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ASSIGNMENT ON

Site Organization and Management NCP 30

SUBMITTED BY: PRABHAT KUMAR PATHAK GPPM REG NO: 211-12-14-10140-2124

ASSIGNMENT Your company has been awarded a prestigious contract of building 500 m length pre-stressed concrete bridge on a national highway crossing the major river. Due to cultivation on both sides of highway, very restricted space of only 100 M in width and 300 m in length is available on both sides of highway. To mobilize the site, your management asked you to house 350T of cement, 300T of steel, 2 size II crawlers Tractor Dozer, one mobile crane, one JCB, ten dumpers. Labor force of 100 men in addition to site office complete with communication set up. Discuss your plan to organize the site, draw lay out sketch showing all details. Wind direction is from West to East and Bridge direction is East to-West.

PRE - MOBILIZATION STUDIES: -

Once the contract is signed by the company, the project execution would start. A detail plan for mobilization is prepared and manpower as well as plant and equipment allocation is forecasted and provision is made for the same. As a handing over of a site and other formalities such as bank guaranties, mobilization advance would take place in due course, the time required to complete this formalities would be use foe the project study, take off plan and organizing the site mobilization.

Depending upon the nature of work, category of work, size & stages of completion of work organize site staffing appropriate manner is very important. Due to there is involvement of much more agencies like client / owner, consultant, subcontractor ,vendor / supplier, local authorities, traffic problems on highway we need proper co-ordination, involvement, good understanding amongst all project team. 1. Project manager: As shown in organization chart project manager is leader for all activities and effective communication system. Resident engineer is reporting to the project manager. 2. Resident engineer: The resident engineer is support to the project manager but all functional in charge / heads of all departments is directly reporting to the resident engineer. The main scope of resident engineer is to keeping co-ordination in all the staff, site related person, subcontractor, consultant; and supplier. Following diff department works under supervision of resident engineer. 3. Planning dept.: Responsibility Plan each and every work activity as per time limit given by the client making bar chart material schedule, making labor schedule, making plant, machinery schedule, achieving better quality in min cost is the main aim of this dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Jr. planning engineers also appointed for helping planning engineer and make, design basic plans, ideas and reports to planning engineer. 4. Execution dept.: Responsibility Execution of work as per drawing plans and specification is main work of execution dept. In this department Sr. execution engineer and gang of Jr. Engineers is appointed. Personnel structure & reporting system - In execution department or. Engineer,

supervisor under inspection of sr. execution engineer does checking of work progressing on site. Sr. engineer reports to execution manager. 5. Store dept.: Responsibility Inspection of material and goods coming on site, intimate or instruct to respective dept. (material ordered by) maintaining material inward, outward registers making GRN, storing and housing all material on site in proper place as per the site condition and handover material to contractor as per their requirement, keeping their records is the main work of store dept. Personnel structure & reporting system In this dept store manager is the head of our site and storekeeper and store asst. will help and report to store manager. 6. Quality dept.: Responsibility Checking of all material coming on site ,testing of all the material as per requirement ( lab test ) Making or verifying mix design of material going to use for site execution ,inspection and checking of all activities of execution work regarding quality norms and condition, testing of work executed like sample testing ( cube testing ) non destructive testing making of audit report maintaining material testing, mix design, concrete testing, audit test registers on site is the main work of this dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Quality engineer is the head of this dept. Jr. engineer and quality assistance will help to Quality engineer. 7. Quantity surveying dept.: Responsibility Checking of all drawing and specification regarding site, estimating and surveying quantity of each work activity separately, calculating material required quantity, labor required quantity for each and every item is the main work of this dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Quantity estimation engineer is the head of this dept. Jr. engineer will help to estimation engineer. All basic plan sand calculation Jr. engineer make and report to sr. engineer under supervision of estimation engineer.

