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French & Italian Comparative Tutorial I: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously

Basic Phrases English Good day Good evening Good night (going to bed) Hello / Hi / Bye Goodbye Thank you (very much) You're welcome Please How are you? (formal) How are you? (informal) I'm (really) good. I'm ok. Bad / not bad What's your name? (f) What's your name? (in) My name is Where are you from? (f) Where are you from? (in) I'm from. How old are you? (f) How old are you? (in) I'm ___ years old. Yes / No Do you speak ? (f) Do you speak ? (inf) I (don't) speak I (don't) know Do you understand? (f) Do you understand? (inf) I (don't) understand Can you help me? (f) Can you help me? (inf) Of course. I would like Where is / are ? French Bonjour Bonsoir Bonne nuit Salut Au revoir Merci (beaucoup) De rien S'il vous plat Comment allez-vous ? a va? Je vais (trs) bien. Comme ci, comme a. Mal / pas mal Comment vous appelez-vous ? Tu t'appelles comment ? Je m'appelle D'o venez-vous ? Tu es d'o ? Je suis de Quel ge avez-vous ? Tu as quel ge ? J'ai ___ ans. Oui / Non Parlez-vous Est-ce que tu parles Je (ne) parle (pas) Je (ne) sais (pas). Comprenez-vous? Est-ce que tu comprends ? Je (ne) comprends (pas). Pouvez-vous m'aider ? Est-ce que tu peux m'aider ? Bien sr Je voudrais O est / sont ? Italian Buongiorno Buona sera Buona notte Ciao Arrivederci Grazie (mille) Prego Per favore Come sta? Come stai? Sto (abbastanza) bene. Cos cos. Male / Non c' male Come si chiama? Come ti chiami? Mi chiamo Di dov' Lei? Di dove sei? Sono di Quanti anni ha? Quanti anni hai? Ho ___ anni. Si / No Parla Parli (Non) parlo (Non) lo so. Capisce? Capisci? (Non) capisco. Pu aiutarmi? Puoi aiutarmi? Certamente Vorrei Dov' / Dove sono ?

Excusez-moi Con permesso Pardonnez-moi Mi scusi Je suis dsol(e). Mi dispiace A demain A domani A tout l'heure / A bientt A pi tardi / A presto Monsieur / Madame / Mister / Misses / Miss Signore / Signora / Signorina Mademoiselle Pleased to meet you. Enchant(e). Piacere. / Molto lieto. Pardon? Comment ? Come? How do you say ? Comment dit-on ? Come se dice ? What's the matter? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? Cosa c'? What's happening? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? Che succede? There is / are Il y a C' / Ci sono What is it? Qu'est-ce que c'est que a ? Che cosa ? Right? N'est-ce pas ? Vero? It doesn't matter. a ne fait rien. Non importa I have no idea. Je n'ai aucune ide Non ho idea I don't care. a m'est gal. Non m'importa I'm tired / sick. Je suis fatigu(e) / malade. Sono stanco(-a) / malato(-a) I'm hungry / thirsty. J'ai faim / soif. Ho fame / sete. I'm cold / hot. J'ai froid / chaud. Ho freddo / caldo. I'm bored. Je m'ennuie. Mi annoio. I forgot. J'ai oubli. Ho dimenticato. I have to go. Je dois y aller. Devo andare. Welcome! Bienvenue Benvenuti Let's go! Allons-y ! Andiamo! Good luck! Bonne chance ! Buona fortuna! Have fun! (inf) Amuse-toi ! Divertiti! Bless you! A tes souhaits ! Salute! Cheers! A la vtre ! Cincin! Pay attention! / Be careful! (f) Faites attention ! Fate attenzione! Don't worry! (inf) Ne t'en fais pas ! Non ti preoccupare! Shut up! (f / inf) Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! Sta zitto! / Stai zitto! Congratulations! Flicitations ! Congratulazioni! Happy New Year Bonne Anne Buon Anno Happy Easter Joyeuses Pques Buona Pasqua Merry Christmas Joyeux Nol Buon Natale Happy Birthday Bon Anniversaire Buon Compleanno I love you. (singular) Je t'aime Ti amo / Ti voglio bene I miss you. (singular) Tu me manques Mi manchi Adjectives in both languages must agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular and plural) with the nouns they describe. For example. if you are a man, you would use je suis fatigu in French and sono stanco in Italian for I am tired. If you are a woman, you would use je suis fatigue in French and sono stanca in Italian. Vocabulary words are generally given in the

Excuse me Pardon me I'm sorry See you tomorrow See you later / soon

masculine form, with the feminine ending in parentheses.(In French, you generally add -e to form the feminine; while in Italian, you change -o to -a). If there is only one form of an adjective given, then it is the same for masculine and feminine (such as malade in French). There are two ways to say "you" in both languages, formally (f) or informally (inf). The formal you is the polite form and should be used with people you do not know or with people to whom you want to show respect. The informal you should be used with children and animals, and with close friends and family. Pronunciation The major difference in pronunciation between the two languages is that French has several silent letters, while every letter must be pronounced in Italian. In addition, French contains four distinctive nasal vowels that do not exist in Italian. Vowels Vowels in French are somewhat complex (12). Vowels in Italian are much simpler (7). Vowels that do not exist in English are highlighted. French Vowels [i] [y] [e] [] [] [] [a] [] [u] [o] vie, midi, lit, riz rue, jus, tissu, usine bl, nez, cahier, pied jeu, yeux, queue, bleu lait, aile, balai, reine sur, uf, fleur, beurre chat, ami, papa, salade bas, ne, grce, chteau Italian Vowels [i] [e] [] [a] vita vedi era kane English Pronunciation meet ee rounded wait ay rounded bet eh rounded not ah longer

loup, cou, caillou, outil [u] uva boot eau, dos, escargot, htel [o] sole coat sol, pomme, cloche, [] [] modo law horloge fentre, genou, cheval, [] rut cerise I'm using the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols for the vowels and a rough phonetic transcription for those who do not know the IPA. French has three front rounded vowels that do not exist in English, but you can learn to pronounce them correctly because their unrounded counterparts do exist in English. To pronounce [y], round your lips when saying [i]; to pronounce [], round your lips when saying [e]; and to pronounce [], round your lips when saying []. The distinction between [a] and [] continues to disappear in modern French, so don't worry about trying to distinguish these two sounds. Pronouncing Italian vowels is rather easy. The only problems arise when distinguishing the two e's and o's. If the vowel is stressed, then it is always closed [e] and [o]. If the vowel is not stressed, it is always open [] and []. This can change according to regional dialects in Italy, of course, but this is the standard rule. Nasal Vowels, Semi-Vowels/Consonants, & Diphthongs

The four nasal vowels are a distinctive feature of French. There are also three semi-vowels. In Italian, there are two semi-vowels, several diphthongs and a few triphthongs. French nasal French semiItalian semivowels vowels vowels gant, banc, [a] [w] oui, Louis [w] quando, uomo dent pain, vin, piano, ieri, [] [] lui, suisse [j] linge piove brun, lundi, oreille, [] [j] parfum Mireille rond, ongle, [o] front The distinction between the two nasals [] and [] is disappearing in French. Italian semi-vowels are written ua, ue, uo, ui for [w] and ia, ie, io, iu for [j]. If another vowel precedes u or i, then it is a diphthong: ai, ei, oi, au, eu. The combination iu + another vowel creates a triphthong. Consonants French consonants egz examen, exercice exceptionnel, ex + consonant eks expression ch (Latin sh architecte, archives origin) ch (Greek orchestre, k origin) archologie ti + vowel see dmocratie, nation (except ) Italian consonant + vowel combinations ex + vowel eg-zah-mawn, eg-zehr-sees ek-sehp-see-oh-nel, ek-sprehsee-ohn ar-shee-tekt, ar-sheev ohr-kehs-tr, ar-kay-oh-loh-zhee day-moh-krah-see, nah-seeohn

c + a, o, u, he, ah-mee-kah, ah-mee-koh, ahk amica, amico, amiche hi mee-keh c + ia, io, iu, e, bah-cho, cheh-leh-breh, cheech bacio, celebre, cinema i neh-mah g + a, o, u, he, gah-rah, goo-stoh, spah-gehg gara, gusto, spaghetti hi tee g + ia, io, iu, e, djoh-toh, djeh-lah-toh, mahdj Giotto, gelato, magico i djee-koh sc + a, o, u, he, sk scala, scuola, scheda skah-lah, skoo-oh-la, skeh-dah hi sc + ia, io, iu, e, sciarpa, sciupato, shar-pah, shoo-pah-toh, shehsh i scemo moh In both languages, s is generally pronounced the same as in English, except when it is between two vowels, then it is pronounced like z. H is always silent. Double consonants in Italian must be pronounced individually: il nonno (eel nohn-noh) is pronounced differently than il nono (eel noh-noh) Liaison in French forces a preceding consonant to be pronounced before the following vowel of the next word. Normally, this consonant is silent, but it must be pronounced at the beginning of the next

word: trs (treh) and heureux (uh-ruh) become treh zuh-ruh when pronounced together. S and x are pronounced as z, d as t and f as v in liaisons. Stress In general, stress falls on the last syllable in French and the second-to-last syllable in Italian. If stress falls on the last syllable in Italian, the vowel is written with an accent mark (la citt). However, it is also possible for the stress in Italian to fall on the third-to-last syllable (America, telefono) and even the fourth-to-last syllable (telefonano) in third person plural verb conjugations. Alphabet English A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z French ah bay say day uh eff zhay ahsh ee shee kah ell emm enn oh pay kew air ess tay ew vay doo-blah-vay eeks ee-grek zed Italian ah bee chee dee eh eff-eh zhee ahk-kah ee ee loon-gah kahp-pah ehl-eh ehm-eh ehn-eh oh pee koo ehr-reh ehs-seh teh oo voo dohp-pyah voo eeks ee greh-kah dzeh-tah

Numbers English zero French zro Italian zero English French Italian

one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two

un deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt vingt et un vingt-deux

uno due tre quattro cinque sei sette otto nove dieci undici dodici tredici

first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth

premier (re) deuxime troisime quatrime cinquime sixime septime huitime neuvime dixime onzime douzime treizime quatorzime quinzime seizime dix-septime dix-huitime dix-neuvime vingtime vingt et unime vingt-troisime vingt-quatrime vingt-cinquime

primo (a) secondo (a) terzo (a) quarto (a) quinto (a) sesto (a) settimo (a) ottavo (a) nono (a) decimo (a) undicesimo (a) dodicesimo (a) tredicesimo (a) quattordicesimo (a) quindicesimo (a) sedicesimo (a) diciassettesimo (a) diciottesimo (a) diciannovesimo (a) ventesimo (a) ventunesimo (a) ventiduesimo (a) ventitreesimo (a) ventiquattresimo (a) venticinquesimo (a) un mezzo un terzo un quarto una volta due volte tre volte

quattordici fourteenth quindici sedici diciassette diciotto fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth

diciannove nineteenth venti ventuno ventidue ventitre trenta quaranta cinquanta sessanta settanta ottanta cento centuno duecento one-half one-third one-fourth once twice three times twentieth twenty-first twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth

twenty-second vingt-deuxime

twenty-three vingt-trois thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety hundred trente quarante cinquante soixante soixante-dix quatre-vingts cent

une moiti un tiers un quart une fois deux fois trois fois

quatre-vingt-dix novanta

hundred one cent un two hundred deux cents

thousand

mille

mille

million un million un milione When writing numbers, switch the use of commas and periods. For example, 4.50 in English would be written as 4,50 in French and Italian. In French, cent has a plural form: cents, but mille is invariable (there is no plural form); while in Italian, cento is invariable and mille has a plural form: mila. French telephone numbers are ten digits, beginning with zero, and the country code is 33 (Belgium: 32, Switzerland: 41, Canada: 1). Italian telephone numbers are between 8 and 11 digits, most beginning with zero, and the country code is 39. Articles & Demonstratives Definite and Indefinite Articles Indefinite Article (a, Definite Article (the) French Italian an) masculine singular le il masculine singular begins with vowel l' l' begins with vowel begins with s + cons. lo begins with s + cons. masculine plural les i masculine plural plural of l' and lo gli plural: di + gli French un un des Italian un un uno dei degli

feminine singular la la feminine singular une una begins with vowel l' l' begins with vowel une un' feminine plural les le feminine plural des delle Articles are slightly more complicated in Italian. The rows in italics only concern Italian and not French. If a masculine Italian noun begins with s + consonant, z, gn, ps, x, or i + vowel, you must use lo as the definite article (instead of il). However, la is still used for all feminine Italian nouns that begin with those same letters. Only il changes to i in the plural, while l' and lo change to gli. Feminine articles are more simple: la and l' change to le in the plural. The plural indefinite article can be expressed as some in English, but it is not always used. Demonstrative Adjectives this / these + noun French Italian that / those + noun masculine singular ce questo masculine singular begins with vowel cet quest' begins with vowel begins with s + cons. questo begins with s + cons. masculine plural ces questi masculine plural plural of l' and lo questi plural: di + gli French ce cet ces Italian quel quell' quello quei quegli

feminine singular cette questa feminine singular cette quella begins with vowel cette quest' begins with vowel cette quell' feminine plural ces queste feminine plural ces quelle In French, ce, cet, and cette can be translated as this or that, while ces can be translated as these or those. If you would like to be precise, you can add -ci to the end of the noun to specify this/these (for what is close to you), and -l to the end of the noun to specify that/those (for what is further away from you). For example, cette chaise-ci means this chair while cette chaise-l means that chair. In Italian, two distinct forms exist to distinguish between what is close and what is far away:

quest- for close, and quel- for far away. In Italian, demonstrative adjectives (which precede nouns) and demonstrative pronouns (which take the place of nouns) have very similar forms. In French, the demonstrative pronouns have different forms. You can add -ci and -l to the French demonstrative pronouns to specify what is close (this/these) and what is far away (that/those): celui-ci means this one, while celui-l means that one. this / these + verb masculine singular masculine plural feminine singular feminine plural French celui ceux celle celles Demonstrative Pronouns Italian that / those + verb questo masculine singular questi masculine plural questa queste feminine singular feminine plural French celui ceux celle celles Italian quello quelli quella quelle

