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Chemistry Acids will turn litmus paper to what color?

Red

Adding more solute to an already saturated solution will cause the excess solute to settle to the bottom of the container. What is this process called? Precipitation

The electrolyte is a solution of water and _________ Sulfuric acid Reactions generally proceed faster at high temperatures because which of the following? Which of the following refers to a measure of the quantity of an element or compound? Mole Which component of an atom has no electric charge? When the charge of an atom becomes unbalanced, the charged atom is called _______ an ion What is the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the valence shell of an atom? Which of the following type of reactions in which bonds within a compound are disrupted by heat or other energy to produce simpler compounds or elements? Decomposition or analysis Which of the following refers to the measure of the amount of negative ions in the water? Alkalinity What do you call the elements in the first two groups in the periodic table? Light metals How are metals containing atoms with less than four valence electrons classified? a conductor It is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Atomic number Sublimation is a direct change from solid to gaseous phase What do you call the electrons in the last orbit or shell of an atom? External electrons What term refers to the attraction between like molecules? Cohesion What is the smallest part of matter? Particle Halogens fall under what group in the periodic table? Group VIIA Which of the following groups in the periodic table the most strongly electronegative elements? Group VIA What do you call the bonding that occurs in inert gases and other elements with full shells, primarily due to attraction between dipole structures? 8 Neutron The molecules collide more frequently and the activation energy is less.

Van der Waals What type of bonding occurs in metals when metal atoms lose What refers to the negatively charged component of an atom? Electron electrons and he metallic ions are attracted to a sea of delocalized electrons? Metallic bonding During a complete or partial neutralization of acids, what is the ionic compound formed? Salt Which of the following elements is NOT radioactive? Cobalt

What type of bond results in form the sharing of electrons by two atoms? Covalent bond

Which of the following refers to nucleic acid that stores genetic information? DNA

Which of the following elements and compounds is unstable in its pure form? Sodium (Na)

During chemical reactions, bonds between atoms are broken and new bonds are usually formed. What do you call the starting substance? Reactants

What do you call materials that do not conduct electric current? Insulator

What do you call solutions having the same osmotic pressure? Isotonic solutions

The opposite of alkali: Acid

What is the term used to describe hydrocarbons containing single covalent bonds between carbon atoms? Alkanes

The amount of electricity a battery can produce is controlled by the strength of the acid Which of the following will occur if a substance is oxidized? it loses electrons Which one refers to the number of gram-moles of solute per liter of solution? Molarity Another name for dielectric? Insulator

If an atom contains more than four valence electrons, the material is classified as _______ Insulator

Which of the following refers to the change from gaseous to liquid phase? Condensation

Applying a greater pressure causes pure solvent to leave the solution. What is the name of this process? Reverse osmosis

One of the following statements is wrong. Which one? The mass of an electron is heavier than that of a proton A deuteron is

a nucleus containing a neutron and a proton Diamond is Which one is the positively charged ion? Cation When different phases (solid, liquid or solid and gas) are present in a What do you call a substance that dissociates in solutions to produce positive and negative ions? Electrolyte What is the conversion of liquid into gaseous state? What refers to the number of gram equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution? Normality What refers to the property of the substance which changes when the amount of the substance changes? Which of the following has the characteristics of both metals and nonmetals? Metalloids If a property of a substance does not change when the amount of the substance changes, it is a/an __________ property. What term is regularly used to refer to a negatively charged ion? Anion Mixtures can be classified as: What type of reaction has two compounds as reactants and two compounds as products? Double displacement The properties of solids depend on both: their chemical composition and their structure How much is the pH content of a base Between 7 and 14 All gaseous mixtures are homogeneous During chemical reactions, bonds between atoms are broken and new bonds are usually formed. The ending substance is called ________ Products Elements are composed of how many types of atoms? 4 heterogeneous and homogeneous Intensive Extensive property Evaporation heterogeneous mixture, the method of separation used is ________ Filtration a pure carbon

What type of reaction has one element and one compound as reactants? Single displacement

The mass of proton is approximately how many atomic mass unit (amu)? 1

Which is not a state of matter? Dew

What is the neutral atom? an atom with electrons the same number as protons

What type of bonding in which electrostatic attraction is predominant? ionic bonding

An atom that loses some of its electron or accepts extra electrons from another is called Ion

What term refers to the passage of an electric current through an electrolyte caused by an external voltage source? Electrolysis In a copper atom, the valence ring contains: One electron

When all of the atoms of a molecule are the same, the substance is called a compound

In which of the following is energy removal being applied? Changing water to ice

Which of the following is added to the drinking water distributions What is formed when acids will react with active metals? Hydrogen system for disinfection? Chlorine

How much is the pH content of an acid? Between 0 and 7

What do you call a substance that cannot be decomposed any further by a chemical reaction? Element

What is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a chemical change? Catalyst Which of the following is the strongest type of bonds? Covalent

The condition of a liquid electrolyte is measured in terms of its Specific gravity

What do you call hydrocarbons containing carbon to carbon double bonds? Alkenes

Which is NOT a part of an atom? Ion The air we breathe is an example of a mixture How does all B families and group VIII in the periodic table named? Transition metals What is the atomic number of helium? 2 The device which measures the acid content of the cell is called ________ Hydrometer Element with the least atomic number is Hydrogen

The vertical columns in the periodic table are called Groups

What is the symbol of silver? Ag

P is the symbol of what element? Phosphorous

N2O5

The elements if Group 0 in the periodic table are called _________ The atomic number of Germanium is 32 The smallest whole unit of an element? An idea put forth for testing is called hypothesis Which of the following groups in the periodic table the most weakly How many elements are there all in all? 112 electronegative elements? Group IA Atom Noble gases

Which of the following are found in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and neutrons

What element is known as the lightest metal? Lithium

Bases will turn litmus paper to what color? Blue

Which of the following is the atomic number of silicon? 14

At the same pressure and temperature, equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules. This is known as Avogadros Law

Which of the following refers to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom? Atomic weight

What is the smallest subdivision of an element or compound that can exist in a neutral state? Molecule

The formula for Dinitrogen Pentoxide is

Electronics Coaching notes

Daisy chaining method used in determining interrupt priorities in a microcontroller.

ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING COACHING NOTES Lead acid does not depend on: Ans: Rate of charge LASER is classified as monochromatic. Coherent and collimator. Who coined the term robot?

Karel Capek

consists of: Ans: Dilute sulfuric acid, sponge lead, and lead peroxide

555 timer consists of astable, monostable and VCO

on a chip is called: Transputer

Early effect is also called

r consists of 32 bits

base width modulation

The effect produced due to flow of electrons and holes

sists of ____ bits. 4

drift current

Process of adding impurities in the intrinsic semiconductor

as a gain of approximately 1,000,000

Doping

What is reduced by using bundled conduction?

coil has an impedance between 4 and 100 ohms.

Power loss due to corona.

________ is also called modified Maxwell Wien bridge.

uctor have ____ bonds. covalent

Anderson bridge.

________ is a bridge that compares the capacitance of the capacitor.

ntry robot has good precision positioning

De Soutry bridge

Sulphation in a lead acid cell is to incompletely charging

It measures unkonown inductance in terms of resistance and capacitance.

Anderson bridge

Nickel cadmium can be charged or discharged because

An IC consists of passive devices.

water is neither absorbed or formed.