8. Account / Billing dept.: Responsibility Checking of all bill quoted by sub-contractor or contractor (R.A. bills or final bills) as per their site executed work, making of payment of contractors and subcontractors is the main work of billing dept. Keeping total money expenditure regarding site, checking of departmental labor bill making payment of all site office related staff and helper is the main work of account dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Billing engineer is the head of this dept. Jr. billing engineer will help to billing engineer. All bills primarily checking with execution engineer making changes as per Jr. Engineer does requirement. In account dept. one Jr. Accountant help to account in charge. 9. Services Dept.: Responsibility Our site is huge type of construction therefore there is requirement of no of services delay due to absence of any services is very dangers. Arrangement of electrical supply, water supply, making or repairing of any construction equipment and machinery, electrical equipment, is the main work of this dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Quantity In this dept. all types of skilled workers and supervisor like plumber, electrician, mechanic, welder, is working under supervision of Jr. Engineer and Jr. Engineer is directly report to the services engineer. 10. Safety and health Dept.: Responsibility Making safety working environment, safety all site worker and staff, improving and applying all safety instruction on site is the main work of this dept. cleaning of site office maintains and cleans all site awareness, cleaning of labour camp periodically, making arrangement of good drinking water, good latrine / w .c. Facility on site is the main work of health dept. Personnel structure & reporting system Safety engineer and Jr. Safety engineers work as per site condition and safety supervisor help to Jr. Engineer.

11. Administration Dept.: Responsibility Supervision and arrange all site office requirements/ facilitys, supervision on site security guards, checking their registers, keeping site off inward and outward is the main work of this dept. Admin. In charge and there asst. are responsible for this work. 2. Project Communication 2.1 INTRODUCTION The performance of any project can be evaluated from the daily reports and other correspondence that it maintains. Well framed reporting systems serve as an effective tool of information, which if compiled, documented and analyzed, provides a record on the project for 'future reference. The management can adopt certain systems to control the progress of a project. The documentation required, acts as an effective tool of control over the overall performance of every individual, from the engineer, the site staff, consultants to the architect, involved in these systems. The procedure for documentation of the in-house and outside correspondence, at different stages of work, is standardized, In this chapter we discuss some of these procedures and the methods of correspondence, that facilitate the working and help gain overall control over the staff and systems. 2.2 PROJECT COMMUNICATION WITH HEAD QUARTER

All correspondence is related to the progress of the site work.Correspondence from the site to Head Office is an important communication channel for the senior management.The required frequency of reports and the correspondence from the site to Head office is directly proportional.Daily correspondenceFortnightly correspondenceMonthly correspondence

DAILY CORRESPONDENCE This is the day to day reporting to the Head Office by the Project Engineer or site incharge.The Project Engineer should leave the site, half an hour prior to the closing time for reporting to the Head Office.If many sites are in progress, all site engineers, reporting to the Head Office, should note down the time of their respective reporting and departure.The documents should be collected in their respective site trays at the H.O. (1) D.P.R. (DAILY PROGRESS REPORT) It is a very important report.It is in a tabular format, indicating the actual work completed at the site on a particular day, the quantity of cement bags consumed per building and the ratio of cement bags/sq.m. D.P.R. of the previous day should be written and submitted immediately on the next day. Work program of each building, for the next day, should be written separately.The arrival time of the contractor's labour and the departmental labour is note desperately. Every D.P.R. must carry the name of the site, date and should be duly signed by the senior engineer and the Project Engineer. The D.P.R. is a tool for the higher authorities / Chief Engineer to check the activities of the day. (2) MATERIAL INWARD REPORT This report deals with the opening and closing balance of cement, empty bags, lime, blocks etc. It gives information of all the materials received and is attached with the challans from suppliers. Supplier's challan should contain the following information

Supplier's nameChallan numberDateSiteSite stamp with the storekeeper's signatureQuantity of material! Measurement of truck TimeSignature of the driverName, class, type, quality and quantity of the materials received On every challan, the measurement of the truck, receiving time and the vehicle number must be noted.The challan for the material received, should be stamped on the other side, along with the Project Engineer's signature.It makes records of all material received. Material transferred from site to site can also be noted with the IO.C. No. and the M.T.R. No.

