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1. COMPONENTS OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

1.1 Introduction

The intention of this chapter is to lay the groundwork for the study of electric power systems. This is done by developing some basic tools involving concepts, definitions, and some procedures fundamental to electric power systems. The chapter can be considered as a simple review of topics that will be utilized throughout this work. We start by introducing the principal electrical quantities that we will deal with in subsequent chapters.

1.2 Power Concepts

1.2.1 Single-Phase Systems

The electric power systems specialist is in many instances more concerned with electric power in the circuit rather than the currents. To study steady-state behavior of circuits, some further definitions are necessary. Consider a sinusoidal voltage, v(t) in given by

v(t)

=

V

m

(

cos

i(t)= I

m cos

(

t)

(1.1)

t

)

(1.2)

Note that in this case, the current lags the voltage by an angle . defined as

The instantaneous power is

p t

p t

( )

( )=

=

( )

v t

( )

i t

V

m

cos

(

t

)

I

m

cos

(

t

)

(1.3)

P V I V I cos t
P
V
I
V I cos
t

Figure 1.1. Current, Voltage, and Power Plotted Versus Time.

The angle in these equations is positive for current lagging the voltage and negative for current leading the voltage. Using the trigonometric identity

1

cos

cos

=

1

2

[cos(

)+ cos(

+

)]

,

the instantaneous power can be written as:

V

m

I

2

(1.4)

This can be obtained by

Since

the average of cos(2 t ) is zero, through one complete cycle, the average power, P,

becomes

averaging the instantaneous power over a specified time-period, typically for one cycle.

A more useful quantity is the average power that is being delivered.

( )=

p t

m

[

cos

+

(

cos 2

t

)]

=

V

m

I

m

cos

2

V m

=

(1.5)

It is more convenient to use the effective (rms) values of voltage and current than the maximum

values. Substituting

P

voltage and current than the maximum values. Substituting P 2 V rms and I m =

2 V

rms

and

I m

=

than the maximum values. Substituting P 2 V rms and I m = 2 I ,

2 I

, we get

rms

(1.6)

where, cos( ) is called the power factor (PF).

Lagging power factor means the current lags the voltage by an angle , see Figure 1.2. Leading power factor means the current leads the voltage by an angle , see Figure 1.3.

P = V

rms

I

rms

cos

I cos V I sin I
I cos
V
I sin
I

Figure 1.2. Phasor Diagram for Lagging Power Factor.

I I sin V I cos Figure 1.3. Phasor Diagram for Leading Power Factor.
I
I sin
V
I cos
Figure 1.3. Phasor Diagram for
Leading Power Factor.

COMPLEX POWER

If the phasor expressions for voltage and current are known, the calculation of real and reactive power is accomplished conveniently in complex form. For a certain load or part of a circuit, the rms values of the voltage drop and the current flow are expressed as:

V

=

V

0

and

I

=

I

It is common convention in the electric power industry to set the voltage angle as the angular

reference. The complex power or the apparent power S is defined as the product of voltage times the conjugate of current, or

* S = V ◊ I = V ◊ I S = V ◊ I
*
S
=
V
I
=
V
◊ I
S =
V
◊ I
cos
+ j
V
◊ I
sin

(1.7)

where is the phase angle between the voltage and current. Equation (1.7) can be written as:

where

S

= P + j Q

(VA)

2

(1.8)

P =

V ◊ I V ◊ I
V
I
V
I

cos

(

)

(

W

)

Q =

sin

(

)

(VAr)

The power factor is therefore:

cos

=

cos arctan

( VAr ) The power factor is therefore: cos = cos arctan = P P =

=

P

P

= 2 2 S P + Q
=
2
2
S
P
+
Q

(1.9)

(1.10)

POWER TRIANGLE

Equation 1.8 suggests a graphical method of obtaining the overall P, Q, and phase angle, , for several loads in parallel. A power triangle can be drawn for an inductive load as shown in Figure 1.4. The signs of P and Q are important in knowing the direction of the power flow, that is, whether power is being generated or absorbed when a voltage and current are specified.