Film IC

SI unit of luminous intesnisty

D flip-flop

Candela Lux A microwave diode that has a frequency range of 10-1000 GHZ SCARA uses ____ operation SI unit of illuminance Ideal CMRR

Infinity

Assembly

IMPATT diode A microwave diode in the negative resistance region. Gold doping has an advantage of

Reduced storage time.

PIN diode Latch Fermi level is in the 6 The reverse current doubles in every ___ C increase in temperature. Schmitt trigger acts like a It is the time for the diode to be forward biased to off time

Reverse recovery time

Forbidden gap

S=0

Invalid NAND flip-flop violation C=0

LASER and LED are in what spectrum?

Infrared spectrum.

S=1

Invalid NOR flip-flop violation C=1

GaAs is used for

Infrared light or invisible light

Range of depletion width

Tapped coil oscillator

0.5 and 1 um

Hartley

Impedance matching Tickler coil oscillator

Transformer coupling and emitter follower.

Armstrong Maxwell-Wien bridge measures Tapped capacitor oscillator

Inductance

Colpitts D flip-flop consists of The sediment that allows the bottom of the lead acid cell

JK flip-flop, RS flip-flop and inverter

Antimony Lead alloy Uses binary counters

Two transistors in class B is in

PIV

Push-pull Photodarlington consists of Transputer operates in

parallel data

Transistor and phototransistor PIV Slow Avalanche breakdown is due to Discrete circuit Thermal neutron is also called _____ neutron. Film It is an IC consist of passive devices Largest voltage applied without irreversible damage It is an IC consist of passive and active devices

Monolithic IC

Digital circuit

collision 4 bits Large computer has a maximum of Backhausen criterion is a condition that One nibble consists of Linear circuit

Analog circuit

stops oscillating

64 bits Card readers can read about Negative output swing occurs

near saturation

10.000 cards per minute

Advantage of ECL

Positive output swing occurs

Lowest propagation delay

towards cut-off

Schottky TTL has

When dry cell is charged,

Least propagation delay

It increased in volume

Main advantage of CMOS

Class C acts

Low power

as an RF amplifier

CC voltage gain

Crystal uses

cannot be exceeded to unity.

RF transmitter

Largest voltage applied without irreversible damage

A class of amplifier that has 85% efficiency

Class C With Si, Z=14, it is The h parameter consists of Construction, operating point and temperature

Half-filled 2, 8, 4 Volatile memory is VTVM internal resistance is the highest internal resistance Formation of Si in valence shell DC Moving coil occurs in

Semiconductor ROM Semiconductor ROM is It measures magnetic properties of ferromagnetic Permeameter

Combinational Logic circuit EPROM erases when strikes by -40 Simple RL low pass measures -12 dB/octave, corresponds to ___ dB/decade

Ultraviolet rays

Bolometer acts like a

Rotational joins of the robot is called _____ Revolute joints.

Thermistor

Ondograph is

Straight line joints movement of the robot is called Prismatic joints

A waveshape of voltage and current.

Nickel iron cell consists of

Input and output point Handshaking

NiOH, powdered iron and its oxide and 21% of potassium.

CE is

RL high pass filter has a phase difference of 45 degrees

Phase reversal

Photoconductive cell is also called

Who invented the microprocessor in 1969? Ted Hoff

photoresistive cell

hO

The smallest of all h parameter is Who invented the 1st IC? Jack Kilby

la of h11 is V1/I1 dI/dt of an SCR is

local hot spot 0999 An IC consists of alumina substrate 3 display maximum reading An IC consists of ceramic substrate

thin film IC

reading 1000

thick film IC

Straight line method

It is the development of a traverse electric field in a solid material when it carries an electric current

piecewise linear method

Hall effect

Improper biasing of IC

It is used when the input signal has periodically occurring intervals in which the input waveform is quiescent

causes distortion

synchronized clamping One kWh of energy is equivalent to A circuit that produces an output only when first activated by a preliminary pulse sampling gate

860 kcal

reakdown occurs in reverse bias

Ratio of Ah and Wh is

Successive trigerring signal induces a transition regardless of the state in which binary happens to be

greater than one.

symmetrical triggering

Ah

The capacity in a cell is measured in

Both carrier drift and carrier diffusion depend on ___

Einstein relation

In the IC, the SiO2 layer is

Microprogramming is

isolation

A technique to implement the control logic necessary to execute instructions within a processor.

A V/I characteristic curve is It is used to measure a speed by cutting off light at a regular interval

Boltzman diode characteristic.

Stroboscope Early effect is also called Thermal runaway is

base width narrowing.

is an electrochemical reaction that causes a battery to heat and Advantage of Swinburnes test is possibly explode.

very convenient and very economical.

A kind of ROM that degrades its own memory contents as the memory is read EAROM Any charge in a battery when taken off the vehicle Bench charge

An inductor operates at 400 Hz Toroidal core

LASCR acts like a Latch

An inductor operates at 95 MHz Air core A word has 16-bit length

Data bus It is data lines in a system bus. A double word has 32-bit length

In converting intrinsic into N-type extrinsic semiconductor, which element cannot be used? Indium A company who invented the word byte IBM

Pin resistor has industrial heating in Hairpin form

Degrees of freedom is the number of ______ independent movements including the end effector independent

Any solid object has ___ degrees of freedom 6 An inductor operates at 400 Hz Toroidal core

Flip-flop as a latch S-C flip flop Percentage loss of the dc wound machine 1%

PIN diode When dc voltage is removed, the clamper acts as a Rectifier

A microwave diode frequencies up to GHz range.

Ip/Iv of a tunnel diode is used in Computer application CMOS has extremely Large packing density

Noise figure of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) 3.5 to 6 dB Solar cell has a principle of Photovoltaic cell

Unique advantage feature of CMOS Power in a nanowatt range Sensor that detects change in resistance in extrinsic semiconductor

Spreading Resistance Sensor (SRS)

Very low

Reduce the stray capacitance and capacitance between bridge arm by grounding Wagner Grounding

is

With 100 to match with higher input impedance, the configuration

Common base

A meter sensitivity control in a test instrument Linear Taper Potentiometer

Optocoupler consists of an LED and phototransistor

A volume control in a stereo compact disc player Logarithmic Taper Potentiometer

Optoisolator consists of an LED and phototransistor

Faster in retrieval and storage compared to magnetic tape Magnetic Disk

Positive feedback Oscillator

It has more ripple in a bandpass and cut-off frequency Chebyshev filter

Phase locked loop Frequency discriminator, FM detector

Darlington pair of transistors is _____ by Beta factor. multiplied

Air as inductor core has Greatest efficiency

CCD has ___ transfer electrons

What increases noise immunity in op-amp? Hysteresis

Neutral logic Trinary logic

Resisitve element Horizontal axis

Totally true, totally false Fuzzy logic

Reactive element Vertical axis

Which is not a factor of capacitance? Plate thickness

Sine wave with all harmonics Square wave

Ideal input impedance of an op-amp Very high

It abruptly changes from 2 voltage leads Square wave

Ideal output impedance of an op-amp

63.2 %

One time constant

A sine wave oscillator, sine wave circuit Crystal

It is an electron tube which emits photoelectrons when the cathode is eliminated Phototube

Positive pulse on anode terminal Turning on an SCS It is a radiant energy absorbed by the radiant to incident energy Absorptance

3 phase rectifier that uses 6 rectifier element Gratz rectifier Inventor circuit Converts dc to ac circuit

What uses as marker of 100 kHz? 2 flip-flops Laurence or Living stone Magnetic resonator or cyclotron

Feature of R-S to J-K flip-flop Toggle Microporgramming Sequence of five binary codes

