1. COMPONENTS OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
1.1 Introduction
The intention of this chapter is to lay the groundwork for the study of electric power systems. This is done by developing some basic tools involving concepts, definitions, and some procedures fundamental to electric power systems. The chapter can be considered as a simple review of topics that will be utilized throughout this work. We start by introducing the principal electrical quantities that we will deal with in subsequent chapters.
1.2 Power Concepts
1.2.1 SinglePhase Systems
The electric power systems specialist is in many instances more concerned with electric power in the circuit rather than the currents. To study steadystate behavior of circuits, some further definitions are necessary. Consider a sinusoidal voltage, v(t) in given by
v(t)
=
V
m
(
cos
i(t)= I
_{m} cos
(
t) 
(1.1) 

t 
) 
(1.2) 
Note that in this case, the current lags the voltage by an angle . defined as
The instantaneous power is
p t
p t
( )
( )=
=
( )
v t
( )
◊
i t
V
m
cos
(
t
)◊
I
m
cos
(
t
)
(1.3)
Figure 1.1. Current, Voltage, and Power Plotted Versus Time.
The angle in these equations is positive for current lagging the voltage and negative for current leading the voltage. Using the trigonometric identity
1
cos
◊cos
=
1
2
[cos(
)+ cos(
+
)]
,
the instantaneous power can be written as:
V
m
I
2
(1.4)
This can be obtained by
Since
the average of cos(2 t ) is zero, through one complete cycle, the average power, P,
becomes
averaging the instantaneous power over a specified timeperiod, typically for one cycle.
A more useful quantity is the average power that is being delivered.
( )=
p t
m
[
cos
+
(
cos 2
t
)]
=
V
m
I
m
cos
2
V m
=
(1.5)
It is more convenient to use the effective (rms) values of voltage and current than the maximum
values. Substituting
P
2 V
rms
and
I m
=
2 I
, we get
rms
(1.6)
where, cos( ) is called the power factor (PF).
Lagging power factor means the current lags the voltage by an angle _{} , see Figure 1.2. Leading power factor means the current leads the voltage by an angle _{} , see Figure 1.3.
P = V
rms
I
rms
cos
Figure 1.2. Phasor Diagram for Lagging Power Factor.
COMPLEX POWER
If the phasor expressions for voltage and current are known, the calculation of real and reactive power is accomplished conveniently in complex form. For a certain load or part of a circuit, the rms values of the voltage drop and the current flow are expressed as:
V
=
V
0
∞
and
I
=
I
It is common convention in the electric power industry to set the voltage angle as the angular
reference. The complex power or the apparent power S is defined as the product of voltage times the conjugate of current, or
(1.7)
where is the phase angle between the voltage and current. Equation (1.7) can be written as:
where
S
= P + j Q
(VA)
2
(1.8)
P = 
V
◊
I
V
◊
I

cos 
( 
) 
( 
W 
) 

Q = 
sin 
( 
) 
(VAr) 
The power factor is therefore:
cos
=
cos arctan
=
P
P
(1.9)
(1.10)
POWER TRIANGLE
Equation 1.8 suggests a graphical method of obtaining the overall P, Q, and phase angle, , for several loads in parallel. A power triangle can be drawn for an inductive load as shown in Figure 1.4. The signs of P and Q are important in knowing the direction of the power flow, that is, whether power is being generated or absorbed when a voltage and current are specified.
EXAMPLE 1.1
Figure 1.5. Circuit of Example 1.1.
Find the following: (a) the source current, (b) the active, reactive, and apparent power into the circuit, (c) the power factor of the circuit.
a) source current
I
I
I
1
2
S
=
=
=
V
=
100
0
∞
)(
)(
V
R
V
I
1
+
(
◊
+
j
j
I
2
L
C
)
=
0.5
j
(
+
j
(
)(
377 r / s 2.122
r
/ s
1.6
10
100 V 377
10
3
3
F
)
=
106.0
58.0 A
+
60.3
90
A
∞
=
H
)
=
60.3
106.0
=
63.5
90
A
∞
27.8 A
∞
3
58.0 A
∞
b) power flows
S S 
= = 
V 5617 ◊ I * 
= + 
( j 
100 2962 
0 )( V 63.5 ∞ VA 
27.8 
A ∞ 
) 
= 
6350 
27.8 
VA ∞ 

