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R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K.

Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements


R. Vogelsang1, B. Fruth2, T. Farr1, K. Frhlich1 High Voltage Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Zrich ETH Centre, 8092 Zrich, ZH, Switzerland phone: +41 1 632 0921 fax: +41 1 632 1202 - e-mail: vogelsang@eeh.ee.ethz.ch PD Tech Power Engineering AG Im Stetterfeld, 5608 Stetten, AG, Switzerland phone: +41 56 496 6280 fax: +41 496 6578 - e-mail: fruth@pdtech.ch
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Abstract The partial discharge activity during propagation of electrical treeing in epoxy resin is described. The electrical trees grew in needle-plane samples without and with an internal barrier up to the final breakdown. The simultaneous taken tree growth and discharge activity show a correlation between the propagation state of the tree and the thereby measured PD. Especially the changes in the tree structure can clearly be detected. Based on these characteristics a new model describing tree growth will be presented. It appears that measurements from machine insulation can be interpreted in terms of the PD pattern.

The PD characteristic of the electrical treeing in pointplane specimen has been compared to that measured on actual high voltage coil winding insulation. Similarities and differences of the PD characteristics will be pointed out.

2. Experimental setup
The experimental arrangement is mainly a conventional PD test circuit consisting of a 5 kVA, 50 Hz high voltage power transformer, a 1:1000 capacitive voltage divider, a 700 pF coupling capacitor with a coupling impedance and a phase resolved PD measurement system (PD Tech Switzerland). The PD measurements were taken with a recording time of 60 s of each pattern. The treeing experiments were carried out with needle-plane specimens with a constant ac voltage of 28 kV RMS. To promote treeing from the beginning of the voltage application, needles (Ogura Jewel) with a tip radius of 1 um were used. The relatively large distance of 5 mm between the point and the plane was chosen to study tree growth in a wider volume considering the higher insulation thickness of high voltage winding insulation. To simulate the effect of barriers in the insulation, square mica plates of 20 mm length and a thickness of 0.2 mm were placed centrally between the two electrodes perpendicular to the axis of the system. The electrical treeing was observed with a CCDcamera via telephoto lenses. For simultaneous measurements of the electrical tree growth and the generated PD thereby, the camera and the PD measurement system were controlled by the same PC (Figure 1).
high voltage source lamp sample telephoto lenses CCD-camera

1. Introduction
Partial discharge (PD) measurement techniques for electrical machine insulation have been improved in the recent years. Although PD measurements are widely used detailed interpretation of the PD in terms of defects and degradation in the insulation material has still not been completely clarified. The PD data show stochastic oscillating behaviour with periods of low and periods of higher amplitude [1] - [4]. During their service the mica-epoxy winding insulation may be exposed to PD and electrical treeing for long periods. The electrical treeing, a process in which fine erosion channels propagate through the material, is often referred to as the most important degradation mechanism in solid polymeric insulation [5] - [9]. In this the electrical treeing can start at rough structures of the inner conductor, locations of abraded outer varnish, metallic particles or other conducting contaminants, gas-filled voids or delaminations in the insulation. Although much work has been done in the field of electrical treeing (a comprehensive collection is given in [5]), complete descriptions are only given for tree inception and partly for tree growth with only intermittent PD measurements [6] - [9]. A complete investigation of treeing and the thereby generated PD up to the final breakdown has so far not been given. In order to evaluate the tree growth in winding insulation the electrical treeing has been continuously recorded from tree inception to the final breakdown by taking optical analyses of the tree growth and simultaneous PD measurements. The experiments were carried out in samples with and without mica barriers. An analysis of electrical treeing, the size of the channels created and their PD will be given and the existing models of tree growth will be extended.

mica barrier

screen phase resolved PD measurement system evaluation and control unit

Figure 1: Test setup of treeing measurements

European Transactions on Electrical Power, ETEP, 15, pp. 1 - 14, (DOI: 10.1002/etep.60), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005

R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

relative tree length [%]

