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CHEMICAL BOF{DS: are electrostatic forces of affraction that hold atoms together.

* Postulate: of Lewis

theory

l. the outermost or valence electron play a funtlamental role in

chemical bonding

2. If the bond formed is due to the transfer o.:

producing

a + and - ions the boncl is IONIC.

3' If the bond

is covalent

electron,, fheretry

formed is due to ;he sharirrg of electrons, then the bond

'=-

4' In the transfer-or sharing of stable electronic configurntion

electrons the atoms involved acquire a

the valence shell, an octet.

Lewis symbol:

or crosses (x's)

represents the inner e- and fhe varence e- by either dots

cl 17 : lszzs2zpu3sr3p. * crT*

Mg tt

ls22s22p63s2

N 7

ls22s22p3

o 8

ls22s22p4

xx

Mg:

xx

xlYx

x

;.

:o:

:l{:

xx

CI;

Mgx

x

xxO xx

Al 13 ls2zs2zp63s23pl

xAIx

x

I0NIC

BoND: bond formed from the trrnsfer of e- frtrm a metar to a

non-metal

Metals: lose e- (become +)

Non-metals: gain e- (become -)

1) Magnesium chloride

Mg

tt

Is22s22p63s2 Mg . (toses 2 e-)

cl r7 ls2zs22p63s23ps ,;;--

(gainszc)

xx

xx

Mg.;TxCtxx

.xx

xx

xClxx

xx

tMgl1. ICt l-'

Ms;q

MgCl2

2) Aluminum sulfide

Al 13 lszzs2hp63s23pl . Al . (toses 3 e-) ,,\l *J

xx

S t6 ls2ls2lp63s'3p* x S xx (gains 2 e-) S-l

i\:'.

Al

.

\xx

{xSxx

>x

\xx

\s**

x

x

^r'.>{

AlzSr

2) Covalent bonding : sharing of e-

. a) Pure

covalent: bond formed from the equal sharing of e

diatomic molecules.

' exhibitbd by

e.g. Cl2r 02rNr, Bar, IzrFz

- covalency # (bond)

H.+xII

covalency#:l H.xH H_H

xx

Ne: ls22s22p3 xNx -+

xx

xx

r,{;.r,{ --i'il

x.

= x

xxx

F,l x

+ :l\

b) Non-Polar: hydrocarbons (HC)- alkenes., alkenes, alkynes, benzene & its derivative.

- bond formed from the sharing of e- between atorns having

very minimal or no differences in electronegatives.

H I lsr

H.

x

c6 lszzszzp2 xcx

xx.

HTI

/l

Ethane H-C-C.-H

\ HH \

Ethyne H-C = C-H

methane I[

'

x.

H"xcx.H

FIH

trthene

tI

I

H-c-H

I

HrI

I

I

c=c

H[I I

I

c) Polar covalent : bonds formed from the unequal sharing of

e- befween atoms having differences in electronegatives.

- "dipolestt - weak poles 6* (less electro-) 6- lrnore electro-)

xx

Tii

- HCI H.xClxx n-propane H-F-p-p-H

>X

!

I

I

HTI H

ti

propene H-C;C-C-H propvne H -{l*C= C_H

lll

H HH

t

}I

Xx

Water H.x O x.If

Xx

D-

.--->

xx +=

H -O:H E* xx 6*

xx 6*

6- 6"

Ammonia H.xl'x.H

HH 'x

H-N-H

*tI

<-

6*

-

d) Coordinate covalent/ dative bond

bond formed from the sharing of e- coming from a singre

atom

e.g.

hydronium ions

xxxxl

HH

H-O-H

+ff ---+ H;O-H

xxxx+

-

>

ff_d_ff

( H3O)

ammonium ions

xx

H-N-H +tf ---)

'

"

H

xx

H_ry_H (t\IHo.)

I

I

H

EWn. Le*S. FerrerClt,