be required in some applications 9. Identify new/revised standards applicable to Pb-free assembly process/test/inspection. For example, current automated optical inspection might not work due to differences in surface and wetting characteristics 10. Determine qualification and reliability tests 11. Determine an approach for Pb-free rework/repair of components and identify any modifications needed on existing tools for rework/repair

Week 6:

BFR(brominated flame retardance ):


This is mainly used Laminates of printed wiring boards, including flexible circuit boards. Battery, including casing and components Housing (including for periphery equipment, e.g. transformer) Fan and fan housing Ribbon cables Electrical insulation sheet Plastic coated/encased electrical connectorsin The main concerns against brominated FRs are their persistence in the environment but mainly their accumulation in living organisms in addition to in some instances steeply increasing concentrations in the environment and biota. They have been found almost every from house dust, foodstuffs to polar bears and human milk.
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A number of ecolabels restrict or ban brominated flame retardants in their product criteria, e.g. the Blue Angel in Germany, the Swan in the Nordic countries and TCO which is of particular interest for electronics. IT Ecodeclarations of manufacturers as well as the new Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL) require the declaration of certain halogenated flame retardants.

Available halogen-free flame retardant solutions:


Currently, halogen-free solutions exist for printed circuit boards as well as for plastics for housings, connectors and other E&E materials.

New environmentally friendly Phosphorus based Flame Retardants forPrinted Circuit Boards as well as Polyamides and Polyesters in E&E Applications:
Elmar Schmitt and coworkers from Clariant Corporation discussed the properties of a newly developed class of phosphinate flame retardants (Exolit OP series) for engineering thermoplastics like polyamides and polyesters. Different polyamides,especially glass fibre reinforced grades, can be effectively fire retarded with these new halogen-free products based on phosphinates. The required dosage for a UL 94 V-0 performance is lower than for other flame retardant formulations apart from red phosphorus. In engineering thermoplastics, the new formulations based on Exolit OP 1311 / 1312 allow a high CTI (Comparative Tracking Index) of 600 Volt and a low compound density. Mechanical properties are at the same level as for halogenated compounds. Particular advantages of the new formulations are also the good flow properties and the fact that they flame retarded plastics can be coloured with any pigments. The established bromine and red phosphorus based flame retardants in this sector suffer from technical drawbacks like limited electrical properties, high density or limited colour range. Exolit OP 930 is the phosphinate designed for printed circuit boards based on epoxy resin (high Tg of 170 C, FR-4 laminates). Unlike most other phosphorus containing compounds, Exolit OP 930 is not hygroscopic (no water pick-up after pressure cooker test), has no plasticizing effect, is not soluble in organic solvents, has very
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low solubility in water and does not hydrolyse in the presence of water. Furthermore, Exolit OP 930 has an excellent thermo stability, showing a start of decomposition around 330C, making it suitable for the next generation of lead-free solders. The temperature of 330C is also the range in which most of the epoxy resins will decompose, making Exolit OP 930 a very effective flame retardant in this type of polymer.
green is the common colour of printed wiring boards containing brominated flame retardants, whereas blue is used for materials with non-halogenated flame retardants.

Highly Efficient Flame Retardant Curing Agent for Epoxy Resins:


Cefn Blundell from Akzo Nobel Chemicals, now Supresta, presented results on physical properties and combustion performance of a new polymeric organo phosphorus curing agent, specially designed for electronic thermoset resins. The new flame retardant has quite promising properties like higher glass transition temperature and lower thermal expansion, however, at the time it was not available in commercial quantities nor was its chemical nature disclosed.

Sustainability Concerns For Flame Retarded Plastics Used in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Applications:
Raymond Dawson and Susan Landry from Albemarle Corporation highlighted the fire safety provided by flame retardants, but mainly looked at the currently available end of- life options for plastics containing flame retardants. The main conclusion is that flame retardants are not in the way of any recycling or treatment option which is currently technically feasible, e.g. plastic parts can be mechanically recycled and retain their material and fire safety properties, although various polymers and flame retardants differ in suitability. Also, waste-to-energy recovery by incineration is not a problem, provided state-of-theart technology is applied. However, the same limitations
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apply as to all plastic materials: for mechanical and feedstock recycling continuous streams of input materials of defined composition are necessary. Therefore, these routes are currently only applied in either closed loop recycling systems or by polymer processors who recycle their process waste.

Comparison of brominated versus halogen-free printed wiring boards:


The main difference, is higher energy consumption for drilling of the non-halogenated wiring boards, probably because inorganic filler materials were applied (like aluminium hydroxide or silicium oxide) as flame retardants. Whereas the bromine industry promotes this paper as proof that brominated flame retardants are environmentally more friendly than non-halogenated flame retardants, this quote clearly shows the limitations of this study. Environmental and toxicological effects like bioaccumulation were not even covered.

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