P 
= 5617 W 

Q 
= 2962 Var 

c) power factor 

= 
27.8 ∞ 
PF =
cos(
)
=
cos(27.8 )
∞ =
0.88
lagging
1.2.2 ThreePhase Systems
The major assumption of all the electric power presently used is generated, transmitted, and distributed using balanced threephase voltage systems. Threephase operation is preferable to singlephase because a threephase system is more efficient than a singlephase system, and the flow of power is constant.
A balanced threephase voltage system is composed of threesingle phase voltage sources having the same magnitude and frequency but timedisplaced from one another by 120∞of a cycle as shown in the phasor diagrams of Figure 1.6.
V C
120∞
120∞
120∞
I 
C 
120∞
I
A
120∞ 
120∞ 

I B 
Figure 1.6. Phasor Diagrams of a Balanced ThreePhase System.
There are two possible connections of loads and sources in threephase systems: wye connection and deltaconnection. Figure 1.7 shows the two types of connections for three identical impedances.
Because of the connections, new voltages and current quantities can be defined. Starting with the voltage, the line voltage or linetoline voltage is that quantity between two supply lines or load terminals. For voltage variables, linetoline quantities have subscripts with two phases (i.e., ab, bc, or ca). The linetoneutral or linetoground voltage is that quantity between a supply line and the neutral or ground node of the circuit. The voltage variables for these have subscripts of only one phase or one phase and n for neutral or g for ground. For currents, a similar convention is used. A current flowing through an impedance or source between two lines is given a double subscript notation denoting the two phases. A current flowing though an impedance or source between a line and the neutral point may be either a single subscript or one followed by an n. A line current flowing from a source to a load may be a single or a double
4
subscript notation denoting the particular phase or the symbols representing the nodes at each end of the line (i.e., a or Aa).
I b
b
a
I b
b
Figure 1.7. (a) WyeConnected Load (b) DeltaConnected Load
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATIONS IN THE WYE CONNECTION
The voltage appearing between any two of the line terminals a, b, and c have different relationships in magnitude and phase to the voltages appearing between any one terminal and the neutral point n. The set of voltages V _{a}_{b} , V _{b}_{c} , and V _{c}_{a} are called the line voltages, and the set of voltages V _{a}_{n} , V _{b}_{n} , and V _{c}_{n} are referred to as the phase voltages. Analysis of a phasor diagram provides the required relationships.
V _{c}_{a} = ÷3 V _{p}
30∞
0∞
Figure 1.8. Phasor Diagram of the Phase and Line Voltages of a WyeConnection.
The effective values of the phase voltage are shown in Figure 1.8 as V _{a}_{n} , V _{b}_{n} , and V _{c}_{n} . Each has the same magnitude, and each is displaced 120∞from the other two phasors. The relation between the line voltage and the phase voltage at the terminal a and b can be written as:
5
V ab 
= = 
V an V 
0 V ∞ 

= 
p
3

◊ V 

Similarly, V bc V ca 
= = 
3
3

◊ ◊ 
p V p V p 
bn
V p 
120 
∞ 

30 
∞ 

90 
∞ 

150 ∞ 
(1.11)
Thus the relation between linetoline voltage, V _{L} and phase voltage V _{p} for a balanced wye connected, threephase voltage system is
V
L
=
3 ◊
V
p
+ 30∞
(1.12)
The current flowing out of a line terminal is the same current that is flowing through the phase terminal. Thus the relation between the line current I _{L} and phase current I _{p} for a wye connected, threephase system is
(1.13)
I
L
= I
p
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATIONS IN THE DELTA CONNECTION
Consider now the case when three singlephase sources are rearranged to form a three phase delta connection as shown in Figure 1.9. It is clear from the circuit shown that the line and phase voltages are the same. Thus:
(1.14)
V
L
= V
p
c
a
Figure 1.9. DeltaConnected, ThreePhase Source.
The phase and line currents, however, are not identical and the relationships between them can be obtained as:
6
I
I
I
ab
bc
ca
I
=
=
=
p
I
I
p
p
0
∞
120
120
∞
∞
Also, from Figure 1.9, the relation between the line and phase currents can be obtained as:
I 
a 
= 
I 
ca 
I 
ab 
= 
I p 
120 
∞ 
I 
p 

