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THE REMAINS
OF

HESIOD THE ASCR^AN


INCLUDING

fjc gfyidb of iperatfc&


TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH RHYME AND BLANK-VERSE
WITH
;

A DISSERTATION
ON THE

LIFE

AND JERA, THE POEMS AND MYTHOLOGY,


OF

HESIOD,
AND COPIOUS NOTES.

THE SECOND EDITION,


REVISED AND ENLARGED
'^'

BY

CHARLES ABRAHAM ELTON,


\UTHOR OB SPECIMENS OF THE CLASSIC POETS FROM HOMER TO TRYPHTODORCS.

'O

Trpzo-$v<;

%a.Sapv yzvcra.y.ivo; Tu/SaJajv.

AAf-CAIOi".

LONDON:
PltlNTED FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK,
47

AND

JOY

1'ATERNOSTF.R.ROW.

1815

Gift.

W.
J

L.

Shoemaker
S
'06

C. Baldwin, Printer,

New

Bruise-street.

London.

PREFACE.

J.

HE remains of

Hesiod are not alone interesting

to

the antiquary, as tracing a picture of the rude arts

and manners of the ancient Greeks.


philosophic allegories
butive
;

His sublime

his elevated views of a retri-

Providence

and the romantic elegance, or

daring grandeur,

with which he has invested the

legends of his mythology, offer

more

solid reasons

than the accident of coeval existence for the traditional association of his

name with

that of

Homer.

Hesiod has been translated

in Latin hexameters

by Nicolaus

Valla,

and by Bernardo Zamagna.


le

French translation by Jacques


1586.

Gras bears date

The

earliest essay

on

his

poems by our own


" The

countrymen appears

in the old racy version of

Works and Days," by George Chapman,


lator of

the trans-

Homer, published
in

in 1618.

It is so scarce that

Warton

" The History of English Poetry


a 2

" doubts

IV

PREFACE.
existence.
its

its

Some specimens
rareness,

of a work equally curi-

ous from

and

interesting as an

example

of our ancient poetry, are appended to this translation.


Parnell has given a sprightly imitation of the Pandora,

under the
:

title

of " Hesiod, or the Rise of


in

Woman

"

and Broome, the coadjutor of Pope

the Odyssey, has paraphrased the battle of the Titans

and the Tartarus.*

The

translation

by Thomas

Cooke omits the splendid

heroical fragment of "


its

The

Shield," which I have restored to

legitimate con;

nexion.

It

was

first

published in
in

728

reprinted in

1740;

and has been inserted

the collections of

Anderson and Chalmers.


This translator obtained from his contemporaries the

name of " Hesiod Cooke." He was thought a good


Grecian
;

and translated against Pope the episode of


in

Thersites,

the Iliad, with

some success; which

procured him a place in the Dunciad


Be
thine,

my

stationer, this

magic

gift,

Cooke

shall be Prior,

and Concanen Swift

and a passage
*

in

" The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot


may

blank-verse translation of the Battle of the Titans


n

be found in Bryant's " Analysis


part of

and one of the descriptive


Isaac Ritson
in

"The

Shield" in the "Exeter Essays."

translated the

Theogony ; but the work has remained

MS.

PREFACE.

seems pointed more directly at the affront of the


Thersites

From these the world shall judge of men and books, Not from the Burnets, Oldmixons, and Cookes.
Satire,
distichs,

however,

is

not evidence

and neither these

nor the sour notes of Pope's obsequious


sufficient to prove, that

commentator, are

Cooke, any
deserved,

more than Theobald and many


either as an

others,

author or a man, to be ranked with


biographical account of him, with exhis

dunces.
tracts

from

common-place books, was communi-

cated by Sir Joseph

Mawby

to the Gentleman's

Ma-

gazine
veil's

vol. 61,

62.

His edition of Andrew Mar-

works procured him the patronage of the Earl

of Pembroke: he was also a writer in the Craftsman.

Johnson has told (Boswell's Tour


p. 25.) that

to the Hebrides,

" Cooke

lived twenty years

on a trans-

lation of Plautus: for

which he was always taking


was, however, ac-

subscriptions."
tually published.