(3) M.T.R. (MATERIAL TRANSFER RECEIPT) It is the receipt for any material transferred from one site to the other. It notes down the quantity along with the S.R.P. (Stock register page) No. and the M.T.R. No.

(4) MATERIAL ISSUE SLIP This slip is used by the site engineer/supervisor for issuing materials to the contractor / departmental labourer from the store.The storekeeper must not issue any material without the material issue slip. The Engineer must carry an issue slip book with him while on site.The material issue slip has the following advantagesIt helps control all work activities, since every material is issued by the engineer. Materials can be utilized properly.

Entry of the personnel in the store can be controlled.Material reconciliation for a particular work in a particular building can be done. Signature of contractor /representative confirms the acceptance of materials. (5) DAILY STORE CONSUMPTION REPORT It notes the material issued to the contractor along with the date, particulars, quantity and the building where it is used. It also gives details like who issued it, to whom and the S.R.P. No.This report should be kept at the site along with the original issue slip.It is to be written by the storekeeper.It is useful in record updating and reporting to the Head office. (6) DAILY (DEPARTMENTAL) LABOUR SLIP This report records the details of labourers, directly appointed by the company as departmental labourers. These details are recorded by the supervisor.The Engineer should check the sites where these labourers work.The report gives self explanatory description of the work done by the departmental labourers along with their designations. It should be signed by the site engineer and the Project Engineer.The report enables in the verification and preparing of the weekly cash bill of departmental labour. (7) MEMO DETAILS Avoid issuing a memo to contractors. If at all it is to be written ensure that it is signed by the contractor and is forwarded to Head office for necessary action.Memo notes can be sent to contractors for deduction of payment from his bill, for reasons like non-fulfilment of work as per the agreement, failure in maintaining the work schedule, wastage of material or instructions regarding the program of work, improvement in quality etc. It should be sent in duplicate to the Head Office.After the Chief Engineer signs the memo, a copy should go to the contractor and the other to the respective division for necessary actions.

WEEKLY CORRESPONDENCE

(1) CASH BILLS Cash bills should be submitted to the Head Office every week on pre-arranged day. (2) SETTLEMENT OF ACCOUNTS On account' money can be given to the site engineer depending on the expenses that might be incurred during the coming week.- Cash voucher receipt (Refer Format No. 13.10) should be made with complete narration and supporting documents. It should be forwarded to the Head Office on a pre-arranged day and should be adjusted against the imprest amount. (3)INDENT (REQUISITION) Indent is a printed format to raise demands for materials required at the site. It can be submitted twice a week to the purchase department through the Chief Engineer. (4)PENDING INDENT Pending indents are re-submitted when the material for indents submitted earlier has not been received, nor has the information regarding their supply been received from the purchase department.They should be submitted on a fortnightly basis. FORTNIGHTLY REPORTING Submit updated RA. Bills every fortnight to the Head Office. RA. Bills could be a labour bill for RC.C. Masonry, tiling, plumbing etc.Customer enquiry report should be submitted every 15 days to the sales department. MONTHLY REPORTING The site should send the following reports to the Head Office every month on a fixed day. (1) MONTHLY MATERIAL CONSUMPTION REPORT This statement records the total material consumption during a particular month and sent to the Head Office for verification.IT gives an idea of the total receipt, previous balance, updated stock, consumption during the month, and transfer to other sites etc.