S = V I * Q = V I sin P = V I cos
S = V I *
Q = V I sin
P = V I cos
Figure 1.4. Power Triangle for an Inductive Load.

EXAMPLE 1.1

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.5 with the following parameters: R = 0.5 L
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.5 with the following parameters:
R = 0.5
L = 2.122 mH
C = 1600 F
V = 100 0∞V
+
I S
+
R
V
I 2
I 1
C
-
L
-

Figure 1.5. Circuit of Example 1.1.

Find the following: (a) the source current, (b) the active, reactive, and apparent power into the circuit, (c) the power factor of the circuit.

a) source current

I

I

I

1

2

S

=

=

=

V

=

100

0

)(

)(

V

R

V

I

1

+

(

+

j

j

I

2

L

C

)

=

0.5

j

(

+

j

(

)(

377 r / s 2.122

r

/ s

1.6

10

100 V 377

10

3

3

F

)

=

106.0

58.0 A

+

60.3

90

A

=

H

)

=

60.3

106.0

=

63.5

90

A

27.8 A

3

58.0 A

b) power flows

 

S

S

=

=

V

5617

I

*

=

+

(

j

100

2962

0

)(

V 63.5

VA

27.8

A

)

=

6350

27.8

VA

P

= 5617 W

 

Q

= 2962 Var

 

c) power factor

 
 

=

27.8

 

PF =

cos(

)

=

cos(27.8 )

∞ =

0.88

lagging

1.2.2 Three-Phase Systems

The major assumption of all the electric power presently used is generated, transmitted, and distributed using balanced three-phase voltage systems. Three-phase operation is preferable to single-phase because a three-phase system is more efficient than a single-phase system, and the flow of power is constant.

A balanced three-phase voltage system is composed of three-single phase voltage sources having the same magnitude and frequency but time-displaced from one another by 120of a cycle as shown in the phasor diagrams of Figure 1.6.

V C

a cycle as shown in the phasor diagrams of Figure 1.6. V C 120 ∞ V

120

V B
V
B

120

V A
V A

120

I

C

120 ∞ I A 120 ∞

120

I A
I
A
120 ∞ I A 120 ∞

120

120

I

B

Figure 1.6. Phasor Diagrams of a Balanced Three-Phase System.

There are two possible connections of loads and sources in three-phase systems: wye- connection and delta-connection. Figure 1.7 shows the two types of connections for three- identical impedances.

Because of the connections, new voltages and current quantities can be defined. Starting with the voltage, the line voltage or line-to-line voltage is that quantity between two supply lines or load terminals. For voltage variables, line-to-line quantities have subscripts with two phases (i.e., ab, bc, or ca). The line-to-neutral or line-to-ground voltage is that quantity between a supply line and the neutral or ground node of the circuit. The voltage variables for these have subscripts of only one phase or one phase and n for neutral or g for ground. For currents, a similar convention is used. A current flowing through an impedance or source between two lines is given a double subscript notation denoting the two phases. A current flowing though an impedance or source between a line and the neutral point may be either a single subscript or one followed by an n. A line current flowing from a source to a load may be a single or a double

4

subscript notation denoting the particular phase or the symbols representing the nodes at each end of the line (i.e., a or Aa).

a I a Z V an V ca n Z Z c I c
a
I a
Z
V an
V ca
n
Z
Z
c
I c

I b

b

a

I a Z Z V ca I I ca ab I bc c Z I
I
a
Z
Z
V
ca
I
I
ca
ab
I
bc
c
Z
I
c

I b

b

Figure 1.7. (a) Wye-Connected Load (b) Delta-Connected Load

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATIONS IN THE WYE CONNECTION

The voltage appearing between any two of the line terminals a, b, and c have different relationships in magnitude and phase to the voltages appearing between any one terminal and the neutral point n. The set of voltages V ab , V bc , and V ca are called the line voltages, and the set of voltages V an , V bn , and V cn are referred to as the phase voltages. Analysis of a phasor diagram provides the required relationships.

V ca = ÷3 V p

V cn = V p 120∞ V ab = ÷3 V p 150∞ 30∞ V
V cn = V p
120∞
V ab = ÷3 V p
150∞
30∞
V an = V p
V bn = V p
-120∞
V bc = ÷3 V p
-90∞

30

0

Figure 1.8. Phasor Diagram of the Phase and Line Voltages of a Wye-Connection.