The Amphitryon

With

respect to Hesiod, either Cooke's

knowlege

of Greek was in reality superficial, or his indolence

counteracted his

abilities

for his blunders are inex-

VI

PREFACE.
:

cusably frequent and unaccountably gross

not in

matters of mere verbal nicety, but in several important particulars


:

nor are these instances, which tend

so perpetually to mislead the reader,

compensated by

the force or beauty of his style

which, notwithstandlines, is, in

ing some few unaffected and emphatical


its

general

effect,
it

tame and grovelling.

These errors

had thought

necessary to point out in the notes

to

my

first

edition; as a justification of
I

my own
now

at-

tempt to supply what

considered as

still

a desiderre-

atum

in our literature.

The

criticisms are

scinded; as their object has been misconstrued into

a design of raising myself by depreciating


decessor.

my

pre-

Some remarks

of the different writers in the re-

views appear to call for reply.

The Edinburgh Reviewer


defective translation, to

objects, as

an instance of
outias

my

version of

s* ccyuh

which he says
whereas
it

is

" improperly rendered " shame

rather

means that
unfits

diffidence

and want of
their

enterprise
fortune.
Gape-OS,

which
In
this

men from improving


it is

sense

opposed by Hesiod to
spirit."

an active and courageous

PREFACE.

VU
is

But the Edinburgh Reviewer


If uidus
is

certainly mistaken.

to

be taken in

this limited sense,

what can

be the meaning of the line


AtSto? v t' avtyas fjizya. civtrcu nS '
1

eytvjjtf-j.

Shame

greatly hurts or greatly helps

mankind

the proper antithesis

is

the

*3o>c

ayah, alluded to in a

subsequent

line,

And

shamelessness expels the better shame.

The good shame, which


actions, as the evil

deters

men from mean

one depresses them from honest

enterprise.

In

my

dissertation

had ventured

to call in ques-

tion the

judgment of commentators
:

in exalting their

favourite author

and had doubted whether the meek

forgiving temper of

Hesiod towards

his

brother,
title

whom
"

he seldom honours with any better

than

fool,"

was very happily chosen as a theme

for ad-

miration.

On

this the

old Critical

Reviewer ex-

claimed " as
pressions, for

if that,

and various other gentle ex-

example blockhead, goose-cap, dunder-

head, were not frequently terms of

endearment " and


poor old Lear,
I

he added

his suspicion that

"

like

viii

PREFACE.

did not

know

the difference between a bitter fool and

a sweet one."

But, as the clown in Hamlet says, "

'twill

away

from
1st,

me
that

to

you."
is

The

critic is

bound

to prove,

vwne

ever used in this playful sense;


to

which he has not attempted

do

2dly, that

it is

so used with the aggravating prefix of


3dly, that
it is

MErA

v)7rj=

so used

by Hesiod.
is

Hector's babe on the nurse's bosom


vri'Kios
;

described as

and Patroclus weeping


wjtti)].

is

compared by Achilles

to

Koupr]

These words may bear the senses of

" poor innocent; " and of " fond girl; " the former
is

tender, the latter playful


is

but in both places the


its

word

usually understood in

primitive sense of

" infant."

Homer

says of

Andromache preparing a

bath for Hector,


Hkttit)
!

'

jvoj0-EV o fA.w y,a,\a.

rnXs Xosrponv
:

XEfXTty AjiAXwo? SttfActg-ev

yXcLUHM-mq A6r>v

II.

xxii.

Fond one

she

knew not

that the blue-eyed

maid

Had

quell'd him, far

from the refreshing bath,

Beneath Achilles' hand.

But

this

is

in commiseration: or

would the

critic

apply to Andromache the epithet of goose-cap P After

PREFACE.
all,

IX

who

in his senses

would dream of singling out a

word from an

author's context,
?

and delving in other


is,

authors for a meaning


is

The

question
is

not

how

it

used by other authors, but

how it

used by Hesiod.

Till the Critic favours us with

some proofs of Hesiod's

namby-pamby

tenderness towards the brother


his patrimony, I

who

had cheated him of


both
the

beg to return

quotation and the appellatives upon his

hands.*

The London Reviewer


verse as a

censures

my choice of blankon the

medium

for the ancient hexameter,


is

ground that the closing adonic


sented by the rounding

more

fully repre:

rhyme of the couplet

but

it

may be

urged, that the flowing pause and continuous


the

period of

Homeric

verse are

more consonant
latter to

with our blank measure.