(2) MONTHLY CEMENT CONSUMPTION REPORT This report records the opening balance every day, cement received, total stock, consumption per day, transfer to any other site (+/-), closing stock and S.RP. No. It is submitted to the Head Office. (3) ELECTRIC METER READING REPORT Every construction site has an electric meter on site.Large projects will have more than one electric meter.If the bills are more than expected, it might be due to wrong feeding of the meter reading. Have it cross-checked with the reading noted down by the site staff. Approach the Electricity Board for getting the bill corrected according to the actual reading. This helps in avoiding excess payments for electricity. (4) WATER METER READING REPORT Maintain records for water supplied by the Municipal Corporation. This report helps calculate the total consumption of water at the construction site for a given month. Also the bills received from the Municipal Corporation can be cross checked. These readings will help calculate the constant of water charges per sq.m/s.ft. Of built-up and for future estimations. (5) MACHINERY AND INSTRUMENT REPORT Construction sites have construction machineries and instruments such as concrete mixer, lift, vibrator, diesel engine, dumpy level, theodolite etc.Ongoing work at different sites can make very difficult to find out the conditions of machineries at each site.Machinery report helps in maintaining all the machines at all times.These reports are to be sent to the maintenance division every month, along with details of the machine, make/type, numbers, H.P., phase condition of the machines, causes for maintenance, estimated cost of repairs etc. (6) EXCESS MATERIAL LIST Excess material list indicates the material available at the site, not required for a certain period and time.In such cases, the material can be utilized at another site.

The report should be sent to the purchase department through the Chief Engineer, to cater to the requirements of another site instead of purchasing new materials. (7) CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS CHART This report should be prepared every month for each site.It records and helps calculate the work progress of each activity, for a particular building, as a percentage. The percentage derived, is based on the average calculation of the estimated expenses for each activity.This chart is very important for the management. The quantum of the work completed during the month, for each site/ each building, can be justified and total funds used can also be compared and justified using this chart. Over and above this report, a monthly report should be prepared by the Chief Engineer and forwarded to the Directors. It should contain the relevant information regarding the progress of project. Details of this report are as follows It should be submitted by the Chief Engineer on a fixed day, every month. It should include details of all the work completed at the site, during that month. Possession dates should also be given along with this report. Reasons for the delay of work, if any, should be mentioned. The report should be submitted to the Director to inform him of the progress of work at the site (8) CUBE TESTING REPORT Apart from these reports, the site staff should send concrete cubes taken during concreting work to the testing laboratory for testing purposes, as and when required.Test cubes should be sent with all information.Records should be maintained at site and a copy of cube testing report should be sent to Head Office for office record purpose.

2.3 REPORTING SYSTEM The site in-charge should report to the Chief Engineer each evening. .Site in-charge should leave the site half an hour prior to the closing hour for reporting to the C.E. Apart from this, he should discuss the following aspects of the daily schedule Progress of work The next day's programAccidents (if any)Visits of the top management.Decisions/ drawings required from the architect/ consultantsReceipt of material, storage and requirement of urgent material (if any)Thefts/disputes at the siteRejection of materialsWater /electricity supply failure/machine failureQuality of materialsAny other related points NOTE The site engineer should collect the required certificates/documents during the site visits of the Architect and submit a copy to the Head Office. 2.4 CORRESPONDENCE FROM SITE TO STRUCTURAL DESIGNER For any corrections after checking the working drawings with the RC.C. Drawings, the site in-charge should directly contact the structural designer after informing the C.E. The structural designer should be contacted for, Checking the strata/trial pitChecking the reinforcement before the concreting of slabsChecking of reinforcement for O.H.W.T./ U.G.W.T. / septic tanks/other critical work Queries regarding RC.C. Drawings

Checking the strength and stability of a particular member of the structure after castingFor the structural details required for any rectification work NOTE : The site engineer should collect the required certificates/documents during the site visits of the RC.C. Designer and submit a copy to the Head Office. 2.5 CORRESPONDENCE TO OTHER CONSULTANTS (1) ELECTRICAL CONSULTANT The site in-charge should contact the electrical consultant for:Estimation of cabling work/layout and to give requirement of cablesChecking the layout of LT. roomDuring slab concretingDuring road work for electrical conduiting. For installation of meter for construction purposes and shifting of meter while the work is in progressTo supervise installation of the meter.During the development work/street lighting work etc.Checking of material specificationsChecking of work samples NOTE : The site engineer should collect the required certificates/documents during the site visits of the consultant and submit a copy to the Head Office. (2) PLUMBING CONSULTANT The plumbing consultant should be contacted after receiving all the drawings,To discuss practical difficulties of the drawing.To show the sample collection of plumbing pipes, fittings and accessories.-To check and certify water and drainage stacks, details using different testing methods like pressure testing, smoke testing etc.-

