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3.3
What you should learn
GOAL 1 Prove and use results about parallel lines and transversals. GOAL 2 Use properties of parallel lines to solve real-life problems, such as estimating Earths circumference in Example 5.

Parallel Lines and Transversals


GOAL 1 PROPERTIES OF PARALLEL LINES
In the activity on page 142, you may have discovered the following results.

P O S T U L AT E POSTULATE 15

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Why you should learn it


Properties of parallel lines help you understand how rainbows are formed, as in Ex. 30. AL LI
E FE
RE

If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of corresponding angles are congruent.
1 2

You are asked to prove Theorems 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7 in Exercises 2729.

T H E O R E M S A B O U T PA R A E L L L E S T H E O R E M S A B O U T PA R A L LL L EL I N I N E S THEOREM 3.4

Alternate Interior Angles

If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of alternate interior angles are congruent.
3 4

THEOREM 3.5

Consecutive Interior Angles

If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of consecutive interior angles are supplementary.
m5 + m6 = 180
THEOREM 3.6

Alternate Exterior Angles

If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the pairs of alternate exterior angles are congruent.
7 8
THEOREM 3.7

Perpendicular Transversal

If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines, then it is perpendicular to the other.
jk

h k

3.3 Parallel Lines and Transversals

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STUDENT HELP

EXAMPLE 1

Proving the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Study Tip When you prove a theorem, the hypotheses of the theorem becomes the GIVEN, and the conclusion is what you must PROVE.

Prove the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem.


SOLUTION
GIVEN PROVE
p q

pq 1 2
Reasons 1. Given 2. Corresponding Angles Postulate 3. Vertical Angles Theorem 4. Transitive Property of Congruence

Statements 1. p q 2. 1 3 3. 3 2 4. 1 2

EXAMPLE 2

Using Properties of Parallel Lines

Given that m5 = 65, find each measure. Tell which postulate or theorem you use.
6

9 7 5 8

a. m6 c. m8 SOLUTION

b. m7 d. m9

a. m6 = m5 = 65 b. m7 = 180 m5 = 115 c. m8 = m5 = 65 d. m9 = m7 = 115


FOCUS ON CAREERS

Vertical Angles Theorem Linear Pair Postulate Corresponding Angles Postulate Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem

EXAMPLE 3

Classifying Leaves

BOTANY Some plants are classified by the arrangement of the veins in their

leaves. In the diagram of the leaf, j k. What is m1?


j k

120

study plants and environmental issues such as conservation, weed control, and re-vegetation.
INT
NE ER T

RE

L AL I

BOTANY Botanists

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144

FE

SOLUTION

CAREER LINK

m1 + 120 = 180 m1 = 60

Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem Subtract.

Chapter 3 Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

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GOAL 2

PROPERTIES OF SPECIAL PAIRS OF ANGLES

xy
Using Algebra

EXAMPLE 4

Using Properties of Parallel Lines

Use properties of parallel lines to find the value of x.

125 4 (x 15)

SOLUTION

m4 = 125 m4 + (x + 15) = 180 125 + (x + 15) = 180 x = 40


EXAMPLE 5

Corresponding Angles Postulate Linear Pair Postulate Substitute. Subtract.

Estimating Earths Circumference


t ligh sun

HISTORY CONNECTION Eratosthenes was

a Greek scholar. Over 2000 years ago, he estimated Earths circumference by using the fact that the Suns rays are parallel. Eratosthenes chose a day when the Sun shone exactly down a vertical well in Syene at noon. On that day, he measured the angle the Suns rays made with a vertical stick in Alexandria at noon. He discovered that m2
1 of a circle. 50
center of Earth

L1

2 shadow stick
t ligh L 2 sun

well 1 Not drawn to scale

By using properties of parallel lines, he knew that m1 = m2. So he reasoned that m1


1 of a circle. 50

At the time, the distance from Syene to Alexandria was believed to be 575 miles.
1 575 miles of a circle Earths circumference 50

Earths circumference 50(575 miles)


STUDENT HELP
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Use cross product property.

29,000 miles How did Eratosthenes know that m1 = m2?


SOLUTION

APPLICATION LINK

Visit our Web site www.mcdougallittell.com for more information about Eratosthenes estimate in Example 5.

Because the Suns rays are parallel, l1 l2. Angles 1 and 2 are alternate interior angles, so 1 2. By the definition of congruent angles, m1 = m2.
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GUIDED PRACTICE
Vocabulary Check Concept Check

  

1. Sketch two parallel lines cut by a transversal. Label a pair of consecutive

interior angles.
2. In the figure at the right, j k. How
j 5 7 4 6 9 11 8 10 k

many angle measures must be given in order to find the measure of every angle? Explain your reasoning. Skill Check
State the postulate or theorem that justifies the statement. 3. 2 7 5. m3 + m5 = 180 4. 4 5 6. 2 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7. In the diagram of the feather below, lines p

and q are parallel. What is the value of x?


p q

133 x

PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS


STUDENT HELP

USING PARALLEL LINES Find m1 and m2. Explain your reasoning. 8.