In confining the

dramatic poetry, as partaking of the character of the

The untimely death of


offering

the writer unfortunately precludes

me from

my

particular acknowledgments to the translator

of Aristotle's Poetics, for the large and liberal praise which he

has bestowed upon

my work in

the second

number of The London

Review: a journal established on the plan of a more manly


system of criticism by the respectable essayist, whose translations

from the Greek comedy

first

drew the public attention

to

the unjustly vilified Aristophanes.

PREFACE.
visible distinc-

Greek Iambics, he has overlooked the


tion of structure in our dramatic
verse.

and heroic blank

With

respect to the particular poem, I

am

disposed to concede that the general details of the

Theogony might be improved by rhyme

but the more

interesting passages are not to be sacrificed to those

which cannot

interest,

be they

versified

how

they

may

and

as the critic seems to

admit that a poem

whose action passes


" Beyond the flaming bounds of time and space "

may be

fitly

clothed with blank numbers,

by

this

admission he gives up the argument as

it affects

the

Theogony.
In disapproving of
the Bryantian

my

illustration

of Hesiod by
the

scheme of mythology,

London

Reviewer

refers

me

for a refutation of this system to


his

Professor Richardson's preface to


tionary
;

Arabic Dic-

where certain etymological combinations and

derivations are contested, which

Mr. Bryant produ-

ces as authorities in support of the adoration of the

Sun or of

Fire.

Mr. Richardson, however,

pre-

mises by acknowledging " the penetration and judge-

ment of

the author of the Analytic System in the re-

futation of vulgar errors, with the

new and inform-

PREFACE.

XI

ing light in which he has placed a variety of ancient


facts
:

" and however formidable the professor's

cri-

ticisms

may be

in this his peculiar province,

it

must

be remarked that a great part of " The


rests

New System"
;

on grounds independent of etymology

and

is

supported by a mass of curious evidence collected

from the

history, the rites,


:

and monuments of an-

cient nations

nor can

I look

upon the judgment of

that critic as infallible,

who

conceives the suspicious

silence of the Persic historians sufficient to set aside

the venerable testimony of Herodotus, and the proud

memorials and patriotic traditions of the free people


of Greece
:

and who

resolves the invasion of

Xerxes

into the petty piratical inroad of a Persian Satrap.


I conceive, also, with respect to the point in dispute,

that the professor's confutation of certain etymological positions is completely

weakened

in its intended

general

effect,

by

his scepticism as to the universality

of a diluvian tradition.
odical
rise

If

we admit

that the peri-

overflowings of the

Nile might have given

to superstitious observances
;

and processions

in

iEgypt

and even that the sudden inundations of the

Euphrates and the Tigris might have caused the institution of similar

memorials in Babylonia,

how

are

XII

PREFACE.
to account for Greece,

we

and India, and America,

each visited by a destructive inundation, and each


perpetuating
its

remembrance by
?

poetical legends or

emblematical sculptures
supposition,

Surely a most incredible


;

Nor

is

this all

for

we

find an agree-

ment not merely of a


from a flood
;

flood,

but of persons preserved


in a

and preserved

remarkable manner
tree.

by inclosure

in a vessel, or the

hollow trunk of a

How
and

is

it

possible to solve coincidences of so minute

specific

a nature * by casual inundations, with

* " Paintings representing the deluge of Tezpi are found


the different nations that inhabit Mexico.
jointly with his wife, children,

among

He

saved himself conraft.

and several animals, on a

The

painting represents

him

in the

midst of the water lying in a bark.

The mountain,
Mexicans.

the summit of which,


is

crowned by a

tree, rises

above the waters,

the peak of Colhuacan, the Ararat of the


after the deluge

The men born

were

dumb

a dove,

from the top of the tree distributes among them tongues.

When

the great Spirit ordered the waters to withdraw, Tezpi sent out a
vulture.

This bird did not return on account of the number of

carcases, with which the earth, newly dried up,

was strewn.

He

sent out other birds


turned, holding in

one of which, the humming-bird,, alone re-

its

beak a branch covered with

leaves.

Ought

we

not to acknowledge the traces of a


first

common

origin,

wherever

cosmogonical ideas, and the


analogies,,

traditions of nations, offer striking

even in the minutest circumstances?

Does not the

humming-bird of Tezpi remind us of Noah's dove ; that of Deucalion,

and the birds, which, according

to

Berosus, Xisuthrue-

"

PREFACE.