= 
3

◊ I 
150 ∞ 

Similarly, 
p 

I 
= 
3

◊ I 
30 
∞ 

I 
b c 
= 
3

◊ I p p 
90 
∞ 
0
∞
The phasor diagram in Figure 1.10 illustrates these relations. Thus the relation between line and phase currents for a balanced deltaconnected system is:
I
L
=
3 ◊
I
p
+ 30∞
(1.15)
Note that in the equations above, V _{L} , V _{p} , I _{L} , and I _{p} are the rms or effective values of voltages and currents.
Figure 1.10. Relation between Phase and Line Currents in a Delta Connection.
POWER RELATIONSHIPS
Assume that a balanced threephase voltage source is supplying a balanced load. three sinusoidal phase voltages can be written as:
sin 
( 
t 
) 

sin 
( 
t 
120 
) ∞ 

sin 
( 
t 
+ 
120 
∞) 
with the currents given by
7
The
p
p
p
sin 
( 
t 
) 

sin 
( 
t 
120 
∞ 
) 

sin 
( 
t 
+ 
120 
∞ 
) 
where is the phase angle between the current and voltage in each phase or the power factor angle.
The threephase power can be defined as:
P
3
=
V
a
◊
I
a
◊
cos
+
V
b
◊
I
b
◊
cos
+
V
c
◊
I
c
◊
cos
Using a trigonometric identity, we get the following:
P
3
=
V
p
I
p
{
3cos
[
cos 2
(
t
)
(
+ cos 2
t
240
)
(
+ cos 2
t
+ 240
_{} )]}
The summation of the last three terms, in the above equation, is zero. Thus the threephase power can be obtained as:
(1.16)
, and in deltaconnected systems,
Thus, the power equation, Equation 1.16, reads in terms of line
In
P
3
=
3
◊V I
p
p
cos
(
)
I
p
= I
L
wyeconnected
systems,
V
p
= V
L
.
◊V I
L
L
cos
(
and
V
p
= V
L
)
(1.17)
Note that Equations 1.16 and 1.17 apply for both wye and deltaconnected systems.
COMPLEX POWER
The above analysis can be extended to include the reactive power, Q, or to get the apparent power, S, for a threephase system.
I
p
+
=
=
, then
j sin
)
cos
sin
8
(1.18)
(1.19)
(1.20)
EXAMPLE 1.2
A wyeconnected, balanced threephase load consisting of three impedances of 10 30∞ each as shown in Figure 1.11, is supplied with a balanced set of linetoneutral voltages:
V
an
V
bn
V
cn
=
=
=
220
220
220
V
V
V
∞
240
0
∞
120
∞
a) Calculate the phasor currents in each line, b) calculate the linetoline phasor voltages and show the corresponding phasor diagram, and c) calcualte the apparent power, active power, and reactive power supplied to the load.
I b
Figure 1.11 Load Connection for Example 1.2.
a) The phase currents of the loads are obtained as:
I
I
I
an
bn
cn
=
=
=
220
V
0
∞
=
22
A
10
220
V
30
∞
240
∞
A
=
22
10
220
V
30
∞
120
∞
22
=
A
10
30
∞
30
∞
210
∞
90
∞
b) The line voltages are obtained as
V
ab
or
=
V
a
= 220
=
220
220
∞
V
30
240
∞
9
V bc
Figure 1.13. Relation between Phase and Line Voltages in a WyeConnection.
c) The powers are given by:
S
3
P
3
Q
3
= = = 
3 ◊ V p ◊ I p = 3 ◊ V an ◊ I an ( 3 220 V 0 )( ∞ 12574.69 + j A 22 7260.0 30 ) ∞ = 14520.0 VA 

