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Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat Dec 11, 2012

Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

Basic understanding of heat and mass


Explanations of heat and mass transfer


Discussion about the analogy between heat

and mass transfer

Heat Definition

Heat is as energy in a transitional stage between system and the surrounding. Every substance has thermal energy, which is equal to the total of kinetic energy (transitional, rotational or vibration of the particles), potential energy ( associated with vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules or crystal, and energy exist in chemical bonds and free energy of conduction electrons in metal and temperature is average kinetic energy of a substance. Thermal energy is not the entire energy of the system, rather it is a part of internal energy of a system. Heat is a form of energy and it transfer due to the gradient in temperature between one element and its surroundings. Heat is macroscopic property of an object and temperature is a quantitative description and measure of hotness or coldness of a system and it is a measure of energy which an object posses.

Heat and Thermal Energy

Thermal energy can be enhanced by

applying other means, e.g. severe agitation can increase the thermal energy of a system. movement of atoms or molecules.

Heat is an energy which is colligate with the Thermal energy, which is loosely defined as

energy of a body increases with the increase in temperature

Heat and Temperature

Heat is the energy which an element possess

and by instinct will take or give energy from surroundings to achieve an equilibrium with the surroundings. It is denoted by Q and its measuring unit in SI system is Joule. an element posses and it is a relative term. hotness or level of hotness of any material.

Temperature is represent level of heat which Temperature is used to quantify the level of

Heat Perspectives

Heat is transferable Heat is measurable Heat cannot be treated as a substance Heat is one form of the energy Heat remains always in transit Heat cannot be stored in a body Energy transfers from high temperature to low temperature It is an interaction between two closed system without exchange of work

Heat Measurement and Units of Heat

SI unit for heat is Joule (J), Calorimeter are used to measure heat British Thermal Unit (BTU) and Calories (cal) are commonly applied engineering BTU heat required to raise temperature of one pound of water from 39 F to 40 F (3.8 C to 4.4 C), it is equal to 1055 J 1 Watt is approximately equal to 3.41214 BTU, 1 HP is equal to 2.544 BTU 1 Calorie is approximately energy required to raise temperature of one gram of water by 1 C at standard atmosphere pressure (101.325 KPa) 1 calorie is equal to 4.2 J

Heat Production
We can produce heat by: Chemical reactions e.g. burning Nuclear reactions Electromagnetic

dissipation e.g. electric stoves

Mechanical dissipation e.g. friction

Latent and sensible heat

Latent heat: heat required to change the

phase between solid, liquid and gas of any substance

Latent heat of fusion Latent heat of vaporization

Sensible heat: heat added or released to

change the temperature without any change in phase keeping constant volume or constant pressure

A = Sensible heat of ice B = Latent heat of fusion of ice C = Sensible heat of water D = Latent heat of vaporization of water E = Sensible heat of steam

[ ontplumbing/latent_heat.htm] architecture/BuildingConstruction-V4/LatentHeat.html#.UMfNmxx5GkM

Latent Heat Calculation

Using the following equation: Q = mL Where: Q is the amount of energy released or

absorbed during the change of phase of the substance (J), m is the mass of the substance,, and L is the latent heat (J/Kg)

Heat Transfer
Conduction Convection Radiation Evaporation and condensation also

considered as a way of heat transfer


In conduction transfer of heat takes place between neighboring molecules due to temperature gradient and it is always form a higher temperature to a lower temperature till there is an equilibrium. In case of solid, heat transfer takes place due to vibrations of molecules and free electron, which transfer energy. In case of gases and liquids, it is due to collision and diffusion of the molecules Transfer of energy can be classified broadly in two categories; first, transfer due to elastic as in case of fluids and second through free electron diffusion Heat transfer takes place either through vibration against each other or movement of electron from one to other substance.