XIII

Mr. Richardson,
proneness of the

or,

with Dr. Gillies, by the natural


to the weaknesses

human mind

and

terrors of superstition ?

As

to

my

choice of the Analytic System for the

purpose of

illustrating

Hesiod,

am

not convinced
or the Edin-

by the argument

either of the
it
is

London

burgh Reviewer, that

a system too extensive to

serve for the illustration of a single author, or that

my

task was necessarily confined to literal explanation

of the received mythology.

In

this single

author are

concentrated the several heathen legends and heroical


fables,

and the whole of that popular theology which

the author of the

New

System professed to analyse.

Tzetzes, in his scholia

upon Hesiod,

interpreted the

theogonic traditions by the phenomena of nature and


the

operations of

the elements:

Le

Clerc by the

hidden sense which he traced from Phoenician primitives:

and to these Cooke,


of Lord

in his notes,

added

the moral apologues

Bacon.

In depart-

sent out from his ark, to see whether the waters were run

off,

and
?

whether he might erect

altars to the tutelary deities of

Chaldcea

Humboldt's Researches,
numents of ancient America
:

concerning the Institutions and


translated by

MoHelen Maria Wil-

liams

XIV
ing, therefore,

PREFACE.

from the beaten track of the school-

boy's Pantheon, I have only exercised the same free-

dom which

other commentators and translators have

assumed before me.


Clifton,

October, 1815.

DISSERTATION
ON

THE LIFE AND JERX


OF

HESIOD,
HIS POEMS,

AND MYTHOLOGY.

SECTION
ON THE
IT
is

I.

LIFE OF HESIOD.

remarked by Velleius Paterculus (Hist. lib. i.) " Hesiod had avoided the negligence into which that

Homer
parents
:

fell,

by

attesting both his country

and

his

but that of his country he had


;

made most
fine

reproachful mention

on account of the

which

she had imposed on him."


incidences in the

There are

sufficient co-

poems of Hesiod, now


is

extant, to

explain the grounds of this assertion of Paterculus

but the statement

loose

and

incorrect.

As to the mention of his country, if by country we are to suppose the place of his birth, it can only
be understood by implication, and that not with certainty.

Hesiod indeed

relates that his father

migrated

from

Cuma

in iEolia, to Ascra, a Boeotian village at

the foot of

mount Helicon

but we are

left

to con-

jecture whether he himself was born at

Cuma

or at

XVI

DISSERTATION ON

Ascra.

in a ship but once, to the Isle of


test,

His affirmation that he had never embarked when he sailed across the Euripus
Eubcea on occasion of a poetical conspeaking of his nau-

has been thought decisive of his having been


at

born
tical

Ascra; but the poet


:

is

experience

and even

if

he had originally come

from Cuma, he would scarcely mention a voyage

made

in

infancy.

The

observation respecting his


A<ot/ ysvog
.

parents tends to countenance the reading of


race of Dius; instead of
foov

ysvog,
is

race divine; but

the

name of one parent

only

found.

The

re-

proachful mention of his country plainly alludes to


his charge of corruption against the petty kings or

nobles,

who

exercised the magistracy of Bceotia

and

by the

fine is

meant the

judicial

award of the larger


Virgil, in his

share of the patrimony to his brother.

There seems a great probability that


in view

fourth eclogue, had Hesiod's golden and heroic ages


;

and that he

alludes to the passage of Justice

leaving the earth, where he says

The

virgin i;ow returns

Saturaian times

Roll round again

and

to

Hesiod himself in the


The
last

verse,
:

age dawns, in verse Cumaean sung *

* It has been a favourite theory

of*

learned men, that Virgil had


the
birth of a

access to Sibylline prophecies, which foretold


Saviour.

How came

the Sibyls, any

more than the Pythonesses

of Delphos, to be ranked on a sudden with the really inspired

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


and
not, as
is

XVII

panian Cuma.

commonly thought, to the Sibyl of CamProfessor Heyne objects, that Hesiod


better age
:

makes no mention of the revolution of a


yet such an allusion
is

significantly

conveyed in the

following passage

Oh
Midst

would that Nature had denied

me

birth

this fifth race, this iron age of earth lay,


!

