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PHIL 1010: Introduction to Logic Spring 2012

Instructor: Dr. Lisa Ievers 9:30-10:45am Haley Center 3166 Office: 0303E Haley Center 11-12:15pm Haley Center 3195 Email: 2-3:15pm Haley Center 2346 Office hours: Mon./Weds. 2:15-3:45pm & by appt.

Required Textbook Note: Please purchase this particular edition (referring to the ISBN number will ensure that you have the correct edition). Copi, Cohen, and McMahon. Introduction to Logic. 14th edition. (Pearson, 2011) ISBN: 978-0-205-82037-5 Course Description: According to Aristotle, the capacity to reason is what distinguishes human beings from other animals. When we reason with others, we offer arguments in an attempt to support our conclusions. Ideally, such arguments contain good reasons and therefore succeed in establishing our conclusions. However, not all arguments contain good reasons. The task of logic is to distinguish good from bad reasoning and this course aims to acquaint you with the methods and principles used to accomplish this task. Course Format: Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. Discussion of logical concepts and sample exercises in this class is essential for two principal reasons: (1) Talking about the material and working through sample exercises in class is crucial for your understanding of logic. My lecturing to you can really only take you part of the way. In this course, no previous experience in logic is presumed. (2) Participation is worth 10% of your course grade. (See below for more details.) Course Requirements and Grade Distribution: Your course grade is based on five components: three in-class exams, the final exam, and participation. I will explain the format of each exam in more detail prior to the exams. The schedule of assignments is as follows: Thursday, February 9: Exam 1 (on Unit 1) Thursday, March 8: Exam 2 (on Unit 2) Thursday, April 12: Exam 3 (on Unit 3) Date varies (see end of syllabus): Final exam (comprehensive: Units 1-4) Homework: I will assign exercises from the textbook each week (which will be announced in class) so that you may practice applying what you learn during lecture. Although homework will not be collected and is not a component of your course grade, I will draw heavily on the assigned exercises in designing the in-class exams. Therefore, it is well worth your time and effort to complete the assigned exercises each week. Answers

to all assigned exercises will be posted on Blackboard for you to check your work. I cannot stress enough the importance of practice in your study of logic; this is the main purpose of the assigned homework exercises. Participation: Participation involves both attending class (with your textbook in hand, ready and willing to participate) and actually participating (more on this in the next paragraph). An attendance sheet will be passed around at the beginning of each class for you to sign. Absences may be excused in cases of illness, death in the family, and religious holidays, but will not be excused for work. You should provide me with written documentation of your reason for missing class (if possible, prior to missing class). Eight unexcused absences will result in an automatic F in the course. In addition to attendance, each of you must sign up for a particular class day on which you will be onthis means that you will be prepared for such things as answering questions about the material assigned for that day, coming to the board to lead the class through some homework exercises, etc. (Of course, I still expect many of you to participate in class even when you are not on for that day; you must, however, participate on your on day.) A sign-up sheet for this will be passed around during the first week of class.

The relative weight of each component of your course grade is: Exam 1: 20% Exam 2: 20% Exam 3: 20% Final exam: 30% Participation: 10% Policies/Expectations: 1. Electronic devices: Please turn off and stow all electronic devices (cell phones, laptops, iPods, etc.) for the duration of class. I reserve the right to dismiss you from class and mark you as absent for the day if you cannot refrain from operating your electronic devices during class. If you have a compelling reason to use a computer during class, ask my permission. 2. Classroom decorum: I expect an atmosphere of respect in the classroom, which involves both listening when others are speaking and not putting others down. (The latter highlights the difference between respectful disagreement and mockery; I expect the former and will not tolerate the latter.) 3. Special accommodations: Students needing accommodations should arrange a meeting the first week of class. Come during office hours or email for an alternate time. Bring the Accommodation Memo and Instructor Verification Form to the meeting. Discuss items needed in this class. If you do not have an Accommodation Memo but need special accommodations, make an appointment with The Program for Students with Disabilities, 1244 Haley Center, 844-2096 or email:

4. Make-up exams: There is no make-up option for the three in-class exams or for the final exam. 5. Academic integrity: Auburn University expects students to pursue their academic work with honesty and integrity. Violations of this principle are enumerated in the Tiger Cub. Briefly, violations include: 1) the possession, receipt, or use of any material or assistance not authorized in the preparation of an assignment or during tests; 2) giving assistance to another in such practices; 3) furnishing in any way material containing future examination questions or answers; 4) plagiarism (submission of work that is not one's own without proper acknowledgment); 5) attempting to alter an assigned grade. The "University Academic Honesty Code" may be found in the SGA Code of Laws cited in the Tiger Cub, and I expect you to familiarize yourself with it. I take academic honesty very seriously and will report any violations of the universitys academic honesty code.

Tentative schedule of readings (the date listed is the date on which the reading assignment from the text is due):

UNIT 1: Arguments, the Language of Arguments, and Fallacies T Jan. 10: Course intro.; Introduction to Logic, Ch. 1.1-1.2 (all readings are from IL): Propositions and Arguments R Jan. 12: 1.3-1.4: How to recognize arguments; Arguments vs. explanations T Jan. 17: 1.5-1.6; 3.1: Deductive vs. inductive arguments; Validity and truth; The major functions of language R Jan. 19: 3.4: The five kinds of definitions T Jan. 24: 3.5-3.6: Intension vs. extension; Definition by genus and difference R Jan. 26: 4.1-4.3: Informal fallacies; Fallacies of Relevance T Jan. 31: 4.3 (ctd.); 4.4: Fallacies of Relevance (ctd.); Fallacies of Defective Induction R Feb. 2: 4.5-4.6: Fallacies of Presumption; Fallacies of Ambiguity T Feb. 7: 4.6 (ctd.): Fallacies of Ambiguity (ctd.) R Feb. 9: Exam 1

UNIT 2: Classical (Aristotelian) Logic T Feb. 14: 5.1-5.4: Deduction; Categorical propositions (A, E, I, O); Quality, quantity, & distribution R Feb. 16: 5.5-5.7: Aristotles square of opposition; Immediate inferences; The Boolean interpretation T Feb. 21: 6.1; 6.3: Standard-form categorical syllogisms; Venn diagram technique (for testing validity) R Feb. 23: 6.4: Six-syllogistic-rules technique (for testing validity) T Feb. 28: 7.1-7.2; 7.3: Syllogistic arguments; Reducing the number of terms; Translating ordinary language propositions into standard form R March 1: 7.3 (ctd.); 7.7: Standard-form translations (ctd.); Disjunctive and hypothetical syllogisms T March 6: 7.7 (ctd.): Disjunctive and hypothetical syllogisms (ctd.) R March 8: Exam 2 T March 13 & R March 15: No classes (Spring Break) UNIT 3: Modern (Symbolic) Logic T March 20: 8.1-8.3: Symbolic logic; Logical connectives R March 22: 8.3 (ctd.); 8.6-8.7: Logical connectives (ctd.); Truth tables (for testing validity); Common argument forms T March 27: 8.8-8.9; 9.1: Statement forms; Material vs. logical equivalence; Formal proofs of validity R March 29: 9.2-9.4: The nine elementary valid argument forms; Constructing formal proofs of validity (how-to) T April 3: 9.5-9.6: Constructing (more difficult) formal proofs of validity; The ten replacement rules (logical equivalences) R April 5: 9.8: Constructing formal proofs of validity (using all 19 rules of inference) T April 10: 9.9: Proof of invalidity (method of assigning truth values) R April 12: Exam 3

UNIT 4: Inductive Arguments: Causal Reasoning T April 17: 12.1-12.3; 12.4: Cause and effect; Causal laws; Induction by simple enumeration; Mills methods R April 19: 12.4 (ctd.); 12.5: Limitations of Mills methods T April 24: Course conclusion; Final exam review

Final Exam Schedule: Tuesday, May 1, 8-10:30am: 9:30am Section Final Exam Thursday, May 3, 12 noon-2:30pm: 11am Section Final Exam Friday, May 4, 4-6:30pm: 2pm Section Final Exam