To get the corrections done if any changes occur due to extra amenity/practical difficulties.-To check the water supply grid development work, drainage line development work and storm water drainage work.To collect actual measurements on site for preparing record drawings.-For all queries confirmation from municipal authorities. 2.6 CORRESPONDENCE FROM SITE TO SUBCONTRACTOR The site in-charge should discuss and enter all the points in the memo book/letter. A copy should be sent to the Head Office as a record. Progress of work Quality of work Program of work Preparation of RA bills Work out material requirement at various stages and estimates for the sameExplanations regarding the drawings Confirmation of rates other than given in the agreement Extra amenity information (if any) Memo/Instruction for bad quality of completed work Site cleaning. Misuse of material, control of wastage, minor wastage memosMisbehaviour of labourers Planning of labour hutments and discipline. Material stacking at the site by the contractorTermination of contract through the Head Office, if required 2.7 CORRESPONDENCE FROM HEAD OFFICE TO SITE This includes all documents received from the Head Office to the siteCircularsMinutes of meetingIssue of drawings and contractor's-

AgreementsSpecificationsExtra amenity debit/credit notes of modifications-I.O.C. from purchase departmentCopy of cash payment billWork order copiesDecisions regarding any queries by the site, through higher authoritiesQueries regarding bills, quality report, challans etc. from the account department Instructions regarding seminars, site visits etc.Briefings about new policy matters of the management.

2.8 CORRESPONDENCE FROM H.O. TO SUBCONTRACTOR / SUPPLIERS This is includes discussions between the subcontractors and the management for-Work speedBalance work.Quality of work.Site meetings.Payment statusIssue of chequesMemos for bad qualityControl of wastageMistakes at siteOther disciplinary actionsWork programLegal formalitiesAny other problems of the subcontractors

3. LAYOUT Good site layout is important to improve productivity. You need to arrange your construction site in such a way as to make it function as efficiently as possible. With bad layout, time and materials are wasted through double handling. Transport and handling of materials always cost money. Every time you more a stack of bricks around your site, the real cost to you increases. One of the reasons for slow progress and high cost of construction projects is the lack of site planning, including poor site layout. The layout plan of the site will depend upon two main factors: the methods and sequence of operations to be employed in carrying out he work, and the space available. The methods and sequence will have been considered at the time that the estimate and tender were prepared. When the contract is awarded, you should take another careful look at these ideas before preparing a detailed site layout plan. These plans must be prepared in advance and they must be prepared by someone with good planning skills and experience. It is often easier to save money through planning than by raising site productivity, but these savings can only be obtained if you take enough time to think about all the possible alternatives before deciding on how to layout the site.

Contract documents: The contract document for the proposed project is voluminous and contains the following documents: a) Notice inviting tender. b) Information and instructions to tenderer. c) General conditions of contract. d) Special conditions of contract. e) Schedule of quantitative and cost. f) Tender drawings. g) Specification for works. h) Forms for bank guarantee in respect of earnest money. i)Performance guarantee. j) Mobilization advance etc. K) Hypothecation deeds for construction equipment. l) Tender related correspondence and the letter of award/acceptance. While the provisions existing in various clauses of the different sections of the document have their own independent intent, meaning and interpretation, a proper management of the contract is set up for interpretation of individual clauses in harmony with others, so that it is in the interest of efficient and timely execution of work. This is applicable both to the client and the contractor. For the proposed work, work below ground is allotted as cost plus percentage rate and for work above ground it is allotted as item rate contract. It is also assumed that the contract drawn up is fair and equitable and takes into account requirements of client and possible difficulties that may be experienced by the contractor in his operations. SITE CLEARANCE Before setting up of enabling works, it is necessary to make the site clear from various aspects such as: -Any stockpile of irrelevant material laid on site. Any machinery, equipment or vehicle not related to proposed site work. Plant, vegetation or crops of reasonable height in the proposed site area. Depending upon the direction of wind mentioned, provision of temporary unit such as barrier is made on the west side of the bridge to avoid accumulation of unnecessary dust & rubbish materials. Removal of small pebbles, sharp edge stones, loose soil material from the surface of site area. Demolition of any previous temporary structure present on the site.

