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Inttrnatbnal Critiral CcmmnTtarp

on il^t pioljr Smptitns of i^t #ltr anb

UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

The Rev. SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER. D.D.

Rei^us Professor of Hebmv, Oxford;

The Rev. ALFRED PLUMMER, M.A., D.D.,

Master of University College, Durham ;

The Rev. CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.

Edward Rohinson Professor of Biblical Theology, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

(irije Inttntational Critiral Cnmmtutarg

on t^t Jpoly Scriptures oi iht Qiia anb

EDITORS' PREFACE.

There are now before the public many Commentaries,

written by British and American divines, of a popular or homiletical character. The Cambridge Bible for Schools, the Handbooks for Bible Classes and Private Students, The

Speaker's Commetitary, The Popular Commentary (SchaflF),

The Expositof's Bible, and other similar series, have their

I ^

special place and importance.

But they do not enter into

the field of Critical Biblical scholarship occupied by such

series of Commentaries as the Ktirzgefasstes exegetisches

Handbuch zum A. T.; De Wette's Kurzgefasstes exegetisches

Handbuch sum N. T. ; * Meyer's Kritisch-exegetischer Kom- mentar ; * Keil and Delitzsch's Biblischer Comm.entar iiber das A. T. ; * Lange's Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk ;

Nowack's Handkommeniar zum. A. T. ; Holtzmann's Iland-

kommeniar zum, N. T. Several of these have been translated,

edited, and in some cases enlarged and adapted, for the

^ English-speaking public ; others are in process of translation.

" But no corresponding series by British or American divines

has hitherto been produced. The way has been prepared

by special Commentaries by Cheyne, Ellicott, Kalisch,

Lightfoot, Perowne, Westcott, and others ; and the time has

come, in the judgment of the projectors of this enterprise,

when it is practicable to combine British and American

scholars in the production of a critical, comprehensive

Commentary that will be abreast of modern biblical scholar-

I ship, and in a measure lead its van.

* Authorised Translations published by Messrs. Clark.

EDITORS PREFACE.

Messrs. T.

& T. Clark of Edinburgh, Scotland, and

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons of New York, U S.A.,

propose to publish such a series of Commentaries on the Old and New Testaments, under the editorship of Prof. S. R.

Driver, D.D., for the Old Testament, and the Rev. Alfred Plummer, D.D., for the New Testament, in Great Britain ; and of Prof. C. A. Briggs, D.D., in America.

The Commentaries will be international and inter-con-

fessional, and will be free from polemical and ecclesiastical

They will be based upon a thorough critical study of

bias.

the original texts of the Bible, and upon critical methods of

They are designed chiefly for students and

interpretation.

clergymen, and will be written in a compact style. Each

book will be preceded by an Introduction, stating the results of criticism upon it, and discussing impartially the questions

still remaining open.

The details of criticism will appear

in their proper place in the body of the Commentary. Each

section of the Text will be introduced with a paraphrase,

or summary of contents. Technical details of textual and philological criticism will, as a rule, be kept distinct from

matter of a more general character ; and in the Old Testa-

ment the exegetical notes will be arranged, as far as possible, so as to be serviceable to students not acquainted with Hebrew. The History of Interpretation of the Books will be dealt with, when necessary, in the Introductions,

with critical notices of the most important literature of

Historical and Archaeological questions, as

well as questions of Biblical Theology, are included in the

plan of the Commentaries, but not Practical or Homiletical

the subject.

Exegesis.

The Volumes will constitute a uniform series.

President W. R. HARPER of Chicago University, announcing the Series in "The Biblical World," writes: "It is hardly ne-^^sary to say that this Series will stand

It stands with and

first among all English serial commentaries upon the Bible.

admirably supplements the 'international Theological Library,' to which we haue

already learned to look for the best and most recent in the historical, literary, and

arc greatly in need of Just what this Series

promises to give."

linguistic study of the Bible.

We

THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY.

-I-

The following eminent Scholars have contributed, or are

engaged upon, the Volumes named below :

THE OLD TESTAMENT.

Genesis.

The Rev. T. K.

Cheyne, D.D., Oriel Professor of the

Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford.

Exodus.

Leviticus.

Numbers.

Deuteronomy.

Joshua.

Judges.

The Rev. A. R. S. Kennedy, D.D., Professor of Hebrew,

University of Edinburgh.

The Rev. H. A. White, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford.

G. Buchanan Gray, M.A. , Lecturer in Hebrew, Mans-

field College, Oxford.

