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Voltage-Step-Down,

Single-Phase,

Non-Isolated

Rectifier

Nathan O. Sokal

Design Automation, 4 Tyler Road Lexington, MA 02173-2404 Inc.

K. Kit Sum

Consultant P. O. BOX 361110 Milpitas, CA 95036

David C. Hamill

Surrey Space Centre University of Surrey U.K. GuilMordGU25XH,

73507.247@compuserve, com

kkitsum@earthlink. net

DJ-iamill@surrey, ac.uk

Abstract A simple rectifier, little documented in the literature, provides a low-voltage output from an acmains supply, with inherent short-circuit protection. We present results 532:1 waveforms, (within range of

Ho/o

current harmonics below those of al circuit without the series reactance, The choice between an inductor and a capacitor can be made on their relative availability. An inductor of overshoot from size, cost, parasitic losses, and has the advantage of attenuating

spikes that might be on the ac input voltage, but the potential disadvantage on, resulting on the dc output voltage at turnespecially at light load. In a resonance between the series inductcn-

the

parameter)

experimental confirmation, improved regulation. The comply with IEC 1000-3-2, 250W. This rectifier requiring a low-voltage,

general, low-power applications will favor the capacitor, and high-power applications the inductor. This paper treats only the capacitor version of the circuit This rectitier is not new; (Fig. 1) and its variants. battery chargers known

commercial

INTRODUCTION operating from the ac power mains the power folfola rectifier transformer dc. Traditionally,

have used it since at least the 1970s. But it is little and poorly the only understood. published To the best knowledge power-electronics is brief notes [1], authors and four independent manufacturers [3] that reprints applications

IM

L

ost equipment

information

descriptions

In either

case. it is

in many applications,

electrical

isolation

of the

pendium of rectifiers [4] contain the circuit. There appears to be no information available on operation. analysis or design. Moreover, considering IEC 1000-3-2 [5] and similar regulations, it is necessary nowadays to investigate line-current harmonic characteristics. This remedy these deficiencies. the rectifiers paper aims to

internal circuitry is unnecessary. Low-power equipment with nc) user inputs or outputs can use double-insulated enclosures to comply with electrical safety requirements. Examples inclllde clocks, certain battery chargers, and auxiliary supplies for the primary-side control circuits of SMPSS. Television In these applireceivers have also used this approach widely. cations it is advantageous to use a small, cost power supply with a low component

c,,

q

pclwer levels, e.g., for motor drives, the whole equipment may be live. including the output; there is then little virtue in having an isolated auxiliary Direct rectification supply. gives a voltage approaching can

normally

D3

But an impedance

be placed in series with the ac input to reduce the dc output voltage. If the impedance is resistive, a low efficiency will result; but if it is reactive. the circuit will be essentially lossless (apart from a small power loss in the parasitic resistance. and diode losses). Using either a capacitor or an inductor series Fig. 1: The capacitor-kd rectifier.

V.

B. Analysis

of Operation as ideal, except for voltage VD during CO acts to keep the the cycle. We we apply a

In this analysis we take all components the diodes, which have a constant forward conduction. The large reservoir capacitor output voltage

assume initially that CO is inilnite; subsequently, ripple correction for Cos finite capacitance. Let the ac input voltage be VI (t) =

%IZV1 Coso.)t

and u = 2@ is the angular

(1) fre-

where VI is the rms voltage into four intervals. Interval 1:0 S t < tl

Consider the half-cycle commencing at t = O. The input voltage is at its peak, where dvl/dt = O, so no current flows through ducting. C. Therefore at t = O, diodes D2 and D3 cease conC is lefl. charged to a certain The series capacitor

positive voltage. With some prescience,, we take this as Vc(o) = Fig. 2: Waveforms of the capacitor-fed rectifier. a value that will maintains IL circuits A. CIRCUIT principal OPERATION AND ANALYSIS rectile~ Fig. 2 shows the be vertiled

Jq v~

when we reach (11) below.