= 12574.69 
W 

= 7260.0 
VAr 
10
30
∞
EXAMPLE 1.3
10
A
30∞
deltaconnected,
balanced
threephase
load
consisting
of
three
impedances
of
each as shown in Figure 1.13, is supplied with a balanced set of linetoline voltages:
V
ab
V
bc
V
ca
30
V
∞
90
V
∞
150
V
∞
a) Calculate the phasor voltage across each phase load, b) calculate the phase and line currents and show the corresponding phasor diagram, and c) calculate the apparent power, active power, and reactive power supplied to the load.
Figure 1.13 Load connection for example 1.3.
a) For a delta connected load,
V
phs
V
ab
V
bc
V
ca
30
V
∞
90
V
∞
150
V
∞
b) The phase currents in each of the impedances are:
=
3
◊
220
30
∞
V
=
3
I ab 

10 30 ∞ 

3
I ◊ 22 bc = I ◊ ca =
3
22 240 120 ∞ 
∞ A A 
◊
22
0
A
∞
The line currents can be obtained as:
I
a
=
=
0∞
3 ◊22 120∞= 66
11
30∞A
or
30 ∞ 30 ∞=
(
3 22
3
A 
) 
0 
∞ 
30 
∞= 
66 
A 

30 
∞= 66 A 
210 ∞ 

30 
∞= 66 A 
90 ∞ 
30
∞
1.3 Power System Representation
A major portion of the modern power system utilizes threephase as circuits and devices. A balanced threephase system is solved as a singlephase circuit made of one line and the neutral return. Standard symbols are used to indicate the various components. The simplified oneline diagram is called the singleline diagram. From the oneline diagram the impedance, or reactance, diagram can be conveniently developed, as shown in the following section. A further advantage of the oneline diagram is in the power flow studies. The oneline diagram rather becomes second nature to power system engineers as they attempt to visualize a widespread complex network.
12
generator or motor transformer 