The Rev. S. R. Driver, D,D., Regius Professor of Hebrew.

Oxford.

.

[Ready, i2j.

The Rev. George Adam Smith, D.D.,

Hebrew, Free Church College, Glasgow.

The Rev. GEORGE MoORE, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, And-

Professor of

over Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. [Ready, 12s.

Samuel.

Kings.

Isaiah.

Jeremiah.

The Rev. H. P. Smith, D.D., late Professor of Hebrew, Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Rev. Francis Brown, D.D., Professor of Hebrew and

Cognate Languages, Union Theological Seminary, New

York City.

The Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Professor of

Hebrew, Free Church College, Edinburgh.

The Rev. A. F. Kirkpatrick, D.D., Regius Professor of

Hebrew, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Minor Prophets.

Psalms.

Proverbs.

W. R.

Harper, Ph.D., President of the University of

Chicago, Illinois.

The Rev. CHARLES A. Briggs, D.D., Edward Robinson

Professor of Biblical Theology, Union Theological

Seminary, New York.

The Rev. C. H. Toy, D.D., Professor of Hebrew. Harvard

University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Job.

Daniel.

Ezra and

Nehemiah.

Chronicles.

The Rev. S. R. Driver, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew,

Oxford.

The Rev. John

late Professor of

Hebrew, P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia, now Rector

of St. Michael's Church, New York City.

P. Peters, Ph.D.,

The Rev. L. W. Batten, Ph.D., Professor of Hebrew, P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia.

The Rev. EDWARD L. CuRTis, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

;

THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY—continued.

THE NEW TESTAMENT.

Mark.

The Rev. E. P. Gould, D.D

Professor of New Testament

Exegesis, P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia.

Luke.

Acts.

Romans.

Corinthians.

Galatians.

Ephesians and

Colossians.

Philippians and

Philemon.

The Pastoral

Hebrews.

James.

Epistles.

[/^eady, los. 6d.

The Rev. Alfred Plummek, D,D., Master of University

College, Durham.

[J^eaifv, izs.

The Rev. Frederick H. Chase, D.D., Fellow of Christ's

College, Cambridge.

The Rev. William Sanday, D.D., Lady Margaret Pro-

fessor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford

and the Rev. A. C. Headlam, B.D., Fellow of All Souls

College, Oxford.

[J?eatfy, las.

The Rev. Arch. Robertson, D.D., Principal of Bishop

Hatfield's Hall, Durham.

The Rev. Ernest D. Burton, A.B., Professor of New-

Testament Literature, University of Chicago.

The Rev. T. K. Abbott, B.D., D.Lit., formerly Professor

of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin.

The Rev. Marvin R. Vincent, D.D., Professor of Biblical

Literature, Union Theological Seminary, New York City.

The Rev. Walter Lock, M.A., Dean Ireland's Professor of Exegesis, Oxford.

The Rev. T. C. Edwards, D.D., Principal of the Theo-

logical College, Bala ; late Principal of University College

of Wales, Aberystwyth.

The

Rev. James H. Ropes, A.B., Instructor in New Testa-

ment Criticism in Harvard University.

Revelation.

The Rev. Robert H. Charles, M.A., Trinity College,

Dublin, and Exeter College, Oxford.

Other engagements will he announced shortly.

Edinburgh : T. & T. CLARK, 38 George Street.

London: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, & CO. LTD.

DEUTERONOMY.

Rev. S. R. driver, D.D.

PKINTF.D BY

SIOBRISOK AXD GIBB LIMITED

TOT.

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH.

LONDOJi: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO. LIMITED.

NEW YORK : CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS.

TOROXTO ; THE WILLARD TRACT DEPOBITORT.

77ie Rights of Translation and of Reproduction are Reserved.

V j:--

!/rxT»iE Intern

l/y\^

;

ATiONAL Critical Commentary.

A

CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL

COMMENTARY

ON

DEUTERONOMY.

Rev. S. R. driver, D.D.,

>\ <

RF.GIOS PROFESSOR OF HEBREW, AND CANON OF CHRIST CHURCH,

OXFORD

FORMERLY FELLOW OF NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD.

SECOND EDITION.

EDINBURGH:

'

\

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET

1896.

PREFACE.