(2) C

to fall, because no current flows. Consequently, the diodebridge input voltage v&- falls with the input voltage, and is given by Vbr(t) =

steady-state waveforms.

v~ fiq(l

Cos d)

(3)

This action continues until v&. reaches -(VO + 2 V~), when D} and D4 become forward-biased, T at tl. lhen are not obvious. The key to understanding

its operation

that the series capacitor C operates in a discontinuous current mode, i.e., its current is zero for part of each half-cycle. Therefore two distinct modes of circuit action occur within Hence Interval each half-cycle. First, right-hand if a pair terminal of bridge diodes is forward-biased, the

Vbr(t,)= J?.-fi~

Cos@t,= 12: tl < t < t2

Cosot, =

-(VO +2VD)

(4)

@(v %J + q

(5)

of C is clamped

terminal

soidal input voltage. Because the current through a capacitor is proportional to the rate-of-change of the voltage across it (i = C dv/dF), C passes current. Second, when all the diodes are reverse-biased, no current can flow through C, so the voltage across C must remain constant. This happens for t= Otot1andt=t2tot3. Note that the diodes turn on hard at t] and t3 (i.e., they experience a step increase of current), but turn off softly at tz and tx (i.e., their current gradually reduces to zero). The consequences of the soft turn-off below. are discussed under Interval 2

terminal of C to (Vo + 2V~). The left-hand terminal nected to Vz, so the overall voltage across C is

Vc(t) =

tiV1

COSCOt V. + 2?D +

(6)

c So at tl,urrent suddenly starts flowing through C, at a value determined by the rate-of-change of the input voltage; from (5) and (6),

Thus the capacitor voltage at the end of the cycle is the same as that at the beginning deed, the steady state. C. Rectljler Having (see (2) ), verifying that this is, in~-

DC Characteristics expressions for the waveforms, we can of the rectfler. of the input yields the rectiis equal to the mean (de)

obtained

input

which

.,.-,..?

,..,

X1/R

10

100

in which

pairs c)f

diodes conduct in series, one miglht expect that (12) would the term 2V~. Instead, from the diode switching. VD appears. An explanation Although the turn-on at is drop is 2 VD at that point,

Fig. 3: Plot of X/R as a function of VOIVI, with VD = O. Increasing the series capacitive reactance reduces the output voltage.

the turn-off at tq is soft, and the diode drops are taken m zero. The effect of (12) is to take the average, producing a single ~D.) Let the magnitude This is a hard turn-on, and the voltage of D, and Dd each jv~ the current ZI(t) leads the voltage (Capacitive notation writing (wrong!) (9) I~\ jumps to !% as they start to conduct. Thereafter voltage during this interval, until, of the capacitive reactance at m be (13) negative. We employ the

-2- . + (OC

throughout

vr(t) by 900

~ for convenience

rent also goes to zero. From (6) we would expect V.(t, )= -Jv +Vo +2v~

Using (12) and the fact that VO = 10R, we find the rectifiers dc output voltage as

is a soft turn-off, the current reducing slowly to zero. So, at tz,, the conduction voltage of each diode is more accurately taken as zero, not V~. Therefore, instead of (9), we write vc(t2) = -fiPj For a real diode, the conduction + V. voltage

2R

v@l

- VD

(141)

(lo)

is around 0.8 V,

The output voltage depends on the amount of capacitive actance present, normalized with respect to the

reload

drooping to about 0.2 V as the current drops to zero, then rapidly reverses as any remnant charge is swept out. This is verified by simulation. (The reverse recovery time and recovered charge are, however, negligible in this context.) The important point is that C is charged to the voltage in (10), to a close approximation, IntervaI and stores it throughout 4: ts< t< td Interval 3.

resistance, i.e., X/R is the main design parameter. With ~/.R << 1, the output voltage approaches the peak value of the input voltage, as expected; when X/R >> 1, the output voltage is low. We rearrange (14) into the form (15) plot of

n Interval 3: tz< t< ts; 3 and 4 are similar Assuming Intervals the voltage sign): vc(27r/a3) = to Intervals 1 and 2 respeca change of tively, but with reversed currents and voltages, At Li= 2m04 across C is (employing (10) with Equation characteristic:

~~

XIR versus VIIVO, which can be used for design purposes. (12) can be rearranged to give the dc output

&vI Vo

(11)

vo=JiLj-vD

---

10

4f

if lo >0

(16)

equiva-

to ~ Co and R, at least to a first approximation. also varies with X/R, because the conduction diodes changes. Taking value of r from ~ ~ 0.24-0.10 log&Y/R) this approach,

a resistance of l/4fl. (This resistance is lossless, because it is actually due to capacitive reactance on the ac side of the rectifier. ) Putting 10= O in ( 16), the open-circuit vO(open) On the other hand, setting output current as I O(shorI ) Thus the rectifier protection.

= = JZ4

(22)

fCoR which we obtained by a combination of analysis and fitting a function to values of r obtained by PSpice simulation, for 0.03125< X/R <16. We plan to investigate rection theoretically in a fhture paper. III. SIMULATION RESULTS to verifjy the analythe ripple cor-

VO = O yields

tifcy

feature of inherent

The rectifier

sis. The parameter values were VI:= 120 Vrms, Each diode employed the default SPICE

f = 60

Hz. R

) =

= 100 Q and Co = 1 mF. The value of C varied among runs. (19) model, its series resistance being set to 0.5 Cl. Table I compares the steady-

2nfc4

If L. << VI, the rectifier approximates a dc current source. This makes it usefbl for applications such as constantcurrent charging of nickel-cadmium replacing Co and R. D. Correction for Finite batteries [1], the battery

state output voltage to the theoretical predictions obtained from (14), using V~ = 0.8 V and the ripple correction of (22). The theoretical and simulation (approaching results agree well. to better is a conventional rectifier).

than +2A over the 512:1 range of X/R. The discrepancy Output Capacitance will be lower than the value Asabout the by a ripple greatest at low X/R The actual output predicted voltage

The reason is that the input current has a very spiky waveform, causing a significant voltage across the diodes ohmic series resistance, which was excluded fkom the analysis. This is of little consequence, though, as the rectifier is intended mainly for step-down applications, where X/R is high. AND CONFIRMATION

VO

(20) A.

IV.

DESIGN

PROCEDURE

1. Represent the dc load as an equivalent resistance R := Vo(COm,C,,~jlo, here Vo(,Om.G,.~) tlhe desired dc output voli w is age.

It seems reasonable that r should be inversely proportional 2. Define a desired ripple factor r from (21). TABLE10UTPUT VOLTAGE,BY TBEORY ANDSIMULATION Discrepancy Vo Simulation Absolute Relative Theoretical * .XIR (v) ?/0 (v) (v) 2,64 1.7 155.76 153.12 ~)3125 147.50 1.69 1.1 00625 149.19 137.00 0.30 0.2 C.125 137.30 0.25 0.2 118.25 118.00 0.25 4.48 92.95 -0.5 0.5 92.47 65.15 -0.76 -1.2 1 64.39 -0.48 -1.2 4007 4055 2 2312 -028 -1.2 4 2284 -0.08 -0.6 1230 12.38 8 -0.06 -0,9 6.40 6.46 16 ~Oalculated horn (20) 3. Find the intlnite-Co r12). output voltage VO = vo(mm&@/( 1

4. Use (15) to find ~. (Or, less accurately, Fig, 3 and multiply by R.) Then C= l/2@.

5. Use (22) to calculate the needed output smoothing tance CO. 6, Find the short-circuit Design Example output current from (18).

capaci-

Given: V,= 230 V, f = 50 Hz, VO(mmected) = 12 V with 0.5~ peak-to-peak ripple superimposed, at 10 = 1 A. Find compc)nent values for the rectifier.