LC balance bridge Maxwell bridge 540 degrees Phase opposition

Operator on microwave frequency GaAs over Silicon or Germanium Power efficiency of solar cell 5% to 15%

J-K flip-flop frequency Divides the frequency by 2. Thermal detector Bolometer

Small capacitance formed by twisting 2 insulated wire Gimmick Capacitor Exact location of data Absolute code

Modified Miller circuit Phanastron Fundamental frequency in all harmonics Sawtooth wave

Converts step to ramp circuit Miller circuit dV/dt of SCR False trigerring

Servocontrolled robots are robots within ___ mm range rather than a fraction of mm. Monolithic IC uses

Extensive large components MOS IC uses MOSFET A diode with no depletion region Schottky diode LED emits light because Electron and holes recombine What is the difference on the input impedance of BJT and FET? Equal ratio bridge Heaviside Campbell bridge Electron beam deflected from axial to enlarge Deflection defocusing Cut-in voltage or turn on voltage current Exponentially increases Tank circuit Antiresonant

A FET has high input impedance while BJT has low input impedance. Marking of scale to accept standard Calibration Zener diode is in reverse diode The temperature coefficient of extrinsic semiconductor is negative Voltage of selenium semiconductor 1V It is preferred to manufacture diode and temperature rating Silicon Isotope Abundance ratio Electron hole pair is done by Thermal energy JFET square law device is because its characteristic curve is parabolic Minimum Duty Cycle of Bust converter Dmin = 1 2fsLc RL Power factor of RC is between 0 and 1 LC circuit is used for Load current Application of semiconductor Wafer 3 superconducting inductor in parallel Persistor Voltage for temperature stability of zener diode 5.6 V APD is better than PIN diode is for Speed of operation Silicon oxide (SiO2) is for Insulation

Boost converter critical inductance Lc = (1-D) DRL 2fs


2

Percentage conductivity of 99.5% pure gold 72.6%

Buck Boost converter critical inductance Lc = (1-D)2RL 2fs

Percentage conductivity of 63% pure aluminum 63%

Corona is maximum on transmission lines

Buck converter critical inductance Lc = (1-D)RL 2fs Transformer that operates on the frequency range of 20 kHz to 20 MHz Carrier frequency transformer

Typical CMRR 100 to 10,000 JFET configuration for buffer amplifier common drain

Typical CMRR in dB 40 to 80 dB JFET configuration for good voltage amplification common source

Accuracy of Wien bridge 0.5% - 1% JFET configuration for high frequency amplifier common gate

Typical value of armature resistance 0.5 The dc-dc converterwith unregulated input voltage and regulated output voltage

The saturation voltage of an op-amp is ___ smaller than the power supply 2V

SMPS (Single Mode Power Supply)

Corona is due to radio interference

Solid grounding has a voltage below 660 V A transformer on the frequency of 15 kHz Converter transformer

Resistance grounding has typical voltage between 3.3 11 kV Ingredients of wet cell Zinc and copper

Percentage conductivity of pure annealed silver wire 108.8% Main ingredient of dry cell

Zinc container It reduces gain to a limiting level Limiter First transistor Point contact A camera with imaging positron effect with multiple layer of silicon detector Compton camera SMPC operates between ON state and OFF state at a frequency of 10 kHz and 40 kHz

First fuel battery was invented by _____ in 1959. F.T. Bacon

NMOS is _____ than PMOS 6 times

Unlike buck and boost converter, the buck boost converter featured output voltage: opposite polarity to input.

What is the diameter of the wafer used in manufacturing? 3 to 8 inches

Lattice in which the lattice points are only shown in the crystal Bravais Lattice An error due to shortcoming of instruments Systematic error An error that cannot be corrected Random error It is a substance where the bulk is composed Element Typical voltage of lead-acid 2.1 V

Standard spacing for IC chip 2 um and 3 um

Advanced spacing for IC chip 1 um

BCC crystal structure Chromium

HPC crystal structure Zinc

Another name for differential amplifier Subtractor

What type of cell used in the emergency system? Silver-zinc cell

A factor that determines the filter response Damping factor

Microcontroller consists of Microprocessor, memory, input and output unit

Unity gain amplifier has ____ input impedance Extremely high

Percentage of the transistor current flows in the collector 95%

Megger is used to measure high resistance

Increasing transmitter height

An AC bridge that measures mutual inductance Heaviside bridge

Decrease capacitance and inductance remains the same.

Undergrounding conductor is

One of the most important bridge in determining link capacitances Schering bridge

Maximum at the conductor and minimum at the sheath

A transformer that has a frequency range from 100 Hz 150 kHz

Highest dielectric strength Glass

Converter transformer

50

Surge impedance of cable

High sensitivity Permanent magnet

50

Ideal input impedance of op-amp

A transformer in laminated core reduced Eddy current

Formula for the increase % in saturation current


((T2-T1)/10)

An analysis used for more than one voltage source Superposition theorem

X 100%

0 dB

Ideal noise factor

Maximum magnitude of the output voltage from an op-amp is called Saturation voltage

Vacant lattice site with missing atom relocated to a interstitial space with no atom.

A graph of amplitude versus input frequency Bode plot

Frenkel effect 0.74 Linear change of input Magnetic amplifier operates at a frequency at ____ or less 100 Hz FCC packing factor Effect of recombination on depletion region Emission coefficient or ideality factor

Ramp input Instantaneous, finite input Most commonly used coupling Transformer coupling

Step input Indicating device orientation of object Selsyn Typical LED voltage 1.6 V

Capacitance of disc ceramic capacitor 100 pF

Easier to read

The maximum current can safely handle Ampacity

A bypass capacitor at high frequency Ceramic capacitor

JFET reference voltage Source

Indicating device orientation of object Selsyn

Buffer amplifier gain 1

Odd parity checker XOR

AWG no. 6 0.395 /1000 ft.

Shelf life of lithium cell 5 to 10 years

AWG no. 12 6350 cmil

Negative feedback

Increases bandwidth and decrease voltage gain Alkaline cell ingredient Potassium hydroxide Advantage of NiCd over lead acid Cell on NiCd can be replaced By adding parallel circuit to the inverting amplifier Inverting summing Linear amplification Level clamper Theory of magnetic flux in a closed system equal to zero Gauss theorem Personal error Gross error Advantage of magnetic disk to magnetic tape OS memory BIOS Arrange in data arrays RAM 3 Manipulator has ___ degrees of freedom Electrostatic radius of an atom 10-14 Reciprocal of Avogadros number amu A mass of 1.66 x 10-27 kg. Unified amu Indicating device orientation of object Selsyn

Caryon Voltage amplifier Pre-amplifier In doubles Kelvin bridge, 1 to 10 u 0.05% - 0.2% Latest used data Cache memory Wien bridge oscillator f = 1/(2RC)

LIFO Stack memory

Most important IEEE standard interface IEEE 488 digital interface

Minimum distance of features in a chip Geometry

Common method of coupling used in cascade amplifier stages Transformer

Number of elements not found in nature but also prepared in laboratories 105

It is most obvious at higher frequencies Corona

IC advantage Reliability Minimum to maximum range Span 1/5 of the Wi-Fi range Bluetooth

Early IC packaging method used in transistors TO (Transistor Outline)

PLCC Plastic Lead chip memory

It is used in Hi-Fi audio system to split frequencies to fed tweeter and woofer Crossover network