The aim of the present volume (in accordance with the plan of the series, of which it forms part) is to supply the English reader with a Commentary which, so far as the writer's powers

permit it, may be abreast of the best scholarship and know-

ledge of the day. Deuteronomy is one of the most attractive,

as it is also one of the most important, books of the Old

Testament ; and a Commentary which may render even

approximate justice to its many-sided contents has for long been a desideratum in English theological literature. Certainly

the Hebrew text (except in parts of c. 32. 33) is not, as a rule, difficult ; nevertheless, even this has frequently afforded me

the opportunity of illustrating delicacies of Hebrew usage,

which might escape the attention of some readers. On the other hand, the contents of Deuteronomy call for much ex- planation and discussion : they raise many difficult and con- troverted questions ; and they aiford frequent scop>e for

interesting and sometimes far-reaching inquiry. Deuteronomy

stands out conspicuously in the literature of the Old Testa- ment : it has important relations, literary, theological, and

it pos-

sesses itself a profound moral and spiritual significance ; it is

an epoch-making expression of the life and feeling of the

prophetic nation. I have done my best to give due prominence

to these and similar characteristic features ; and by pointing

out both the spiritual and other factors which Deuteronomy

presupposes, and the spiritual and other influences which

either originated with it, or received from it a fresh impulse,

to define the position which it occupies in the national and

religious history of Israel. Deuteronomy, moreover, by many

historical, with other parts of the Old Testament ;

XII

PREFACE

of the observances which it enjoins, bears witness to the fact

that Israel's civilization, though permeated by a different

spirit from that of other ancient nations, was nevertheless

reared upon the same material basis ; and much light may

often be thrown, both upon the institutions and customs to

which it alludes, and upon the manner in which they are

treated by the Hebrew legislator, from the archaeological

researches of recent years.

Deuteronomy carries the reader into the very heart of the

critical problems which arise in connexion with the Old Testament. At almost every step, especially in the central,

12-26), the question of the relation of

legislative part (c.

Nor is

this all.

The study of

Deuteronomy to other parts of the Pentateuch forces itself

upon the student's attention. In dealing with the passages where this is the case, I have stated the facts as clearly and

completely as was possible within the limits of space at my dis-

posal, adding, where necessary, references to authorities who treat them at greater length. As a work of the Mosaic age,

Deuteronomy, I must own, though intelligible, if it stood

perfectly alone, i.e. if the history of Israel had been other

than it was,does not seem to me to be intelligible, when

viewed in the light shed upon it by other parts of the Old Testament : a study of it in that light reveals too many features which are inconsistent with such a supposition. The

entire secret of its composition, and the full nature of the

sources of which its author availed himself, we cannot hope to

discover ; but enough is clear to show that, however regret- fully we may abandon it, the traditional view of its origin and

The adoption of this

authorship cannot be maintained.

verdict of criticism implies no detraction either from the

inspired authority of Deuteronomy, or from its ethical and

religious value. Deuteronomy marks a stage in the Divine

education of the chosen people : but the methods of God's spiritual providence are analogous to those of His natural

providence : the revelation of Himself to man was accom-

plished not once for all, but through many diverse channels

(Heb. i^), and by a gradual historical process;) and the stage

in that process to which Deuteronomy belongs is not the age

PREFACE

XIII

of Moses, but a later age.

Deuteronomy gathers up the

spiritual lessons and experiences not of a single lifetime, but of many generations of God-inspired men. It is a nobly-

conceived endeavour to stir the conscience of the individual

Israelite, and to infuse Israel's whole national life with new

spiritual and moral energy. And in virtue of the wonderful

combination of the national with the universal, which char-

acterizes the higher teaching of the Old Testament, it fulfils a yet wider mission : it speaks in accents which all can still understand ; it appeals to motives and principles, which can

never lose their validity and truth, so long as human nature '

remains what it is : it is the bearer of a message to all time.* / It is the first duty of a Commentator to explain his text

and this I have striven to do to the best of my ability, partly by summaries of the argument, partly by exegetical annota-

tions. Homiletical comments, it will be borne in mind, are purposely excluded from the plan of the series ; but I hope

that I have not shown myself neglectful of the more distinctive

features of Biblical theology, which called for explanation. The

translations have for their aim exactness, rather than elegance

or literary finish : they are intended to express as fully as pos-

sible the force of the original Hebrew, which is sometimes very

inadequately represented by the conventional rendering adopted

in the English versions.! The illustrative references may in some instances appear to be unnecessarily numerous : but the

force and significance of words, and the motives prompting

their selection,especially when they are nearly or entirely

restricted to a particular group of writings,can often be only

properly estimated by copious, or even exhaustive, particulars

and the literary affinities, and influence, of Deuteronomy

have seemed to me to call

for somewhat full illustration.