That long before within the grave I

Or

long hereafter could behold the day

That

Virgil elsewhere calls Hesiod's verse Ascraean

is

there seems

no argument against his supposing him of Cuma: no reason why either epithet should not
least

be used: for the poet was at


traction.

of

Cumean

exsur-

That Ascraeus was Hesiod's received


nor

name among
birth-place,

the ancients proves nothing as to his


is

any thing proved


title

as to

Virgil's

opinion by his adoption of the

in compliance

with

common
?

usage.

Apollonius was

surnamed
had
either the
?

prophets

or

is

it

credible that they should have

curiosity, or the

power, to inspect the Jewish Scriptures

The

"

Sibylline Verses "

were confessedly interpolated,

if

not fabri-

cated,

by the pious fraud of Monks.


less

The

imitations from Isaiah

seem no

chimerical.

Every description of a golden age


into a similar parallel.

among the poets may be wrested


is
it

Nor

to

be conceived that Virgil would have produced so dry a


original.

copy of so luxuriant an

This argument does not affect

the extraordinary coincidence of the time of the appearance of


this

eclogue, with the epoch of the Messiah's birth; which

is

exceedingly curious.

XVlii

DISSERTATION ON
his residence at

Rhodius from

Rhodes, yet his birthnothing


is

place was iEgypt.

After

all,

established,

even

if it

could be certified that Virgil thought him

of Cuma, beyond the single weight of Virgil's individual opinion.


cient

Plutarch

relates,

from a more an-

and therefore a more competent authority, that

of Ephorus, the Cumaean historian, that Dius was


the youngest of three brothers, and emigrated through
distress of

debt to Ascra

where he married Pyci-

mede, the mother of Hesiod.


If

we

allow the authenticity of the

proem

to the

Theogony,

Hesiod tended sheep


it is

in the vallies of

Helicon ; for

not in the

spirit
;

of ancient poetry

to feign this sort of circumstance

and no education

could be conceived more natural for a bard


of husbandry.
senting

who sang
infer also

From

the fiction of the

Muses pre-

him with a

laurel-bough,

we may

that he was not a minstrel or harper, but a rhapsodist


;

and sang or

recited to the

branch instead of the

lyre.

La Harpe,
I

in his Lycee, ou

Cows

de Literature,

asserts that

Hesiod was a
find the
;

priest of the

temple of the

Muses.

same account
iii.

in Gale's
i.

Court of

the Gentiles
rion's

book

p. 7.

vol.

who

quotes Ca-

Chronicle of Memorable Events.

For

this,

however, I can find no ancient authority.


ferring to Pausanias,
statue of

On

re-

he mentions, indeed, that the


in the temple of the

Hesiod was placed


:

Muses on Mount Helicon and in the Works and Days Hesiod mentions having dedicated to the Muses

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


of Helicon the tripod which he
contest
;

XIX
in the

won

Eubcean

and observes

Th' inspiring Muses to

my

lips

have giv'n

The

love of song, and strains that breathe of heaven.

From

the conjunction of this passage with the ac-

count of Pausanias, has probably arisen a confused


supposition that Hesiod was actually a priest of the

Heliconian temple.
titute

The circumstance,
is

although des-

of express evidence,

however probable, from

his acquaintance with theogonical traditions

and

his

tone of religious instruction.

Guietus rejects the whole passage as supposititious,

which respects the voyage to Eubcea, and the contest


in poetry at the

funeral

games of Amphidamas.
it

Proclus supposes Plutarch to have also rejected

because he speaks of the contest as ra

scoKoc

wpay/*aTa
:

which some interpret


old wives' stories.
rect one, Plutarch
disbelief only of

trite
if

or threadbare tales

others

But

the latter sense be the cor-

may have meant to intimate his Hesiod and Homer having conit

tended ; not altogether of a contest in which Hesiod took part. In fact

seems reasonable to infer the au-

thenticity of the passage from this very tradition

of

Homer and Hesiod

having disputed a prize in

poetry.

In the pseudo-history entitled "

The

Contest of

Homer and
in Eubcea:

Hesiod,"

is

an inscription purporting to

be that on the tripod which Hesiod won from

Homer

b 2

XX

DISSERTATION ON
This Hesiod vow'd to Helicon's blest nine,
Victor in Chalcis crown'd o'er Homer, bard divine.