transmission line 

oil circuit breaker 

air circuit breaker 


static load 


delta connection 
ungrounded wye connection 

grounded wye connection 

Figure 1.15. Symbolic Representation of Elements of a Power System.
Using the symbols in Figure 1.15, a section of a oneline diagram of a power system is shown in Figure 1.16.
Figure 1.16. A OneLine Diagram of a Portion of a Power System.
1.3.1 Equivalent Circuit and Reactance Diagram
We note from Figure 1.16 that the power system components are: generators, transformers, transmission lines, and loads. Equivalent circuits of these components may then be interconnected to obtain a circuit representation for the entire system. In other words, the one line diagram may be replaced by an impedance diagram or a reactance diagram (if resistances are neglected).
Thus, corresponding to Figure 1.16, the impedance and reactance diagrams are shown in Figures 1.17(a) and 1.17(b), respectively, on a per phase basis. In the equivalent circuit of the components in Figure 1.17(a) is based on the following assumptions:
1. A generator can be represented by a voltage source in series with an inductive
reactance. 
The internal resistance of the generator is negligible compared to the 
reactance. 
2. The motor load is inductive.
3. The static load has a lagging power factor.
4. A transformer is represented by a series impedance on a per phase basis.
13
5. The transmission line is of medium length and can be represented by a T section.
The reactance diagram, shown in Figure 1.17(b), is drawn by neglecting all the resistances, static loads, and capacitances of the transmission line. Reactance diagrams are generally used for shortcircuit calculation, whereas the impedance diagram is used for power flow studies.
Static Load
(a) Impedance Diagram
Static Load
(b) Corresponding Reactance Diagram
Figure 1.17. Electrical Diagrams of the System Illustrated in Figure 1.16.
1.4 PerUnit Representation
The perunit (pu) system is used extensively in power system calculations. The representation simplifies the vast scaling of sizes from superlarge generation and transmission networks to the industrial distribution system or a residential load. The definition of the perunit value of any quantity is given as:
pu value =
actual value
base value of the same dimension
_{(}_{1}_{.}_{2}_{1}_{)}
In any electrical network, a minimum of four base quantities is required to define completely a perunit system: voltage, current, power, and impedance (or admittance).
per unit power =
actual power
base power
14
(1.22)
actual voltage
base voltage
actual current
per unit voltage =
per unit current =
base current actual impedance
base impedance
per unit impedance =
(1.23)
(1.24)
(1.25)
If any two of these quantities are chosen arbitrarily, the other two become fixed. For example, selecting base values for voltage and power fixes the base values for current and impedance. Therefore, on a per phase basis the following relationships hold:
base current =
base power
base voltage
base impedance =
base voltage
base current
(1.26)
(1.27)
EXAMPLE 1.4
Calculate the base impedance and base current for a singlephase system if the base voltage is 7.2 kV and the base apparent power is 10 MVA.
Z
Z
Base
Base
I Base
I Base
=
=
=
(
V
Base
)
2
(
7200 V
)
2
=
S Base
10,000,000 VA
5.184
S Base
10,000,000 VA
=
V Base
7200 V
= 1388.9 A
For threephase systems, we use the total or threephase power and the linetoline voltage as the base. For currents and impedance values, it is common practice to convert the system to a wyeconnected network, and use the phase current and phase impedance as the bases. Hence, the base impedance and the base current can be computed directly from the threephase values of the base apparent power and the linetoline base voltage. Deltaconnections for the moment are converted to wyeconnected equivalents.
15
and
Z
Base
=
(1.28)
EXAMPLE 1.5
The
linetoline voltage at the load terminals is 108 kV. Assuming the threephase power base is 30,000 kVA and the voltage base is 120 kV, find the following per unit quantities for the load:
A threephase system delivers 18,000 kW to a pure resistive wyeconnected load.
a) the per unit voltage,
b) the per unit power,
c) the per unit current, and
d) the per unit impedance.
a) The linetoline base voltage is:
The actual linetoneutral voltage is:
V
p
V LL
= 
3


108 
kV 

= 
3

= 62.4 kV 
The per unit voltage is:
V pu
=
=
V
p
=
V LL
V
p
Base
62.4
kV
V
LL
108
Base
kV
=
69.2
kV
120
kV
= 0.900 pu
b) The threephase base power is:
S
3
^{=}
30,000kVA
and the singlephase base power is:
16
S
1
=
1
3
S
3
30,000 kVA
=
3
= 10,000 kVA
The per unit power is:
P
pu
=
P
1
S
1
Base
=
P
3
S
3
Base
6000 W 
18,000 W 

= 
= 

10,000 VA 
30,000 VA 
= 0.600 pu
c) The per unit current is:
To verify the results, first calculate the actual current, which is:
I
p
=
I
Base
◊
I
pu
= (144.3
A
)(0.667
pu
) = 96.2
A
Calculate the load current from actual voltage and power:
ˆ
I
p
6,000 kVA
= = 96.2 A
62.4 kV
ˆ 