Subordinate illustrative mattersuch as the discussion of

special difficulties, archaeological or topographical notes, &c. has been generally distinguished from the Commentary as such by being thrown into smaller type. The explanations of various technical expressions, legal or theological, occur-

* Comp, below, pp. xixfF., xjtvf., xxviii, xxxiv, &c.

XIV

PREFACE

ring in

useful,

I have not deemed it desirable to exclude entirely Hebrew

words from the text of the Commentary ; but I have en-

deavoured usually to meet the needs of those not conversant with Hebrew, by adding translations, or otherwise so framing

the English versions, will,

it is hoped,

be found

my notes as to render them intelligible to such

readers.

Philological matter of a technical kind has been thrown regularly into the notes. Only, sometimes, in citations, where

I was tempted, by its superior brevity, to quote the Hebrew text, and in the Tables of parallel passages (pp. lo, 19, 24, &c.)

in using which the reader is supposed to have the Hebrew

text of Deuteronomy open before himwill the Hebraist have

an advantage over the non-Hebraist, of which the latter, I trust, will not be envious ; in the case of the Tables, had I felt that the space at my disposal would permit it, I should have tran-

scribed both texts in English, as I have done in other instances

(pp. 157 f., 181 f., &c.). The Tetragrammatonnot without

hesitation has been represented by its popular, though

undoubtedly incorrect, form Jehovah : this, it was felt, marked

sufficiently the fact that the name was a personal one ; and

Yahweh, in a volume not designed solely for the use of

specialists, might be to some readers a distasteful innovation.

For typographical reasons, Arabic words have usually been transliterated in Roman characters,* and Syriac words in

Distinctions between Hebrew

square Hebrew characters.

sounds, where they can be represented by a breathing, or a

diacritic point {h, t, k, s or s), I have thought worth pre- serving, though I have shrunk from carrying this principle

out in the case of one or two words of very common occurrence

(such as Canaan), in which its application might seem to

savour of pedantry.

The authorities to which I am principally indebted will be

usually apparent from the names quoted. A special acknow-

J = dh ; ^ —d; i?=t; ^ =h: ^=ch; c= gh.

An occasional over-

sight, or irregularity, in the transliteration of a proper name, the origfinal

of which I may not have seen, will, I hope, be pardoned.

PREFACE

XV

ledgment is, however, due to the great philologist and exegete

of Berlin, August Dillmann, whose death, after a few days*

illness, in July 1894, cut short a career of exceptional literary energy, which even advancing years seemed powerless to

cripple or impair. Having in his younger and middle life won

his laurels as an Orientalist by reviving, and placing upon a

scientific basis, the study of Ethiopic,* he had, since 1869,

devoted himself largely to the exegesis of the Old Testament,

and produced commentaries upon Job,t the Hexateuch,+ and

Isaiah, § which for thoroughness, fine scholarship, and critical

yet sober judgment, rank among the best that have ever been

written. Knobel, 30-40 years ago, did much for the exegesis

of the Hexateuch ; but a comparison of Dillmann's volumes

is sufficient to show how materially he has contributed to the advance of Biblical learning, and how greatly by his labours

he has raised the ideal of a Biblical Commentary.

At the

same time, the needs of English and German readers are not

quite the same ; and hence, while I have not felt it incumbent

upon me to notice all the points touched upon by Dillmann,

there are others which I have deemed it necessary to treat at greater length.

Deuteronomy, as remarked above, opens many topics of

archaeological interest ; and when commencing my prepara-

tions for the present Commentary, I wrote to my friend,

Professor Robertson Smith (who, as is well known, possessed

an almost unique knowledge of these subjects), to inquire

whether there were any particular points on which he could

Unhappily his strength was

already undermined by the fatal malady to which ere long he

supply me with illustration.

* His Ethiopic Grammar appeared in 1857, his Ethiopic Lexicon— sl

mag^nificent folio volume of nearly 800 pagesin 1865 ; he also edited

the Ethiopic Octateuch (Gn. -Kings), as well as many other Ethiopic texts. At the time of his death he had just completed an edition of the Ethiopic

Apocrypha, which appeared about a month afterwards. See a complete

list of his publications in the Expository Times, May 1895, P* 35°'''^" t 1869; ed. 2, 1891.