Now

that the passage in

" The Works" was exis

tant long before this piece was in existence,


ceptible of easy proof: but if

sus-

we conceive with
is

the

credulity of Barnes, that the piece


scattered

a collection of

traditionary matter

of genuine antiquity,

that the passage

was not constructed on the narration

may be

inferred from the former wanting the

name

of Homer.

The

nullity of

purpose in such a forgery

seems to have struck those,


the same fanciful
states, for

who in the indulgence of whim have substituted, as Proclus

the usual reading in the text of Hesiod,


airxtVTa,

V(*va) viKnvarra, <bf TptTTsS'

I bore a tripod ear'd,


T[X\w
viXTio-avr' EV

my

prize,

away

^aKai^i Qncv O/otnpov,

Victor in Chalcis crown'd o'er Homer, bard divine

the identical verse in the pretended inscription.


is

It

incredible that

any person should take the trouble


he had won a poetical
:

of foisting lines into Hesiod's poem, for the barren


object of inducing a belief that
prize
less

from some unknown and nameless bard

un-

we were to presume that the forger omitted the name through a refinement of artifice, that no suspicion

may be

excited

by

its
:

too minute coincidence

with the traditionary story

but

it is

a perfectly na-

tural circumstance that the passage in Hesiod, de-

scribing a contest with

some unknown bard, should

have furnished the basis of a meeting between Hesiod

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


and

XXI

Homer and
:

the tradition
this

is

at

once explained

by the coincidence of and an invocation

passage in "

in the

"

Hymn

to

The Works," Venus;" where

Homer
festivals,

exclaims on the eve of one of these bardic

Oh

in this contest let


:

me

bear away

The palm of song

do thou prepare

my

lay

The

piece entitled " The Contest of


is

Homer and
not credi-

Hesiod,"

entitled to

no

authority.

It is

ble that a composition of this nature, consisting of

enigmas with their solutions, and of


fect sense

lines of

imper-

which are completed by the alternate verses

of the answerer, should have been preserved by the


oral tradition of ages like complete
foolish genealogies,

poems

and the
are

whereby

Homer and Hesiod

traced to Gods, Muses, and Rivers, and are


cousins, according to the favourite zeal of the

made

Greeks

for finding out a consanguinity in poets, diminish all

the credit of the writer as a sober historian.


It

appears probable that the whole piece was sug:

gested by the hint of the contest in Plutarch quotes


it

who

in his

" Banquet of Sages,"

as

an example
says

of the ancient contests in poetry.

He

Homer

proposed

this

enigma

Rehearse,

O Muse

the things that ne'er have been,

Nor e'er

shall in the future

time be seen

which Hesiod answeredinamannerno less enigmatical:

When

round Jove's tomb the clashing cars shall


straining for the goal.

roll,

The trampling coursers

XX11

DISSERTATION ON

The same verses, with a few changes, are given in " The Contest " only the question is assigned to
;

Hesiod, and the answer to


lectures, with

perhaps too

Homer as Robinson conmuch refinement, for the


;

secret purpose of depressing

Hesiod under the mask

of exalting him, by appointing

Homer

to the

more

arduous

task

of solving

the questions proposed.

With

respect also to the award of


is

Pan cedes, the

judge, which

thought to betray the same design


partial preference of the verses of

by an imbecile or
Hesiod
to

those of
it

Homer,

the reason

stated

by

Pancedes, that "

was just

to bestow the prize

on
in

him who exhorted men preference to him who


nage "
is

to agriculture

and peace,

described only war and car;

equally noble and philosophical

and by no

means merits

to have given rise to the proverbial


:

parody quoted by Barnes

Uuv&os 4^? " the judg-

ment of Pan ment of Pancedes."


:

" instead of Tlavoifo ^$0?, " the judg-

The

piece seems to be a

mere

exercise of ingenuity,

without any particular design of raising one poet at


the expence

of the other:

and

as

it

contains in-

ternal evidence

of having been composed after the

time of Adrian, who is mentioned by name as " that most divine Emperor," and Plutarch flourished under
Trajan, there
of
is

reason to suppose that the narrative

Periander in the
first

" Banquet of Wise Men,"

afforded the

hint of the whole contest.

To

the same zeal for

making Hesiod and Homer

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


competitors

XX111

we owe another
II.

inscription,

quoted by

Eustathius, ad

A.
first

p. Si
did I with

In Delos

Homer raise
and new the lays
;
:

The rhapsody

of bards

Phoebus Apollo did our numbers sing

Latona's son, the golden-sworded king.