Malalasekera, W. (2009). Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. Notes. Provided by Textile dept of Technical University Liberec. Mooney

Thermal Conduction
In conduction, energy transfer across a

system boundary due to temperature difference by the mechanism of intermolecular interactions availability of matter

Basic requirement of conduction is Nevertheless there is no bulk movement of

matter during heat transfer

Thermal Conductivity
The property of an elements to pass the heat Metals are surmount conductor than non-

metals. It is primarily due to presence of metallic bonds instead of covalent bonds, which allow free movement of electrons. This free movement of electrons is finally responsible to transfer heat. conductivity

Increase in density also increases the thermal

Transient Conduction vs. SteadyState Conduction

Steady state conduction is the form of

conduction which happens when the temperature difference is constant. In short, temperature at a section remains constant and it deviates linearly along direction of heat transfer. occurs when temperature drops or rises more drastically. For example, hot copper ball into oil at a low temperature.

Transient or un-steady state conduction

Heat transfer through conduction

Heat transfer through conduction is a

diffusion process. Amount of heat conduction depends upon the molecular arrangement, which includes space between them, their sizes and bonding, etc. anisotropic in nature, means, it depends upon the direction

Heat transfer through conduction is

Fourier Law for Heat Conduction

"T dx Where : q ! Heat flow or Heat flux [Wm !2 ] q = !!

! ! thermal conductivity [Wm !1K !1 ] T ! teperature [K ], x ! thickness [m]

In this equation


temperature difference is negative value whereas, distance travelled is a positive value. This justifies the negative sign in the equation. It is also understandable from the Figure

Heat Flow in Spatial Directions

Heat transfer is the diffusion of temperature across the substance In one direction not possible Fundamental equation provides adequate information about the flow of heat in one direction In case when we have to think over all spatial dimensions, Fouriers law does not provide enough information to calculate the temperature For this purpose, we have to take assistance from energy conservation law (first law of thermodynamics).

Heat Flow in Multi Directions

Heat flow in three


"T + j "T + k "T ) q = !! (i "x "y "z

Boundary conditions in thermal conduction

1-Temperature on both sides should be

constant (Dirichlet boundary condition ) be same (Neumann boundary con-dition)

2-Differential values on the whole line must 3-Aso called Robbins boundary condition

describes the energy conduction and energy convection, conduction is equal to convection, no rise of temperature in the body, means no storage of heat in body

Temperature, distance and time

Temperature depends upon distance not


When time has no impact on temperature,

we can write it:

Heat flow and distance

"T !! "x

If distance x is zero,


means heat has not travelled then there will no gradient and no heat flow. However for perfect insulation surface (adiabatic) equation will be like this:

Third boundary conditions

"T !! = " T# !Ts x=0 "x x=0 Where " !convection heat coefficient

Heat transfer through

convection at boundary will be equal to heat flow at boundary

Spatial Heat flow

OneDimensional steady conduction

d T =0 2 dx

In case of textile, normal

thickness of fabric is so small that it can be ignored during the heat flow. In this situation heat flows in one primary axis, called x direction assuming the steady state conditions:

Considering the piece of fabric, it can be seen that one dimension (thickness) of the yarn is low as compared to its length. In such a case, this equation defines the effect of thickness:

Considering the heat flow in two direction

Shape of yarn depicts that there is quite low gradient in the direction of it thickness, which provides an enough base to consider that heat flow in such a case can be considered as one directional heat flow. From all above discussion, we can conclude that by doing integration of the following equation:

By integration

By doing another integration

It shows that the temperature at both ends is

constant and in such a case, there is a linear flow of temperature across x-axis

Heat transfer through multiple walls

Heat transfer through walls of different

materials is very common in engineering. Total heat transfer through walls can be calculated with the help of following equations.

Heat transfer through convection

Heat transfer through convection is based

on the movement of a fluid over a solid material.

In the natural convection process, the

difference in density of fluid due to the temperature gradient in different parts of the fluid provides force for movement of fluid. practice, for example, textile dryers.

Nevertheless, forced convection is also in

Newton law of cooling The rate of heat loss is proportional to the difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings.

Where q is heat flow Wm-2, - convection heat

transfer coefficient

Change in temperature with respect to time

Q=mCp T dT/dt=(Ts-T ) Where:-convective heat coefficient [Wm-2K-1] dT/dt is derivative of temperature with respect to time

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Where, is convection heat transfer

coefficient of the material.

It is presumed that is constant, whereas in

reality there is a variation on the surface due to flow condition variation. the total heat transfer.

