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Contribution of Japanese Cement Industry towards Addressing Environmental Issues

Rokuro TOMITA
Executive Officer General manager, R&D Center

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Taiheiyo Cement Corporation


2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Contents of Todays Presentation


1. Current data on the Japanese cement industry 2. Status of recycling in Japan 3. Recycling technologies of Taiheiyo cement corp. 4. Turning municipal incinerator ash into a resource 5. Chlorine by-pass technology 6. Conclusions
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Cement production of Japan

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2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Kiln Type

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Heat consumption (Coal equivalent)


kg/t-cement 140 131.7 130

Electric power consumption

kwh/t-cement 120 116.7 115 110

120

105 100

101.6

110

107.6 103.3 95 90 80

94.4

100 80

85

90 Year

95

00

05

85

90 Year

95

00

05

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2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Types and Sales of Cement

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2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Contents of Todays Presentation


1. Current data on the Japanese cement industry 2. Status of recycling in Japan 3. Recycling technologies of Taiheiyo cement corp. 4. Turning municipal incinerator ash into a resource 5. Chlorine by-pass technology 6. Conclusions
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Waste Material Used in Cement Industry


Item Blast furnace slag Coal ash Gypsum by-product Dirt, Sludge Soil from construction Non-ferrous slag Unburned ash, soot, dust Molding sand Steel manufacture slag Wood chips Waste plastic Coal tailing Recycled oil Waste oil Used tire Used clay Bone-meal feed Others Total Rate of consumption cement) 2001 11,915 5,822 2,568 2,235 1,236 943 492 935 20 171 574 204 149 284 82 2 428 28,061 (kg/t355 2002 10,474 6,320 2,556 2,286 269 1,039 874 507 803 149 211 522 252 100 253 97 91 435 27,238 361 fiscal year 2003 10,173 6,429 2,530 2,413 629 1,143 953 565 577 271 255 390 238 173 230 97 122 378 27,566 375 2004 9,231 6,937 2,572 2,649 1,692 1,305 1,110 607 465 305 283 297 236 214 221 116 90 452 28,782 401 2005 9,214 7,185 2,707 2,526 2,097 1,318 1,189 601 467 340 302 280 228 219 194 173 85 468 29,593 400

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Recycling in the Japanese Cement Industry


Cement production and volume of waste used; changes in consumption 100,000
82,407 79,045 75,451 73,504 71,771 73,931 80,000

600 500 k g /t-ce m e n t Cement production Waste consumption Vol. of waste used

1 ,0 0 0 t

60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2000 2001 332 355 361

375

401

400 400

300 28,061 27,238 27,564 28,780 29,593 27,359 200 100 2002 2003 Fiscal year 2004 2005

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Advantages of Waste Recycling at Cement Plants


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. No generation of waste by-products Detoxification of waste material Reduced natural raw-material consumption Reduced production of greenhouse gases Contribution to creation of a local recycling society (->Disposal site life extension)
2006.11.17 KCI Symposium 10

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Cement Materials and Chemical Composition


Cement materials and chemical composition
Component Limestone Portland cement Recy cled r esour ces Ash
Water purifier sludge

Sewage

Waste tires

CaO

64-65%

23.0%

13.9%

10.1%

0.1%

SiO2
Clay (Silica)

20-21%

27.3%

33.0%

30.7%

---

Al2O3

5%

14.3%

16.2%

19.5%

0.05%

Iron

Fe2O3

3%

6.2%

4.8%

5.2%

5-20 95-80

(Combustible materials)

(Natural materials, for reference)


CaO Limestone Clay Silica Iron material 47-55% < 5% < 2% SiO2 < 4% 45-78% 77-96% Al2O3 < 2% 10-26% 2-10% Fe2O3 < 2% 3-9% < 5% 40-90%

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Treatment of Pollutants
Complete decomposition at high temperature
Dioxin decomposition temp.: 800C or higher for 2 sec. or more Temp. in kiln: over 1,450C