Nouns: Gender & Number There are two genders of nouns in both languages, masculine and feminine, and two numbers, singular and plural. Adjectives agree in gender and number with nouns, so you must learn the gender with each noun in order to form grammatically correct phrases. Usually the last letter of the noun will tell you which gender it is. Gender In French, masculine singular nouns generally end with a consonant, - age or -ment. Feminine singular nouns generally end with -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -ance, -t, and -ette. In Italian, masculine singular nouns generally end with -o or -ore. Feminine singular nouns generally end with -a or -zione. Nouns ending with -e and -ista can be either gender, so you must learn those individually. A few masculine nouns end with -a: il problema, il tema, il teorema, il poeta, il cinema, il programma; and a few feminine nouns end with -o: la mano, la radio, la foto, la moto. In most cases, the gender of a noun is the same in French and Italian. But there are some cases in which the genders are reversed. (For example, names of cities and letters of the alphabet are masculine in French, but feminine in Italian.) Masculine in French / Feminine in Italian English French Italian air l'air l'aria art l'art l'arte calm le calme la calma number/digi le chiffre la cifra t couple le couple la coppia Sunday le dimanche la domenica summer l't l'estate forehead le front la fronte guide le guide la guida spring le printemps la primavera sand le sable la sabbia Feminine in French / Masculine in Italian English French Italian affair, case l'affaire l'affare tooth la dent il dente oil l'huile l'olio limit sea method minute panic period planet second la limite la mer la mthode la minute la panique la priode la plante la seconde il limite il mare il metodo il minuto il panico il periodo il pianeta il secondo

evening

le soir

la sera

attempt

la tentative il tentativo

Number In French, singular nouns generally add -s (unless the noun already ends in -s, -z, or -x, then they change nothing for the plural), though nouns ending in -au, -eau, and -eu add -x instead (or change -al/-ail to -aux) to form the plural. (Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau, dtail, chandail all add -s) There are also seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou, genou, pou, joujou, hibou French Irregular Plurals: l'il - les yeux (eye-eyes); le ciel - les cieux (sky-skies); le jeune homme - les jeunes gens (young man-young men); and three nouns are masculine in the singular, but feminine in the plural: amour, dlice, orgue In Italian, singular nouns that end with -o or -e, whether masculine or feminine, change to -i in the plural. Feminine nouns change -a to -e in the plural. Monosyllabic nouns, nouns that end with an accented letter, with a consonant, and with -i do not change in the plural. Nouns ending in -ca, -go, -ca, and -ga add an -h before the plural ending (as a rule of pronunciation). Nouns that end with -io can either change to -ii in the plural (if the i of -io is stressed), or to -i (if the i of -io is not stressed). Italian Irregular Plurals: l'uomo - gli uomini (man-men); il dio - gli dei (god-gods); il bue - i buoi (beef); il centinaio - le centinaia (century-centuries); il dito - le dita (finger-fingers); il riso - le risa (laughter); l'uovo - le uova (egg-eggs); l'ala - le ali (wing-wings); l'arma - le armi (weaponweapons); la mano - le mani (hand-hands) Personal Pronouns Subject Pronouns English I you (s, inf) you (s, f) he / she one / we we you (pl, inf/f) they (m/fem ) Direct Object Pronouns French Italian English French Italian je io me me mi you (s, tu tu te ti inf) you (s, vous Lei vous La f) lui / him / il / elle le / la lo / la lei her on nous vous ils / elles si noi voi loro us nous you (pl, vous inf) them les ci vi li us nous you (pl, vous inf) them leur ci vi loro us nous you (pl, vous inf) them eux / elles noi voi loro Indirect Object Pronouns English French Italian me me mi you (s, te ti inf) you (s, vous Le f) him / lui gli / le her Disjunctive Pronouns English me you (s, inf) you (s, f) him / her French Italian moi me toi vous te Lei

lui /elle lui / lei

s = singular, pl = plural, inf = informal, f = formal, m = masculine, fem = feminine There is more than one you in both languages, depending on how many people you are speaking to and how informal or formal you are being. In French, tu is singular and informal (when speaking to one person, such as a family member); while vous is plural, whether informal or formal (when speaking to more than one person) AND singular and formal (when speaking to one person, whom you do not know well or to whom you'd like to show respect). In Italian, tu is informal and singular,

while Lei is formal and singular and voi is plural, whether informal or formal. Keep in mind that Lei takes a third person singular form when conjugating verbs (same as for he/she - lui/lei). On and si are used as an abstract subject meaning one, they, you, we, people in general, etc. There are several translations of this into English where the subject doesn't refer to any person already mentioned: They say it's going to rain today. How are you supposed to do this? What should one do with $10 million? In addition, the French on is very commonly used to mean we instead of nous in everyday conversation. It always take a third person singular form when conjugating verbs, even though it refers to more than one person. In both languages, if you want to use it to refer to a noun, you must know the gender. For example, il in French can mean he or it, depending on what noun the pronoun refers to. Il est petit, le garon. He is small, the boy. Il est petit, le lit. It is small, the bed. Notice that they can also be translated in two ways in French (ils and elles), depending on the gender of the noun. Verbs: Be, Have, Do Present Tense suis sono es sei est sommes siamo tes siete sont sono ai as a avons avez ont ho hai ha abbiamo avete hanno Past Tense tais ero tais eri tait era tions eravamo tiez eravate taient erano avais avais avait avions aviez avaient avevo avevi aveva avevamo avevate avevano Future Tense serai sar seras sarai sera sar serons saremo serez sarete seront saranno aurai auras aura aurons aurez auront ferai feras fera ferons ferez feront avr avrai avr avremo avrete avranno far farai far faremo farete faranno

tre / essere - to be

avoir / avere - to have

fais faccio faisais facevo fais fai faisais facevi fait fa faisait faceva faire / fare - to do, make faisons facciamo faisions facevamo faites fate faisiez facevate font fanno faisaient facevano Past tense here refers to the imperfect, not preterite.

In French, the subject pronoun must always be used before the verb conjugations. When the verb begins with a vowel, je becomes j' and is connected to the verb (j'ai). In informal speech, the same happens with tu, it becomes t' and is connected to the following verb (t'as). In Italian, you do not have to use the subject pronouns, unless you want to emphasize the subject or to avoid ambiguity. There are several common and idiomatic expressions with the verbs avoir and avere, which translate to be in English: to be hungry to be thirsty avoir faim avoir soif avere fame avere sete

to be warm to be cold to be right to be wrong to be sleepy to be afraid (of) to be # years old to need to want, feel like

avoir chaud avoir froid avoir raison avoir tort avoir sommeil avoir peur (de) avoir # ans avoir besoin de avoir envie de

avere caldo avere freddo avere ragione avere torto avere sonno avere paura (di) avere # anni avere bisogno di avere voglia di

There is another verb in Italian that means to be, stare. But this verb is only used in expressions relating to health and feelings and when expressing the progressive form (be + gerund in English). Present Tense sto stai sta stiamo state stanno Past Tense stavo stavi stava stavamo stavate starano Future Tense star starai star staremo starete staranno

stare - to be

Interrogatives / Conjunctions / Adverbs English who whose what where where from why when how how much which that French qui de qui qu'est-ce que / quoi o d'o pourquoi quand comment combien quel(le) que Italian chi di chi che cosa / che / cosa dove di dove perch quando come quanto quale che English because and or but if not very also while since although French parce que et ou mais si pas trs aussi pendant depuis bien que Italian perch e o ma se non molto anche mentre da bench

Days / Months / Seasons English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday French lundi mardi mercredi jeudi Italian luned marted mercoled gioved English January February March April French janvier fvrier mars avril Italian gennaio febbraio marzo aprile

Friday Saturday Sunday spring summer autumn

vendredi samedi dimanche le printemps l't (m) l'automne (m)

venerd sabato domenica la primavera l'estate (f) l'autunno

May June July August September October November

mai juin juillet aot septembre octobre novembre

maggio giugno luglio agosto settembre ottobre novembre

winter l'hiver (m) l'inverno December dcembre dicembre The days of the week and months of the year are all masculine in both languages (except domenica in Italian). If you want to express an action that happens habitually on a certain day, use the definite article before the day: le lundi / il luned (on Mondays). In a season or a month is translated as en in French (except for in spring, which is au printemps) and in in Italian. When writing the date, use the definite article (le or il) plus the number and then the month: le 5 mai / il 5 maggio. For the first day of a month, you must use premier or primo instead of the number. Time / Weather / Directions What time is it? At what time? 1:00 2:00 3:10 19:50 18:15 7:45 15:30 noon midnight exactly in the morning in the Quelle heure est- Che ora ? / Che What's the Quel temps il ? ore sono? weather like? fait-il ? A quelle heure ? Il est une heure A che ora? l'una It's nice Il fait bon Che tempo fa? Fa tempo buono Fa bel tempo

It's beautiful Il fait beau It's hot It's cold It's sunny

Il est deux heures Sono le due Il est trois heures Sono le tre e dix dieci Il est vingt heures Sono le venti moins dix meno dieci Il est dix-huit heures et quart Il est huit heures moins le quart Il est quinze heures et demie midi minuit prcise du matin de l'aprs-midi

Il fait chaud Fa caldo Il fait froid Il fait du soleil Il fait du vent Il fait frais Il fait mauvais Il fait du brouillard Il fait nuageux Il fait orageux Il pleut Il neige Fa freddo C' il sole Tira vento Fa fresco Fa brutto tempo C' la nebbia nuvoloso Il tempo burrascoso Piove Nevica

Sono le diciotto e It's windy un cuarto Sono le otto meno un quarto Sono le quindici e mezzo mezzogiorno mezzanotte in punto di mattina del pomeriggio It's cool It's bad It's foggy It's cloudy It's stormy It's raining It's snowing

afternoon in the evening English afternoon century dawn day daybreak dusk evening fortnight holiday du soir di sera It's freezing Il gle Fa un freddo gelido

French

Italian

English sunrise sunset time today tomorrow week year yesterday last, previous next north south east west northeast northwest southeast southwest to/on the left to/on the right straight

French

l'aprs-midi (m) il pomeriggio le sicle l'aube le jour le point du jour la tombe de la nuit le soir la quinzaine la fte il secolo l'alba il giorno la spuntar del giorno il far della notte la sera la quindicina la festa l'ora una mezz'ora un quarto d'ora un'ora e mezzo l'anno bisestile la mezzanotte il minuto il mese la mattina la notte il mezzogiorno la stagione il secondo

Italian il levar del le lever du soleil sole le coucher du il tramonto soleil le temps il tempo aujourd'hui oggi demain la semaine l'an (m) hier dernier (re) prochain(e) nord sud est ouest nord-est nord-ouest sud-est sud-ouest gauche droite tout droit domani la settimana l'anno ieri ultimo prossimo nord sud est ovest nord-est nord-ovest sud-est sud-ovest a sinistra a destra sempre diritto

hour l'heure (f) half hour une demi-heure quarter hour un quart d'heure hour and une heure et half demi leap year l'anne bissextile midnight la minuit minute la minute month le mois morning la matin night la nuit noon season second le midi la saison la seconde