2. Ripple factor r = 0.5/12 = 0.042. 3. Int5nite-CO 12.26 V. output voltage VO = 12/(1 0.042/2) =

compares the three sets of results, which wide range of output voltage. V. has V = 0.85 V. Then .,Y = 2 x 12= 199 Q. So C = INPUT-CURRENT waveform

HARMONICS rectifier is

The line-current

of the capacitor-fed

smoother than that of a conventional rectifier, so one might expect the harmonics to be lower. Preliminary PSpice simulation results showed that, indeed, the larger the value of X/R, the lower the harmonic property, ages. Harmonic current emissions from electronic equipment since the rectifier distc)rtion. is intended This is a valuable for low output volt-

log10 (199/12))

/ (50

6. The short-circuit output current is 432 x 230 x 50 x 16.0 x 104 = 1.04 A, only 4% higher than the nominal current in normal operation. B. Con$rmation by Simulation and Experiment with measured values of C = polydiode

were originally specified in IEC 555-2 (1987), later subsumed within the electromagnetic compatibility standard IEC 1000-3-2:1995. As EN 61000, this European Standard now carries the force of law within important to examine can comply. A. Analysis In this section we assume ideal diodes, i.e., V~ = O, and an infinite output capacitance, i.e., CO = m The shape of the input current waveform, i~(t), is identical to that of a phasecontrolled triac with a resistive load (though its relation to the supply voltage is different). That case is analyzed in [6]. The rms input current is 11=1 Europe. It is therefore it the present rectifier to see whether

V~ = 0.85 V at 1 A dc (GBPC106

bridge: 600 V, 2 A), and Co = 5.83 mF (nominally 4.7 mF. 63 V dc, electrolytic). Its performance was measured using a pc)wer amplifier wave, with to deliver an undistorted 230 V, 50 Hz sine a rheostat as the dc load. The design was also

ANALYTICAL

Experiment ~= 0.11 Q (short circuit): Vo (v) IO (A) AVO(Vpk-pk) R=606Q: P-o(v) 10 (A) 6.00 0.99 0.11 1.01

2a sin2a l- 2fl-

5.93 0.98

a=cc)- Textbooks

lu. Z~

(241) cur-

rent by Fourier r~ R = 18.75 Q: Vo (v) IO (A) AVO(Vpk-pk) 25.53 Q: Vo (v) IO (A) AVO (Vpk-pk) ~= 3226 Q Lo(v) Io (A) A~o (Vpk-pk)

IO=

analysis. Unfortunately.

contain incorrect formulae (despite correct accompanying graphs!). Using the Maple V symbolic algebra package. we found the rms value of the fimdarnental 18.00 0.96 0.44 24,00 0.94 0.50 30.00 0.93 0.50

VO =

to be -cos2a

values

1 ~l(lJ(a) =;

1 +2(7r-a)z /

+2(7r-a)sin2a 2

(25)

~=

The input current contains only odd harmonics, waveforms symmetry. Harmonic currents 9, ... are given by 1 +n2 (rzz --l)cos2 ~l(.)(a) = z(n ~ -1) a

due to the

for n = 3, 5. 7.

(26)

2(cosacosna

+ nsinasinncz) of a

output current,

dominates,

irrespective

IO(IOL

T

4

I

. Fail

Fail Class A

For the purposes of this trial, the currents middle segment, i.e., at cot= n/2.

time origin,

t = Cl,

It is easy to show that a must exceed m2, and clearly must be less than n, We find the critical 0.35 sincrC = sin(aC + zf6), value, ac, by solving

cz

(30) CL

it) 10+

[ 10-

I h

, 10

u. 100

This transcendental

2.372, or about 1360. For a 2 cz., the waveform the template. From (5), the condition

fits within

corresponds to (31)

Fig, 4: The A7RP parameter plane, showing IEC 1000-3-2 classes and passlfail regions. and, using (14),

We now set these results within the context of IEC 10003-2. Two classes of equipment are relevant to rectifiers. If a rectifiers active power consumption is from 50 W to 600 W and its line-current ent harmonic the stricter. limits waveform tits within a given template, it belongs to Class D. Otherwise, it belongs to Class A. DitYerClass D being applies from July 1998;