Temperature of Class B motor 130C

Resistance offered by a PN junction in AC conditions Dynamic resistance

Temperature of Class F motor 155C

Characteristic of shared systems to avoid mixing up of print outs or programs Spooling

Pure ac voltage single frequency Single pip Absorption of slow moving electrons by an interleaving matter Ramsauer effect

Cannot be used as a permanent magnet

If a load is removed from a long transmission line, the sending voltage end is less than receiving end Ferranti effect Four arm AC bridge measures inductance by standard capacitance Maxwell Bridge

Corona results in Radio interference

Shows positions of lattice points Bravais Lattice

Ratio of thermal conductivity to electrical conductivity is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of all metals Weidemann Franz Law

Measures the diameter of an atom Ernest Rutherford

Color of neutral in 3-core flexible cable Blue It is neglected in short transmission line analysis Shunt admittance

Ratio of the AC power supply to the plate power supply Plate efficiency

Electromechanical device that converts electrical to mechanical by attraction of iron plunger to the electromagnet Solenoid

It is located near transformer Lightning arrester

Lithium battery Microcomputer memory back-up

Volume of atom ratio to cell volume Packing factor

Protection against electric shock Earthing

RLC circuit that provides undamped oscillation Ringing circuit

The heat generated melts the portion at the tip of the electrode and the base of the metal Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Contact between metal and heavily doped-semiconductor Ohmic contact Advantages of PCB

Eliminates bigger chassis and point to point mounting Comparator with hysteresis Schmitt trigger Energy to raise the electron to another orbit Excitation Negative electron Negatron It is used in high voltage and high current application for most efficient regulator Input continuously increases constant output Level Clamp Switching regulator

What refers to garaging the two adjustments of an Ac bridge together in such a way that changing one adjustment changes the other in a special way, but changing the second adjustment does not change first? Orthogonal nulling The resistance in the magnetic path to the magnetic lines of force Reluctance Solid formed by covalent bonding Crystal

Not common sine wave generator Multivibrator The flux density in an iron core when the magnetic intensity is zero Residual magnetism

Range of degrees of freedom Work envelope When an electron rises to the conduction band a hole is created in the valence band, this called _____

Physical bend, twist, and reach Manipulator

Electron hole pair

Operating temperature of silicon. -175 to 350C

Poor selectivity Wide bandwidth

Highly sensitive material Permanent magnet

It has amplifier and feedback Electronic amplifier

Smallest ripple voltage Multi-section LC filter

Maintenance of oscillation Flywheel effect

Highest torque Series motors

Free electrons collidal to bound electrons causing mere current carriers Avalanche effect

Motivating input in a control system which is independent with the output

Magnetic leakage due to 100% coupling Electromagnetic effect

Command input

Development process of a microcrystal molten Crystal growth

A particle resulting to an atom of an element combined to form a compound Molecule

The voltage regulator, the component used as a comparator Op-amp

P shell number of electrons 72 It is not an resistance welding

Arc welding

Draws less current from circuit under test FETVM

Atom to atom bond on surface with oxide free surface Pressure welding It provides very high electrical isolation between control ckt and power ckt, has high impedance between light source and

Elimination of stray capacitance Shielding and grounding

phototransistor. Optoisolator

2 identical shunt motor Hopkinson

It is used to measure variations by the changing metallic resistance Bolometer

In doubles Kelvin bridge, 1 to 10 u 0.05% - 0.2%

Most common bolometric device Thermistor

AC voltage frequency converter from one form to another Cyclo converter

These are mostly used in robot than AC because it can with stand large overload. DC motor and stepper motor

Skin effect seen at High frequencies Converting sine wave to series of pulses Timing Marker Generator

Indicates the address of next instruction Program counter Current regulator alone Regulator IC alone

Drift current is directly proportional to mobility, diffusion is directly proportional to concentration of diffusion Einstein relation What do you call a short circuit having minimum resistance? Dead short

dV/dt in SCR False trigerring

What is used in measuring wires from number 0 to number 36? AWG

It divides an HF signal so that a low frequency counter would be able to display the operating frequency Prescaler circuit

Discharge of electricity from a conductor with a high potential Corona

Responds to the variation in incident photon Quantum detector

Power transformer normally operates at ____ alternating current. 60 or 400 Hz

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 0 to 1 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 0 to 4 mA DC? Perception

What is the anode of a silver zinc cell? Silver oxide

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 1 to 4mA, 60 Hz, AC or 4 to 15 mA DC? Surprise

What is the cathode of a silver zinc cell ? Zinc

What is the production of the hydrogen gas caused by a portion of the charge current breaking down the water in the electrolyte?

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 4 to 21 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 15 to 80 mA DC? Reflex action

Gassing

What is the shelf life of lithium organic cell and lithium inorganic cell? 20 years

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 21 to 40 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 80 to 160 mA DC? Muscular Inhibition In what charge is the charging rate determined by the battery voltage rather than a definite current value? Floating charge

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of 40 to 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 160 to 300 mA DC? Respiratory failure What charge is used to keep a battery at full charge while the battery is idle or light duty? Floating charge

What probable effect on the human body if subjected to a current of over 100 mA, 60 Hz, AC or 300 mA DC? Fatal Floating charge is sometimes referred to as ___ and is accomplished with low current. Trickle charge

What is the effect of hydrogen surrounding the anode of a cell which increases the internal resistance of the cell? Polarization What is used when a battery must be recharged in the shortest possible time? Fast charge

What is the anode of a lead acid cell? Lead peroxide Electrical safety precatutions must be observed. A fatal shock can occur from ___ ampere of current.

What is the cathode of a lead acid cell? Sponge lead

0.1

Voltages as low as ___ volts have been recorded as causing sufficient current to be fatal. 30

What is the anode of a NiCad Cell ? Hydroxide

What type of extinguishers are used to extinguish electrical fires? CO2

Mechanical rotation of frequency is measured using a device called___. Tachometer

Under favorable conditions, the body resistance may be as low as ___ ohms 300 The rotation of frequency of recording devices and teletypewriter motors can be measured by the use of _____. Stroboscope.

The body resistance is possibly as low as ___ from temple to temple if the skin is broken. 100

What is an instrument that allows you to view rotating or reciprocating objects intermittently and produces the optical effect of a slowing down or stopping motion? Stroboscope

In a voltage divider, bleeder current is usually determined by the ___ percent rule of thumb. 10 What is an electronic flash device in which the flash duration is very short, a few millionths of a second and can measure very rapid motion?

A theory of magnetism based upon the electron-spin principle. Domain Theory.

Strobotac

What is a combination of watch and revolution counter? Chronometric tachometer

What action results in the increase in current that generates more heat and the cycle repeats itself until the diode draws excessive current? Thermal runaway

What type of bolometer is characterized as an increase in resistance as the dissipated power rises? Barreter

What is the faithful reproduction of a signal in an amplifier? Fidelity What type of bolometer is characterized by decrease in resistance as the power increases?