CONSTRUCTING INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES The following infrastructure facilities should be constructed for the proposed bridge site: 1) Temporary roads should be leveled and a sufficient base course should be provided to cope with the traffic that is unlikely to use them. 2) Regular power supply should be made available from the grid passing nearby Or electric power will have to be generated by installing diesel-penetrating sets at the site. 3) Water supply can be arranged by providing underground storage tank and distribution through a pumping system and overhead tank. For sewage disposal, septic tank should be provided and if it is not sufficient it may be necessary to provide oxidation pond. Site camps are erected on site for resident engineers & persons working onsite. These are in the form of light steel or wooden structure, which are mounted on skid beams or wheels, so that they can be moved as and when required. These are provided with electrical, plumbing and sanitary fixture, and the system becomes operational at site by plugging into the electrical and water supply. The site is also provided with the latest possible communication technology, such as cellular phone, Internet, intranet, wan etc. ORGANIZING UTILITIES All the utilities and resources available on the proposed bridge should be organized properly so as to avail the maximum benefit. Storeroom containing A class items should be provided by a watchmans cabin adjacent to it. Steel should stacked in open yard, protected by fencing. The utility yard should be attached to the steel yard by a common fencing. Aggregates should be stacked as near as possible to the batching plant or concrete mix, so as to avoid unnecessary movement and double handling of material. Camp for persons working on site should be located on one side of the site for avoiding dust and noise, generated on site. Store rooms:- Store rooms should be constructed in a place where access for unloading of materials is easier, which leads to safety of the work forces. Toilets, latrines should be constructed downwind with proper slope for drainage. Specialist shops like steel bender, carpenter, and block makers should be located/constructed near to their stores or mixer, inside crane radius. SECURITY The proposed bridge site should be secured against possible thefts and damage causing loss to the governing authority. It should be secured for: Loss of material, mobile machinery or equipment, at night times or at times when work is not in progress. 2 nos. of watchmen, each working for a 12-hour shift will serve for this purpose. Confidential information prevailing outside the organization: This can be prevented by storing the confidential data in systems and records, approachable only to the top management with the M.D. keeping the password key. The entire

document, paperwork related to site work should be properly stored in cupboards under the jurisdiction of a reliable accountant/clerk, acting as a common person to all the concerned departments. All the persons working on site, should be well secured against thefts, robbery, political influence & undue pressure of higher authorities. Also the personnel working on site should be secured against any sort of mishap or accident, likely to occur due to negligence of safety conditions. Reconciliation of materials: A daily checkups should be done on site especially for the stores, from the Storekeeper. There are three ways to find out how much money the company is losing because of damage and deterioration of materials. a) Looking carefully around the site and checking through the site, usually shows example of poor placing and storage of materials. b) Comparing figures given in orders, receipts and issues, and checking of remaining stocks. c) Measuring the work done and calculating the materials used.

4 MOBILIZATIONS: Departmental Staff: i) Before mobilizing staff members like engineers, supervisors and workmen, it is necessary to construct and prepare proper accommodation such as residential quarters & workmens hut with accurate fencing/boundary wall around the project. ii) Security check post should be fixed at gates, with guiding instructions to the security person for receiving & issuance of men, materials & machinery. iii) Departmental site office shall be erected at proper location i.e. free from any noise, dust, easily accessible from all directions of site. Also the location should not obstruct movement of men, materials & machinery. iv)The departmental staff should be mobilized at least 3 days prior to commencement of work & a mandatory visit of the complete site should be arranged for the entire department (technical & non- technical) so as to get acquainted with the site area for convenience in working. v) The departmental staff shall be informed well in advance about the mobilization date by a formal notice, and on that particular date, the entire staff shall be mobilized by means of conveyance arranged. i.e. Bus, for people residing in the range of 100 km. & trains for people exceeding the range of 100 km.