The effective values of the phase voltage are shown in Figure 1.8 as V an , V bn , and V cn . Each has the same magnitude, and each is displaced 120from the other two phasors. The relation between the line voltage and the phase voltage at the terminal a and b can be written as:

5

V

ab

=

=

V

an

V

 

0

V

=

p

3
3

V

Similarly,

V

bc

V

ca

=

=

3
3
3
3

p

V

p

V

p

bn

V

p

120

30

90

150

 

(1.11)

Thus the relation between line-to-line voltage, V L and phase voltage V p for a balanced wye- connected, three-phase voltage system is

V

L

=

balanced wye- connected, three-phase voltage system is V L = 3 ◊ V p + 30

3

V

p

+ 30

(1.12)

The current flowing out of a line terminal is the same current that is flowing through the phase terminal. Thus the relation between the line current I L and phase current I p for a wye- connected, three-phase system is

(1.13)

I

L

= I

p

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATIONS IN THE DELTA CONNECTION

Consider now the case when three single-phase sources are rearranged to form a three- phase delta connection as shown in Figure 1.9. It is clear from the circuit shown that the line and phase voltages are the same. Thus:

(1.14)

V

L

= V

p

c

a

I a I ab V ab I I ca bc b I b I c
I
a
I
ab
V
ab
I
I
ca
bc
b
I
b
I
c

Figure 1.9. Delta-Connected, Three-Phase Source.

The phase and line currents, however, are not identical and the relationships between them can be obtained as:

6

I

I

I

ab

bc

ca

I

=

=

=

p

I

I

p

p

0

120

120

Also, from Figure 1.9, the relation between the line and phase currents can be obtained as:

I

a

=

I

ca

I

ab

 

=

I

p

120

I

p

 

=

3
3

I

150

 

Similarly,

p

 

I

=

3
3

I

30

I

b

c

=

3
3

I

p

p

90

 

0

The phasor diagram in Figure 1.10 illustrates these relations. Thus the relation between line and phase currents for a balanced delta-connected system is:

I

L

=

currents for a balanced delta-connected system is: I L = 3 ◊ I p + 30

3

I

p

+ 30

(1.15)

Note that in the equations above, V L , V p , I L , and I p are the rms or effective values of voltages and currents.

I ca = I p 120∞ I b = ÷3 I p 30∞ I a
I ca = I p
120∞
I b = ÷3 I p
30∞
I a = ÷3 I p
150∞
I ba = - I ab
I ab = I p
0∞
I bc = I p
-120∞
I c = ÷3 I p
-90∞

Figure 1.10. Relation between Phase and Line Currents in a Delta Connection.

POWER RELATIONSHIPS

Assume that a balanced three-phase voltage source is supplying a balanced load. three sinusoidal phase voltages can be written as:

V a ( t ) = ◊ 2 V p V ( t ) =
V a (
t
)
= ◊
2
V
p
V
(
t
)
= ◊
2
V
b
p
V
(
t
)
= ◊
2
V
c
p

sin

(

 

t

)

sin

(

t

120

)

 

sin

(

 

t

+

120

)

with the currents given by

7

The

I ( t ) = ◊ 2 I a I ( t ) = ◊
I (
t
)
= ◊
2
I
a
I (
t
)
= ◊
2
I
b
I t
(
)
= ◊
2
I
c

p

p

p

sin

(

t

)

sin

(

t

120

)

sin

(

t

+

120

)

where is the phase angle between the current and voltage in each phase or the power factor angle.

The three-phase power can be defined as:

P

3

=

V

a

I

a

cos

+

V

b

I

b

cos

+

V

c

I

c

cos

Using a trigonometric identity, we get the following:

P

3

=

V

p

I

p

{

3cos

[

cos 2

(

t

)

(

+ cos 2

t

240

)

(

+ cos 2

t

+ 240

)]}

The summation of the last three terms, in the above equation, is zero. Thus the three-phase power can be obtained as:

(1.16)

, and in delta-connected systems,

Thus, the power equation, Equation 1.16, reads in terms of line

In

P

3

=

3

V I

p

p

cos

(

)

I

p

= I

L

wye-connected

systems,

V

p

= V

L

.