Colors & Shapes English red pink orange yellow French rouge rose orange jaune Italian rosso (-a) rosa arancione giallo (-a) English square circle triangle rectangle French le carr le cercle le triangle le rectangle Italian il quadrato il cerchio il triangolo il rettangolo

green blue purple brown black white gray silver gold

vert(e) bleu(e) lila / violet(te) brun(e) / marron noir(e) blanc(he) gris(e) argent(e) dor

verde azzurro (a) viola marrone nero (-a) bianco (a) grigio (-a) argento (a) oro (-a)

oval box sphere cube pyramid cone cylinder heart star diamond

l'ovale la bote la sphre le cube la pyramide le cne le cylindre le cur l'toile (f) le diamant

l'ovale la scatola la sfera il cubo la piramide il cono il cilindro il cuore la stella il diamante

crescent le croissant la mezzaluna Remember that colors are adjectives and they are placed after the noun they modify. In French, add -e to form the feminine; in Italian, change the final -o to -a. Adjectives that already end in -e do not change for the feminine in either language. Adjectives that end in -a (such as lila or viola) tend to be invariable and do not change at all, not even for the plural. Family family mother mom father dad parents daughter son children sister brother wife la famille la mre maman le pre papa les parents la fille le fils les enfants la sur le frre la femme / la famiglia stepson la madre mamma il padre pap i genitori la figlia il figlio i figli la sorella il fratello la sposa stepsister stepbrother half-sister half-brother mother-in-law father-in-law daughter-in-law son-in-law sister-in-law brother-in-law godmother le beau-fils la bellesur le beaufrre la demisur le demifrre la bellemre il figliastro la sorellastra il fratellastro la sorellastra il fratellastro la suocera

le beau-pre il suocero la belle-fille la nuora le gendre la bellesur le beaufrre il genero la cognata il cognato

la marraine la madrina

l'pouse husband grandmother grandfather grandparents granddaughter grandson grandchildren cousin (f) cousin (m) aunt uncle niece nephew stepmother stepfather stepdaughter le mari / l'poux la grand-mre le grand-pre les grandsparents la petite-fille le petit-fils la cousine le cousin la tante l'oncle la nice le neveu la belle-mre le beau-pre la belle-fille lo sposo la nonna il nonno i nonni la nipote il nipote la cugina il cugino la zia lo zio la nipote il nipote la matrigna la figliastra godfather girl boy baby woman man adult relatives twins birth death marriage divorce single le parrain le garon le bb la femme l'homme l'adulte les parents il padrino il ragazzo il bambino la donna l'uomo l'adulto i parenti la jeune fille la ragazza

les petits-enfants i nipoti

les jumeaux i gemelli la naissance la nascita la mort le mariage le divorce clibataire mari(e) divorc(e) la morte il matrimonio il divorzio celibe / nubile sposato (-a) divorziato (a)

il patrigno married divorced

Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns Possessive Adjectives French Italian French Italian French Italian French Italian adjective + noun masculine singular masculine plural feminine singular feminine plural my mon il mio mes i miei ma la mia mes le mie your (s) ton il tuo tes i tuoi ta la tua tes le tue his / her son il suo ses i suoi sa la sua ses le sue our notre il nostro nos i nostri notre la nostra nos le nostre your (pl) votre il vostro vos i vostri votre la vostra vos le vostre their leur il loro leurs i loro leur la loro leurs le loro In Italian, you must always use the definite article before the possessive adjective, except with singular family members that are not modified in any way. However, loro is invariable and always preceded by the definite article. In both languages, you generally use the definite article instead of a possessive adjective when referring to parts of the body (because it is obvious who they belong to). In Italian, possessive adjectives (which precede nouns) and possessive pronouns (which take the place of nouns) have the same form. However, in French, there are different words for the possessive pronouns. French Italian masculine Possessive Pronouns French Italian French Italian masculine plural feminine singular French Italian feminine plural

verb +

pronoun singular mine le mien il mio les miens i miei la mienne la mia les miennes le mie yours (s) le tien il tuo les tiens i tuoi la tienne la tua les tiennes le tue his / hers le sien il suo les siens i suoi la sienne la sua les siennes le sue ours le ntre il nostro les ntres i nostri la ntre la nostra les ntres le nostre yours (pl) le vtre il vostro les vtres i vostri la vtre la vostra les vtres le vostre theirs le leur il loro les leurs i loro la leur la loro les leurs le loro Remember that the forms for her/hers in Italian can also be capitalized and use for the singular formal your/yours: il Suo / i Suoi / la Sua / le Sue.

French & Italian Comparative Tutorial II: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously

Adjectives: Gender & Number Adjectives are placed after the noun they describe in French and Italian, though there are a few common adjectives that are placed before the noun (adjectives of beauty, age, goodness and size). They also must agree in gender and number with the noun. Most of the rules for changing gender and number in both languages are the same for adjectives as they are for nouns. Gender In French, add -e to the masculine adjective to form the feminine. If the masculine adjective already ends in -e, then add nothing (the masculine and feminine forms are the same). There are several other rules for forming feminine adjectives in French: -x changes to -se, -il, -el, and -eil change to -ille, -elle, and -eille, -et changes to -te, -en and -on change to -enne and -onne, -er changes to -re, -f changes to -ve, -c changes to -che, -g changes to -gue, -eur changes to -euse if adjective is derived from verb, -eur changes to -rice if adjective is not same as verb, -eur changes to -eure with adjectives of comparison. Three common adjectives are irregular, and generally precede the noun: beau - belle (beautiful); nouveau - nouvelle (new); vieux - vieille (old). These three adjectives also have an alternate form that is used before masculine adjectives that begin with a vowel: bel, nouvel, vieil. In Italian, masculine adjectives change -o to -a for the feminine. Adjectives that end in -e can be masculine or feminine. Number In French, add -s to a singular adjective to form the plural, unless it already ends in -s, -x, or -z (adjectives ending in these letters are the same in the singular and plural). In Italian, singular masculine adjectives change -o to -i and singular feminine adjectives change -a to -e to form the plural. Adjectives ending in -e (regardless of gender) change to -i for the plural. Same as for nouns, adjectives ending in -ca, -go, -ca, and -ga add an -h before the plural ending. Adjectives that end with -io can either change to -ii in the plural (if the i of -io is stressed), or to -i (if the i of -io is not stressed). In both languages, when an adjective describes more than one noun of different genders, the adjective will be masculine plural. Mes amis et mes amies sont tous italiens. / I miei amici e le

mie amiche sono tutti italiani. My male friends and my female friends are all Italian. However, in Italian, the adjective can also agree with the noun that is closest to it. nice mean great / large small long short (length) tall short (height) gentil / gentille gentile ugly laid/e brutto/a mchant/e meschino/a open ouvert/e aperto/a grand/e grande closed ferm/e chiuso/a petit/e piccolo/a wide large largo/a long/ue lungo/a narrow troit/e stretto/a court/e corto/a hot chaud/e caldo/a grand/e alto/a cold froid/e freddo/a petit/e basso/a dirty sale sporco/a nouveau / new nuovo/a clean propre pulito/a nouvelle young jeune giovane quiet tranquille zitto/a old vieux / vieille vecchio/a loud bruyant/e rumoroso/a premier / first primo/a thin maigre magro/a premire next prochain/e prossimo/a big / fat gros / grosse grasso/a last dernier / dernire ultimo/a empty vide vuoto/a same mme stesso/a full plein/e pieno/a different diffrent/e differente slow lent/e lento/a good bon / bonne buono/a fast vide veloce bad mauvais/e cattivo/a happy content/e felice beautiful beau / belle bello/a sad triste triste Remember for adjectives, you add -e to form the feminine in French; while in Italian, you change -o to -a. Verbs: Come, Go Present Tense viens vengo viens vieni vient viene venons veniamo venez venite viennent vengono Past Tense venais venivo venais venivi venait veniva venions venivamo veniez venivate venaient venivano Future Tense viendrai verr viendras verrai viendra verr viendrons verremo viendrez verrete viendront verranno

venir / venire - to come

vais vado allais andavo irai andr vas vai allais andavi iras andrai va allait andava ira andr aller / andare - to va go allons andiamo allions andavamo irons andremo allez andate alliez andavate irez andrete vont vanno allaient andavono iront andranno Aller and andare can both be used to indicate the future, as does go in English: to be going to + infinitive. In French, aller is followed directly by the infinitive, but in Italian, the preposition a is

placed between andare and the infinitive. Je vais partir. / Vado a partire. I'm going to leave. Asking Questions Yes / No Questions The easiest way to form yes/no questions in both languages is to add n'est-ce pas to the end of French statements and non vero to the end of Italian statements. These phrases are similar to the tags that English adds to the end of questions, and therefore there are several translations into English. Tu es une tudiante, n'est-ce pas ? / Sei una studentessa, non vero? You're a student, aren't you? You can also change the word order to form yes/no questions. In French, you invert the subject and verb and write them together with a hypen. If the verb ends in a vowel, you must add -t- between the verb and subject for ease of pronunciation. And if there is a subject other than the subject pronoun, you leave the subject at the beginning and invert the subject pronoun and verb. In Italian, you simply add a question mark to the end of the sentence and raise the intonation of your voice. Or if there is a subject, you can move it to the end of the sentence. Parlez-vous allemand ? / Parlate tedesco? Do you speak German? Le garon a-t-il faim ? / Ha fame, il ragazzo? Is the boy hungry? Another way to form yes/no questions in French involves adding est-ce que before the statement: Est-ce que vous parlez allemand ? You can also simply add a question mark and raise the intonation of your voice to form questions in French, but this is informal and not advised in writing: Vous parlez allemand ? Interrogative Questions For questions that begin with wh- words or phrases in English, you use question word + inversion of subject and verb in French and simply the question word + verb in Italian. You can also use question word + est-ce que + subject + verb in French if you do not want to use inversion. A third, and informal, way of forming wh- questions in French is to use the question word + subject + verb (no est-ce que and no inversion). Quelle heure est-il ? / Che ore sono? What time is it? Negatives In French, ne and pas are placed around the verb to make the phrase negative. (In everyday spoken French, ne is often dropped, but it must always be written). In Italian, non is placed before the verb. Il n'est pas triste. / Non triste. He is not sad. Tu n'es pas parti ? / Non partito? You haven't left? Je ne joue pas au foot. / Non gioco a calcio. I don't play soccer. Other negatives use two words in both languages. Ne or non is placed before the verb, and the other word is placed after. Unlike English, it is possible to use two negative words in a sentence. English never no longer, no more nothing French ne...jamais ne...plus ne...rien Italian non...mai non...pi non...niente

nobody neither...nor Work & School English actor actress

ne...personne ne...ni...ni

non...nessuno non...n...n

Italian l'avvocato il meccanico il/ la author l'crivain l'autore musician le musicien musicista baker le boulanger il fornaio nurse l'infirmire l'infermiera bookseller le libraire il libraio optician l'opticien l'ottico businessman le commerant il commerciante painter le peintre il pittore butcher le boucher il macellaio pharmacist le chimiste il chimico clerk le vendeur il commesso photographer le photographe il fotografo cook le cuisinier il cuoco policeman l'agent de police la guardia customer le client il cliente postman le facteur il portalettere dentist le dentiste il dentista priest le cur il prete le mdecin / il medico / doctor publisher l'diteur l'editore docteur dottore employee l'employ l'impiegato shoemaker le cordonnier il calzolaio engineer l'ingnieur l'ingegnere singer le chanteur il cantante fisherman le pcheur il pescatore soldier le soldat il soldato gardener le jardinier il giardiniere student l'tudiant lo studente hairdresser le coiffeur il parrucchiere surgeon le chirurgien il chirurgo jeweler le bijoutier il gioielliere teacher l'instituteur il maestro le journalist le journaliste il giornalista typist il dattilografo dactylographe judge le juge il giudice workman l'ouvrier l'operaio English French Italian English French Italian accounting le comptabilit la ragioneria history l'histoire (f) la storia la architecture l'architecture l'architettura law le droit giurisprudenza art l'art l'arte (f) linguistics le linguistique la linguistica astronomy l'astronomie l'astronomia literature la littrature le lettere les biology la biologie la biologia mathematics la matematica mathmatiques business les commerces il commercio medicine la mdecine la medicina chemistry la chimie la chimica music la musique la musica computer l'informatique l'informatica philosophy la philosophie la filosofia science la science de la la scienza della physical l'ducation l'educazione earth science terra terra education physique fisica economics l'conomie l'economia physics la physique la fisica engineering l'ingnieur l'ingegneria political la science le scienze

French l'acteur l'actrice

Italian l'attore l'attrice

English lawyer mechanic

French l'avocat le mcanicien

science

politique

politiche

foreign les langues la lingua psychology la pyschologie la psicologia languages trangres straniera geography la gographie la geografia science la science la scienza geometry la gomtrie la geometria sociology la sociologie la sociologia In the French school system, foreign languages is referred to as les langues vivantes (living languages). Countries & Nationalities English Africa African Albania Albanian America American Argentina Argentine Asia Asian Australia French l'Afrique (f) africain/e l'Albanie albanais/e l'Amrique (f) amricain/e l'Argentine (f) argentin/e l'Asie (f) asiatique l'Australie (f) Italian l'Africa africano/a l'Albania albanese l'America americano/a l'Argentina argentino/a l'Asia asiatico/a l'Australia australiano/ a l'Austria austriaco/a belga il Belgio la Bosnia bosniaco/a il Brasile brasiliano/a britannico/a la Bulgaria bulgaro/a il Canada canadese la Cina cinese la Croazia croato/a ceco/a English Indonesia Indonesian Ireland Irishman Israel Israeli Italy Italian Japan Japanese Latvia Latvian Lithuania Lithuanian Luxembourger Luxembourg Macedonia Macedonian Malta Maltese Netherlands Dutch New Zealand New Zealander Norway Norwegian Poland Polish Portuguese Portugal French l'Indonsie (f) indonsien/ne l'Irlande (f) irlandais/e l'Isral isralien l'Italie (f) italien/ne le Japon japonais/e la Lettonie letton/ne la Lituanie lituanien/ne luxembourgeois/e le Luxembourg la Macdoine macdonien/ne Malte (f) maltais/e les Pays Bas nerlandais/e la NouvelleZlande no-zlandais/e la Norvge norvgien/ne la Pologne polonais/e portugais/e le Portugal Italian l'Indonesia indonesiano/a l'Irlanda irlandese l'Israele israeliano/a l'Italia italiano/a il Giappone giapponese la Lettonia lettone la Lituania lituano/a lussemburghese il Lussemburgo la Macedonia macedone Malta (f) maltese i Paesi Bassi olandese la Nuova Zelanda neozelandese la Norvegia norvegese la Polonia polacco/a portoghese il Portogallo

Australian australien/ne Austria Austrian Belgian Belgium Bosnia Bosnian Brazil Brazilian British Bulgaria l'Autriche (f) autrichien/ne belge la Belgique la Bosnie bosniaque le Brsil brsilien/ne brittanique la Bulgarie

Bulgarian bulgare Canada Canadian China Chinese Croatia Croatian Czech le Canada canadien/ne la Chine chinois/e la Croatie croate tchque