Contractors: i) Contractors should be informed with a formal notice, after the allotment of work (i.e. Contract) for mobilization of their staff, machineries & other required resources. ii) It is the duty of contractor to get himself & his resources mobilized well in advance before the initiation of work i.e. before the actual execution of work starts i.e. around a week before, so as to avoid inconvenience to the client & the subcontractors. iii) After mobilizing on site physically, he should impart instruction & guidelines to his staff & sub contractors about the proposed work & thereby the work line of action. He should also, make his staff well acquainted with the site area & arrange his machinery in consultation with the clients engineer so as to avoid unnecessary wastage of time & materials. SUBCONTRACTORS: i) For the proposed work, the contractor has appointed subcontractors related to various stages of work such as: Labours for pre-stressing work.. Labour for casting work. Labour for disposal of scrap & wastage. ii) The contractors should arrange the mobilization of subcontractor &possibly it should be according to his planned mobilization so as to get himself & the subcontractors ensured about the adequacy of resources &information required for the execution of work. iii) In case of any requirement from the contractors side, the subcontractor should intimate him, well before the work starts so that the contractor will arrange for it or arrange for a suitable alternative, after consulting with the clients engineer. Mobilisation also includes carrying out enabling works, some of which are mentioned below: Enabling works Under works of this category, structures and appurtenants which facilitate undertaking the actual project work are included. In the Master Control Network and planning for the project details of enabling work would be included. The extent of enabling work would vary depending the size and nature of the project. On a large project costing a few hundred cores, the enabling work itself could form into a mini- project. The enabling works would include the following items :i) Fencing/boundary wall around the project, fixing security check post and gates. ii) Site Office iii) Camp for accommodatin Engineers, Supervisors, and Workmen. iv) Store for materials

v) Construction Plant and equipment vi) Static plant such as concrete batching plant, pre-cast concrete element plant, block making plant, hot mix plant.vii) Mobile plant such as Trucks, Dumper, Bulldozer Grader, Vibratory and pneumatic Road Roller, Bitumen sprayer Transit mixer, Concrete Pump, Crane, front end loader, compressor. These Plant and Equipment are mobile, and can be shifted from place to place on regular basis. Stores and suppliers: Storage areas should be located near to the static plants. For storage of 350tons of cement, stacking yards should be covered with shed. But here as the cement is to be used in large quantity for concreting by batching plant and pre-stressed element plant, so it is stored in bulk in vertical silos. Also 300 tons of steel is to be stored which can be stored in open yards with proper fencing and near to bar benders workshop. Care should be taken that water does not get accumulated in this yard and there is proper slope to drain the rain water. Stone metal and sand can be stored in open yards, stacked in heaps with proper fencing so that the material does not get mix up with the outer material. The suppliers in the vicinity of Delhi should be invited on site by a formal notice and a meeting should be held up with the consultation of clients engineer and contractor, specifying the suppliers clearly about the following factors: 1. Quantity of material. 2. Quality of material. 3. Terms and conditions of contract. 4. Mode of transportation. 5. Delivery at a short notice. The suppliers should make the above factors clear in a formal quotation and submit it to the organization. The department will further scrutinize the quotations of various suppliers and allot the same to the most optimum supplier. Workshop For the maintenance of plant and equipment both static and mobile, it is necessary to have a workshop which will undertake the maintenance, repair, overhauling and major replacement of equipment. Workshop is geared up to; carry out preventive and scheduled maintenance which is essential to keep the break-down of equipment to bare minimum. The workshop should have facilities for servicing, carrying outgeneral repair, engine over-haul, calibration of Diesel Pump etc. Workshop should have a small machine shop attached with lathes, drilling machine, welding, boring machine, painting, denting, sheet metal work etc. It is also to be equipped with auto-electrical repair, battery charger, tyre repair etc.