Dioxins Pollutants in waste materials


Heavy metals

Detoxification

Included as ferrous material in cement


Solidified in ferrous material during cement clinker sintering process

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Cement Industry Recycling of Waste and By-products Extends the Life of Disposal Sites (estimated)
(A) Remaining volume of industrial waste disposal sites (B) Volume transported to disposal site per year (C) Remaining disposal site volume times no. of years (C=A/B) (D) Volume of cement recycled per year (E) No. of years remaining for disposal site if cement were not recycled (E=A/(B+D) (F) Length of extension of life of disposal site resulting from cement plant recycling (F=C-E) 179,410,000m3 40,000,000m3 4.5 Years 19,500,000m3 3.0 Years +1.5 Years

Note: Japan Cement Association estimate


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Contents of Todays Presentation


1. Current data on the Japanese cement industry 2. Status of recycling in Japan 3. Recycling technologies of Taiheiyo cement corp. 4. Turning municipal incinerator ash into a resource 5. Chlorine by-pass technology 6. Conclusions
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Cement Production Process and Resource Recycling

Cement production process

Raw meal process


Raw mill

Sintering process

Finish process

Shipping

Preheater Pre-grinding mill Bagging

Electrostatic precipitator Limestone Clay Silica Iron Raw meal silo Coal storage

Cement mill Cooler

Bulk truck Cement silo Bulk car

Gypsum storage Coal mill

Recycled materials

Resource recycling

Coal ash Sludge Sewage incinerator

ash
Non-ferrous slag Molding sand

Thermal recycling Recycled oil Waste tires Waste plastics Used pachinko machines Wood waste Other

Recycled materials Municipal trash

Recycled materials

incinerator ash
(dust, ash) Soil from

Blast furnace slag By-product gypsum

Coal ash

construction Sewage
(dewatered cake)

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Changes in Consumption of Waste Materials and Household Waste by Taiheiyo Cement


Waste & by-product consumption Raw-material-related 400 25.6 26.3
(kg/t-cement) 10 0.4 0.3 8.3 5.8 0 12.8 10.0 12.9 0.7 Household waste consumption Raw-material-related 15 1.1 1.1 Fuel-related

Fuel-related

300 (kg/t-cement) 13.9 200 253.4 100 265.7 14.3

20.7

274.9

295.8

319.4

0 2000 2001 2002 2003 Fiscal year 2004

2000

2001

2002 2003 Fiscal year

2004
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Background of Development on AK System


-The recycle process of urban waste as a raw material of cement Hidaka City, Saitama prefecture, operates a MSW incinerator since more than 30 years and was forced to build a new incinerator to replace worn out one until December 2002. For a long time (from 1993) , Taiheiyo Cement Corporation had been asked by Hidaka city to co-operate to solve the citys MSW issue. Taiheiyo Cement Corporation and Hidaka city had continued the discuss about a new MSW treatment technology. In 1999, Taiheiyo Cement Corporation proposed our AK System to Hidaka City and Hidaka City decided to apply AK System to solve the citys MSW issue in June 2000. The idle kiln in our Saitama factory was converted to a Digester (one of the main facility in AK system) and the demonstration test was carried out from March of 2001 to October 2002.
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AK System

AK System

Operation started at Saitama Plant in February 2002 15,000t/y of Hidaka Citys trash turned into resources
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Overview of the AK system


Three days of aerobic digestion turns organic contents of waste into soil-like cement raw material. Day 3 Breakdown of waste into finer pieces accelerates aerobic digestion. Day 2 Mechanical breakdown process begins immediately as tons of MSW are tumbled onto itself, breaking open bags, and pulping the waste. Day 1 MS W

Three-day processing Digester5.0m62.1m

Digeste d MSW

Crushing, Sieving, Separating


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Cement raw material

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) of Hidaka city

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Freon Breakdown
Freon gas charging facility
Flow adjustment valve

Developed jointly with Metropolitan Tokyo Breakdown efficiency: 99.99 Completely broken down by incineration Acidic gas absorbed by raw material after breakdown Commercialized at Chichibu Plant Cement kiln Emergency cut-off valve Burner

Manifold

Freon tanks

Pressure adjustment valve

Liquid Freon charger

Central control room

Low-temperature storage room Compressed air

Ejector

Clinker cooler
Changeover valve

Receiving pump

Flow adjustment valve Receiving tank

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Treatment of Used Pachinko Machines