Czech Republic Danish

la Rpublique Tchque danois/e

Denmark le Danemark Egypt Egyptian England English Estonia Estonian Europe European Finland Finnish France French German Germany Great Britain Greece Greek Hungarian Hungary l'Egypte (f) gyptien/e l'Angleterre (f) anglais/e l'Estonie estonien/ne l'Europe (f) europen/ne la Finlande finnois/e la France franais/e allemand/e l'Allemagne (f) la GrandeBretagne la Grce grec/grecque hongrois/e la Hongrie

Turkey la Turquie Turk turc/turcque Ukrainian ukrainien/ne Ukraine l'Ukraine United Iceland l'Islande l'Islanda la Royaume-Uni Kingdom Icelandic islandais/e islandese United States les Etats-Unis India l'Inde l'India Wales le Pays-de-Galles Indian indien/ne indiano/a Welsh gallois/e The article is not used with Malta in either language. Prepositions & Contractions

la Repubblica Ceca danese la Danimarca l'Egitto egiziano/a l'Inghilterra inglese l'Estonia estone l'Europa europeo/a la Finlandia finlandese la Francia francese tedesco/a la Germania la Gran Bretagna la Grecia greco/a ungherese l'Ungheria

Romanian Romania Russia Russian Scotland Scottish Serbia Serbian Slovakia Slovak Slovenia Slovene Spain Spanish Swedish Sweden Switzerland Swiss

roumain/e la Roumanie la Russie russe l'Ecosse cossais/e la Serbie serbe la Slovaquie slovaque la Slovnie slovne l'Espagne (f) espagnol/e sudois/e la Sude la Suisse suisse

romeno/a la Romania la Russia russo/a la Scozia scozzese la Serbia serbo/a la Slovacchia slovacco/a la Slovenia sloveno/a la Spagna spagnolo/a svedese la Svezia la Svizzera svizzero/a la Turchia turco/a ucraino/a l'Ucraina il Regno Unito gli Stati Uniti Galles gallese

Prepositions are highly idiomatic in any language, so it is always better to learn them in common phrases. Nevertheless, here are the most common prepositions: English to, in, at in, to on with without for French en / dans sur avec sans pour Italian a in su con senza per

from, by de da of de di over / above au-dessus sopra under / below au-dessous sotto in front of devant dietro behind derrire di fronte a near prs de vicino a far loin de lontano a In both languages, possession is shown by using de or di (of) rather than the - 's in English: le chat de Luca / il gatto di Luca Luca's cat (or the cat of Luca) In French and de combine with the definite articles: + le = au, + les = aux, de + le = du, de + les = des. Italian has several more contractions involving prepositions and articles: il a da di in su al dal del nel sul lo allo dallo dello nello sullo l' all' dall' dell' nell' sull' la alla dalla della nella sulla i ai dai dei nei sui gli agli dagli degli negli sugli le alle dalle delle nelle sulle

con col collo coll' colla coi cogli colle Usually no article is used with in before words denoting rooms in a house or buildings in a city. The contractions with con are rarely used nowadays, but you will see them in older writings. Verbs: Know Present Tense sais so sais sai savoir / sait sa sapere - to sappiamo know facts savons savez sapete savent sanno connatre / conoscere to know people, places; to be acquainted with connais connais connat connaissons connaissez conosco conosci conosce conosciamo conoscete Past Tense savais sapevo savais sapevi savait sapeva savions sapevamo saviez sapevate savaient sapevano connaissais connaissais connaissait connaissions connaissiez conoscevo conoscevi conosceva conoscevamo conoscevate Future Tense saurai sapr sauras saprai saura sapr saurons sapremo saurez saprete sauront sapranno connatrai connatras connatra connatrons connatrez conoscer conoscerai conoscer conosceremo conoscerete

connaissent conoscono

connaissaient conoscevano

connatront conosceranno

Food & Meals English French Italian English French Italian

bacon beef beer beverage biscuit

il pranzo il pasto la carne il latte la mostarda la carne di bread le pain il pane mutton le mouton montone breakfast le petit djeuner la colazione oil l'huile (f) l'olio butter le beurre il burro omelet l'omelette (f) la frittata cake la gteau la torta pepper le poivre il pepe candy le bonbon la caramella pie la tarte la torta cheese le fromage il formaggio pork le porc il maiale chicken le poulet il pollo rice le riz il riso chocolate le chocolat il cioccolato roast le rti l'arrosto coffee le caf il caff roll le petit pain il panino cookie le biscuit il biscotto salad la salade l'insalata cottage cheese le fromage blanc la ricotta salami le salami il salame cotton candy la barbe papa lo zucchero filato salt le sel il sale cream la crme la panna sauce la sauce la salsa dessert le dessert la frutta sausage la saucisse la salsiccia dinner le dner la cena soup la soupe la minestra egg l'uf (m) l'uovo steak le bifteck la bistecca fat la graisse il grasso stew la ragot lo stufato flour la farine la farina sugar le sucre lo zucchero ham le jambon il prosciutto supper le souper la cena hamburger le hamburger l'hamburger tea le th il t honey le miel il miele toast le pain grill il pane tostato hot dog le hot-dog l'hot dog veal la veau la carne di vitello ice la glace il ghiaccio vegetables le lgume il legume ice cream la glace il gelato vinegar le vinaigre l'aceto jam la confiture la marmellata water l'eau l'acqua juice le jus il succo wine le vin il vino lollipop la sucette il leccalecca yogurt le yaourt lo yogurt Verbs: Can, Want, Must Present Tense peux posso peux puoi pu pouvoir / potere - to be peut able to, can pouvons possiamo pouvez potete peuvent possono Past Tense pouvais potevo pouvais potevi pouvait poteva pouvions potevamo pouviez potevate pouvaient potevano Future Tense pourrai potr pourras potrai pourra potr pourrons potremo pourrez potrete pourront potranno

le bacon le buf la bire la boisson le biscuit

il lardo il manzo la birra la bevanda il biscotto

lunch meal meat milk mustard

le djeuner le repas la viande le lait la moutarde

vouloir / volere - to want

veux veux veut voulons voulez veulent dois dois doit devons devez doivent

voglio vuoi vuole vogliamo volete vogliono devo devi deve dobbiamo dovete devono

voulais voulais voulait voulions vouliez voulaient devais devais devait devions deviez devaient

volevo volevi voleva volevamo volevate volevano dovevo dovevi doveva dovevamo dovevate dovevano

voudrai voudras voudra voudrons voudrez voudront devrai devras devra devrons devrez devront

vorr vorrai vorr vorremo vorrete vorranno dovr dovrai dovr dovremo dovrete dovranno

devoir / dovere - to have to, must

Fruits & Vegetables English almond apple apricot artichoke asparagus avocado banana barley bean (broad) bean (kidney) berry broccoli cabbage carrot cauliflower celery cherry chestnut chives corn cucumber currant cypress date French l'amande (f) la pomme l'abricot (m) l'artichaut (m) l'asperge (f) l'avocat le banane l'orge (f) la fve le haricot la baie le brocoli le choux la carotte le chou-fleur le cleri la cerise la chtaigne, le marron la ciboulette la mas le concombre la groseille le cyprs la datte Italian la mandorla la mela l'albicocca il carciofo l'asparago l'avocado la banana l'orzo la fava il fagiolo la bacca i broccoli il cavolo la carota il cavolfiore il sedano la ciliegia la castagna la cipollina il granoturco il cetriolo il ribes il cipresso il dattero English lentil lettuce lime melon mint mushroom oats olive onion orange parsley pea peach pear pepper pine pineapple plum potato pumpkin radish raspberry rice rye French la lentille la laitue le citron vert le melon la menthe le champignon l'avoine (f) l'olive (f) l'oignon (m) l'orange (f) le persil le petit pois la pche la poire le poivron le pin l'ananas (m) la prune la pomme de terre le potiron le radis la framboise le riz le seigle Italian la lenticchia la lattuga la limetta il melone la menta il fungo l'avena l'oliva la cipolla l'arancia il prezzemolo il pisello la pesca la pera il peperone il pino l'ananasso la susina la patata la zucca il ravanello il lampone il riso la segale

l'aubergine (f) la melanzana sage la sauge la salvia la figue il fico seed la graine il seme le fruit la frutta spinach les pinards (m) gli spinaci l'ail (m) l'aglio strawberry la fraise la fragola le grapefruit il pompelmo tomato la tomate il pomodoro pamplemousse grapes le raisin l'uva turnip le navet la rapa hazelnut la noisette la nocciola vine la vigne la vite herb l'herbe (f) l'erba walnut la noix la noce horse-radish le raifort la barbaforte watermelon la pastque l'anguria leaf la feuille la foglia wheat le froment il frumento lemon le citron il limone zucchini le courgette la zucchina To specify the type of tree that a certain fruit grows on, just make the noun masculine and add -ier to the French fruit / change the last letter of the Italian fruit to -o (sometimes the fruit and the tree will be the same). la pomme / la mela - apple; le pommier / il melo - apple tree There is, are : Il y a / C'e, ci sono Il y a is the French expression for there is or are. C' is Italian for there is, while ci sono means there are. il y a une chaise / c' una sedia there is a chair il y a trois chats / ci sono tre gatti there are three cats Il y a also means ago in French when it precedes a time period. In Italian, you add fa after the time period. il y a un mois / un mese fa one month ago Necessity: Il faut / Bisogna, Occorre, Ci vuole To express necessity, such as must, have to, need (to), require, it's necessary to, etc. French uses il faut + verb or a noun (whether singular or plural). Italian has several more expressions: bisogna + verb; or occorre + verb; occorre + singular noun / occorrono + plural noun; or ci vuole + singular noun / ci vogliono + plural noun. The verbs will always be in the infinitive. Il faut faire des courses. / Bisogna fare la spesa. You must / It's necessary to go grocery shopping. Il faut acheter du pain. / Occorre comprare pane. You must buy bread. Il faut du lait. / Occorre il latte. We need milk. Il faut des biscuits. / Ci vogliono i biscotti. We need cookies. Partitive In French, you must always express some, especially when speaking about food, even though you do not have to do this in English. Partitives are formed by using de (of) + definite article: du, de l', de la and des in the positive; but in the negative, only de or d' are used. The partitive (contractions with di) is not required in Italian. You may use it in positive sentences, but never in negative sentences. Est-ce que tu prends du vin ou de l'eau ? / Prendi (del) vino o (dell') acqua? Are you having (some) wine or (some) water?

eggplant fig fruit garlic

J'ai achet des livres intressants. / Ho comprato (dei) libri interessanti. I bought (some) interesting books. Je n'ai pas pass de bonnes vacances. / Non ho passato buone vacanze. I didn't have a good vacation. French Italian 3

French & Italian Comparative Tutorial III: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously

Verbs: Present & Past Tenses In both languages, there are three types of verbs grouped according to the last letters of the infinitive. In French, there are -er, -re, and -ir verbs; while in Italian, there are -are, -ere, and -ire verbs. The following chart uses aimer/amare (to love); vendre/vendere (to sell); and finir/finire (to finish) as examples for all regular verbs in the present and imperfect tenses. (There is another simple past tense, the preterite, but it is rarely used in modern spoken French or Italian). aimer aime aimes aime aimons aimez aiment French vendre vends vends vend vendons vendez vendent finir finis finis finit finissons finissez finissent amare amo ami ama amiamo amate amano Italian vendere vendo vendi vende vendiamo vendete vendono finire finisco finisci finisce finiamo finite finiscono

Present Tense

aimais vendais finissais amavo vendevo finivo aimais vendais finissais amavi vendevi finivi aimait vendait finissait amava vendeva finiva Imperfect Tense aimions vendions finissions amavamo vendevamo finivamo aimiez vendiez finissiez amavate vendevate finivate aimaient vendaient finissaient amavano vendevano finivano Not all French verbs that end in -ir or all Italian verbs that end in -ire use the above endings. Some -ir / -ire verbs have slightly different endings in the present tense. In French, verbs such as partir, dormir, sortir (to leave, to sleep, to go out) are conjugated thus: for the singular forms, take off the last three letters, and add -s, -s, -t; for the plural forms, take off the last two letters, and add -ons, -ez, -ent. For example, je pars, tu pars, il part, nous partons, vous partez, ils partent. In Italian, verbs such as partire, dormire, aprire (to leave, to sleep, to open) are conjugated without the -iscbefore the regular endings. For example, parto, parti, parte, partiamo, partite, partono. Regular Verbs to like, love to sing aimer chanter amare cantare to sell to wait for vendre attendre vendere aspettare

to look for to begin to study to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find to jump

chercher commencer tudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver sauter

cercare cominciare studiare chiudere abitare giocare mangiare mostrare parlare pensare lavorare trovare saltare

to listen to lose to answer to go down to live to understand to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure, heal

couter perdre rpondre () descendre vivre comprendre finir choisir punir remplir obir () russir gurir

ascoltare perdere rispondere (a) scendere vivere capire finire scegliere punire riempire ubbidire (a) riuscire guarire