The test samples, 40 mm by 40 mm by 40 mm in size were fully moulded in epoxy resin (relative permittivity of 4.0) of type Araldite D (Vantico). For easy detection of the trees a fully transparent formulation was chosen. High voltage was applied to the needle. The plane surface of the sample opposite the needle tip was coated by conducting silver paint and grounded.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 time [min] Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample 22 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 26

3. Electrical tree propagation from inception to breakdown


A. Electrical tree growth without a barrier The tree growth was evaluated by subdividing the images into squares of 100 um length in the space between the needle tip and the plane. The length of the tree was then determined as the straight distance from the needle tip to the line of the furthest tree branch. Therefore 100 % of relative tree length means that the first branch reached the plane electrode. Due to the high electric field at the needle tip the inception of the first branch (minimum length of 100 um) occurred during the initial voltage rise to the final value. In all samples tested the tree inception time was less than 30 seconds. Once the first branch had been created, the electrical tree grew in small branches to the ground electrode (Figure 3). That growth follows basically the shape of a lying S (Figure 2). The mean time for the first branch to reach the opposite electrode was 14 min. Taking the distance between the needle and the plane this means a mean growth time of 2.8 min/mm. When the first branch reached the plane and bridged the electrodes the breakdown did not occur. It is therefore assumed that the small branches have such a low conductivity that the current flow is insufficient to cause the breakdown. The size and structure of the small branches were investigated with a visible light microscope. The small branches have an internal diameter of less than 10 um in the trunk and less than 1 um in the very thin tips (Figure 6). Although in the literature branches are considered as hollow [5], the present microscope analyses do not confirm this. The branches seemed to be filled up with decomposition products of the polymer caused by the tree growth itself. After the first branch has reached the opposite electrode, more branches will be created and more volume between the needle tip and the plane is taken up by the tree (Figures 4 and 5). Parallel small parts of the existing branches will be widened and their structure changes to small hollow pipes. Those pipe-shaped channels have a diameter of larger than 10 um, with typical values between 60 um and 150 um (Figure 7). The mean value of the total breakdown time of the measured 10 samples is 60 min. The time the tree needs to bridge the electrodes (14 min) is therefore only 24 % of the total breakdown time. This means for the insulation material that even if no breakdown occurs the tree may already have penetrated it (Figures 3, 4 and 5).

Figure 2: Tree growth until the first branch reached the ground

1 mm

Figure 3: Tree as the first branch reached the ground (10 min)

wided tree channels thin tree branches 1 mm

Figure 4: Tree with a few widened pipe-shaped channels that were branches in Figure 3 (26 min)

1 mm

Figure 5: Tree just before breakdown (39 min)

20 um
200 um

Figure 6: Branches of the first tree reaching the electrode

Figure 7: Widened pipe-shaped tree channels


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European Transactions on Electrical Power, ETEP, 15, pp. 1 - 14, (DOI: 10.1002/etep.60), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005

R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

B. Electrical tree growth with a mica barrier In composite winding insulation the tree usually grows around the mica barriers between the inner and outer conductor [10]. To simulate this, a mica plate was introduced centrally between the two electrodes. Due to applying the same voltage and needle tip geometry the tree inception takes place as described in section 3.A. Because the tree can not grow through the barrier, the branches propagate around it to the opposite ground electrode (Figure 8). The mean time for the first branch to reach the ground electrode was 150 min. Compared to the time found without a barrier (14 min), this means a prolongation by one order of magnitude. This is assumed to be due to the fact that the tree must take a longer way around the barrier and its branches spread on the surface of the barrier in order to find the most favourable way to the opposite electrode. Taking into account that the tree crossed the barrier mostly along the shortest path (10 mm), the distance the tree takes around the barrier from the needle to the ground is total 15 mm. This means a mean growth time of 10.0 min/mm (treeing without barrier 2.8 min/mm). The mean value of the total breakdown time of the measured 10 samples was 257 min. The time the tree needs to bridge the electrodes (150 min) is therefore only 58 % of the total breakdown time. That means, similar to the samples without a barrier, even if no breakdown occurs the tree may already have penetrated the material (Figure 8).
2 mm

