Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

HOME CLIMATE CONTROL

DESIGN PROPOSAL

ECE 445 Senior Design Spring 2006

Heather Martin Lee Rashkin Greg Rainey

INTRODUCTION The goal of this project is to wirelessly control HVAC floor grate dampers in order to keep all zones within a home as close to the desired temperature as possible. The project would use a central controller to remotely read temperatures in various locations and, based on user input, wirelessly control the damper motors at these locations. Wireless communication between each unit is done using RF technology. Control for the central unit and each remote unit uses PIC microcontrollers. The systems user interface would consist of a display and pushbuttons. Due to recent rises in energy costs and the poor insulation of average American homes, this device is of great interest to any homeowner. A product of this type would therefore appeal to a large market base. This project uses technologies that draw upon multiple fields within electrical engineering, allowing for a good match with the team members interests, prior coursework and experience.

Benefits:

Improved comfort in multi-level homes Increased efficiency in heating and cooling Saves money from lower energy costs

Features:

Automated damper control of floor grates Small, inexpensive, and simple to implement Wireless communication allows for noninvasive installation in new as well as existing homes

Digital user interface

DESIGN Block Diagram

SENSOR 1 MODULE

SENSOR 2 MODULE

PIC MICRO` CONTROLLER

TEMP. SENSOR

PIC MICROCONTROLLER

TEMP. SENSOR

RF RECEIVER

RF TRANSMITTER

RF RECEIVER

RF TRANSMITTER

SENSOR-DAMPER CONTROL MODULE PAIRS MAY BE ADDED TO THE SYSTEM AS NEEDED

CENTRAL CONTROL MODULE PIC MICRO` CONTROLLER RF RECEIVER RF TRANSMITTER

USER INTERFACE

DAMPER CONTROL 1 MODULE

DAMPER CONTROL 2 MODULE

PIC MICRO` CONTROLLER

AMPLIFIER

PIC MICROCONTROLLER

AMPLIFIER

RF RECEIVER

DC MOTOR

RF RECEIVER

DC MOTOR

Block Descriptions

Remote Sensors These modules obtain the temperature of a zone within the house. They monitor incoming wireless RF communication for commands directed towards a particular sensor. When prompted, each module will transmit this temperature to the central control unit. Remote sensors will be placed centrally on a wall or ceiling, away from any vents. They will each have their own unique identification to differentiate from other temperature sensor modules, thus allowing multiple zones within the home to be incorporated into the design network. Central Control Unit This module uses temperature information received from all remote sensors and user input to wirelessly control the damper unit. The PIC microcontroller will compare readings from each sensor to a set temperature. Using stored identifications, it will then send appropriate commands to each damper control module. A display and switches will serve as a user interface. Damper Control Unit This module receives the wireless commands from the central control unit and opens or closes the dampers using a DC motor. It will have its own unique identification to differentiate it from other damper control modules, thus allowing multiple zones within the home to be incorporated into the design network.

Performance Requirement This device will need to perform accurately and efficiently in a home environment. The temperature sensor will therefore need to be sensitive to temperatures within a range from about 30 F to 90 F. The range of the RF communications needs to be sufficient enough to travel throughout a typical home. The communications will also need to be able to travel through walls and floors. The power consumption of the temperature sensor, DC motor, PIC microcontrollers and communications must be sufficiently low to ensure that batteries will not have to be changed more than once every six months.

VERIFICATION Testing Procedure Communications The communications will be tested by connecting a RF transmitter to a function generator, sending a signal with a known frequency and verifying that the correct signal is received by the RF receiver using an oscilloscope. Remote Sensor Module The first step in testing the remote sensor module will include a test of the temperature sensor itself. This is done by connecting the temperature sensor to a

logic analyzer and comparing the results with a conventional thermometer. This test will ensure that the temperature sensor is working properly and will demonstrate the sensors performance and accuracy. The PIC microcontroller will also need to be tested individually before the entire module can be assembled. Again, this will include using a logic analyzer and resulting timing diagrams to determine if the software is written correctly. Once the correct operation of the temperature sensor and the PIC microcontroller have been verified, the module can be assembled and tested as a whole. This will be done using a test setup consisting of the module and a RF receiver and RF transmitter connected to a PIC. The PIC can easily be programmed with a simple test program to verify the operation of the Remote Sensor module Damper Control Module The DC motor must first be tested to see that it can open and close the damper. The test setup will include a power supply and the vent with the DC motor and limit switches installed. The interface between the PIC and the DC motor can be tested by making inputs to the interface using a power supply and reading the output graphs with an oscilloscope. The interface and the DC motor can be connected and the power consumption may be measured in order to estimate battery life. Finally, the PIC will need to be tested using a logic analyzer and timing diagrams to ensure that it has been correctly programmed. At this point 7

the module can be tested as a whole. The test setup for the Damper Control module will be similar to that of the Sensor Module but will not require a RF receiver. Central Control Module The test setup of the central control module will consist of a logic analyzer and test signals created by a specially programmed test PIC. These test signals will simulate user input from the user interface and wireless communications from the remote modules. Defining test signals will allow the PIC microcontroller to be tested independently. This will allow the software portion of this module to be tested and verified first before assembling the entire package. Once the operation of the PICs software is perfected, the user interface may be connected. By using actual user input and monitoring the output of the PIC using a logic analyzer and timing diagrams, the interface and PIC microcontroller may be tested together. Finally, the RF communications may be connected and the entire package may be tested for proper functionality. Tolerance Analysis The wireless communication is the most critical component of the design. The communications must be effective for at least 75 ft regardless of obstacles. The marketability and utility of this devices design depends on this functionality.

COST & SCHEDULE Cost Analysis Labor


Heather Martin: Lee Rashkin $33/hr * 2.5 * 100 hours = $8,250 $33/hr * 2.5 * 100 hours = $8,250

Greg Rainey $33/hr * 2.5 * 100 hours = $8,250 Total labor = $24,750

Parts PART Temperature Sensor PIC DC Motor Amplifier RF Transmitter RF Receiver Capacitors, Resistors, Transistors, etc. Display Pushbutton Limit Switches RC Oscillator AA/AAA Batteries PRICE $1.00 $5.00 $3.00 $3.00 $10.00 $10.00 $5.00 $1.00 $1.00 $3.00 $2.00/Pack QTY 2 5 2 2 3 5 1 2 4 5 2 Packs TOTAL $2.00 $25.00 $6.00 $6.00 $30.00 $50.00 $10.00 $5.00 $2.00 $4.00 $15.00 $4.00

Parts Total = $159.00

Grand Total = $24,750 + $159.00 = $24,909

Schedule WEEK 02/06/06 DESCRIPTION Prepare Proposal Research and order preliminary parts Prepare for design review DC motor and power consumption evaluation PIC operation research/initial programming Control software flowcharts Finalize Design Data Collection Order remaining parts Remote Sensor PIC programming RF Communication testing Build DC motor interface Damper PIC programming Constructing stand-alone power supplies Central Control PIC programming Finalize PIC programming and testing PARTNER All All Heather Lee

02/13/06

Greg

02/20/06

All Lee Greg Heather Lee Heather Greg

02/27/06

03/06/06

03/13/06

All

10

03/20/06 03/27/06 04/03/06 04/10/06 04/17/06 04/24/06 05/01/06

SPRING BREAK Prepare for mock demonstrations Continue module construction and testing Assembling and testing complete design Tolerance analysis Final demonstration and presentation preparation Finish final paper

All All All All All All

11