1 2 135 82 1 2

Extra Practice to help you master skills is on p. 808.

9.
1 2

10.
118

USING PARALLEL LINES Find the values of x and y. Explain your reasoning. 11.
67 y
STUDENT HELP

12.
x 109 y x

13.
x y

HOMEWORK HELP

Example 1: Exs. 2729 Example 2: Exs. 817 Example 3: Exs. 817 Example 4: Exs. 1826 Example 5: Ex. 30

14.
x y 65

15.
y x 80

16.
130 x y

146

Chapter 3 Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

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17. USING PROPERTIES OF PARALLEL LINES

Use the given information to find the measures of the other seven angles in the figure at the right.
GIVEN

j 107 1 2 3 4

k 5 6 7 8

j k, m1 = 107

xy USING ALGEBRA Find the value of y.

18.
70 2y

19.
115 5y

20.
6y 120

xy USING ALGEBRA Find the value of x.

21.
70 (3x 14)

22.
(2x 10)

23.

(12x

9)

135

24.

(5x

24)

25.
(13x 5)

26.
126 7(x 7)

89 94

STUDENT HELP
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27.

HOMEWORK HELP

Visit our Web site www.mcdougallittell.com for help with proving theorems in Exs. 2729.

DEVELOPING PROOF Complete the proof of the Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem.
GIVEN PROVE

3 2 1

pq 1 and 2 are supplementary.


Reasons 1. Given 2.

Statements 1. 3. 4. 6.

? ? ? ?

2. 1 3

3. Definition of congruent angles 4. Definition of linear pair 5. 7.

5. m3 + m2 = 180 7. 1 and 2 are supplementary.

? ?

6. Substitution prop. of equality

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STUDENT HELP

Study Tip When you prove a theorem you may use any previous theorem, but you may not use the one youre proving.

PROVING THEOREMS 3.6 AND 3.7 In Exercises 28 and 29, complete the proof. 28. To prove the Alternate Exterior 29. To prove the Perpendicular

Angles Theorem, first show that 1 3. Then show that 3 2. Finally, show that 1 2.
GIVEN PROVE

Transversal Theorem, show that 1 is a right angle, 1 2, 2 is a right angle, and finally that p r.
GIVEN PROVE

jk 1 2
j 1 3 2 k

p q, q r pr
p 1 2 q r

30.

FORMING RAINBOWS

When sunlight enters a drop of rain, different colors leave the drop at different angles. Thats what makes a rainbow. For red light, m2 = 42. What is m1? How do you know?

sunl

ight

rain 1

sunl

ight

shadow

Test Preparation

31. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM You are designing a lunch box like the one below.

2 3

A 1

B 3 2

a. The measure of 1 is 70. What is the measure of 2? What is the

measure of 3?
b.

Writing Explain why ABC is a straight angle.


P 1 N 2 3 6 7 M q S R 4 5 K L

5 Challenge

32. USING PROPERTIES OF PARALLEL LINES

Use the given information to find the measures of the other labeled angles in the figure. For each angle, tell which postulate or theorem you used.
GIVEN
EXTRA CHALLENGE

PQ RS, LM NK, m1 = 48

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148 Chapter 3 Perpendicular and Parallel Lines

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MIXED REVIEW
ANGLE MEASURES 1 and 2 are supplementary. Find m2. (Review 1.6) 33. m1 = 50 36. m1 = 107 34. m1 = 73 37. m1 = 111 35. m1 = 101 38. m1 = 118

CONVERSES Write the converse of the statement. (Review 2.1 for 3.4) 39. If the measure of an angle is 19, then the angle is acute. 40. I will go to the park if you go with me. 41. I will go fishing if I do not have to work. FINDING ANGLES Complete the statement, given that DE DG and AB DC . (Review 2.6) 42. If m1 = 23, then m2 = 43. If m4 = 69, then m3 = 44. If m2 = 70, then m4 =
G 3 1 A 2 4 D B

C E

? . ? . ? .

QUIZ 1
Complete the statement. (Lesson 3.1) 1. 2 and 2. 3 and 3. 3 and 4. 2 and 5.

Self-Test for Lessons 3.13.3


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

? are corresponding angles. ? are consecutive interior angles. ? are alternate interior angles. ? are alternate exterior angles.

PROOF Write a plan for a proof. (Lesson 3.2)


GIVEN PROVE

1 2 3 and 4 are right angles.

1 2 3 4

Find the value of x. (Lesson 3.3) 6.


2x 138 (2x 1)

7.

151

8.
81 (7x 15)

9.

FLAG OF PUERTO RICO Sketch the flag of Puerto Rico shown at the right. Given that m3 = 55, determine the measure of 1. Justify each step in your argument. (Lesson 3.3)

3 2 1

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