V I

L

L

cos

(

and

V

p

= V

L

3
3
I = I and p L quantities: P = 3 3
I
= I
and
p
L
quantities:
P
=
3
3

)

(1.17)

Note that Equations 1.16 and 1.17 apply for both wye- and delta-connected systems.

COMPLEX POWER

The above analysis can be extended to include the reactive power, Q, or to get the apparent power, S, for a three-phase system.

* S = 3 ◊ V ◊ I 3 p p = 3 ◊ V
*
S
=
3 ◊
V
I
3
p
p
=
3
V
I
L
L
If
V
=
V
0
and
I
=
p
p
p
S
=
3
V
I
3
p
p
or in complex notation:
S
= 3
V
I
(
cos
3
p
p
=
P
+
jQ
3
3
where
P
= 3
V
I
cos
3
p
p
Q
= 3
V
I
sin
3
p
p

I

p

+

=

=

, then

j sin

)

3 where P = 3 V I cos 3 p p Q = 3 V I

3 where P = 3 V I cos 3 p p Q = 3 V I

cos

sin

8

(1.18)

(1.19)

(1.20)

EXAMPLE 1.2

A wye-connected, balanced three-phase load consisting of three impedances of 10 30each as shown in Figure 1.11, is supplied with a balanced set of line-to-neutral voltages:

V

an

V

bn

V

cn

=

=

=

220

220

220

V

V

V

240

0

120

a) Calculate the phasor currents in each line, b) calculate the line-to-line phasor voltages and show the corresponding phasor diagram, and c) calcualte the apparent power, active power, and reactive power supplied to the load.

a I a Z = 10 30∞ V an = 220V 0∞ n Z Z
a
I
a
Z = 10
30∞
V an = 220V
0∞
n
Z
Z
c
I
c
b

I b

Figure 1.11 Load Connection for Example 1.2.

a) The phase currents of the loads are obtained as:

I

I

I

an

bn

cn

=

=

=

220

V

0

=

22

A

10

220

V

30

240

A

=

22

10

220

V

30

120

22

=

A

10

30

30

210

90

b) The line voltages are obtained as

V

ab

or

V b V 0 ∞ ◊ 3 V
V
b
V
0
3
V

=

V

a

= 220

=

220

220

V

30

240

9

= 3 ◊ V ( + 30 ∞ ) V ab an an = 220
=
3
◊ V
(
+
30 ∞
)
V ab
an
an
=
220
3
V
0
∞+
30
=
220
3
V
30
Similarly,
=
3
◊ V
(
+
30
)
V bc
bn
bn
=
220
3
V
240
∞+
30
=
220
3
V
90
V
=
3
◊ V
(
+
30 ∞
)
ca
cn
cn
=
220
3
V
120
∞+
30
=
220
3
V
150
= 220 ÷3 V
30∞
V ca
V cn
V ab
30∞
V an = 220V
0∞
V bn

V bc

Figure 1.13. Relation between Phase and Line Voltages in a Wye-Connection.

c) The powers are given by:

S

3

P

3

Q

3

=

=

=

3

V

p

I

p

=

3

V

an

I

an

(

3 220

V

0

)(

12574.69

+ j

A

22

7260.0

30

)

∞ =

14520.0

VA

= 12574.69

 

W

= 7260.0

 

VAr

 

10

30

EXAMPLE 1.3

10

A

30

delta-connected,

balanced

three-phase

load

consisting

of

three

impedances

of

each as shown in Figure 1.13, is supplied with a balanced set of line-to-line voltages:

V

ab

V

bc

V

ca

= ◊ 3 220 = ◊ 3 220 = ◊ 3 220
= ◊
3
220
= ◊
3
220
= ◊
3
220

30

V

90

V

150

V

a) Calculate the phasor voltage across each phase load, b) calculate the phase and line currents and show the corresponding phasor diagram, and c) calculate the apparent power, active power, and reactive power supplied to the load.