* Genesis, 1875; ed. 4, 1892: Exodiis and Leviticus, 1880; Numbers,

An English translation of the Com-

Deuteronomy, and Joshua, 1886.

mentary on Genesis is likely, it is understood, to appear before long.

§ 1890.

XVI

PREFACE

was destined to succumb ; and he was not able to furnish

me with more than a few isolated notes

(see the Index,

p. 434).

A year has now passed since this most brilliant and

accomplished scholar was taken to his rest ; but in his Old Testament in the Jewish Churchy his Prophets of Israel, and his

Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (not to mention scattered articles in the Encyclopcedia Britannica and elsewhere), he has

bequeathed a legacy to posterity, which will for long continue

to be prized by students, and to stimulate reflexion and research.

The reader is requested, before using the volume, to notice the Addenda and Corrigenda (pp. xviii—xxiii), and the list of principal abbreviations employed (pp. xxv-xxviii).

April 1895.

S. R. D.

The present edition differs from the first only by the cor- rection of a few slight errata, and by the introduction of

some additional notes in the Addenda and Corrigenda (pp.

XVIII-XXIIl).

October 1896,

S. R. D.

>^

CONTENTS.

Addenda and Corrigenda

Principal Abbreviations employed

Introduction

§1.

§ 2. Relation of Deuteronomy to the preceding Books of the

Introductory. Outline of Contents

§ 3.

Pentateuch

.

.

.

.

.

.

Scope and Character of Deuteronomy : its dominant

Ideas §4. Authorship, Date, and Structure

§ 5, Language and Style

.

.

.

.

.

Commentary

Additional Note on is? (21*32"'^)

Index

PACK

xviii

xxv

i-xcv

i

iii

xix

xxxiv

Ixxvii

1-425

425

427

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA.

p. xlii ff. Professor G. A. Smith, in an appreciative and instructive

notice of the present work (Critical Review, Oct. 1895, P- 339 ffOi supports

also ver}- strong^ly the post-Mosaic origin of Deuteronomy, pointing in

particular to the facts "that it nowhere avers to be by Moses; that its

standpoint is Western Palestine, and that its whole perspective is so

plainl}- that of some centuries after the events it describes," and also

endorsing- the argument deduced (p. xlii) from such passages as 23^ '^'.

He thinks, however, that if it had been written under either Manasseh or Josiah, it would have contained traces of the distinction between the

persecuted servants of Jehovah and the tj^rannical powers of the nation, and is inclined consequently to assign it to the close of the reign of

Hezekiah (cf. p. liv, note\

Certainly it is easier to feel satisfied that

Deuteronomy is not the work of Moses than it is to fix the decade, or

even the generation, in which it was actually written.

jP, xliii. The " mountain(s) of the 'Abarim," or "of the parts across"

(cf. G. A. Smith, Geogr. p. 262), Dt. 32^" Nu. 2712 33^7. 48^ of the range East

of Jordan, is another not less significant indication of the country in which

the Pentateuch was written.

P. xliv, note. For a detailed criticism of van Hoonacker's position,

see Kosters in the Th. Tijdschr. Mar. 1896, p. 190 ff.

P. 8, 1. 6-13. According to Eusebius [Onom. ed. Lagarde, pp. 209, 213, 268) there were two "Ashtaroths in Bashan, 9 miles apart, between

Edre'i and Abila, the 'Ashtaroth of 'Og being 6 miles from Edre'i : if, therefore, these statements are correct, it seems that Tell 'Ashtera (not

'Ashtere), which is 15 miles from Edre^i, will be the 'Ashteroth-karnaim of

Gen. 14'.

The site of Og's capital, 'Ashtaroth, is uncertain.

About

9 miles S. of Tell 'Ashtera, and 7 or 8 NW. of Edre'i, there is a large

village, El-mezeirib, which seems to have been once a strongly fortified

place : this may well have been the second 'Ashtaroth of Eusebius, and

may perhaps also have been the 'Ashtaroth of 'Og ; though others identify

the latter with Tell el-'Ash'ari, 4J miles S. of Tell 'Ashtera, and 1 1 miles

NW. of Edre'i, a position of great strength, situated on a projecting

headland, overhanging the deep gorge of the Jarm :k. The supposition

that there were two 'Ashtaroths depends, it will be seen, upon Eusebius:

so far as the Biblical data go, 'Ashtaroth, the capital of 'Og, might be

identical with 'Ashteroth-karnaim, the name being merely abbreviated

XVIII

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA

XIX

from it.

See more

fully the writer's