Stage 3 is considered to be the stage where the small branches will be widened up to a pipe shaped structure. It starts when the first branch has reached the opposite electrode and it ends with the final breakdown. The channels are characterised by a size of > 10 um having typical values between 60 um and 150 um (Figure 8).
relative tree length
breakdown Stage 1
tree inception

Stage 2
tree growth in small branches (d< 10 um) to bridge the electrodes

Stage 3
widening of the s mall branc hes to pipe shaped channels (10 um <d< 150 um)

100 % similar to [5]

time

Figure 9: Propagation states of electrical treeing until breakdown

4. Partial discharges during propagation of the electrical tree


A. Partial discharges at the growth of small tree branches in stage 2 of the model The growth of the small tree branches (stage 2 of the model) is mainly determined by local solid breakdowns in the epoxy resin. The branches with diameters < 10 um cause only low discharges between 5 pC and 30 pC (mean value of apparent charge). Occasionally maxima up to 300 pC may emerge (Figure 10, where the mean values are indicated by the wide bars and the highest and lowest measured values are indicated by vertical lines).
300 mean value of apparent charge 250 partial discharge [pC] 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 sample-No. 6 7 8 9 10 mean value of maximum apparent charge

Figure 8: Tree growth with a barrier of mica

As well as in the samples without a barrier the small branches will be widened up to pipe shaped channels once they reached the opposite electrode. The size of the first branches as well as the size of the widened channels are about the same to that without a barrier (section 3.A), (Figure 6 and 7). C. 3-stage tree growth model The existing tree growth models give a detailed description for the inception and for the growth of the trees but only until the first branch reached the opposite electrode [5]. Considering the measured tree growth characteristics in epoxy resin (section 3.A and 3.B) this appears incomplete. On the basis of the results a new 3-stage tree growth model was derived (Figure 9). Stage 1 is considered to be the tree inception. This stage will not be explained further in detail because it is detectable only by very sensitive measurements that are not practicable within electrical machines. Stage 2 is considered to be the growth of the first small branches to the opposite electrode (Figure 2). It starts at tree inception and it ends when the first branch has reached the opposite electrode. The branches are characterised by a size < 10 um in the trunk and < 1 um in the tip (Figure 6).

Figure 10: PD at the growth of small tree branches

In discharge experiments with small microcracks it has been measured that the PD inception at voltages of 28 kV occurs in spherical cavities of minimum 50 um diameter [11]. Possible discharges in the small tree branches may therefore be retarded due to their narrowness. Supposing that those branches are filled with decomposition products of their creation, it is assumed that this causes the remaining low PD during phase 2 of the model although there are many small branches bridging the electrodes (Figures 3, 12 and 13).

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R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

B. Rise of partial discharges with change of tree channel type in stage 3 of the model The pipe-shaped tree channels in stage 3 of the model have a diameter of > 10 um with a medium measured length of > 0.5 mm. Those channels cause discharges between 50 pC and 220 pC (mean value of apparent charge). Occasionally maxima up to 2500 pC may emerge. The PD in the big channels have a very stochastical and oscillating character with higher amplitudes (Figure 11, where the mean values are indicated by the wide bars and the highest and lowest measured values are indicated by vertical lines, Figures 12 and 13). The change of the channel type leads to the measured rise of the PD amplitude and frequency almost like a step function. From the microscopic analyses it was seen that the wider pipe-shaped channels are hollow (Figure 7). The simultaneous data recording showed that the creation of those channels does not necessarily cause a high PD. Furthermore, the hollow structure of the channels provide the basis that higher PD can occur. Whether discharges occur in those channels depends on the local charge distribution, the local conductivity of the channels and the pressure and composition of the gas that fills the channels. When there are pipe-shaped channels partly open to the ground electrode and thus to the atmosphere more and higher PD has been observed. The channels will be widened up until the first continuously hollow channel bridges both electrodes. The breakdown then occurs as a gaseous breakdown within that channel. The characteristic behaviour of stage 3 of the model was observed quantitatively in all samples tested, not depending on having a long or a short breakdown time or having a barrier or no barrier between the electrodes. The PD are also dependent on the length of the created channels [5]. In narrow holes of short length small discharges in a high number will be produced, whereas in holes of larger diameter and long length, higher amplitude discharges but fewer in number occur. Due to the tree is always changing its structure (in stage 3 of the model) the different types appear simultaneously. Therefore it is important to record the apparent charge as well as the maximum apparent charge. Such behaviour will be illustrated by a short (epoxy without barrier in Figure 12) and a long (epoxy with mica barrier in Figure 13) treeingand therefore breakdown time.
3000 mean value of apparent charge 2500 mean value of maximum apparent charge
relative tree length [%]