a I a Z Z V ca V ab I I ca ab I bc
a
I a
Z
Z
V ca
V ab
I
I ca
ab
I bc
I c
c
b
Z
V ca
I
b

Figure 1.13 Load connection for example 1.3.

a) For a delta connected load,

V

phs

V

ab

V

bc

V

ca

= V LL = ◊ 3 220 = ◊ 3 220 = ◊ 3 220
= V
LL
= ◊
3
220
= ◊
3
220
= ◊
3
220

30

V

90

V

150

V

b) The phase currents in each of the impedances are:

=

3 ◊ 220 30 ∞ V = 3
3
220
30
V
=
3

I

ab

10

30

3
3

I 22

bc

=

I

ca

=

3
3

22

240

120

A

A

22

0

A

The line currents can be obtained as:

I

a

=

=

I I ab ca 3 ◊22
I
I
ab
ca
3 ◊22

0

22 0 A ∞ The line currents can be obtained as: I a = = I

3 22 120∞= 66

11

30A

or

I = 3 ◊ I L p I ◊ = 3 I a ab Similarly,
I
=
3
I
L
p
I ◊
=
3
I
a
ab
Similarly,
I ◊
=
3
I
b
bc
I ◊
=
3
I
c
ca

30

30

∞=

(
(

3 22

3
3

A

)

0

30

∞=

66

A

30

∞=

66

A

210

 

30

∞=

66

A

90

30

I c I ca I ab = ÷3 22 0∞A -30∞ I a = 66
I c
I ca
I ab = ÷3 22
0∞A
-30∞
I a = 66 -30∞A
I b
I bc
Figure 1.14 Relation between Phase and Line Currents in a Delta Connection.
c) The apparent, active, and reactive powers are computed.
S
=
3
V
I
=
3
V
I
3
p
p
ab
ab
(
)(
)
=
3
3
220
30
3
22
0
∞ =
43560
30
VA
=
37724.04 + j
21780.0 VA
P
= 37724.04 W
3
Q
= 21780.0 VAR
3

1.3 Power System Representation

A major portion of the modern power system utilizes three-phase as circuits and devices. A balanced three-phase system is solved as a single-phase circuit made of one line and the neutral return. Standard symbols are used to indicate the various components. The simplified one-line diagram is called the single-line diagram. From the one-line diagram the impedance, or reactance, diagram can be conveniently developed, as shown in the following section. A further advantage of the one-line diagram is in the power flow studies. The one-line diagram rather becomes second nature to power system engineers as they attempt to visualize a widespread complex network.

12

generator or motor

transformer

generator or motor transformer
generator or motor transformer
generator or motor transformer

transmission line

oil circuit breaker

     
     

air circuit breaker

air circuit breaker

static load

static load  
 

delta connection

ungrounded wye connection

ungrounded wye connection

grounded wye connection

grounded wye connection

Figure 1.15. Symbolic Representation of Elements of a Power System.

Using the symbols in Figure 1.15, a section of a one-line diagram of a power system is shown in Figure 1.16.

G M 1 G 2
G
M
1
G
2

Figure 1.16. A One-Line Diagram of a Portion of a Power System.

1.3.1 Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram

We note from Figure 1.16 that the power system components are: generators, transformers, transmission lines, and loads. Equivalent circuits of these components may then be interconnected to obtain a circuit representation for the entire system. In other words, the one- line diagram may be replaced by an impedance diagram or a reactance diagram (if resistances are neglected).

Thus, corresponding to Figure 1.16, the impedance and reactance diagrams are shown in Figures 1.17(a) and 1.17(b), respectively, on a per phase basis. In the equivalent circuit of the components in Figure 1.17(a) is based on the following assumptions:

1. A generator can be represented by a voltage source in series with an inductive

reactance.

The internal resistance of the generator is negligible compared to the

reactance.

2. The motor load is inductive.

3. The static load has a lagging power factor.

4. A transformer is represented by a series impedance on a per phase basis.

13

5. The transmission line is of medium length and can be represented by a T section.

The reactance diagram, shown in Figure 1.17(b), is drawn by neglecting all the resistances, static loads, and capacitances of the transmission line. Reactance diagrams are generally used for short-circuit calculation, whereas the impedance diagram is used for power- flow studies.