QUERIES: For the proposed bridge site near Dehli certain queries are searched and found for arranging materials required for the construction of pre-stressed bridge such as: 1) At a distance of 10 kms. from the site, strata below the ground i.e. around 3mbelow ground is found adequately hard so as to be used as aggregate after processing it in crushers. 2) Also at a distance of 25 kms. from the site, along the coastal side, natural sand is available in plenty known as river sand, which is screened and used as required.

If transportation cost is affordable, then in between Lonavla & Khopoli, abundant of hard rock, boulder & stones are available, which can be used at various construction stages of pre-stressed concrete bridge. Stores and stacking yards In the project site, sufficient covered stores or open storage is necessary for maintaining the material in good condition. Cement is usually supplied in bags, which is stored at the site in covered shed. The sheds are constructed with brick wall, IPS floor, tubular structure trusses, roofing with sheets. Bags not exceeding 10 are stacked one over another. If more than 10 bags are stacked then the lower bags tend to set, making cement non-usable. In case cement is used in large quantities for concreting by the batching plant, and pre-cast element plant, is stored in bulk in vertical silos. The silos are filled up by a pneumatic pump fixed on the cement bulk carrier. From the silo cement is conveyed into the mixer of the batching plant and pre-cast element plant, through a screw conveyor. Services The site camp is to be provided with services like electric supply, sewage disposal, communication, telephone. In case regular power supply is available from the grid, it can be tapped and necessary substation with transformer installed at site. If grid power is not available then, it may be necessary to generate own power by installing diesel penetrating se1s at the sets. Water supply can similarly be tapped, if water lines are passing nearby in the vicinity, by providing underground storage tank and distribution through a pumping system and over head tank. In case water mains are not available, tube well could be bored for water. Necessary treatment of water to make it safe for intended consumption will have to be carried out. For sewage disposal, since the camp is only for a temporary duration septic tank, could be provided. If it is a large site, and enough land is available, then it may be possible to provide an oxidation pond for sewage disposal. The effluent from the pond could be used for horticultural purposes of the site.

In order to carry out the enabling work which is required at the very initial stage of the project itself, it may be desirable for the organization, to set up a 'crack team' which can go in advance to the site and build up all the temporary structures, services required for the enabling works. This will cut down the time required by the main project team, on their arrival at the site, and they could embark upon straight-away on execution of the main project. Such a 'crack team' can move from project to project for the organization, and they would be well trained in carrying out this activity. On the other hand, if project team assigned with the main work, is to first build up the enabling works, a lot of time is lost for the project. On most international project, and on some major projects within country, of structure being adopted for the site camp is of portable nature. These are in the form of light steel or wooden structure, which are mounted on skid beams or wheels, and can be moved to the camp site, at a very short notice. The Port cabins are provided with electrical, plumbing and sanitary fixture, and the system becomes operational at site by plugging into the electrical and water supply. Through the initial cost of the system may be more but over a period of time it would become economically viable since the structure can be shifted to site, whereas, if the camp is built with conventional materials. Like steel, concrete, the cost would be higher in the longer run, besides the extra time required to build the Camp.

TRANSPORTATION: The proposed bridge site is at Kirari, located 35 kms away from Delhi. The means of transportation are as follows: i) For staff workers & engineers, not residing on site, a minibus is arranged by the organization for their daily conveyance. ii) In case of emergencies, such as fatal accident or injury on site, the organization has arranged an ambulance in the form of omni-van with small stretcher laid inside the van. iii) For immediate or unexpected requirement of material o site, 2 standby trucks are arranged for conveyance of material on site from around the vicinity of 100 kms from site. iv) For receiving consultants and executives from the nearest terminal, an automobile such as Scorpio or Qualis is arranged by the organization. All the expenses required for the above conveyance are added into the total cost of the project as contingencies.

Bibliography/Readings Construction site organization management (NICMAR)