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 time [min] 50 60 70 80

100

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Stage 3

relative tree length up to the breakdown apparent charge during tree growth

90 80 70 60 50 apparent charge [pC]

breakdown

40 30 20 10 0

100 90 relative tree length [%] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40

800 700 600 500 400 300 200

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50 60 70 80

100 0

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Figure 12: Treeing state and PD for a sample with short breakdown time (without barrier)
100 90 80 relative tree length apparent charge 100 90

relative tree length [%]

Stage 2

Stage 3

80

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

60 50

prolongation effect of the barrier

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100 90 relative tree length [%] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20

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breakdown

900 800 maximum apparent charge [pC]

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80

100

120

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Figure 13: Treeing state and PD for a sample with long breakdown time (with barrier)

sample-No.

Figure 11: PD at the growth of widened tree channels

The step-like change of the PD between stage 2 and stage 3 of the model mentioned above leads to a sharp bend in the curve representing the cumulated charge (Figure 14 with the two samples with and without a barrier). The sharp bend might be used to detect the degradation state of the material when the tree changes its structure from stage 2 to stage 3.
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European Transactions on Electrical Power, ETEP, 15, pp. 1 - 14, (DOI: 10.1002/etep.60), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005

apparent charge [pC]

70

70

maximum apparent charge [pC]

Stage 2

Stage 3

relative tree length up to the breakdown maximum apparent charge during tree growth

1000 900

R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

100 90 80 relative tree length [%] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 time [min]
S. 2 S. 3

5500 5000
cumulated apparent charge [pC]

Stage 2

Stage 3

4500 4000 3500

breakdown sharp bend

3000 2500 2000

breakdown

relative tree length cumulative sum of apparent charge 160 180 200

1500 1000 500 0 220

Figure 14: Cumulated charge showing the characteristically sharp bend at samples without and with barrier

From the tree growth model it can be seen that the detection of the treeing state in the material is most likely within stage 3 starting when the channel type changes from stage 2 to stage 3. Therefore the PD-pattern created in stage 3 has been analyzed. The pattern measured during tree growth in stage 3 of the model can be characterized by an almost triangular shape with a highest slope tending to be near voltage zeroes (Figures 15 and 16).

Figure 15: PD-pattern during treeing for a sample with short breakdown time (without barrier)

machine insulation and cause defects with partial discharge activity. On-line partial discharge measurements provide important information about the progress of insulation degradation under operational conditions or identify defects that are excited by operational stresses e.g. vibration, temperature and load dependent problems in motors and generators. Therefore, this gives the user greater in-sight into the condition of the apparatus, which is not usually accessible with normal off-line testing methods. Often insulation failure and detectable ageing are caused by non-electric processes, as overheating magnetic cores, defects in the mechanical support structure or pollution. Insulation problems are most often not the origin but the result of these problems. Therefore, partial discharge activity is generally an indicator for such macroscopic injury of the insulation. The appearance and characteristics of partial discharge patterns relate to specific defects within the test objects. This will be shown by comparing the patterns of the PD as follows. Main insulation discharge activities are characterised by triangular patterns with a highest slope near voltage zeroes (Figure 17). Physically they are mostly as a result of discharge activity within layers of partially delaminated insulation where the electrical treeing takes place. End-winding discharge activity are characterised by semi-round patterns with the highest slope near the voltage maximum (Figure 18). Physically they are mostly caused by a deficiency of field grading materials where their pollution results in PD in the end-winding region. The sparking and burn-off of the semiconductive layers are characterised by a pattern, which is more of an oval shape with a highest slope near voltage rise (Figure 19). Physically they are mostly caused by the defects in endwinding layers that cause the external portions of the semiconductive coating to be burnt off. This can lead to serious discharge activity between the insulation surface and the core that lead to a destruction of the outer coatings (Figure 20).
amplitude phase