Receiving of used pachinko machines

Secondary crusher

Forklift Primary crusher Crusher

Crusher

Magnetic sorter

Metal scrap

Metal scrap storage

Compaction, solidification

Screw

Screw

Rotary kiln
1,450C Cement raw meal

Double-shaft screw-type compactor-solidifier Compacted, solidified material

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Treatment of Waste Plastics


1. Outline of treatment facilities
Secondary crusher 2.8t 2.5t/h Hoist 3 Container 1.5m Primary crusher 2.5t/h Multi feeder 1.5t/h

Primary storage tank 97.8m3


SC

Secondary tank 15m3

Circle feeder 2/5t/h To Weigh kiln feeder 1.2t/h RF

2. Types of waste plastics expected to be treated


Source Sekisui Chemical Musashino Plant Composition PE foam Bridge PE Compacted products Shape Volume (t/y) 210t 1,440t 720t 2,640 t 1,380 t

Remarks

Rolled sheets Rolled sheets Block Rolled film Rolled film, etc.

Hitachi Chemical PET, PE, phenol Yamazaki Plant, Mie Structural Products Other PET, PE

Planned volume of waste plastics treated 6,500t/y Start of operation Dec. 1998

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Contents of Todays Presentation


1. Current data on the Japanese cement industry 2. Status of recycling in Japan 3. Recycling technologies of Taiheiyo cement corp. 4. Turning municipal incinerator ash into a resource 5. Chlorine by-pass technology 6. Conclusions
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Development of Technology for Turning Municipal Trash Incinerator Ash into a Resource
Local government Trash treatment plant
Collection

General household Municipal trash

Conventional

Incineration in a stoker type furnace, etc.

Municipal trash incinerator ash


Technology development

Disposal site Land fill

Cement resource

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Concept for Development of Creating Resource for Cement from Municipal Trash Incinerator Ash
Air preheater
QuickQuick-cooling reaction tower

Trash

Dust collector

Stack

Fly ash (dust)


Washing removes chlorine Treatment of washing drainage Detoxification of dioxins

Washing dechlorination Becomes a cement resource

Air Stoker furnace Water seal device


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Removal of impurities (iron lumps) Detoxification of dioxins

Impurities removed Becomes a cement resource 26

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Bottom ash Treatment Technology Ash properties Moisture 25-30% Contains calcium component Problems Adheres to transporter; clogs chute Solidifies during storage

Fly ash De-chlorination Technology Technical problems High chlorine content (10-20%) -> De-chlorination technology Heavy metals in drainage water -> Proper treatment Dioxin content (fixed within the cement,breakdown)
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Sample Treatment Water Composition After Each Operation


Concentrate

Treatment water composition for all processes Carbonation Chemical treatment 0.01 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.04 0.1 N.D. 17 0.46 Filter

Unit
composition

Permissib le sewage discharge value

Pollutants Cadmium Lead Total mercury Alkyl mercury Hexavalent chrome Environmental items Copper Zinc Chrome Suspended matter DXN copyright TCC mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L Ng-TEQ/L 0.09 7.1 0.02 450 1,200 0.4 0.5 0.012 42 7.9 0.04 0.05 N.D. 4 0.09 3 5 2 600 10 29 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L 0.69 250 0.001 N.D. N.D. 0.01 0.4 0.001 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.1 0.1 0.005 N.D. 0.5

2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Results of Breakdown of Dioxins in Exhaust Gas


Dioxins in fly ash are not dissolved out on the water side; they remain in the washing cake and/or caked precipitate from the drainage water treatment process. The cake is charged directly into the kiln where it is broken down and rendered harmless by high-temperature (1,450C) sintering.