What dc generators are designed to act as high gain amplifier? Amplidynes

Thermistor

What instrument is used for measuring radio frequency (rf) power? Thermocouple ammeter

What is the range of the dc resistance of most motor armatures? 0.05 to 0.5 ohms

Which of the following robots is used for machining processes? Cincinatti T3

What is usually the lamination thickness of the armature core of a small generator? 1/64 inches

Kuka spot welding has ___ degrees of freedom. 6

Exx1x All positions

MAG

Antrophomorphic robot is more maneuverable

Exx2x horizontal positions

It is also known as metal inert gas. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Magnetic audio tape Parallel

Robot with facial expression Kismet

Magnetic video tape Diagonal

Toy dinosaur robot Pleo

Thickness of magnetic audio tape 1 mil

Snap acting switch Microswitch

A sawtooth wave has a ____ added to become trapezoidal wave. resistor

Approach in which introduce factory automation technology Islands of automation

Absent of current welding cool sub-interval

Degree of automatic. Level of automation

1.5 H Air pot core

Orange, blue and gray diode IN368

Who coined the term robotics? Isaac Asimov

It is the welding electrode comes forward and engage the metal pressing against the surface. squeeze interval

Oldest welding Forge welding

Klystron High achievable power output

It is the welding in which the welding transformer energized and the current flows and create a weld. weld interval

Inert gas MIG It is the weld interval that is finished hold interval

Active gas

Welding electrode is retracted release interval

Mass of 60-lb IR robot 60 kg

A time after release interval to the next start sequence. Standby interval.

Deep penetration Submerged arc

It is a closed loop feedback control system in which one or more of the system signals represent mechanical motion. Servomechanism.

Deep penetration DC reverse

Exx3x Flat E60xx has a tensile strength of ___ 60,000 psi With AC or DC similar to E6010 E6011 Major power supply of MIG DCRP Medium penetration E6013 Can be prevented by arc welding Arc flow Faying surfaces in one spot Resistance spot welding Faying surfaces Resistance seam welding Resistance of the work Resistance welding

Medium penetration DC straight

Fast welding Flash welding

10,000 to 50,000 Hz welding High frequency welding

Image resolution Dot pitch

Voltage of dry electrolytic capacitor 500 V

Apply electrostatic voltage in plastic Electroactive polymer

In electrolytic positive, ___ of the total heat. 2/3

Prevents corona Braid

450F below Soldering

above 450F joining of two metals

Brazing Metal active gas CO2 Control signals that are processed by directly measuring quantities (voltages, resistances or rotation). This can be hydraulic, electronic or pneumatic. analog control Multimeter on the lower center switch Range switch A robot or machine that resembles a human. android Multimeter on the lower left switch Function switch A robot with rotary joints that can move much like a persons arm. anthrophomorphic robot Aluminum D-ARsonval movement Bobbin An interconnected set of links and powered joints comprising a manipulator that supports or moves a wrist, hand or end effector. Positive lead Red Negative lead Black The ability of a machine system to perceived anticipated or unanticipated new conditions, decide what actions must be performed under the conditions and plan the actions accordingly. The main areas of applications are expert systems and computer vision. Angular momentum of robot Yaw GaAs disadvantage more expensive Also known as assembly cell or assembly station. A concentrated group of equipment such as manipulators, vision modules, parts presenters, and support tables that are dedicated to compute assembly operations at one physical location. assembly Disadvantage of Transformer to capacitive coupling more expensive The use of any one several techniques to determine the presence or absence of features. This technique include simple mechanical probes A motor or transducer that converts energy (electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic) into power used to produce motion or power. actuator The ability of a robot to position its end effector at a programmed location in space. accuracy Automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process or system by mechanical or electronic devices that replace human observation, effort and decision. automation and vision systems. automated inspection artificial intelligence arm

A traveled path in space, usually referred to as a linear direction of travel in any of three dimensions. axis

A numerical control system with a dictated mini or micro computer that performs the functions of data processing and control. computerized numerical control (CNC)

A robot in which motions are controlled by driving each axis or degree of freedom against a mechanical limit stop. bang-bang robot

The unit of automatic work for a robot. Within a cycle, subelements called trajectories define lesser but integral elements. Each trajectory is made up of points where the robot performs an operation or passes through depending upon the programming.

A platform or structure to which a robot arm is attached; the end of a kinematic chain of arm links and joints opposite to which grasps or processes external objects. base

cycle (program)

The number of independent ways the end effector can move. It is defined by the number of rotational or translational axes through which motion can be obtained.

A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more workstations or machines and the material transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them. cell

degrees of freedom

The joint that connects the upper arm and forearm on a robot. elbow

A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more cells, and the material transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them. center Also known as end of arm tooling or simply a hand. The subsystem that links the mechanical portion of the robot (manipulator) to the part being handled or work on, and gives the robot the ability to pick yp and

An assembly between two closely related rigid members enabling on member to rotate in relation to the other around a mobile axis. complex joint

transfer parts and/or handle a multitude of different tools to perform work on parts. end effector

The use of an interactive terminal workstation usually with graphics capability to automate the design of products. It includes functions such as drafting and fit-up parts. computer aided design (CAD)

Robots with little if any computer power. Their only intelligent functions consist of learning a sequence of manipulative actions, choreographed by a human operator using a teach box. first generation robot system

Working from a product design likely to exist in a CAD data base, it encompases the computer based technologies that physically produce the product, including parts program preparation, process planning, tool design, process analysis and parts processing by numerically controlled machines. computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

Also known as nonservo robot or open robot. A robot with stoppoint control but no trajectory control. fixed stop robot

Multipurpose robots that are adaptable and capable of being redirected trained or used for new purposes.

flexibility operational

An electrical switched positioned to be switched where a motion limit occurs, thereby deactivating the actuator that causes the motion.

An arrangement of machine tools that is capable of standing alone, interconnected by a workpiece transport system and controlled by a central computer. flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

limit switch

A mechanism usually consisting of a series of segments or links, jointed or sliding to one another, for grasping or moving objects, usually in several degrees of freedom.

Also known as pedestal robot. A robot with its base permanently or semi-permanently attached to the floor or bench. Such a robot is working at one location with a maximum limited work area and in many cases servicing only one machine. floor mounted robot

manipulator

A method for the control of machine tool systems. A program containing all the information, in symbolic numerical form, needed for processing a workpiece is stored on a medium such as paper or magnetic tape.

That portion of a jointed arm which is connected to the wrist and elbow forearm.

numerical control

Developing robot programs partially or completely without requiring the use of the robot itself. The program is loaded into the robots

An overhead mounted, rectilinear robot with a minimum of three degrees of freedom and normally not exceeding six. gantry robot.

controller for subsequent automatic action of the manipulator. off-line programming

Software that controls the execution of computer programs, may provide scheduling, allocation, debugging data management, and other functions. operating systems

The grasping hand of a robot, which manipulates objects and tools to fulfill a given task. gripper

An approach used to introduce factory automation technology into manufacturing by selective application of automation. islands of automation.

Also known as positioning. The consistent movement or manipulation of an object into controlled position and altitude in space. orientation

The degree to which a process has been made automatic. Relevant to the level of automation are questions of automatic failure recovery, the variety of situations that will be automatically handled, and the conditions under which manual intervention or action by human beings is required. level of automation

The equipment used in conjunction with the robot for a complete robotic system. This includes grippers, conveyors, parts positioners and parts or materials feeders that are needed with the robot. peripheral equipment

Also known as bend. The angular rotation of a moving body about an axis that is perpendicular to its direction of motion and in the same plane as its top side.

pitch

A controller that operates an application though a fixed sequence of events.

Also known as photoelement or photosite. A digital picture or sensor element, picture is short for picture cell. pixel

sequencer

A robot driven by servomechanisms, that is, motors or actuators whose driving signal is a function of the difference between a

The act of providing the control instructions required for a robot to perform its intended task. programming

commanded position and/or rate is measured actual position and/or rate. servocontrolled robot

The envelope of variance of the robot tool print position for repeated cycles under the same conditions. It is obtained from the deviation between the positions and orientations reached at the end of several similar cycles. Contrast with accuracy. repeatability

An automatic control mechanism consisting of a motor or actuator driven by a signal that is a function of the difference between a commanded position and/or rate and measured actual position and/or rate. servomechanism

A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move a material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. robot

The manipulator arm linkage joint that is attached to the base. shoulder

The maximum velocity at which a manipulator joint can move; a rate imposed by saturation in the servoloop controlling the joint.