Figure 16: PD-pattern during treeing for a sample with long breakdown time (without barrier)

Partial discharge on- and off-line testing is part of quality assurance and preventative maintenance programs. It helps to determine the actual condition of rotating machine insulation and its components. Testing allows to prevent losses due to unforeseen and undetected faults. The insulation of rotating machines is subjected to combined stresses, thermal, electrical, ambient and mechanical (team) that all affect the integrity of the

amplitude phase

5. Partial discharges in rotating machine insulations

Figure 17: PD-pattern of main insulation discharges

Figure 18: PD-pattern of endwinding discharges

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R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

phase

7. Although the PD measurements of epoxy samples show a correlation between PD and the degradation state of the material, a detectable residual life criterion must be further developed because different mechanisms leading to PD in machine insulation must be considered.

amplitude

Acknowledgements
Figure 19: PD-pattern of sparking and burn-off discharges

This work has been sponsored by Von Roll Isola AG (Switzerland), PD Tech Power Engineering AG (Switzerland) and KTI (Swiss Commission for Technology and Innovation). The authors are most grateful for their support. The authors also wish to express their gratitude to T. H. Teich and H.-P. Burgener for their fertile and encouraging discussions.

Figure 20: Burned-off of the semiconductive coating

References
[1] Fruth, B.; Haslimeier, R.; Goffaux, R.: Monitoring of Generator and Motor Insulation Systems, Proc. of the 1st Int. Conference on Insulation Condition Monitoring of Electrical Plant, Sep. 24-26 2000, Wuhan University, China [2] Leung, Y.C.; Mac Alpine, J.M.K.: Condition Monitoring of High-Voltage Motors, Proc. of the 1st Int. Conference on Insulation Condition Monitoring of Electrical Plant, Sep. 2426 2000, Wuhan University, China, pp.117-122 [3] Kouadria, D.; Watt, G.: Partial discharge patterns and the identification of defects in high voltage stator windings insulation, Dialectric Materials, Measurements and Applications Conf. Publ. No. 473, IEE 2000, pp. 236240 [4] Naghashan, M. R.: Untersuchungen zur Teilentladungsaktivitt von Maschinentypischen Hochspannungsisolierungen, Doctoral Thesis, University of Dortmund, Germany, Shaker Verlag Aachen, 1996 [5] Dissado, L.A.; Fothergill, G.C.: Electrical degradation and breakdown in polymers, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK, 1992, ISBN: 0 86341 196 7 [6] Champion, J.V.; Dodd, D.J.: Systematic and reproducible partial discharge patterns during electrical tree growth in an epoxy resin, Journal of Appl. Phys., 29, 1996, pp. 862868 [7] Suwarno, Suzuoki, Y., Komori, F., Mizutani, T.: Partial discharges due to electrical treeing in polymers: phaseresolved and time-sequence observation and analysis, Journal of Appl. Phys., 29, 1996, pp. 29222931 [8] Kaneiwa, H., Suzuoki, Y., Mizutani, T.: Partial discharge characteristics and tree inception in artificial simulated tree channels, IEEE Trans. on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 7, No. 6, December 2000, pp. 843848 [9] Dissado, L.A., Dodd, S.J., Champion, J.V., Williams, P.I., Alison, J.M.: Propagation of electrical tree structures in solid polymeric insulation, IEEE Trans. on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 1997, pp. 25979 [10]Mitsui, H., Yoshida, K., Inoue, Y., Kenjo, S.: Thermal Cyclic Degrdation of Coil Insulation for Rotating Machines, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS102, No. 1, January 1983, pgs. 6773 [11]Burgener, H.-P., Teich, T.-H., Frhlich, K.: Discharges in small microcracks parallel to the electrical field in polymeric material, to be published at the International Conference on Gas Discharges and their Applications, Liverpool, Sep. 2002