I 
p 
= I 
p 
= 96.2 
A 
d) The per unit impedance is:
Z pu
=
V pu
I pu
=
0.900
pu
0.667
pu
=
The base impedance is:
1.350
+ j
0.0
pu
17
Z
Base
=
=
V
1
Base
(
V
3
Base
)
2
=
I
Base
S
3
Base
(
120
kV
)
2
=
30 MVA
480
To verify the results, first calculate the actual impedance, which is:
Z
p
=
=
Z
(480
Base
◊
Z
)(1.350 pu)
pu
=
648
Calculate the load resistance from actual voltage and current:
ˆ
Z
ˆ
Z
62.4 kV
=
=
p 96.2 A
p
=
Z
p
=
648
648
1.4.2 Changing the Base of PerUnit Quantities
Often the perunit impedance of a component of a system is expressed on a base other than the one selected as base for the part of the system in which the component is located. Since all impedances in any one part of a system must be expressed on the same impedance base when making computations, it is necessary to have a means of converting perunit impedances from one base to another. From Equations (1.25) and (1.27) the per unit impedance can be given as:
Z
pu
=
Z
p
Actual
Z
Base
=
(
Z
p
Actual
)(
S
3
Base
)
(
V
LL
Base
) ^{2}
(1,29)
Equation (1.29) shows that perunit impedance is directly proportional to base power and inversely proportional to the square of the base voltage. Therefore, to change from perunit impedance on a given base to perunit impedance on a new base, the following equation applies:
Z
new
pu
=
Z
old
pu
S
3
Base
new
S
3
Base
old
V
LL
Base
old
V
LL
Base
new
2
(1.30)
Equation (1.30) is important in changing the perunit impedance given on a particular base to a new base. In some problems, when transformers are involved we must choose more than one voltage base for each primary and secondary side of the transformers and one power base for the entire system. The following examples will illustrate the procedure.
EXAMPLE 1.6
A threephase 13.0 kV transmission line delivers 8 MVA at 13.6 kV to a resistive load. The per phase impedance of the line is (0.01 + j0.05) p.u. on a 13.0 kV, 8 MVA base. What is the voltage drop across the line in per unit and in volts?
a) Choose the base voltage to be 13 kV and the base power equal to 8 MVA.
The base current and the load current are:
18
0
∞
0.00956
+
j0.0478
=
0.0487
78.7
∞
b) The actual values for the linetoline voltage drop and the phase voltage drop are:
V
drop
V
drop
LL
p
=
=
(0.0487
(0.0487
=
=
633
366
V
V
78.7
78.7
∞
∞
EXAMPLE 1.7
The per phase reactance of a threephase, 220 kV, 6.25 kVA transmission line is 8.4 . Find the reactance value in per unit, based on the rated values of the line. Convert the per unit reactance value to a 230 kV, 7.5 kVA base.
a)
b)
Z Base
X pu
X
new
19
2
2
= 1.19 pu
EXAMPLE 1.8
Consider the system in Figure 1.18. Find the new perunit values for each element of the system above based on a 2.0 MVA system base. Draw the impedance diagrams of the system.
j0.15 pu
Figure 1.18. Small Power System of Example 1.7.
The perunit values for each element of the threephase system shown above are as follows:
Machine 1 
1.00 MVA, 11 kV, Z = j0.1 pu 
Machine 2 
0.50 MVA, 11 kV, Z = j0.15 pu 
Machine 3 
2.00 MVA, 12 kV, Z = j0.05 pu 
Transmission Line 
Z = 10 + j20 
Transformer 1 
2.00 MVA, 11 / 33 kV, Z = j0.15 pu 
Transformer 2 
3.00 MVA, 33 / 11 kV, Z = j0.10 pu 
a) The power base for the entire system is 2.00 MVA. The base voltages are chosen for the following areas as:
20
Figure 1.19. Three Voltage Zones of Example 1.7.
The perunit values for each element of the above system can be obtained by using Equation 1.30 as follow:
Machine 1: 
Z 
= 
j 0.10 
2.0 
MW 
11 kV 2 

pu 
new 
1.0 
MW 
11 kV 

2 

Machine 2: 
Z 
= 
j 0.15 
2.0 
MW 
11 kV 

pu 
new 
0.5 
MW 
11 kV 

Transformer 1: 
_{Z} 
pu 
new 
^{=} 
_{j} 
^{0}^{.}^{1}^{5} 
_{p}_{u} 
Transmission Line:
^{Z} Base
=
(
33
kV
)
2
2.0 MVA
^{Z} pu
=
j 20
544.5
_{=}
= 544.5
j
0.037
pu
Transformer 2: 
Z 
pu 
new 
Machine 3: 
Z 
pu 
new 
=
=
j 0.10
j 0.05
2.0
MW
33 kV
33
3.0
MW
kV
2.0
MW
12 kV
11 kV
2.0
MW
2
2
= 
j 
0.20 pu 

= 
j 
0.60 pu 

= 
j 
0.067 
pu 
= 
j 
0.06 pu 
b) The reactance diagram is shown in Figure 1.20.
Figure 1.20. Reactance Diagram of Example 1.7.
21
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