Spelling Changes in the Present Tense There are a few spelling changes in regular verbs in the present tense. These changes are made to reflect the pronunciation of the conjugated verb. In French, verbs that end in -ger will use -geons as the first person singular form (nous mangeons); while verbs that end in -cer will use -ons as the first person singular form (nous commenons). Verbs that end in -yer change the y to i in all forms except nous and vous (j'essaie, tu essaies, nous essayons). Some verbs add an accent grave to the letter e to all forms except nous and vous (j'achte, il achte, vous achetez). Some verbs double the consonant before the verb endings in all forms except nous and vous (tu appelle, elle appelle, vous appelez). In Italian, verbs ending in -care and -gare add an h before the -i of the second person singular and first person plural forms (tu and noi). Verbs ending in -ciare and -giare do not add an extra -i before the tu and noi forms. Irregular Imperfect Verbs In French, there is only one verb in the imperfect that is irregular, tre. It uses the stem t- and the regular imperfect endings. tre tais tais tions tiez

tait taient In Italian, the stem of essere becomes er- for io, tu, lui/lei and loro, and it does not take the v, while the stem for noi and voi is era- and it does take the v. The stems for bere, dire and fare are derived from the old Latin infinitives, and are beve-, dice-, and face-. They also take the regular endings of the imperfect. essere bere dire fare ero eravamo bevevo bevevamo dicevo dicevamo facevo facevamo eri eravate bevevi bevevate dicevi dicevate facevi facevate era erano beveva bevevano diceva dicevano faceva facevano

Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, but have an extra pronoun before them that agrees with the subject of the verb. Most of these verbs indicate a reflexive action - that reflects back on the subject. You can translate the pronouns as myself, yourself, etc. but we rarely use these words in English. Some other verbs indicate a reciprocal action, translated by each other in English. myself yourself himself/herself/itself ourselves yourselves themselves to break (arm, leg, etc.) to hurry to relax to rest to get along to train/practice me te se nous vous se Reflexive verbs to fall asleep to get dressed to get married to get up to have a good time to remember to mi ti si ci vi si

se casser se dpcher se dtendre se reposer s'entendre avec s'entraner

rompersi sbrigarsi rilassarsi riposarsi intendersi con allenarsi

s'endormir s'habiller se marier se lever s'amuser se souvenir de

addormentarsi vestirsi sposarsi alzarsi divertirsi ricordarsi di

interessarsi to shave (the se raser farsi la barba di face) to be bored s'ennuyer annoiarsi to stop (oneself) s'arrter fermarsi to be called s'appeler chiamarsi to wake up se rveiller svegliarsi to complain about se plaindre lamentarsi di to wash up se laver lavarsi Notice in French that the reflexive pronoun precedes the infinitive, whereas in Italian, it is connected to the end of the infinitive. to be interested in s'intresser When conjugating verbs, the reflexive pronoun is always placed before the conjugated verb in both languages. However, in sentences where the pronominal verb remains in the infinitive, the reflexive pronoun must agree with the subject of the main verb in the sentence. Nous nous levons 8h chaque matin. / Ci alziamo alla 8 ogni mattina. We get up at 8 am every morning. Il s'appelle Michael. / Si chiama Michael. He's called Michael. Vous allez vous amuser ce soir. / Andate a divertirvi stasera. You're going to have fun tonight. Etre sur le point de / Stare per + infinitive If you want to express to be about to do something, French uses tre sur le point de + infinitive and Italian uses stare per + infinitive. You can use these expressions in the present and imperfect, just as in English. J'tais sur le point de russir. / Stavo per riuscire. I was about to succeed. On est sur le point de manger. / Stiamo per mangiare. We're about to eat. Vous tes sur le point de finir. / State per finire. You are about to finish.

Etre en train de / Stare + gerund To translate that an action is currently happening (the progressive form in English: be + gerund), French uses the phrase tre en train de + infinitive, while Italian uses stare + gerund. Remember that tre and stare can be conjugated in other tenses besides the present or imperfect. To form the gerund in Italian, just replace the verb endings: -are becomes -ando, -ere becomes -endo, and -ire also becomes -endo. There are three irregular forms: fare - facendo, dire - dicendo, bere - bevendo. Je suis en train de lire. / Sto leggendo. I am reading. / I'm busy reading. / I'm in the middle of reading. Il tait en train de parler. / Stava parlando. He was talking. Elles sont en train de partir. / Stanno partendo. They are leaving. On / Si To translate you, we, they, the people (in general, abstract terms), French uses on + 3rd person singular conjugation whereas Italian uses si + 3rd person conjugation (which agrees with the subject for number). However, on in French is a regular subject pronoun while si is not in Italian. It is actually a reflexive pronoun normally used with pronominal verbs. But this should not cause many problems as you rarely use the subject pronouns in Italian anyway. The subject for the Italian expression is placed after the verb and the verb agrees with it - singular or plural. En France, on boit beaucoup de caf. / In Francia, si beve molto caff. In France, they drink a lot of coffee. / In France, a lot of coffee is drunk. En Italie, on mange beaucoup de glaces. / In Italia, si mangiano molti gelati. In Italy, they eat a lot of ice cream. / In Italy, a lot of ice cream is eaten. French uses this same construction (reflexive pronoun + 3rd person conjugation) for the impersonal form and as a subsitute for the passive mood. For example, in the French Le pain s'achte la boulangerie the verb is constructed the same as in the Italian Al panificio si compra il pane. It's just the word order that is slightly different. Both sentences mean Bread is bought at the bakery, but the French construction is not used as often because active expressions with on are more common: On achte le pain la boulangerie. Plaire / Piacere Because the verbs aimer and amare means to like and to love, it would be better to use the verbs plaire and piacere when talking about things that you like. The construction of these verbs can be confusing though because the word order is different from English. In French, the word order is subject + indirect pronoun + plaire. In Italian, the word order is indirect pronoun + piacere + subject. You can think of these verbs as meaning to please rather than to like. Note that the verbs are only conjugated for third person singular and plural, because they agree with the subjects, and not the indirect pronouns. Le football me plat. Le ski te plat. Les pommes lui plaisent. Le sport nous plat. Les films vous plaisent. La natation leur plat. Verbs: Imperative Mi piace il calcio. Ti piace lo sci. Gli / Le piacciono le mele. Ci piace lo sport. Vi piacciono i film. A loro piace il nuoto. I like soccer. You like skiing. He / she likes apples. We like sports. You like films. They like swimming.

The imperative is the command form of the verb. The subject (you) is implied and doesn't need to be expressed. You can also use the we form of verbs to express Let's... The imperative conjugations are very similar to the present tense conjugations in both languages. Imperatives in French are slightly easier to form. The you singular form is identical to the tu conjugations, except -er verbs drop the -s. The you singular formal / you plural and we forms are identical to the vous and nous conjugations. To form the negative of an imperative, just place ne before the verb and pas after. For pronominal verbs, the affirmative imperative is formed connecting the reflexive pronoun to the verb with a hyphen (te becomes toi in imperatives). To form the negative pronominal imperative, the reflexive pronoun is once again placed before the verb and ne is placed before the pronoun and verb, and pas is placed after the verb. Reste l. Stay there. Finis ton travail. Finish your work. Ecoutez le professeur. Listen to the teacher. Commenons. Let's begin. Ne fume pas. Don't smoke. Ne parlez pas. Don't speak. Dpche-toi. Hurry. Ne vous levez pas. Don't get up. Italian imperatives are not quite as similar to the present tense conjugations. The you singular form is -a for -are verbs and -i for -ere/-ire verbs. The you singular formal (the Lei form) is the opposite: -i for -are verbs and -a for -ere/-ire verbs. The you plural and we forms are identical to the voi and noi conjugations (just as in French). To make a command negative, just add non before the verb; except for you singular imperatives, where you use non + the infinitive. Pronominal verbs form the imperative by placing the reflexive pronoun after the verb, and they are written together as one word. Negative imperatives for pronominal verbs just add non before the verb; except for you singular pronominal verbs, which use non + the infinitive. However, the reflexive pronoun attached to this infinitive must still agree with the subject, so it will be -ti and not -si. Resta l. Stay there. Finisci il tuo lavoro. Finish your work. Ascoltate il professore. Listen to the teacher. Cominciamo. Let's begin. Non fumare. Don't smoke. Non parlate. Don't speak. Sbrigati. Hurry. Non alzatevi. Don't get up. French Irregular Imperatives tre avoir savoir you singular you sing. formal you plural Let's sois soyez soyez aie ayez ayez sache sachez sachez Italian Irregular Imperatives andare va' vada andate venire vieni venga venite fare fa' faccia fate dare da' dia date dire di' dica dite essere avere sii sia abbi abbia stare sta' stia

siate abbiate state

soyons ayons sachons

andiamo veniamo facciamo diamo diciamo siamo abbiamo stiamo In Italian, dare is to give and dire is to tell.

Verbs: Present Perfect / Past Perfect Tenses The perfect tenses in French and Italian are formed with to have or to be as auxiliary verbs and a past participle. (In English, to have is always the auxiliary verb.) To have or to be are in the present tense for the present perfect, and in the imperfect tense for the past perfect. The majority of verbs will use to have as the auxiliary verb; however, all prononimal/reflexive verbs in both languages use to be as the auxiliary. To form the past participle of a verb, use the following endings: French Italian -er / - -ato -are -ir / -i -ito -ire -re / -u -uto -ere Verbs using to have (avoir/avere) as an auxiliary Verbs that can take a direct object use to have as an auxiliary. Word order is simply present/imperfect form of have + past participle. In the negative, word order becomes ne + present/imperfect of have + pas + past participle for French, and non + present/imperfect of have + past participle for Italian. There is no agreement with the past participle in gender or number unless there is a preceding direct object. Follow the same rules for agreement as you do with nouns and adjectives: add -e for feminine and -s for plural in French; change -o to -a for feminine, -o to -i for masculine plural, and -o to -e for feminine plural in Italian. Positive Negative French Tu as mang la pomme. Tu n'as pas mang la pomme. Italian English Hai mangiato la mela. You ate the apple. Non hai mangiato la You didn't eat the apple. mela.

Preceding Direct Tu ne l'as pas mange. Non la hai mangiata. You didn't eat it. Object Verbs using to be (tre/essere) as an auxiliary Verbs that cannot take a direct object (i.e. intransitive verbs), as well as all pronominal verbs, generally use to be as an auxiliary. Word order is present/imperfect form of be + past participle for intransitive verbs and reflexive pronoun + present/imperfect form of be + past participle for prononimal verbs. In the negative, word order becomes ne + reflexive pronoun + present/imperfect of be + pas + past participle for French, and non + reflexive pronoun + present/imperfect of be + past participle for Italian. The past participle must agree in gender and number with the subject for all verbs using to be as an auxiliary. French Positive Negative Italian E andata alla Elle est alle la poste. posta. Non andata alla Elle n'est pas alle la poste. posta. English She went to the post office. She didn't go to the post office.

Positive Nous nous sommes lav(e)s. Ci siamo lavati/e. We washed ourselves. Pronominal Negative Nous ne nous sommes pas Non ci siamo We didn't wash ourselves. Pronominal lav(e)s. lavati/e. The verbs that require to be (tre) as an auxiliary in French are: aller-to go, sortir-to go out, venirto come, mourir-to die, arriver-to arrive, partir-to leave, devenir-to become, monter-to go up, entrer-to enter, tomber-to fall, revenir-to come back, rester-to stay, rentrer-to return home, retourner-to return, natre-to be born, passer-to go by (pass), descendre-to go down. Only a few

of these verbs have irregular past participles: venir-venu, devenir-devenu, revenir-revenu, mourir-mort, and natre-n. And five of these verbs (monter, descendre, sortir, rentrer, and passer) can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are followed by a direct object. Some verbs that require to be (essere) as an auxiliary in Italian are: arrivare-to arrive, andare-to go, uscire-to go out, entrare-to enter, costare-to cost, venire-to come, essere-to be, partire-to leave, stare-to stay/be, sparire-to disappear, tornare-to come back, nascere-to be born, morire-to die. Five of these verbs have irregular past participles: venire-venuto, essere-stato, stare-stato, nascere-nato, and morire-morto. Note that avoir and tre both use avoir as an auxiliary in French, but that avere uses avere and essere uses essere as an auxiliary in Italian! And remember that the past participle agrees with a preceding direct object when the auxiliary is to have; but the past participle agrees with the subject when the auxiliary is to be. Venir de / Appena To express that something has just happened, use a form of venir + de + infinitive in French, and a form of the correct auxiliary verb + appena + past participle in Italian. Le train vient de partir. / Il treno appena partito. The train just left. House & Furniture English alarm clock armchair ashtray attic balcony basement basket bathroom bathtub batteries bed bedroom French le rveil le fauteuil le cendrier le grenier le balcon le sous-sol la corbeille le bain la baignoire la pile le lit la chambre Italian la sveglia la poltrona il portacenere la soffitta il balcone il sottosuolo la cesta il bagno la vasca da bagno le pile il letto la camera il campanello la coperta la persiana la libreria la scatola la scopa il secchio English hook house iron (flat) kerosene key kitchen ladder lamp lawn French le crochet la maison le fer repasser le ptrole la clef la cuisine l'chelle (f) la lampe la pelouse Italian l'uncino la casa il ferro da stiro il petrolio la chiave la cucina la scala la lampada il prato la lampadina il soggiorno la serratura la cassetta postale i fiammiferi il materasso il forno microonde lo specchio il fornello la dispensa

bell (door) la sonnette blanket blinds bookcase box broom bucket la couverture le store le bibliothque la botre le balai le seau

light bulb l'ampoule living room le living lock la serrure la bote mailbox lettres matches les allumettes mattress le matelas microwave le four microoven ondes mirror le miroir oven le four pantry le garde-

camcorder la camra l'appareil-photo camera (m) candle la bougie carpet le tapis cassette la cassette CD player la lecteur de CD ceiling le plafond chair la chaise chimney la chemine cigar le cigare cigarette la cigarette clock la pendule closet le placard compact le CD disc computer l'ordinateur (m) corner le coin cupboard l'armoire (f) curtain cushion desk dining room door drawer dresser driveway DVD player fence film fire flame flashlight flat floor floor (levels) le rideau le coussin le bureau