6. Conclusions
1. The process of electrical treeing measured in samples of epoxy resin can be classified in terms of three typical stages, each stage representing a change in the tree structure causing a change in partial discharge activity. The measured characteristics provide a basis for further investigations on winding insulations. 2. Stage 1 represents the tree inception. The resulting PD are of some pC and detectable only by very sensitive measurements, which are not considered to be practicable within electrical machines. 3. Stage 2 represents the electrical tree growth in small branches from inception until they reach the opposite electrode. These branches have diameters of some um and must not be considered to be continuously conductive because they may penetrate the insulation without causing breakdown. Due to the narrowness of the branches, discharges of only some tenths of a pC occur that makes their detection in electrical machines difficult. 4. Stage 3 represents the widening of the small branches into pipe-shaped channels that have diameters of some tenths to hundreds of a um. These hollow channels must be considered to be dangerous to the insulation because they can lead to final breakdown. The step-like rise of PD up to some nC during stage 3 can be used to detect this change of tree structure in the insulation. 5. Introducing a mica-barrier between the electrodes prolongs the total breakdown time of the samples. 6. Partial discharge measurements on machines allow identification of defects that may lead to breakdown. These defects can be classified by its PD-patterns. The patterns measured during discharge activity in the main insulation are of the same type as those measured during the electrical tree growth in the samples of epoxy resin.

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R. Vogelsang, B. Fruth, T. Farr, K. Frhlich: Detection of electrical tree propagation by partial discharge measurements

Ruben Vogelsang was born in 1972 in Annaberg-Buchholz, Germany. He studied Electrical Engineering (Dipl.-Ing. 1999) at the Dresden University of Technology (TUD), Germany and the University of Sheffield, U.K.. From 1999 2000, he worked at the TUD on the development of polymeric cables for hvdc transmission. Ruben Vogelsang is finishing his PhD in Science (exam 08/04) in 2004 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zrich, Switzerland on the topic Time to breakdown of high voltage winding insulations with respect to microscopic properties and manufacturing qualities. From 02 04, he made an MBA at the ETH Zrich. Till 12/04, Ruben Vogelsang is at the High Voltage Laboratory of the ETH Zrich and can be reached at vogelsang@eeh.ee.ethz.ch. Dr. Bernhard Fruth studied Electrical Engineering (Dipl.-Ing. 1981) and made his PhD in High Voltage Technologies (Dr.-Ing. 1986) at the University of Technology, Aachen, Germany. From 1987 1992, he was Manager of the High Voltage Systems Group at ABB Corporate Research, Baden, Switzerland. Since 1992, Dr. Fruth has entrepreneurial activities in the field of rotating machine diagnostics/partial discharge testing and monitoring systems and is managing director and CTO of PD Tech Power Engineering AG, Switzerland. He can be reached at www.pdtech.ch and fruth@pdtech.ch. Dr. Thomas Farr studied Physics at the University of Bielefeld, Germany. From 1997 2002, he worked at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zrich, Switzerland and finished his Ph.D. in 2002. Dr. T. Farr is now working for Bosch, Germany. Prof. Dr. K. Frhlich was born in 1945 in Salzburg, Austria. He received a Master of Electrical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Technical Science from the Vienna University of Technology, Austria. After 11 years in Switchgear and High Voltage Technology with BBC (later ABB) in Switzerland, he became a full professor at the Vienna University of Technology in 1990. Since 1997 he has been a full professor of High Voltage Technology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland. Klaus Frhlich is a fellow of IEEE, a member of CIGRE Study Committee 13 and was the convenor of CIGRE Working Group 13.07 (Controlled Switching) and is now chairman of A3. He can be reached at froehlich@eeh.ee.ethz.ch.
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