Density of dioxins in exhaust gas 0.0000074 - 0.0025 (ng-TEQ/m3N)


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Development of Ash Treatment System


March 1995 1996-1997 April 1998 Kumagaya City sounded out on effective use of incinerator ash Saitama Prefecture double-plant planned; ash washing and de-chlorination technology adopted for zero-emission promotion and demonstration business Experimental plant built (treatment capacity, 8,000t/y); demonstration tests of use of municipal trash incinerator ash in cement production begun (joint research by Saitama Prefecture and Kumagaya City) Calcining method approved as one of the dust treatment regulations set by Minister of Health and Welfare Establishment of ash washing system technology recognized by Technical Committee Approval for construction of facilities for treatment of general waste received Agreement reached with Saitama prefectural wide-area waste treatment measures conference on basic items for consignment of wide-area treatment Industrialization plant operation begun; treatment capacity 63,000t/y

Jan. 2000 March Nov. Feb. 2001 July

Incinerator ash collected from areas around northern Saitama; business for use of waste as a resource for cement begun
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What is Ecocement
siliceous sand iron material limestone

Coinage; Ecology and Cement Comparison of raw materials for Ordinary Portland Cement and Ecocement
others limestone

clay

incineration ash etc.

Ordinary Portland Cement

Ecocement

Ecocement process replaces large quantity of natural resources (limestone and clay etc.) with incineration ash etc.
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Incineration ash Limestone


Other wastes

Flush Blenders
(after crushing)

Production process of Ecocement


(Na2CO3)

To atmosphere from stack (after severe gas treatment)

Bag filter
Raw meal

E Powder
Mainly chlorinated dust containing NaCl, KCl plus

Cooling Tower Rotary kiln (1350-1400C)

PbCl2, ZnCl2, CuCl2 , CdCl2, CaCl2, etc.

Water

Heavy Metal Refining Process


(next slide)
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Ecocement
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Heavy Metal Refining Process


E Powder
Leaching Process Plant view
Heavy metal rich filtrate Calcium rich cake

Refining Process
Filtrate (NaCl, KCl) Waste water treatment

Refining Process Enriched Enriched Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2


Leaching process

(Pb, Cu, Zn etc.) (Pb, Cu, Zn etc.)

Enriched Enriched heavy metal heavy metal compounds compounds

Drainage Drainage

Raw material for cement Raw materials production for non-ferrous metal industry
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Enriched metal compounds


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Features of Ecocement Process


Safe destruction of all toxic organic substances such as DXNs in incineration ash, thanks to high temperature in the Ecocement kiln (1350 1400C) Extraction and enrichment of heavy metal compounds, followed by their recycling at non-ferrous metal industry Reduction of CO2 emissions due to less use of limestone No generation of secondary solid waste, contributing to prolonging the life of landfill site (or even landfill-free)
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Quality of Ecocement (JIS R 5214)


Quality Density g/cm3 Specific surface area cm2/g Setting time Initial h-m Final h-m Soundness Pat method Le chatelier method mm Compressive strength N/mm2 Chemical composition (%) 1d 3d 7d 28d Magnesium oxide Sulfur trioxide Ignition loss Total alkali Chloride ion
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Type

Normal Ecocement 2500 min 1-00 min 10-00 min Good 10 max 12.5 min 22.5 min 42.5 min 5.0 max 4.5 max 3.0 max 0.75 max 0.1 max

Normal Portland cement 2500 min 1-00 min 10-00 min Good 10 max 12.5 min 22.5 min 42.5 min 5.0 max 3.0 max 3.0 max 0.75 max 0.035 max
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2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Ichihara Ecocement Plant


Note) Foundations of the kiln were made using Ecocement
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Eco-cement Plant in Tama, Metropolitan Tokyo

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Contents of Todays Presentation


1. Current data on the Japanese cement industry 2. Status of recycling in Japan 3. Recycling technologies of Taiheiyo cement corp. 4. Turning municipal incinerator ash into a resource 5. Chlorine by-pass technology 6. Conclusions
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Summary of Volatile Component Circulation and Cyclone Clogging Mechanism


Charging of combustible material at kiln end Facilitation of sulfur volatilization Raw meal CaSO4+2C CaS+2CO2
CaS+3CaSO4 4CaO+4SO2

Bottom cyclone

Calciner

Cyclone clogging

Increased volatile component due to use of waste material Increase of volatile component circulation Generation of Low-melting-point compounds consist of CaO, SiO2 , S and Cl. Ellestadite 3(2CaOSiO2)3CaSO4CaCl2 Sulfate spurrite 2(2CaOSiO2)CaSO4