Generators Transformer Transmission Line Transformer Motor &
Generators
Transformer
Transmission Line
Transformer
Motor &

Static Load

(a) Impedance Diagram

Generators Transformer Transmission Line Transformer Motor &
Generators
Transformer
Transmission Line
Transformer
Motor &

Static Load

(b) Corresponding Reactance Diagram

Figure 1.17. Electrical Diagrams of the System Illustrated in Figure 1.16.

1.4 Per-Unit Representation

The per-unit (pu) system is used extensively in power system calculations. The representation simplifies the vast scaling of sizes from super-large generation and transmission networks to the industrial distribution system or a residential load. The definition of the per-unit value of any quantity is given as:

pu value =

actual value

base value of the same dimension

(1.21)

In any electrical network, a minimum of four base quantities is required to define completely a per-unit system: voltage, current, power, and impedance (or admittance).

per unit power =

actual power

base power

14

(1.22)

actual voltage

base voltage

actual current

per unit voltage =

per unit current =

base current actual impedance

base impedance

per unit impedance =

(1.23)

(1.24)

(1.25)

If any two of these quantities are chosen arbitrarily, the other two become fixed. For example, selecting base values for voltage and power fixes the base values for current and impedance. Therefore, on a per phase basis the following relationships hold:

base current =

base power

base voltage

base impedance =

base voltage

base current

(1.26)

(1.27)

EXAMPLE 1.4

Calculate the base impedance and base current for a single-phase system if the base voltage is 7.2 kV and the base apparent power is 10 MVA.

Z

Z

Base

Base

I Base

I Base

=

=

=

(

V

Base

)

2

(

7200 V

)

2

=

S Base

10,000,000 VA

5.184

S Base

10,000,000 VA

=

V Base

7200 V

= 1388.9 A

For three-phase systems, we use the total or three-phase power and the line-to-line voltage as the base. For currents and impedance values, it is common practice to convert the system to a wye-connected network, and use the phase current and phase impedance as the bases. Hence, the base impedance and the base current can be computed directly from the three-phase values of the base apparent power and the line-to-line base voltage. Delta-connections for the moment are converted to wye-connected equivalents.

Recall for wye-connections, = 3 ◊V , and from Equations 1.18 and 1.27 we find:
Recall for wye-connections,
=
3 ◊V
, and from Equations 1.18 and 1.27 we find:
V LL
p
3
S 1
S 3
S 3
Base
Base
Base
base
current
, I
=
=
=
(1.26)
Base
V p
3
3 ◊ V
Base
V LL
Base
LL
Base
V p
3
Base
V LL
Base
Base
impedance
, Z
=
=
(1.27)
Base
I Base
I Base

15

and

Z

Base

=

( ) 2 ( ) 3 2 ( ) 2 V p Base V LL
(
)
2 (
)
3
2 (
)
2
V p
Base
V LL
Base
V LL
Base
=
=
S
S
3
S 3
1
Base
3
Base
Base

(1.28)

EXAMPLE 1.5

The

line-to-line voltage at the load terminals is 108 kV. Assuming the three-phase power base is 30,000 kVA and the voltage base is 120 kV, find the following per unit quantities for the load:

A three-phase system delivers 18,000 kW to a pure resistive wye-connected load.

a) the per unit voltage,

b) the per unit power,

c) the per unit current, and

d) the per unit impedance.

a) The line-to-line base voltage is:

V kV Base = 120 LL and the phase base voltage is: V LL Base
V
kV
Base = 120
LL
and the phase base voltage is:
V LL
Base
=
V p
Base
3
120
kV
= = 69.2 kV

The actual line-to-neutral voltage is:

V

p

V LL

=

3
3

108

kV

=

3
3

= 62.4 kV

The per unit voltage is:

V pu

=

=

V

p

=

V LL

V

p

Base

62.4

kV

V

LL

108

Base

kV

=

69.2

kV

120

kV

= 0.900 pu

b) The three-phase base power is:

S

3

=

30,000kVA

and the single-phase base power is:

16

S

1

=

1

3

S

3

30,000 kVA

=

3

= 10,000 kVA

The per unit power is:

P

pu

=

P

1

S

1

Base

=

P

3

S

3

Base

 

6000 W

18,000 W

=

=

 

10,000 VA

30,000 VA

= 0.600 pu

c) The per unit current is:

S pu I = pu V pu 0.600 + j 0.0 pu = = 0.667
S pu
I
=
pu
V pu
0.600
+
j
0.0
pu
=
= 0.667 pu
0.900 pu
The base current is:
S
3
Base
I
=
Base
3 ◊ V
30,000 kVA
LL
Base
=
= 144.3 A
3
◊ (
120 kV
)

To verify the results, first calculate the actual current, which is:

I

p

=

I

Base

I

pu

= (144.3

A

)(0.667

pu

) = 96.2

A

Calculate the load current from actual voltage and power:

ˆ

I

p

6,000 kVA

= = 96.2 A

62.4 kV

ˆ

I

p

= I

p

= 96.2

A

d) The per unit impedance is:

Z pu

=

V pu

I pu

=

0.900

pu

0.667

pu

=

The base impedance is:

1.350

+ j

0.0

pu

17

Z

Base

=

=

V

1

Base

(

V

3

Base

)

2

=

I

Base

S

3

Base

(

120

kV

)

2

=

30 MVA

480

To verify the results, first calculate the actual impedance, which is:

Z

p

=

=

Z

(480

Base

Z

)(1.350 pu)

pu

=

648

Calculate the load resistance from actual voltage and current:

ˆ

Z

ˆ

Z

62.4 kV

=

=

p 96.2 A

p

=

Z

p

=

648

648

1.4.2 Changing the Base of Per-Unit Quantities

Often the per-unit impedance of a component of a system is expressed on a base other than the one selected as base for the part of the system in which the component is located. Since all impedances in any one part of a system must be expressed on the same impedance base when making computations, it is necessary to have a means of converting per-unit impedances from one base to another. From Equations (1.25) and (1.27) the per unit impedance can be given as:

Z

pu

=

Z

p

Actual

Z

Base

=

(

Z

p

Actual

)(

S

3

Base

)

(

V

LL

Base

) 2

(1,29)

Equation (1.29) shows that per-unit impedance is directly proportional to base power and inversely proportional to the square of the base voltage. Therefore, to change from per-unit impedance on a given base to per-unit impedance on a new base, the following equation applies:

Z

new

pu

=

Z

old

pu

S

3

Base

new

S

3

Base

old

V

LL

Base

old

V

LL

Base

new

2

(1.30)

Equation (1.30) is important in changing the per-unit impedance given on a particular base to a new base. In some problems, when transformers are involved we must choose more than one voltage base for each primary and secondary side of the transformers and one power base for the entire system. The following examples will illustrate the procedure.

EXAMPLE 1.6

A three-phase 13.0 kV transmission line delivers 8 MVA at 13.6 kV to a resistive load. The per phase impedance of the line is (0.01 + j0.05) p.u. on a 13.0 kV, 8 MVA base. What is the voltage drop across the line in per unit and in volts?

a) Choose the base voltage to be 13 kV and the base power equal to 8 MVA.

The base current and the load current are:

18

I 8.0 MVA = = 355.3 A Base 3 ◊ 13.0 kV I 8.0 MW
I 8.0 MVA
=
= 355.3 A
Base
3
◊ 13.0 kV
I 8.0 MW
=
= 339.6
A
0
Load
3
◊ 13.6 kV
339.6
A
0
=
= 0.956
pu
I Load
pu
355.3 A
The voltage drop is calculate as:
V
=
I
Z
drop
line
line
= (0.956
0 )(0.01
+
j0.05)
=

0

0.00956

+

j0.0478

=

0.0487

78.7

b) The actual values for the line-to-line voltage drop and the phase voltage drop are:

V

drop

V

drop

LL

p

=

=

(0.0487

(0.0487

78.7 )(13.0 ∞ kV ) (13.0 kV ) 78.7 ) ∞ 3
78.7 )(13.0
kV
)
(13.0
kV
)
78.7 )
3

=

=

633

366

V

V

78.7

78.7

EXAMPLE 1.7

The per phase reactance of a three-phase, 220 kV, 6.25 kVA transmission line is 8.4 . Find the reactance value in per unit, based on the rated values of the line. Convert the per unit reactance value to a 230 kV, 7.5 kVA base.

a)

b)

Z Base

X pu

X

new

( ) 2 V LL Base = S 3 Base 220,000 V ) 2 =
(
)
2
V LL
Base
=
S
3
Base
220,000 V
)
2
= (
=
7.744
6,250,000 VA
X
=
Z Base
8.4
= =
1.085 pu
7.744
S
Base
new
V Base
old
=
X
pu
old
pu
S
V
Base
old
Base
new
7.5 kVA
220 kV
=
1.085 pu
6.25
kVA
230
kV

19

2

2

= 1.19 pu

EXAMPLE 1.8

Consider the system in Figure 1.18. Find the new per-unit values for each element of the system above based on a 2.0 MVA system base. Draw the impedance diagrams of the system.

1 MVA 10 + j20 11 kV j0.1 pu 2 MVA 2 MVA 3 MVA
1
MVA
10
+ j20
11
kV
j0.1 pu
2
MVA
2 MVA
3 MVA
12
kV
11/33 kV
33/11 kV
0.5
MVA
j0.05 pu
j0.15 pu
j0.1 pu
11
kV

j0.15 pu

Figure 1.18. Small Power System of Example 1.7.

The per-unit values for each element of the three-phase system shown above are as follows:

Machine 1

1.00 MVA, 11 kV, Z = j0.1 pu

Machine 2

0.50 MVA, 11 kV, Z = j0.15 pu

Machine 3

2.00 MVA, 12 kV, Z = j0.05 pu

Transmission Line

Z = 10 + j20

Transformer 1

2.00 MVA, 11 / 33 kV, Z = j0.15 pu

Transformer 2

3.00 MVA, 33 / 11 kV, Z = j0.10 pu

a) The power base for the entire system is 2.00 MVA. The base voltages are chosen for the following areas as:

Zone 1 V 11 kV 1 = B 11 Zone 2 V 2 = 33
Zone 1
V
11 kV
1 =
B
11
Zone 2
V
2 = 33
=
kV
B
11
33
33
Zone 3
V
3 = 11
=
kV
B
33
11
1
MVA
10
+ j20
11
kV
j0.1 pu
2
MVA
2 MVA
3 MVA
12
kV
11/33 kV
33/11 kV
0.5
MVA
j0.05 pu
j0.15 pu
j0.1 pu
11
kV
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
j0.15 pu
11 kV
33 kV
11 kV

20

Figure 1.19. Three Voltage Zones of Example 1.7.

The per-unit values for each element of the above system can be obtained by using Equation 1.30 as follow:

Machine 1:

Z

 

=

j 0.10

2.0

MW

11 kV

2

pu

new

1.0

MW

11 kV

 

2

Machine 2:

Z

 

=

j 0.15

2.0

MW

11 kV

pu

new

0.5

MW

11 kV

Transformer 1:

Z

pu

new

=

j

0.15

pu

Transmission Line:

Z Base

=

(

33

kV

)

2

2.0 MVA

Z pu

=

j 20

544.5

=

= 544.5

j

0.037

pu

Transformer 2:

Z

pu

new

Machine 3:

Z

pu

new

=

=

j 0.10

j 0.05

2.0

MW

33 kV

33

3.0

MW

kV

2.0

MW

12 kV

11 kV

2.0

MW

2

2

=

j

0.20

pu

=

j

0.60

pu

=

j

0.067

pu

=

j

0.06

pu

b) The reactance diagram is shown in Figure 1.20.

T1 L1 T2 j0.15 j0.037 j0.067 j0.2 j0.6 j0.6 G1 G2 G3
T1
L1
T2
j0.15
j0.037
j0.067
j0.2
j0.6
j0.6
G1
G2
G3

Figure 1.20. Reactance Diagram of Example 1.7.

21