la telecamera la macchina fotografica la candela il tappeto la cassetta il lettore CD il soffito la sedia il camino il sigaro la sigaretta l'orologio l'armadio il compact disc il computer l'angolo l'armadio

picture pillow pipe pipe (water) poker radio record refrigerator roof room rug sheet shelf shovel

manger le tableau l'oreiller (m) la pipe le tuyau le tisonnier le radio le disque le rfrigerateur le toit la pice le tapis le drap l'tagre la pelle la douche le buffet l'vier le lavabo le salon la fume le canap

il quadro il cuscino la pipa il condotto l'attizzatoio la radio il disco il frigorifero il tetto la stanza il tappeto il lenzuolo lo scaffale la pala la doccia la credenza il lavandino il lavandino il salotto il fumo il sof la scala lo scalino il piano la stufa lo studio l'interruttore la tavola il rubinetto il telefono il televisore il tostapane il gabinetto la salvietta

shower sideboard sink sink la cortina / tenda (bathroom) il cuscino sitting room la scrivania smoke

la salle manger la sala da pranzo sofa la porte le tiroir la commode l'alle le lecteur de DVD le portail / clture la pellicule le feu la flamme la lampe de poche l'appartement (m) la plancher l'tage (m) la porta il cassetto il com il viale d'accesso il lettore DVD lo steccato il rullino il fuoco la fiamma stairs steps story stove

l'escalier (m) les marches l'tage (m) le pole le cabinet de study travail le switch commutateur table la table tap (faucet) le robinet telephone le tlphone la tlvision le grille-pain

la pila tascabile television l'appartamento toaster il pavimento il piano

toilet (WC) le cabinet towel la serviette

flower freezer

la fleur la conglateur

il fiore il congelatore la passeggiata i mobili il garage il giardino il pianterreno il caminetto

vacuum cleaner vase

front walk la promenade furniture garage garden ground floor hearth les meubles (m) le garage le jardin le rez-dechausse la chemine

l'aspirateur (m) le vase la VCR magntoscope wall (house) le mur wall (room) la paroi window la fentre yard le jardin

l'aspiratore (m) il vaso il videoregistratore il muro la parete la finestra il giardino

Buildings & Materials English airport bakery bank bar barn barracks bench bridge bookstore building butcher's castle cathedral cemetery church cinema consulate corner courtyard crosswalk dock dry cleaner's embassy factory farm fire hydrant French l'aroport la boulangerie le banc le bar le grange la caserne le banc le pont le librairie le btiment la boucherie le chteau la cathdrale le cimetire l'glise le cinma le consulat le coin la cour le passage pour pitons le bassin le pressing l'ambassade (f) l'usine (f) la ferme la bouche Italian l'aeroporto la panetteria la banca il bar il granaio la caserma la panchina il ponte la libreria l'edificio la macelleria il castello il duomo il cimitero la chiesa il cinema il consolato l'angolo il cortile il passaggio pedonale il bacino la tintoria l'ambasciata la fabbrica la fattoria l'idrante English port prison restaurant French le port la prison le restaurant le chemin / la road route school l'cole sidewalk le trottoir square la place stable l'curie (f) stadium le stade stop sign le stop store le magasin street la rue suburb la banlieue theater le thtre tower la tour town la ville town hall la mairie traffic le feu de light circulation university l'universit village alloy brass brick cement chalk clay le village l'alliage (m) le laiton la brique le ciment la craie l'argile (f) Italian il porto la prigione il ristorante il cammino / la via la scuola il marciapiede la piazza la stalla lo stadio lo stop il negozio la strada il sobborgo il teatro la torre la citt il municipio il semaforo l'universit (f) il villaggio la lega l'ottone (m) il mattone il cemento la creta l'argilla

fountain garage grocery store hospital hotel house hut inn lane / alley library market ministry monument museum palace path pavement pharmacy pier police station

incendie la fontaine le garage l'picerie l'hpital (m) l'hotel la maison la hutte l'auberge (f) la ruelle la bibliothque le march le ministre le monument le muse le palais le sentier le trottoir la pharmacie la jete le commisariat

la fontana il garage la drogheria l'ospedale (m) l'albergo (m) la casa la capanna l'osteria il vicolo la biblioteca il mercato il ministero il monumento il museo il palazzo il sentiero il marciapiede la farmacia il molo il commissariato

coal concrete copper cork glass gold iron lead leather lime marble mercury metal rubber silver steel stone tar tin wood

le charbon le bton le cuivre le lige le verre l'or (m) le fer le plomb le cuir la chaux le marbre le mercure le mtal le caoutchouc l'argent (m) l'acier (m) la pierre le goudron l'tain (m) le bois

il carbone il calcestruzzo il rame il sughero il vetro l'oro il ferro il piombo il cuoio la calce il marmo il mercurio il metallo la gomma l'argento l'acciaio la pietra il catrame lo stagno il legno

French & Italian Comparative Tutorial IV: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously

Comparatives / Superlatives Comparatives of Superiority, Inferiority, and Egality English French Italian more ... than plus ... que / plus de ... que pi ... che / pi ... di less ... than moins .... que / moins de... que meno ... che / meno ... di as ... as aussi ... que / autant de ... que cos... come / tanto ... quanto French comparatives are less complicated than Italian comparatives. Plus... que, moins... que, and aussi... que are used with adjectives, while plus de... que, moins de... que and autant de... que are used with nouns. In Italian, pi...che and meno... che are used when comparing two qualities of the same thing, and with adjectives, verbs or adverbs; while pi... di and meno... di are used when comparing two different things. Cos... come and tanto... quanto are used interchangeably with adjectives, but tanto...quanto can also compare two quantities (in which case, the words agree in gender and number with the noun they describe).

Marc a plus d'amis que d'amies. / Marco ha pi amici che amiche. Mark has more male friends than female friends. Paul est plus grand que Franco. / Paolo pi alto di Franco. Paul is taller than Frank. Paris est aussi belle que Rome. / Parigi cos bella come Roma. Paris is as beautiful as Rome. Superlatives Use the correct form of the definite article if using an adjective, or just the masculine singular form if using an adverb, and plus / moins or pi / meno. The preposition de / di (plus contractions, if needed) means in with all superlatives. If the adjective follows the noun, you must repeat the definite article before the superlative form in French, but not in Italian. C'est la ville la plus riche d'Italie. / la citt pi ricca d'Italia. It's the richest city in Italy. Irregular Forms English good - better - best bad - worse - worst little - less - least French Italian adjective - comparative - superlative bon - meilleur/e - le/la meilleur/e buono - migliore - il/la migliore mauvais - pire - le/la pire cattivo - peggio - il/la peggiore petit - moindre - le/la moindre piccolo - minore - il/la minimo adverb - comparative - superlative bien - mieux - le mieux bene - meglio - il meglio mal - pis - le pis male - peggio - il peggio peu - moins - le moins poco - meno - il meno beaucoup - plus - le plus molto - pi - il pi

well - better - best badly - worse - worst little - less - least much - more - most Clothing & Toiletries English apron barrette bathrobe belt blouse boot bra bracelet brush buckle button cap clothes

French le tablier la barrette le peignoir la ceinture le chemisier la botte le soutiengorge le bracelet la brosse la boucie le bouton la casquette les vtements

Italian il grembiale il fermaglio l'accappatoio la cintura la camicetta lo stivale il reggiseno il braccialetto

English silk skirt sleeve slippers soap sock stocking suit (men / women)

French la soie la jupe la manche les pantoufles le savon les chaussettes le bas le costume / le tailleur

Italian la seta la gonna la manica la pantofola il sapone il calzino la calza

la spazzola per sunglasses capelli la fibbia suspenders il bottone sweater il berretto i vestiti swimsuit thread

l'abito / il vestito gli occhiali da les lunettes de soleil sole les bretelles le bretelle le pull-over il maglione il costume da le maillot de bain bagno le fil il filo

coat collar comb

il cappotto tie il colletto T-shirt il pettine umbrella le lenti a contact lens les lentilles (f) underwear contatto cotton le coton il cotone waistcoat dress la robe il vestito watch le cacheearmuffs il paraorecchie wool oreilles la boucle earrings l'orecchino toothbrush d'oreille fashion la mode la moda toothpaste glasses les lunettes gli occhiali makeup glove les gants il guanto lipstick handbag le sac main la borsa il fazzoletto il cappello la giacca jeans le manopole la collana l'ago la camicia da notte il corredo nail polish nail polish remover mascara blush eyeliner eyeshadow foundation lotion shampoo conditioner shaving cream razor tweezers nail clippers nail file

le manteau le col le peigne

la cravate le t-shirt le parapluie les sous-vtements le gilet la montre la laine la brosse dents le dentifrice le maquillage le rouge le vernis ongles le dissolvant le mascara le blush l'eyeliner

la cravatta la maglietta l'ombrello le mutandine il panciotto l'orologio la lana lo spazzolino il dentifricio il trucco il rossetto lo smalto per unghie l'acetone (m) il mascara il fard

handkerchief le mouchoir hat jacket jeans mittens necklace needle nightgown outfit overcoat pajamas pants pin pocket purse raincoat ribbon ring sandals scarf shirt le chapeau la veste / le blouson le jean les moufles le collier l'aiguille (f) la chemise de nuit l'ensemble

lo spazzolino per unghie l'ombre paupire l'ombretto le fond de teint il fondotinta la lotion la lozione le shampooing lo sciampo

l'aprs-shampooing il balsamo la crema da le pardessus il soprabito la mousse raser barba le pyjama il pigiama le rasoir il rasoio le pantalon i pantaloni les pinces piler le pinzette l'pingle (f) lo spillo le coupe-ongles le forbicine la poche la tasca la lime la lima il filo la bourse la borsetta floss le fil dentaire interdentale il ferro l'impermable l'impermeable curling iron le fer friser arricciacapelli straightening la piastra le ruban il nastro le lisseur iron stiracapelli la bague l'anello hairspray la laque la lacca les sandales i sandali hairdryer le sche-cheveux l'asciugacapelli l'charpe la sciarpa powder la poudre la polvere la chemise la maglia perfume le parfum il profumo

shoe shoelace shorts

la chaussure le lacet le short

la scarpa il laccio

cologne

le cologne

suntan lotion la lotion solaire l'ponge (f)

i pantaloncini sponge

la colonia l'emulsione solare la spugna

Verbs: Other common irregular verbs Other irregular verbs to memorize in French in the present tense: mettre - to wear mets mets met mettons mettez mettent croire - to believe crois crois croit croyons croyez croient vivre - to live vis vis vit vivons vivez vivent crire - to write cris cris crit crivons crivez crivent lire - to read lis lis lit lisons lisez lisent recevoir - to receive reois reois reoit recevons recevez reoivent dire - to say dis dis dit disons dites disent suivre - to follow suis suis suit suivons suivez suivent voir - to see vois vois voit voyons voyez voient mourir - to die meurs meurs meurt mourons mourez meurent

Other irregular verbs to memorize in Italian in the present tense: dare - to give do dai d diamo date danno Human Body English ankle arm artery back beard belly bladder French la cheville le bras l'artre le dos la barbe le ventre la vessie Italian la caviglia il braccio l'arteria il dorso la barba il ventre la vescica English mouth muscle nail neck nerve pain nose French la bouche le muscle l'ongle (m) le cou le nerf la douleur le nez Italian la bocca il muscolo l'unghia il collo il nervo il dolore il naso bere - to drink bevo bevi beve beviamo bevete bevono dire - to say, tell dico dici dice diciamo dite dicono salire - to go up salgo sali sale saliamo salite salgono uscire - to go out esco esci esce usciamo uscite escono

blood body bone brain breast breath calf cheek chest chin coccyx cold complexion cough disease ear elbow eye eyebrow eyelid face fever finger fist flesh foot forehead gum hair hand head headache health heart heel hip intestine jaw kidney knee leg lip liver

le sang le corps l'os (m) la cervelle le sein la haleine le mollet la joue la poitrine le menton le coccyx le rhume le teint la toux la maladie l'oreille (f) la coude l'il le sourcil la paupire le visage / la figure la fivre le doigt le poing la chair le pied le front la gencive les cheveux la main la tte le mal de tte la sant le cur le talon la hanche l'intestin (m) la mchoire le rein le genou la jambe la lvre la foie

il sangue il corpo l'osso il cervello il seno l'alito il polpaccio la guancia il petto il mento il coccige il raffreddore la carnagione la tosse la malattia l'orecchio il gomito l'occhio il sopracciglio la palpebra la faccia / il viso la febbre il dito il pugno la carne il piede la fronte la gengiva i capelli la mano la testa il mal di testa la salute il cuore il tallone l'anca l'intestino la mascella il rene il ginocchio la gamba il labbro il fegato

palm pulse rib shin / tibia shoulder skeleton skin skull sole spine stomach tear temple thigh throat thumb toe tongue tooth vein wound waist wrist see hear smell taste touch enamel filling crown gum bone root nerve iris cornea pupil retina optic nerve lens

la paume la palma le pouls il polso la cte la costola le tibia la tibia l'paule (f) la spalla le squelette lo scheletro la peau la pelle le crne il cranio la plante la pianta l'pine dorsale (f) la spina dorsale l'estomac (m) lo stomaco la larme la lacrima la tempe la tempia la cuisse la coscia la gorge la gola le pouce il pollice l'orteil (m) il dito del piede la langue la lingua la dent il dente la veine la vena la blessure la ferita la taille la vita le poignet il polso voir entendre sentir goter toucher l'mail le plombage la couronne la gencive l'os la racine la nerf l'iris la corne la pupille la rtine le nerf optique le cristallin vedere udire annusare assaggiare toccare lo smalto l'otturazione la corona la gengiva l'osso la radice il nervo l'iride la cornea la pupilla la retina il nervo ottico la lente

lung le poumon moustache la moustache

il polmone i baffi

Verbs: Future / Conditional Tenses Rather than using auxiliary verbs before the infinitive to form the future and conditional tenses (will and would in English), French and Italian add different endings to the infinitives. There are several irregular stems, but these stems are used to form both the future and conditional tenses. You must drop -e from -re verbs in French and drop -e from all infinitives in Italian, as well as change -ar to -er, before adding the endings. For example, you add the endings to parler-, partir-, and prendr- in French and to parler-, partir-, and prender- in Italian. Endings for Future and Conditional Tenses for all verbs Future Conditional French Italian French Italian -ai - -ais -ei -as -ai -ais -esti -a - -ait -ebbe -ons -emo -ions -emmo -ez -ete -iez -este -ont -anno -aient -ebbero Irregular Stems for Future and Conditional aller avoir courir devoir envoyer tre faire falloir mourir pleuvoir pouvoir recevoir savoir tenir valoir venir voir vouloir French Stems iraurcourrdevrenverrserferfaudrmourrpleuvrpourrrecevrsaurtiendrvaudrviendrverrvoudravere andare bere cadere dare dovere essere fare porre potere rimanere sapere stare tenere tradurre vedere venire volere Italian Stems avrandrberrcadrdardovrsarfarporrpotrrimarrsaprstarterrtradurrvedrverrvorr-

For the past future and past conditional tenses, you use the future or conditional of the auxiliary verb (to have or to be) + past participle.