~<~

l+cosac

,=0104

for all odd harmonics i.e.,

(32,) up to

RxlcosaC IEC 1000-3-2 specifies limits D limit for the third harmonic

II(3) <

the 39th, Let us examine just the third harmonic, is 3.4 mA/W,

The Class

prior to that, it is 75W.) With a sinusoidal voltage, the only contribution to active power consumption is from the in-phase component of fimdamental current. The rectifier is therefore active power consumption of the

0,0034P

(33)

It can be shown that (33) can be expressed in the form 0.0136~ sinz a (34) ~10 8cos2 a 2cosacos3a +3sinasin3a >0

(27) With VI= 230 V rms, the European nominal where +1 is the phase angle between output power. Hence P = VOIO The design example of Section (28) IV has XIR = 199/12 = is 1.14 Arms. The low power factor is currents: rectifiers the total leading for V{ and 11(1).Further, that (34) is never satisfied for 2.372< for the trivial harmonic, case of a = z.) Therefore, of P and X/R. we see that the Class D limits since we take the diodes as ideal, the input power equals the voltage, we find a < z. (It is satisfied taking only the third are always violated

16.6, so a = 0.387 and the input current 1:!/(230 x 1.14) = 0.045. The extremely dne to the series capacitor, not harmonic harmonic distortion is only 9.5?4.. This

For parameter values where the rectifier Class D, it must be evaluated according

current limits, and this favors lowpower equipment. Taking VI = 230 V rms, we have calculated each of the odd ha-monic currents up to the 39th, for various combinations of P and X/R, and compared them to the published limits. We find that the rectifier will comply with the Class A requirements over a usefhl range of power. When X/R = 0.104, power up to 65 W is available, rising to a maximum of 250 W when X/R w 0.5 (VOs 180 V), and tailing off again at high values of X/R. Fig. 4 shows the class and pass/fail re-

displacement factor (COS~) can assist in compensating lagging displacement factors elsewhere. B IEC 1000-3-2, Class D

To see whether the rectifier will comply with IEC-1000-32, we first examine its power consumption, P. If 50 W < P < 600 W we try the input current waveform against the Class

c,

v--

+

V.

Fig. 5. Use of a capacitive voltage divider (by adding C-J to reduce the no-load output voltage.

= 33.2 @. Hence CZ = C Cl = 417 @?. At step 5, the outgions in the X/RP parameter plane. These parameters can be interpreted into output current a put capacitance becomes CO= (0.24 -0.10 logl~ (7.08/12)) / (50 x 12 x 0.042) = 10.4 mF. The modified Thevenin equivalent of the rectifiers output comprises a 23.15 V dc source in series with a resistance c)f l/4jC = 11.1 Q, giving much better voltage regulation than the original design. For example, 23.15 -0.5 The at a load of 0.5 A, the calculated

x

230 V supply, XIR = 41. Fig. 4 shows that up to 50 W is available, i.e., an output current of 10 A. In summary, the rectifier 2, Class D. However, cannot comply with IEC 1000-3voltage step-down ra-

voltage

rises to

output current is now 23.15/11.1 =

for significant

short-circuit

tics, the rectiler falls into Class A. It then meets IEC 10003-2 for power levels up to 250 W, depending on the voltage step-down ratio. VI. CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE DIVISION IMPROVE VOLTAGE REGULATION the rectifiers TO output voltThis could

2.09 A, double that of the original. Because CQ is itself effectively shorted-circuited via the diode bridge, the input current under these conditions I I(short)

=

and here this evaluates to 2.40 A. PSpice Probably simulation the main confkms drawback though the validity of this design. and at

damage CO and the diodes, if they are chosen on the basis of the rated output voltage. Moreover, if the load is reconnected it will momentarily experience the fill voltage, which could easily result in catastrophic This problem failure. of Fig. 5, where Cl 100%1 with ideal

is the increased

number

The technique of capacitive voltage division for rectilers has been suggested before, but seems to be little used. Stoles [4] briefly described two related circuits, reproduced here as Fig. 6(a) and (b). From Stoless qualitative description of their operation divider, waveform while there is hardly and their any analysis it capacitance appears that the two capacitors the diode in Fig. 6(a) act as a voltage combined