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Sample Volatile Component Balance


Kiln raw meal
Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: 0.022% (3.7x) 0.22% (0.6x) 0.37% (0.8x) 0.2% (0.4x) 0.108% (18x) 0.24% (0.7x) 0.45% (0.9x) 0.6% (1.2x) 0.204% (34x) 0.24% (0.7x) 0.58% (1.2x) 0.5% (1.0x) 0.353% (59x) 0.26% (0.8x) 0.84% (1.8x) 0.8% (1.6x)

EP dust
Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: 0.174% (29x) 0.34% (1.0x) 0.78% (1.6x) 0.8% (1.6x)

Chlorine bypass dust

C1 cyclone raw meal

Cl: 21.9% (3,650x))


Na2O: K2O: SO3: 1.96% (5.8x) 29.9% (62x) 10.2% (20x)

C2 cyclone raw meal

Chlorine bypass coarse powder


Cl: Na2O: K2O: SO3: 2.18% (360x) 0.69% (2.0x) 5.06% (11.0x) 8.1% (16x)

C3 cyclone raw meal

Chlorine bypass equipment Bypass ratio: 1.9%

Clinker

Cl: 0.006%
Na2O: K2O: SO3: 0.34% 0.48% 0.5%

C4 cyclone raw meal

Cl: 0.850% (140x)


Na2O: K2O: SO3: 0.42% (1.2x) 2.05% (4.3x) 3.3% (6.6x)

Note: values in parentheses are in relation to clinker 2006.11.17 KCI Symposium 41

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Chlorine Bypass System Flow Chart


Gas extraction
Coarse particle separator cyclone Bag filter Cooler Bypass fan To Kiln

Probe

Coarse dust To kiln K powder (bypass dust) K powder tank K powder tank

Dust additive

Kiln

Feeder

To Finish Process Probe Cooling fan copyright TCC Cooler Cooling fan 2006.11.17 KCI Symposium 42

Volume of Municipal Trash Incinerator Ash That Can Be Used in Cement Kilns
Without chlorine bypass Permissible chlorine input vol. (clinker conversion) Ash chlorine density Fly ash chlorine density Permissible vol. of ash kg/t-clinker Permissible vol. of fly ash kg/t-clinker Permissible vol. of incinerator ash (ash + fly ash ) kg/t-clinker Chlorine bypass type 250 Fly ash washing desalination Chlorine bypass type 250 + Fly ash washing desalination

15ppm

216ppm
1.4%

15ppm

216ppm

15.0% 0.2 0.1 2.4 1.2 0.9 0.5

0.45% 13.3 6.6

0.3

3.6

1.4

19.9

Input chlorine from source fuels other than urban trash incinerator ash is 20ppm (clinker conversion). Ratio of ash to fly ash is 2:1 depending on volume produced; fly ash washing desalination efficiency is 97%.

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KCl Washing process Process of KCl Recovered K Powder Recovery Waste water treatment process

Removal of calcium

Kpowder tank

water

Removal of heavy metals

Kiln

Kiln Crystallization process

Electro
dialysis

KCl
44

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Quality Target and Actual Performance of KCl Recovered K Powder

Target K2O Ca SO4 Heavy metals


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Actual performance 60% 100mg/kg max 100mg/kg max 0.2mg/kg max


45

57% min 1000 mg/kg max 1000 mg/kg max 10 mg/kg max
2006.11.17 KCI Symposium

Conclusions
The contents of this report can be summarized as follows. In Japan, energy saving technologies in the cement production have been developed, and at the same time as many types of advanced recycling technologies of waste materials. The amount of waste materials and by-products utilized in 1 ton of cement produced in the Japanese cement industry has reached an average of 400 kg. By treatment technologies, represented by the chloride bypass process, the incineration ash of municipal waste containing chloride compounds has been utilized increasingly in the cement production process. Three unique methods of utilizing municipal wastes, fly ash washing system, ecocement system, and AK system were in practical use and the method to be selected varied depending on actual conditions in each region.

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We want to contribute to the creation of a recycling society.

Thank you for your attention

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