Future Tense avoir avere aurai avr auras avrai aura avr aurons avremo aurez avrete auront avranno Agreement of Tenses

Conditional Tense avoir avere aurais avrei aurais avresti aurait avrebbe aurions avremmo auriez avreste auraient avrebbero

Future Tense tre essere serai sar seras sarai sera sar serons saremo serez sarete seront saranno

Conditional Tense tre essere serais sarei serais saresti serait sarebbe serions saremmo seriez sareste seraient sarebbero

Clauses beginning with if (si / se) require different tenses in French and Italian. In French, if is followed by the present tense, and the verb in the following clause is in the future tense. In Italian, both verbs must be in the future tense: Si j'ai le temps, je viendrai chez toi. / Se avr il tempo, verr a casa tua. If I have the time, I will go to your place. The conditional is used after if in both languages; however, if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense, then the Italian verb in the subordinate clause must be in the past conditional. French can use either the present or past conditional in this case. Je ne sais pas s'il pourrait le faire. / Non so se lo potrebbe fare. I don't know if he would be able to do it. Je savais que tu ne viendrais pas / Sapevo che non saresti venuto. I knew that you wouldn't come. Y & en / Ci & ne Y and ci are pronouns used to replace a prepositional phrase beginning with any preposition except de / di, and they translate as it or there in English. J'y pense. / Ci penso. I'm thinking about it. J'y suis all. / Ci sono andato. I went there. N'y pense pas. / Non pensarci. Don't think about it. En and ne are pronouns used to replace a prepositional phrase beginning with de / di, da or to replace the noun following a number, and they translate as about it/them or of it/them in English. J'en ai quatre. / Ne ho quattro. I have four (of them). Parles-en. / Parlane. Talk about it. Je n'en doute pas. / Non ne dubito. I don't doubt it. In French, y and en are placed before a conjugated verb and between a conjugated verb and infinitive, but after an imperative (and connected to it by a hypen). In Italian, ci and ne are placed before a conjugated verb, but after an imperative, infinitive or gerund (and they are written together as one word). Verbs: Subjunctive Mood Present Subjunctive of Regular Verbs Add these endings to the ils/elles present tense stem of French (ils boivent; boiv-) and the regular

verb stem (parlare; parl-) in Italian: French all verbs -e -es -e -ions -iez -ent Italian -are -ere / -ire -i -a -i -a -i -a -iamo -iamo -iate -iate -ino -ano Present Subjunctive of Common Verbs 2nd -ire -isca -isca -isca -iamo -iate -iscano

All of the following Italian verbs are irregular, but only a few of the French verbs are considered irregular. Notice that in both languages, if the verb has a stem change in the subjunctive, it is usually only the singular forms and the third person plural that is affected. French tre sois sois soit soyons soyez soient venir vienne viennes vienne venions veniez viennent savoir sache saches sache sachions sachiez sachent sortir sorte sortes Italian essere / stare sia / stia sia / stia sia / stia siamo / stiamo siate / stiate siano / stiano venire venga venga venga veniamo veniate vengano sapere sappia sappia sappia sappiamo sappiate sappiano uscire esca esca French avoir aie aies ait ayons ayez aient vouloir veuille veuilles veuille voulions vouliez veuillent boire boive boives boive buvions buviez boivent poser pose poses Italian avere abbia abbia abbia French faire fasse fasses fasse Italian fare faccia faccia faccia facciamo facciate facciano potere possa possa possa possiamo possiate possano dire dica dica dica diciamo diciate dicano rimanere rimanga rimanga French aller aille ailles aille allions alliez aillent devoir doive doives doive devions deviez doivent donner donne donnes donne donnions donniez donnent monter monte montes Italian andare vada vada vada andiamo andiate vadano dovere debba debba debba dobbiamo dobbiate debbano dare dia dia dia diamo diate diano salire* salga salga

abbiamo fassions abbiate fassiez

abbiano fassent volere voglia voglia voglia vogliamo vogliate vogliano bere beva beva beva beviamo beviate bevano porre ponga ponga pouvoir puisse puisses puisse puissions puissiez puissent dire dise dises dise disions disiez disent rester reste restes

sorte sortions sortiez sortent

esca usciamo usciate escano

pose ponga reste rimanga monte posions poniamo restions rimaniamo montions posiez poniate restiez rimaniate montiez posent pongano restent rimangano montent * The verb scegliere in Italian follows this same pattern.

salga saliamo saliate salgano

Some impersonal verbs in French have irregular subjunctive forms: pleuvoir - il pleuve, falloir - il faille, valoir - il vaille Uses of Subjunctive The subjunctive mood must be used in subordinate clauses when the verb in the dependent clause expresses want, wish, doubt, fear, necessity, feelings, etc. for both French and Italian. Italian also requires the subjunctive after verbs of hope and opinion, while French uses the indicative after these verbs (however, verbs of opinion in the negative or interrogative do in fact use the subjunctive in French). Je veux que Paul me rponde. / Voglio che Paolo mi risponda. I want Paul to answer me. Il faut que Giacomo visite le centre. / Bisogna che Giacomo visiti il centro. Giacomo must visit the center. Je suis triste qu'il parte. / Sono triste che lui parta. I'm sad that he's leaving. Je pense qu'elle comprend l'allemand. / Penso che lei capisca il tedesco. I think that she understands German. The subjunctive must also be used after certain impersonal phrases and conjunctions: il est (im)possible que / (im)possibile che it's (im)possible that il est probable que / probabile che it's probable that il est utile que / utile che it's useful that il est juste que / giusto che it's right that il suffit que / basta che it's enough that bien que / bench, sebbene, nonostante although pourvu que, condition que / purch, a condizione che, a patto che provided that afin que / affinch so that pour que / perch in order that moins que / a meno che unless sans que / senza che without avant que / prima che before The imperfect subjunctive is rarely used nowadays in French, but it is still very common in Italian. Imperfect Subjunctive of Regular Verbs French uses the il/elle form of the simple past to form the stem for the imperfect subjunctive; while Italian uses the regular stem. French all verbs -sse -sses -^t -ssions -ssiez -are -assi -assi -asse -assimo -aste Italian -ere -essi -essi -esse -essimo -este -ire -issi -issi -isse -issimo -iste

-ssent -assero -assero -issero The third person singular in French should also add a circonflexe accent over the vowel that occurs before the t. Imperfect Subjunctive of Irregular Verbs Verbs that are irregular in the imperfect indicative are also irregular in the imperfect subjunctive in Italian. essere fossi fossi fosse fossimo foste fossero avere avessi avessi avesse avessimo aveste avessero bere bevessi bevessi bevesse bevessimo beveste bevessero dare dessi dessi desse dessimo deste dessero dire dicessi dicessi dicesse dicessimo diceste dicessero fare facessi facessi facesse facessimo faceste facessero stare stessi stessi stesse stessimo steste stessero

Agreement of tenses is stricter in Italian, so you must use the imperfect sujunctive in a subordinate clause if the dependent clause is in a past indicative or conditional tense. Furthermore, the imperfect subjunctive is required in Italian after come se (as if) and se (if) in hypothetical sentences (with verbs that require the subjunctive); whereas the imperfect indicative is used in French. Il parle comme s'il tait italien. / Parla come se fosse italiano. He speaks as if he were Italian. Si j'tais riche, j'achterais un palais. / Se fossi ricco, comprerei un palazzo. If I were rich, I would buy a palace. J'ai pens qu'il me comprenait. / Ho pensato che lui mi capisse. I thought that he understood me. Animals & Insects English animal ant antelope antenna antler badger bat beak bear bee beetle bird blackbird French l'animal (m) la fourmi l'antilope l'antenne la ramure le badger la chauvesouris le bec l'ours (m) l'abeille (f) la scarabe l'oiseau (m) le merle Italian l'animale (m) la formica l'antilope (f) l'antenna le corna il tasso English lark lion lizard lobster (spiny) louse mackerel French l'alouette (f) le lion le lzard la langouste le pou la maquereau la taupe le singe la moustique le papillon de nuit la souris le mulet la moule Italian l'allodola il leone la lucertola l'aragosta il pidocchio lo sgombro la talpa la scimmia la zanzara la falena il topo il mulo il pidocchio

il pipistrello mole il becco l'orso l'ape (f) lo scarabeo l'uccello il merlo monkey mosquito moth mouse mule mussel

bull butterfly calf carp cat caterpillar cheetah chicken chimpanzee claw cockroach cod cocoon cow crab crayfish crocodile crow deer dog donkey dragonfly duck eagle eel egg elephant feather fin fish flea fly fox frog fur gill giraffe goat goose

le taureau le papillon le veau la carpe le chat le chenille le gupard le poulet le chimpanz la griffe le cafard la morue le cocon la vache le crabe l'crevisse (f) le crocodile le corbeau le cerf le chien l'ne (m) la libellule le canard l'aigle (m) l'anguille (f) l'uf

il toro la farfalla il vitello la carpa il gatto il bruco il ghepardo il pollo lo scimpanz l'artiglio lo scarafaggio il merluzzo il bozzolo la vacca il granchio il gambero il coccodrillo il corvo il cervo il cane l'asino la libellula l'anitra l'aquila

nest nightingale octopus ostrich owl ox oyster parrot partridge paw penguin pig pigeon pike pony rabbit raccoon rat rooster salmon scale scorpion sea gull seahorse seal shark sheep shrimp skin slug snail snake sole sparrow spider squid squirrel starfish stork

le nid le rossignol la pieuvre l'autruche le hibou le buf l'hutre (f) le perroquet la perdrix la patte le pingouin le cochon le pigeon le brochet le poney le lapin le raton laveur le rat le coq le saumon l'caille (f) le scorpion la mouette

il nido l'usignolo il polpo lo struzzo il gufo il bue l'ostrica il pappagallo la pernice la zampa il pinguino

l'anguilla l'uovo l'elefante l'lphant (m) (m) la plume la nageoire le poisson la puce la mouche le renard la grenouille la fourrure la branchie la girafe la chvre l'oie (f) la penna la pinna il pesce la pulce la mosca la volpe il ranocchio la pelliccia la branchia la giraffa la capra l'oca

il porco il piccione il luccio il pony il coniglio il procione il ratto / il sorcio il gallo il salmone la squama lo scorpione il gabbiano il cavalluccio l'hippocampe (m) marino le phoque la foca le requin lo squalo la mouton la crevette le peau la limace l'escargot (m) le serpent / la couleuvre la sole le moineau l'araigne (f) le calmar l'cureuil (m) l'toile de mer la cigogne la pecora il gamberetto / il gambero la pelle la lumaca la chiocciola il serpente / la biscia la sogliola il passero il ragno il calamaro la scoiattolo la stella di mare la cicogna

gorilla grasshopper hamster hare hedgehog hen heron herring hoof horn horse hummingbird iguana insect jellyfish kitten ladybug lamb

le gorille la sauterelle le hamster le livre le hrisson la poule le hron la hareng le sabot la corne le cheval le colibri l'iguane l'insecte (m) la mduse le chaton la coccinelle l'agneau (m)

il gorilla la cavalletta il criceto la lepre il riccio la gallina l'airone (m) l'aringa lo zoccolo il corno il cavallo il colibr l'iguana l'insetto la medusa il gattino la coccinella l'agnello

swallow swan tadpole tail tiger toad trout tuna turkey turtle wasp weasel whale wing wolf worm zebra

l'hirondelle (f) le cygne le ttard la queue le tigre le crapaud la truite le thon le dindon la tortue la gupe la belette la baleine l'aile (f) le loup le ver le zbre

la rondine il cigno il girino la coda la tigre il rospo la trota il tonno il tacchino la tartaruga la vespa la donnola la balena l'ala il lupo il verme la zebra