The science of designing, building and applying robots. robotics

slew rate

The use of two or more cameras to pinpoint the location of an object in a three dimensional space. stereo imaging

Also known as twist. The rotational displacement of a joint around the principal axis of its motionj, particularly at the wrist. roll

The detection by a robot though contact of touch, force, pattern slip and movement. It allows for the determination of local shape, orientation and feedback forces of a grasped workspace. tactile sensing

A robot with a computer processes added to the robotic controller. This addition makes it possible to perform, in real time, the calculations required to control the motions of each degree of freedom in a cooperative manner to effect smooth motions of the end effector along predetermined paths. It also become possible to integrate simple sensors, such as force torque, and proximity into the robot system ,providing some degree of adaptability to the robots environment. second generation robot system

A robot system characterized by the incorporation of multiple computer processors, each operating asynchronously to perform specific functions. It includes a separate low level processor for each degree of freedom and a master computer supervising and

coordinating these processors, as well as providing higher-level functions. third generation robot system

yaw

What magnet is used in computer memory circuits? Ring magnet

The orientation of a view with a video camera, in elevation. tilt What magnet is used in some meter circuits? Horseshoe magnet

A continuous position control response to continuously changing input requirements. tracking If the electrons of the atom in a material spin more in one direction than in the other, the material will become magnetized. This refers to what theorem?

A movement such that all axes remain parallel to what they were. translation

The Domain theory of Magnetism

What theorem assumes that all magnetic materials are made up of magnetic molecules which, if lined up in north to south pole order, will be a magnet. If not lined up, the magnetic fields about the molecules will neutralize each other and no magnetic effect will be noted? Webers theory of magnetism

The acquisition, movement thorugh space, and release of an object by a robot. transport

The portion of a jointed arm that is connected to the shoulder. upper arm What do you call a short circuit having minimum resistance? Dead short

Also known as the robot operating envelope. The set of points representing the maximum extent or reach of the robot tool in a directions. work envelope What refers to a continuation of current flow within an electrical cell when there is no external load? Local action

The envelope reached by the center of the interface between the wrist and the tool, using all available axis motions. workspace

The amount of increase in the resistance of 1 ohm sample of the conductor per degree of temperature rise above 0C is called what? Temperature coefficient of resistance

A set of joints, usually rotational, between the arm and the hand or end effector, which allow the hand or end effector to be oriented relative to the workpiece. wrist

What do you call the resistance to current leakage through the insulation? Insulation resistance

The angular displacement of a moving joint about an axis which is perpendicular to the line of motion and the top side of the body.

What is the common name for enamel insulated wire? Magnet wire

What term is general one and usually applies only to the larger sizes of conductors? Cables

The capacity of a soldering iron to generate and maintain a satisfactory soldering temperature while giving up heat to the material being soldered. Thermal inertia

The process of applying thin coat of solder to materials prior to their being soldered. Tinning What is the working voltage of a dry electrolytic capacitor? 500 V

The addition of atmospheric oxygen to metal to form rust, or to cause a breakdown in the internal construction of the metal. Oxidation

If arcing should occur between the plates of an oil filled capacitor, the oil will tend to reseal the hole caused by the arcing. Such a capacitor is referred to as ____ capacitor. self-healing

What refers to a continuation of current flow within an electrical cell when there is not external load? Local action The maximum voltage that can be steadily applied to the capacitor without the capacitor breaking down (shorting) is called ____ of the capacitor.

A continuous jacket of lead molded around a single conductor or multiple conductor cable. Lead sheath

working voltage

What is meant by local action? Current flow in cell with no external load.

What do you call the force exerted on an insulator by the voltage in a conductor? Electrostatic stress The left side of the pulse Leading edge

The discharge of electricity from a conductor with a high potential. Corona

The right side of the pulse Trailing edge

A material that removes oxides from surfaces to be joined by soldering or welding. Flux

What is the process by which an atoms gain or losses electrons? Ionization

A synthetic mixture of rosins that is flexible and used as an insulating material. Generally used as an insulator for low and medium range voltages. Thermoplastic

Any group of energy levels that results from the close proximity of atoms in a solid. Energy bands

How many pulsations per revolution have the output voltage of an elementary single coil dc generator? Two

How many commutator segments are required in a two-coil generator? Four What is the distortion of the main field due to the effects of armature current? Armature reaction What type of prime mover requires a specially designed high speed alternator? Steam turbine

Whenever data is transferred between devices, it involves the exchange of prearranged signals. What is this process called? Handshaking

What test is used to check for opens (or to see if the circuit is complete or continuous) and is accomplished with an ohmmeter? Continuity test

What type of circuits are caused by some conducting part of the circuit making contact either directly or indirectly with the metallic structure of the ship or chassis? Ground circuits

What type of rotor is used in slower speed alternators? Salient pole rotor

Shunts are usually made from what alloy? Manganin

What type of rotor is wound in a manner to allow high-speed use without flying apart? Turbine driven type rotor

What property of shunt is desired because of the heavy currents that often flow through shunts producing heat? Zero-temperature coefficient

What term is used to denote the difference in speed between the rotor which is always somewhat less than the speed of the rotating field? Slip

In DArsonval meter, many turns of fine wire would be used, each turn adding more effective length to the coil. The coil is wound on an aluminum frame called ___. bobbin

What mechanical device reverses armature connections in motors and generators at the proper instant so that current continues to flow only in one direction? Commutator

What is an important point to remember when you are making an accurate resistance measurement? Zero the meter each time you select a new range.

What motor characteristic is affected by counter emf? Speed How is EPROM erased? with a burst of ultraviolet light

BJT better than FET radio receiver

Wineglass Plasma arc welding

plasma Plasma arc welding

Slow speed Salient pole High speed Turbine driven type rotor Differentiation Submerged Comparison solenoid Relay fixed core Human arm Serial robot Input display signal voltage Vertical deflection coil Replacing DC motor/recently used Piezo motor Rapid discharge of electrical energy Percussion welding Hydrogen Electrode E7018 False Air has the concentrated magnetic field Electron gun tube CRT Electron field tube Electron beam

Multicavity Klystron Variable electron speed

Fuse Quick break type

Magnetic frequency increases Power output decreases

Cause of electrons due to the longitudinal Magnetic field

Along a joint Upset welding

Fastest memory Flash memory

Tungsten electrode TIG

Use of non-interlaced monitor Fast graph

CMOS disadvantage cannot handle high power

TTL least susceptible to noise

E stands for American Wire Electrode

Exceeding 450F Brazing

Not exceeding 450F

Soldering Generators used Magnetic Battery used as chemical Atomic hydrogen is long lived because ac is used Welding is not used direct source because it is impracticable to draw heavy currents

Responsible of pulsating DC Commutator

RF power amplifier Common base

Low voltage high power Center tapped Full Wave

Choke passes dc but not RF

Oldest 1940 general magnetic phenomenon Colding or cold contact

Multivibrator Common emitter or common source

Joints Direct Kinematics

Algorithm better than ZMP Dynamic balancing

End effector Inverse Direct Kinematics

One feet with small Hopping

Nothing but to memory Flag field

Automatic welding 5 intervals

Unwanted connection Fault connection

Control grid of a tube gate of a FET

Frequency synthesizer used as Divider

Impedance mismatch reactance output Transformer

Output amplitude Amplitude stability

Laminated core reduces eddy current loss

DC motor is preferred as driver in robotics because it can withstand large overload