A simple approach to analysis is to represent VI, Cl and CZ by a Thevenin-equivalent network, comprising a voltage source Vi in series with an effective capacitance C, where

form a clamp. In Fig. 6(a) the dc cDmponent of the resulting is used. In Fig. 6(b) the second diode and the output capacitor act as a peak rectiller, producing a voltagedoubling effect. In both circuits, it :seems that any substantial capacitive reactance would represent a hindrance, rather than being an essential requirement age-divider circuit. VIL PRACTICAL as in our proposed volt-

q=+

dure. As an illustration, to limit its maximum

C= C,+C2

(35)

let us modi~

x

output voltage

As mentioned

as in Fig. 5, a large overvoltage can occur when the load is disconnected. In lieu of using CZ, a zener diode or metal-

Fig. 8: Two electrolytic capacitors and two diodes can be used to emulate an at-rated capacitor.

oxide varistor can be connected across the dc output to provide voltage limiting. The breakdown voltage should be somewhat larger than the normal maximum voltage. Going one step further, a shunt regulator (e.g., Rs and Q

constant CRZ should be small, under a second, say. Again, the resistor reduces efllciency, dissipating power of VIZIRZ. Alternatively (if the C1CZ divider is not used), Rz can be placed in parallel with C, reducing the power in Rz somewhat. The designer quency-sensitive, equipment should also note that the rectifier is fre-

in Fig. 7) can give a stabilized output voltage, In this case th,a breakdown voltage should equal the desired output voltage, and X should be low enough to maintain current through the zener under all conditions. For small values of series capacitance C (up to perhaps

designing

to be used at both 50 Hz and 60 Hz. VIII. CONCLUSION that is little step-down shortis not It features voltage harmonics, a regulated

several microfarads), film or ceramic capacitors are convenient. For higher values, electrolytic capacitors will usually be smaller parallel and less costly. When using polarized types, two The capacitors must be connected back-to-back capacitors ripple-current rating shunted by anti-

The paper describes a simple, useful rectifier documented operation, circuit in the literature. acceptable line-current and. optionally, to applications

inherent

protection

output. How-

where input-isolation

the load short-circuited. However, for safety and reliability, C should be a Class X ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Y. H. Lim for his assistance in making the experimental measurements, and R. Redl, A. S. Kislovski, T. A. Lipo, and R. P, Severns for helpful suggestions. REFERENCES

[1] Anon,, Nickel-cadmmm battery applwation handbook. 3rd edition,

capacitor (i.e., rated for continuous at-line operation) because it is effectively connected across the line if the output is short-circuited or at a low voltage. Suitable dielectrics in:lude polypropylene film and paper, as used in motor-run and lighting-ballast beneficial capacitors, for example. Fast voltage C, so it is transients will cause high currents to flow through spike limiter

to place a small resistance in series as a current(RI in Fig. 7). A value of X/10 will usually sufbecause power of I?RI is

[3] [2]

pub. no, 211B5000AC,Gainesville,FL. GeneralElectric Co., Battery Business Dept.,198& seepp.3-23 and3-24. Anon.,Apphcanon

power supply prmclple, note: 117VAC/220VAC to the single-phase - 5V/20A swztchmg-mode feed-forward converter undated. Franaccording

di:wipated. (Recall that II is the rms value of the input current, which, due to its waveform, is higher than the output de.)

D. Nuhromrrn, Dus gro/Je Werkbuch Elektrornk, zis-Verlag, 1989; see pp. 25 832585. czr-cu@

Teil B, Munich:

[4]

If the power plug is pulled the rectifier is operating, on~the on the line-voltage nection. A person touching electric shock. A high-value the rectifiers

[5]

G.J. Stoles, Handbook of rect~fier Horwood, 1980; see pp. 110111 IEC standard

Chichester,

UK:

Ellis current

C can retain energy that depends phase at the moment of disconthe power plug might receive an bleed resistor connected across

1000, part 3, section 2: Luruts for input current KI 6A per phase), mtroductlon

harmonic 1995.

ester, U. K.: Wiley,

to power electromcs,

Chich-

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