However, integration is one way to calculate

We assume that plate and fluid temperature is constant, resultantly their difference is also constant. Keeping this point in view integration will be like this:

Taking average of heat transfer coefficient and applying Newtons law of cooling:

Situation becomes more complex when we express the average local value of heat coefficient in the following way:

It is more understandable by taking length of plate L and width of plate W, then area will be L*W. By doing integration of the plate area starting from 0 to L, following equation could be the outcome:

Above equation resolves that there are many factors, which can influence the heat flow in convection, mainly density, viscosity, flow rate, etc. Boundary layer theory is much of use to solve this problem.


Dimensionless Numbers
A ratio of various physical properties (such as

density or heat capacity) and conditions (such as flow rate or weight) of such nature that the resulting number has no defining units of weight, rate, and so on. Also known as nondimensional parameter. ( dimensionless-number#ixzz2F7F51CmF)

Reynolds number
Reynolds Number (Re) is dimensionless number

and an indicator of flow either it is laminar or turbulent. It is a ratio of inertial forces (drag) and viscose forces.

Re numbers is indication of laminar or turbulent flow, for example, in case of flow in a pipe, more than 2300 Re number indicate that there is a turbulent flow.

Nusselt number
Nusselt Number (Nu) is an indicator of the ratio of convection and conduction heat flow along the boundary. It has different numbers depends upon the shape of the material e.g. vertical pipe, horizontal pipe etc. However, close to one, is an indicator of a slug flows, whereas, values from 100 to 200 are indicator of turbulent flow.

-is convection heat coefficient and L is

length and is conductive heat transfer coefficient.

In case when there is a free convection, Nu number is a function of Rayleigh and Pr numbers. .

However, in case of forced convection it is

function of Re and Pr number and written as:

Prandtl number (Pr) This number indicates the ratio between momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. It is expressed as

Greshof number (Gr) Gr number tells about the ratio of buoyancy to viscous force. Most commonly used in natural convection heat flow. Equation to express Gr depends upon type of arrangement for flow. However for a flat plate following equation is used:

Where g represents the natural gravity, shows the expansion coefficient, T is for temperature of surface and temperature of surrounding, L is length of plate and is kinematic viscosity. Its range is 108 <GrL<109. It is significant in case of free convection. Higher numbers shows that there will be turbulence at boundary and low number indicates that flow at boundary will be laminar.

Heat transfer through radiation

Heat transfer radiation requires a temperature gradient in the form of electromagnetic waves or photon emission. Thermal radiation does not require any medium and every substance emits radiation if its temperature is more than absolute temperature (0 K or -273.15 ). Maxwells electromagnetic theory and Planks quantum theory are under use to define and explain the radiation. Considering radiation a wave, it can be said that everybody emits radiation of all wavelengths starting from 0 to , however, for engineering 0.1 to 100 m wavelengths is of more interest. Solar radiation from sun is between .1 to .3 m, whereas visible spectrum is considered between 0.4-0.7 m.

Standard relationship between frequency and wavelength is given as under:


A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. [] An object that can absorb and send off radiationwith complete efficiency that is, it reflects ( see reflection) none of the radiation that falls on it. The higher the object's temperature, the higher the frequencyof the radiation it gives off. [ r=14]

[ Black_body]

[ File:EM_Spectrum_Properties_edit.svg]


Emissivity (

associated with radiation.

or e) is another concept

It is the ratio of radiation emitted from a surface

to the radiation emitted from the surface of blackbody at the same temperature.
A pure black body has maximum emission power

1, whereas, highly polished materials are less emissive, like, and polished silver is 0.02 emissive. It shows that highly reflective materials have low emission.

Absorption, reflectivity and transmission

When any radiation falls on the surface, part

of it may be reflected, transmitted and absorbed.

In case of textile, there are minor chances of

transmission, mainly it will be absorbed or in some cases will be reflected. should be one, following the law of energy conservation.

In any case, the sum of three functions

Stephan-Boltzmann equation
Stephan-Boltzmann equation explains the

energy emitted by any surface at a certain temperature.

However, in case of grey body, which is different from the blackbody, following equation is applied

Wiens Law of Displacement This law provides information about the relationship between the wavelength and temperature.


[1] Wendl, M.C. Fundamentals Of Heat Transfer Theory and Applications. Department of Mechanical Engineering and School of Medicine Washington University, 2005.