No load loss but not electrical loss Windage

Manganese Dioxide Alkaline Acid Alkaline Cell Draws large amount of current Rheostat Increase RL Improved Efficiency Single coil Elementary generator 3 classifications of robot Anthrophomorphic, SCARA, and articulated Connects arm and end effectors Wrist ____ for bones, ____ for muscle and ____for degrees of freedom. links, actuator, and joints Early actuator Elastic nanotube Changing of electric energy Electroactive polymer Variable speed DC generator Constant speed AC generator More robot than worker Japan

Transient suppression prevents diode failure

Tunnel diode Dr. Leo Esaki

Zener Diode Dr. Carl Zener

Varactor diode uses Frequency stability

2 terminal communicate Handshaking

Highest fidelity Class A

Portion Class AB

FET amplifier Class AB2

Medium penetration E6013

Oxy fuel arc Oxy fuel gas welding

Electrical requirement of arc welding high open circuit voltage

Horizontal oscilloscope Time/division

Joining of metals

Welding

ICBO = ICBO (T2-T1)/10

Radio using tubes Bulk and heavy

Charge of a capacitor Q = CV

The purpose of I in PIN diode minimizes junction capacitance

Charge Q = Qo (1-e(-t/RC))

1/16 to 5/16 in in diameter American Welding Society

Dependent on gap Charge efficiency

Degrees of freedom for General purpose effectors 20

NRZI means Non-return to zero invert

Deep penetration welding Submerge arc welding

Pilot cell identifies the condition of the battery

JFET except transconductance

More likely to occur than zener breakdown because lightl doped Avalanche breakdown

Pinch off voltage Transconductance is zero

How wire measure dc and ac

Formula for IC with leakage current IC = IB + (+1)ICBO

Dielectric constant of mica 6

IE IE = IC - ICBO

Buck boost lossless D = (V2)/(V1+V2)

ICQ ICQ = IBQ + ICEO

Buck D = V2/V1

IEQ IEQ = ICQ + IBQ

Op-amp filter Polysterene

Increase temperature leakage current

TTL open circuit high level

I2L bipolar saturated logic EAROM Degrade data if used 6 rectifying elements Gratz rectifier Superconductivity thin film memory consisting of a superconducting inductor Permistor

Lowest resistivity at 293 K Copper

BIG elements Trivalent

PAA elements Pentavalent

Analog preferred than digital because of measuring signal strength

Opposing torques Deflecting and restoring torques

Register and counters are the same because they have the same array of flip flop and gates Code that Absolute code

High Q High selectivity Equal ripple Eliptic filter

2 principles of detector Rectifier and filter Illuminance Lux

Microprocessor ALU and control unit Ripple sharp cutoff Chebyshev filter

CPU ALU and control unit Adds all harmonics Sawtooth

Simulate Simulator Odd harmonics Square

Servocontrolled robot Soft stop

All even harmonics Push pull

Nonservo robot Hard stop

The single grid of vacuum

Control grid

In low frequency cutoff, amplitude decreases by ___ from midrange value 3 dB

Change in audio range 1 dB

CHAPTER 1 TRANSMISSION FUNDAMENTALS (Past Board :excel:)

A variable LC oscillator with metered feedback current

ECE Board Exam April 2001 An SWR reading which has a short circuit termination. Infinity

ECE Board Exam. April 1997 The standard test tone. 0 dBm

ECE Board Exam November 2000 In an open wire transmission line, what is the normal separation between its two (2) conductors? 2 to 6 cm

ECE Board April 1997 If voltage change is equal to twice its original value,. what is it corresponding change In dB?
6 dB

ECE Board Exam April 2000 Which of the following term is used to describe the attenuation and phase shift per unit length of a transmission line? Propagation constant

ECE Board Exam November 1999 An indication in radio communication when the voltage standing wave ratio is equal to zero. No input power

ECE Board Exam April 1999 Refers to a connector that normally connects RG-213 coaxial. cable to an HF transceiver. PL-259

ECE Board Exam November 1996 Energy that has neither been-radiated into space,nor completely transmitted.
Standing waves

ECE Board Exam April 1997 To a couple a coaxial line, it is better to use

ECE Board Exam November 1998 Width of frequency band just enough to ensure the transmission of information at a required rate and quality required, and under a specified condition and class of emission. Necessary bandwidth

a________ Balun

ECE Board Exam November 2000 What is the main reason,why coaxial cable is not used in microwe signal transmission?
High attenuation

ECE Board Exam. April 1998 Best describe a dip meter.

ECE Board Exam April 1997

What is impedance of a balance 4-wire with a diameter of 0.25 spaced 2.5 cm apart using an insulator with a dielectric constant of 2.56?
100 ohms

ECE Board Exam April 1998 Referred to the dielectric constant of a transmission line material. Velocity factor

ECE Board Exam April 1997 What is the characteristic impedance of a single wire with a diameter d=0.25 mm placed at the center between grounded parallel planes separated by 1 mm apart? The wire is held by a material with a velocity factor of 0.75? 75 ohms

ECE Board April 2000 In wire communications, non-resonat transmission lines are referred to as __________ Flat lines

ECE Board Exam November 1999 An electronic equipment used in radio communications to measure standing wave ratio. Reflectometer

ECE Board Exam March 1996 The power of standard test tone is normally ______
ECE Board Exam April 1999 How does a shorted half-wave line act at a certain operating frequency? Series resonant circuit 1mW

ECE Board Exam November 1996 Which tester is used to measure SWR?
Reflectometer

ECE Board Exam November 1998 Best choice of transmission line component to couple a coaxial line to a parallel-wire line. Balun

ECE Board Exam March 1996 The characteristic impedance of a transmission line does not depend upon its________
Length

ECE Board Exam April 2000

What is the input impedance equivalent of an open ended transmission line which is longer than a quarter wavelength?
As pure inductor

ECE Board Exam November 1999 In the study of transmission cable, twin lead. is also referred to as a_________ ribbon cable ECE Board Exam April 1999 The greater the diameter of a wire, the _________ is the resistance.
Lesser

What is the term for the ratio of actual velocity at which a signal travels through a line to the speed of light in a vacuum? Velocity factor ECE Board Exam November 1999 Referred to as a cause of crosstalk. Electrical coupling between transmission media ECE Board Exam November 1998 What is the meaning of the term velocity factor of a transmission line? The velocity of the wave on the transmission line divided by the velocity of the light in a vacuum ECE Board Exam April 1998 It is used to connect computers in the same building or in same area. LAN ECE Board Exam April 1997 What do you call the energy that was not radiated into space or completely transmitted? Standing waves ECE Board Exam November 1996 What is the applied power if a thermal RF wattmeter is connected to a transmitter through variable attenuator? The wattmeter reads 84 mW when 15 dB of attenuation is used. 2.656 Watts

ECE Board Exam November 1998 What determines the velocity factor in transmission line?
Dielectrics in the line

ECE Board Exam April 1998 Technical study which deals with production, transport and delivery of a quality signal from source to destination Transmission System Engineering ECE Board Exam April 1997 If you have available number of power amplifiers with a gain of 100 each how many such amplifiers do you need to cascade to give an overall gain of 60 dB? 3 amplifiers

ECE Board Eaagl.March 1996 If the terminating impedance is exactly equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line the return loss is ______ infinite ECE Board Exam April 1997 A singie.q nductor running from the transmitter to the antenna. Single line wire ECE Board Exam November 1996

ECE Board Exam March 1996 What :is the reference tone level for dBm?
-90dBm

ECB Board Exam April 2060

Ina transmission line if the maximum current to minimum current ratio is 2:1. what is the ratio of the maximum voltage to minimum voltage? 2.1 ECE Board Exam March 1996 What is the main purpose of a communications system? To provide an acceptable replica of the information at the destination ECE Board Exam April 1997 __________ sets the limit on the maximum capacity of a channel with a gin noise level. Shannon-Hartley theorem

60 GHz

ECE Board Exam November 1996 The standing wave ratio is equal to _________ if the load is properly matched with the transmission line. 1

ECE Board Exam March 1996 Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is the impedance measured at the ____ when its length is infinite.