Nature & Geography English air archipelago bank bay barn beach branch bridge bud bush cape cave city climate cloud coast comet French l'air (m) l'archipel la rive la baie la grange la plage la branche le pont le bouton le buisson le cap la caverne la ville le climat le nuage la cte la comte Italian l'aria (f) l'arcipelago (m) la riva la baia la stalla la spiaggia il ramo il ponte il bocciolo l'arbusto (m) il capo / promontorio la caverna la citt il clima la nube / nuvola la costa la cometa English rain rainbow river rock root rose sand sea shadow sky snow soil south spring (water) star stem storm French la pluie l'arc-en-ciel (m) la fleuve le rocher la racine la rose le sable la mer l'ombre (f) le ciel la neige la terre le sud la source l'toile la tige l'orage (f) / la tempte le dtroit Italian la pioggia l'arcobaleno (m) il fiume lo scoglio la radice la rosa la sabbia il mare l'ombra il cielo la neve il terreno il sud la sorgente la stella il gambo il temporale lo stretto

constellation la constellation la costellazione strait

country country(side) current daffodil daisy darkness desert dew dust earth east farm field flower foam fog foliage forest frost grass gulf hail hay high tide hill ice island isthmus jungle lake leaf light lightning lily low tide

le pays la campagne le courant la jonquille la marguerite l'obscurit le dsert la rose la poussire la terre l'est (m) la ferme le champ la blume l'cume (f) le brouillard le feuillage

il paese la campagna la corrente il narciso la margherita l'oscurit (f) il deserto la rugiada la polvere la terra l'est (m) la tenuta il campo il fiore la schiuma la nebbia il fogliame il bosco / la la fort foresta la gele il gelo l'herbe (f) l'erba (f) la golfe il golfo la grle la grandine le foin il fieno la mare haute l'alta marea la colline la collina la glace I'le (f) l'isthme la jungle le lac la feuille il ghiaccio I'isola (f) l'istmo (m) la giungla il lago la foglia

stream street sun sunflower thaw thunder tornado tree trunk tulip valley view water fresh water salt water watering can waterfall wave weather west wind world North Pole South Pole Northern Hemisphere Soutern Hemisphere

le ruisseau la rue le soleil le tournesol la fonte le tonnerre la tornade l'arbre le tronc la tulipe la valle la vue l'eau (f) l'eau douce l'eau sale l'arrosoir la cascade la vague / l'onde (f) le temps l'ouest (m) le vent le monde

il ruscello la strada il sole il girasole il disgelo il tuono il turbine l'albero il tronco il tulipano la valle la vista l'acqua l'acqua dolce l'acqua salata l'annaffiatoio la cascata l'onda (f) il tempo l'ovest (m) il vento il mondo il Polo Nord il Polo Sud l'emisfero settentrionale l'emisfero meridionale il circolo polare artico l'equatore (m) l'Oceano Artico

l'Oceano Atlantico l'Oceano la lumire la luce Pacifico il fulmine / l'Oceano l'clair (m) Indian Ocean l'ocan Indien lampo Indiano la mer des il Mar dei le lis il giglio Caribbean Sea Antilles Caraibi Mediterranean la il Mar la mare basse la bassa marea Sea Mditerrane Mediterraneo

le ple Nord le ple Sud l'hmisphre nord l'hmisphre sud la cercle Arctic Circle polaire equator l'quateur (m) l'ocan Arctic Ocean Arctique Atlantic Ocean l'ocan Atlantique l'ocan Pacific Ocean Pacifique

meadow moon mountain mountain range

le pr

il prato la luna la montagna la catena montuosa

North Sea Red Sea Black Sea

la mer du Nord la mer Rouge la mer Noire

la lune la montagne la chane de montagnes l'embouchure mouth (river) (f) mud la vase nature la nature north le nord peninsula la pninsule plain planet plant pond pot (for plants) la plaine la plante la plante l'tang (m) le pot fleurs

il Mare del Nord il Mar Rosso il Mar Nero

l'imboccatura Mercury il fango la natura il nord la penisola il piano / la pianura il pianeta la pianta lo stagno il vaso da fiori Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Mercure Vnus Terre Mars Jupiter Saturne Uranus Neptuno Pluton

Mercurio Venere Terra Marte Giove Saturno Uranio Nettuno Plutone

Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives English each each / every everyone everything everywhere someone something somewhere no one nothing nowhere whoever French chacun chaque tout le monde tout partout quelqu'un quelque chose quelque part personne rien nulle part Italian English ciascuno / ognuno some as much / ogni many tutti other some / tutto certain dappertutto / a lot of ovunque not one / qualcuno none qualcosa several da qualche parte few nessuno some niente / nulla such a so da nessuna parte much/many chiunque qualunque / qualsiasi dovunque too much everything various French quelque autant de autre certain beaucoup de aucun plusieurs peu de quelque(s) tel tant de trop de tout diffrents Italian alcuno altrettanto altro certo molto nessuno parecchio poco / pochi qualche tale / tali tanto troppo tutto vario / vari

n'importe qui / quiconque which/whatev n'importe quel / er quelconque wherever n'importe o

Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are slightly easier to learn in Italian than French. French Italian who / that (subject) qui che who / that (object) que che about which / whom dont di cui whose dont il/la/i/le cui from where d'o da cui preposition + whom prep. + qui prep. + cui preposition + which prep. + form of lequel prep. + cui Notice that cui remains invariable at all times; however, when translating whose in Italian, you must change the article before cui to agree with the noun and not the antecedent. Il quale can always replace cui, but it does agree with the gender and number of its antecedent (comparable to how lequel agrees in French). Plus you have to remember to use the prepositional contractions with the article before quale, so in general, it is easier to just use cui in everyday speech. Il quale is preferred in formal writing. Forms of lequel and il quale masc. sing. fem. sing. masc. plural fem. plural French lequel laquelle lesquels lesquelles Italian il quale la quale i quali le quali

Sample Sentences La fille qui parle est sympathique. La ragazza che parla simpatica. La femme que je rencontre s'appelle Lorenza. La donna che incontro si chiama Lorenza. Les livres dont je parle sont d'Elsa. I libri di cui parlo sono di Elsa. L'homme dont les cheveux sont blancs est mon grand-pre. L'uomo i cui capelli sono bianchi mio nonno. Les personnes qui je pense sont loin. Le persone a cui penso sono lontane. La maison dans laquelle je vis est trs grande. La casa in cui vivo grande. = La casa nella quale vivo grande. Verbs: Passive Voice Only verbs that can take a direct object can be made passive in French and Italian. The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent in the passive sentence (expressed by par in French and da + contractions in Italian), and the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. The verb becomes a form of be (in the same tense as in the active sentence) + a past participle, which agrees with the subject of the passive sentence. Remember that you can avoid the passive voice by using on / si as explained earlier (especially for verbs that only take indirect The girl who is talking is nice. The woman that I'm meeting is named Lorenza. The books about which I'm talking are Elsa's. The man whose hair is white is my grandfather. The people about whom I'm thinking are far away. The house in which I live is very big.

objects). The passive voice is used more often in English than in French or Italian, and it is usually best to avoid it in formal writing. Active The cat eats the mouse. (present) The cat ate the mouse. (past) The cat has eaten the mouse. (pres. perf.) The cat will eat the mouse. (future) Le chat mange la souris. Le chat mangeais la souris. Le chat a mang la souris. Le chat mangera la souris. Il gatto mangia il topo. Il gatto mangiava il topo. Il gatto ha mangiato il topo. Il gatto manger il topo. Passive The mouse is eaten by the cat. The mouse was eaten by the cat. The mouse has been eaten by the cat. The mouse will be eaten by the cat. La souris est mange par le chat. La souris tais mange par le chat. La souris a t mange par le chat. La souris sera mange par le chat. Il topo mangiato dal gatto. Il topo era mangiato dal gatto. Il topo stato mangiato dal gatto. Il topo sar mangiato dal gatto.

English

French

Italian

Faire / Fare Causative You can use the verbs faire / fare + an infinitive to the express the idea of having or getting something done or having or making someone do something (instead of doing it yourself.) If the object of the verb is a noun, it is placed after the infinitive. If it is a pronoun, then it is placed before faire or fare (except for loro, which is always placed after the infinitive). In the present perfect tense, the past participle does not agree with the preceding direct object as it normally would in French, but it does in Italian. Je fais rparer la voiture. / Faccio riparare la macchina. I'm having the car fixed. Je la fais rparer. / La faccio riparare. I'm having it fixed. Je l'ai fait rparer. / La ho fatta riparare. I had it fixed. [No agreement with preceding direct object in French only.] The reflexive verbs se faire / farsi can also be used in this way when expressing having something done or made for oneself. Remember that tre / essere are used as the auxiliary verb in compound tenses. Je me fais couper les cheveux. / Mi faccio tagliare i capelli. I'm getting my hair cut. Je me suis fait couper les cheveux. / Mi sono fatto tagliare i capelli. I got my hair cut. Italian only: When a causative sentence has two objects, the person being made to do something becomes the indirect object. In Italian, the indirect object is introduced by a. Il maestro fa leggere lo studente. The teacher makes the student read. Il maestro fa leggere la lettura allo studente. The teacher makes the student read the passage. To avoid ambiguity with the indirect object, the preposition da instead of a can be used. The sentence Abbiamo fatto mandare il pacco a Maria can mean two things: 1) We had Mary send the package or 2) We had the package sent to Mary. If the first meaning is intended, then da can replace a.

Verbs followed by Prepositions before an Infinitive Many verbs require the prepositions / a or de / di before an infinitive. In French, de contracts to d' before an infinitive beginning with a vowel. In Italian, a becomes ad before infinitives beginning with a-. Before infinitives beginning with other vowels, either a or ad may be used. French verbs + + infinitive aider apprendre arriver chercher commencer consister continuer demander donner encourager enseigner hsiter inciter insister inviter obliger parvenir persister pousser provoquer renoncer russir s'acharner s'amuser s'appliquer s'apprter s'attacher s'attendre se dcider se mettre se plaire se prparer to help to learn to manage to look for to begin to consist to continue to ask to to give to encourage to teach to hesitate to incite to insist to invite to force to to succeed to persist in to push to provoke to give up to succeed to be bent on to have fun to apply oneself to to prepare to to become attached to expect to to decide to begin to to enjoy to get ready Italian verbs + a + infinitive abituarsi a aiutare a andare a apprendere a aspettare a cominciare consentire a continuare a convincere a correre a dare a decidersi a divertirsi a esitare a fare bene a fare in tempo a fare meglio a fare presto a forzare a giocare a godere a imparare a insegnare a invitare a mandare a mettersi a passare a pensare a persuadere a preparare a procedere a provare a to get used to to help to be going to to learn to wait to begin to agree to continue to convince to run to give to decide to have fun to hesitate to do well to be on time to be better off to hurry up to force to play to enjoy to learn to teach to invite to send to begin to to go on to think of to persuade to prepare to proceed to try

se refuser se rsigner se rsoudre se risquer s'employer servir s'exercer s'habituer s'obstiner songer tarder tendre tenir veiller viser

to refuse to to resign oneself to to resolve to to risk to use to be useful for to practice/learn to get used to to insist to consider to be slow to to tend to to be anxious to to look after to aim

restare a rimanere a rinunciare a ritornare a riuscire a salire a scendere a seguitare a servire a stare a stare attento a tardare a temere a tornare a venire a

to stay to remain to give up to come back to succeed to go up to come down to keep on to be good for to stay, stand to be careful to be late to be afraid to to return to come to

French verbs + de + infinitive accepter de arrter de avoir envie de avoir honte de avoir peur de avoir raison de avoir tort de cesser de choisir de conseiller de convenir de craindre de dcider de dfendre de demander de dsesprer de dire de dissuader de empcher de to accept to stop to feel like to be ashamed to be afraid to be right to be wrong to stop to choose to advise to agree upon to fear to decide to forbid to ask to despair to say to dissuade to prevent

Italian verbs + di + infinitive accettare di ammettere di aspettare di aspettarsi di augurare di to accept to admit to wait for to expect to wish

avere bisogno di to need avere il piacere di to have the pleasure avere intenzione to intend di avere paura di avere voglia di avvertire di cercare di cessare di chiedere di comandare di credere di decidere di dimenticare di dire di to be afraid to feel like to warn, caution to try to cease to ask to command to believe to decide to forget to say, tell

entreprendre de envisager de essayer de tre heureux de tre oblig de viter de finir de interdire de menacer de ngliger de oublier de permettre de persuader de prier de promettre de refuser de regretter de remercier de reprocher de rver de risquer de se dpcher de se garder de s'tonner de s'excuser de venir de

to undertake to contemplate to try to be happy to be required to avoid to finish to forbid to threaten to neglect to forget to permit to persuade to beg to promise to refuse to regret to thank to reproach to dream to risk to hurry up to keep oneself to astonish to apologize to have just

dispensare di domandare di dubitare di fingere di finire di lamentarsi di mancare di minacciare di offrire di ordinare di pensare di permettere di proibire di promettere di ricordare di sapere di sbagliare di scrivere di scusarsi di smettere di sognare di sperare di suggerire di tentare di tratarre di

to excuse to ask to doubt to pretend to finish to complain to lack to threaten to offer to order to plan to permit to prevent, prohibit to promise to remember to know to make a mistake to write to apologize to stop, cease to dream to hope to suggest to try, attempt to bargain

rendersi conto di to realize

recommander de to recommend