ECE Board Exam November 1996 Which stands for dB relative level? dBr

Input

ECE Board Exam March 1996 What.quarterwave transformer will match a 100 ohms

ECE Board Exam March 1996 To connect coaxial line to a parallel-wire, _______ is the best to use
Balun

line to an antenna whose value is 175 ohms? 132.29 ohms

ECE Board Exam November 1998 Which of the following determines the characteristics of a transmission line? Physical dimensions ECE Boardd Exam March 1996 ECE Board Exam.April 1998 Which of the fotlowing is an impedance matching ratio of coax balun? 4:1 When a transmission line uses ground return, it is called a/an __________ line. Unbalanced

ECE Board Exam November 1997 An electronic equipment used to measure standing wave ratio. Reflectometer

ECE Board Exam November 1996 Transmission lines when connected to antenna have resistive load atthe resonant frequency ECE Board Exam March 1996 Termination means load connected to the output end of a transmission line ECE Board Exam March 1996 Transmission lines are either balanced or unbalanced will respect to

ECE Board Exam April 1997 What frequency does oxygen cause excessive attenuation?

ground ECE Board Exam March 1996 What is the velocity factor for non-foam dielectric 50 or 75 ohms flexible coaxial cable such as RG 8, 11, 58, and 59? 0.66 Board Exam November 1997 Propagation mode of microwave in a waveguide is known as _____ TE Board Exam November 1998 A transmission line consisting of two conductors that have equal resistance per unit length. Balanced line ECE Board Exam November 1966 What is the equivalent output of a circuit in dBm, if it has an output of 10 Watts? 40 dBm

ECE Board Exam November 1996 Transmission line must be matched to the load to transfer maximum power to the load ECE Board Exam November 1996 When electromagnetic waves are propagated through a waveguide, they are reflected from the walls but do not travel along them ECE Board Exam November 1997 Coaxial lines are used on those system operating Below 2 GHz ECE Board Exaru.November 1996 You are measuring a voice channel at a -4 dB test point level, the meter reads 73 dBm (pure test tone) convert the reading into dBrnCO. 21 dBrnCO

ECE Board Exam November 1996 1 micron is equal to ___________ meter(s) 10^-6 ECE Board Exam March 1996 Power is always ___________ a definite amount of energy the rate at which energy is used expressed in watts ECE Board Exam November 1998 Which of the following is not a common transmission line impedance? A. 50 ohms B. 120 ohms C. 75 ohms D. 650 ohms ECE Board Exam November 1997 The Width of the frequency band which is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of information of information at the rate and with the quality required under a specified condition and class of emission. Necessary bandwidth ECE Board Exam November 1998 Best reason for pressurizing waveguides with dry air. To reduce the possibility of internal arcing ECE Board Exam November 1997 The outer conductor of a coaxial transmission line is always.grounded at the input and output ECE Board Exam November 1996 You are measuring noise in a voice channel at 7 dB test point level. The meter reads -56 dBm (FIA weighted). What is the reading in dBrnC? 34 dBrnC

7)Invented in 1960. Laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) 8)Advantages of Optical Fiber cables. 1. wider bandwidth and greater information capacity 2.immunity to crosstalk 3. immunity to statistic interference 4. environmental immunity 5. safety and convenience 6. lower transmission loss 7. security 8. durability and reliability 9. economics 9)Disadvantages of Optical Fiber cables. 1. interfacing cost 2. strength 3. remote electrical power 4. optical fiber cables are more susceptible to losses introduced by bending the cable 5. specialized tools, equipment, and training 10)Reduces the possibility of the occurrence of a detrimental phenomenon. Stress corrosion 12)Protective coating. Buffer jacket 14)Increases the tensile strength of the over all cable assembly. Strength member 15)Process of decaying from one energy level to another energy level. Spontaneous decay or spontaneous emission 16)Science of measuring only light waves that are visible to human eye. Photometry 17)Measures the rate at which electromagnetic waves transfer light energy. Optical power 18)Spectral separation of white light. Prismatic refraction 19)Simply the ratio of velocity of propagation of a light ray in free space to the velocity of propagation of a light ray in a given material. Refractive index

ECE Board Exam November 1998 What do you call the phenomenon in digital circuits that describe the duration of time digital signal passes a circuit? Propagation delay
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Saturday, August 6, 2011

OPTICAL FIBER TRANSMISSION MEDIA (C13 Tomasi)

CHAPTER 13
OPTICAL FIBER TRANSMISSION MEDIA
1)Uses light as a carrier of information. Optical communications system 2)Electronic communications system is directly proportional to bandwidth. Information-carrying capacity 3)Bandwidth of an analog communications system as a percentage of its carrier frequency. bandwidth utilization ratio 4)Device constructed from mirrors and selenium detectors that transmitted sound waves over a beam of light. Photophone 5)Experimented with an apparatus called photophone. Alexander Graham Bell 6)Used extensively in medical field. Flexible fiberscope

20)Angle at which the propagating ray strikes the interface with respect to the normal. Angle of incidence 21)Angle formed between the propagating ray and the normal after the ray has entered the second medium. Angle of refraction 22)Closely related to acceptance angle and is the figure of merit commonly used to measure the magnitude of the acceptance angle. Numerical aperture 23)Simply means path. Mode 24)More than one path. Multimode 26)Probably the most important characteristic of the cable. Power loss 27)Three factors that contribute to the absorption losses in optical fibers: 1. ultra violet absorption 2. infrared absorption 3. ion resonance absorption 28)Caused mainly by small bends and kinks in the fiber. Radiation losses 29)Caused by excessive pressure and tension and generally occur when fibers are bent during handling or installation. Contants-radius bends 30)Caused by the difference in the propagation times of light rays that take different path down a fiber. Modal dispersion 32)A p-n junction made from two different mixtures of the same types of atom. Mojunction structure 33)Generally constructed of silicon-doped gallium-arsenide. Epitaxially grown 34)Homojunction LEDs output approximately 500 at a wavelength of 900 nm. Planar diffused

35) Advantages of heterojunction devices over homojunction devices; 1. increase in current density generates a more brilliant light spot. 2. smaller emitting area makes it easier to couple its emitted light into a fiber. 3. small effective area has a smaller capacitance, which allows the planar heterojunction LED to be used at a higher speed. 36)Depletion-layer photo diode and is probably the most common device used as a light detector in fiber optic communications system. PIN diode 37)Characteristic of a light detector. 1. responsivity 2. dark currents 3. transit time 4. spectral response 5. light sensitivity
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