But
thentic,

if

the

passage in

**

The Works

"

be au-

the

spuriousness of this inscriptive record

detects itself; as

Hesiod there confines

his voyages

to the crossing the Euripus.

Pausanias mentions the institution of a contest at


the temple in Delphos, where a
in

hymn was

to

be sung

honour of Apollo

and

says that

Hesiod was ex-

cluded from the number of the candidates because he

had not

learnt to sing to the harp.

He

adds, that

Homer came
from trying

thither
skill

also;

and was incapacitated

his

by the same deficiency: and,

what

is

very strange, he gives as a reason

why he

could not have taken a part in the contest, even were

he a harper, that he was blind.

From

Plutarch,

Pausanias,

and the author of


to cull

" The Contest," we are enabled


ing traditions of the latter
life

some

gossip-

of Hesiod, which are

scarcely worth the gleaning, except that, like the ro-

mancing Lives of Homer, they are proofs of the


poet's celebrity.

Hesiod, we are told,

set

out on a pilgrimage to the

Delphic Oracle,

for

the

purpose of hearing his

XXIV
fortune
:

DISSERTATION ON

and the old bard could scarcely get

in at

the gates of the temple,


refrain

when

the prophetess could

no longer
"
the

"

ajflata est numirie

quando

jam

propriore Dei
Blest
is

man who
th'

treads this hallow'd ground,


:

With honours by
The bard whose

immortal Muses crown'd

glory

beams

divinely bright
light
;

Far as the morning sheds her ambient

But shun the shades of fam'd Nemean Jove

Thy mortal end

awaits thee in the grove.

But

after

all

her sweet words, the priestess was


;

but a jilting gypsey


the ambiguity
carefully

and meant only


from
the

to shuffle with

of her trade.
aside

The oM gentleman
Peloponnesian

turning
fell

Nemea,

into the trap of a temple of the

Nemean
was here

Jupiter at iEnoe, a town of Locris.


entertained by one Ganyctor
sian, his fellow-traveller,
;

He

together with a Milecalled Troilus.

and a youth

During the night this Milesian violated the daughter of their host, by name Ctemene and the grey hairs
:

of Hesiod,
over,*

who we are told was an old man twice and whose name grew into a proverb for lonyoung
lady's brothers,

gevity, could not save

the deed by the

him from being suspected of Ctemenus and

Antiphus:

they without
;

much ceremony murdered


is

* See the epigram

which, for want of an owner,

ascribed

by Tzetzes

to

Pindar
!

Hail Hesiod

wisest

man who
!

twice the bloom

Of youth hast

prov'd, and twice approach'd the tomb.

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


him
in the fields,
killed the

XXV
in the

and "

to leave

no botches

work,"

poor boy into the bargain.


suppose,

The

Milesian,

we

are to

escaped under the

cloud of his miraculous security, free from gashes

and from
into

question.

The body of Hesiod was thrown


or a whole shoal

the sea;

and a dolphin,*

of them, according to another account,


it

conveyed
festival

to

a part of the coast,


:

where the

of

Neptune was celebrating


confessed,
fde
solertia

and the murderers, having


Plutarch
corpse
states

were drowned in the waves.


animalium)
that

the

of
his

Hesiod was discovered through the sagacity of


dog.

The body of
rest quiet

a murdered poet, however, was not to

without effecting some further extraordi-

nary prodigies.

The

inhabitants of Orchomenos, in

Bceotia, having consulted the oracle


pestilence,

on occasion of a
only remedy,

were answered

that, as their
;

they must seek the bones of Hesiod

and that a crow


accordingly
cavity of

would direct them.


found a crow
sitting

The messengers
on a rock ; in the

which

they discovered the poet's remains ; transported them


to their

own

country, and erected a

tomb with

this

epitaph

The Greeks were extremely

fanciful about dolphins."

Several

stories of persons preserved

from drowning by dolphins, and ro-

mantic tales

of their fondness for children,

and

their love of

music, are related by Plutarch in his " Banquet of Diodes."

XXVI

DISSERTATION ON
The
fallow vales of Ascra gave

him

birth

His bones are cover'd by the Mingan earth:

Supreme

in Hellas Hesiod's glories rise,

Whom men discern by wisdom's

touchstone wise.
is

Among
of being

the Greek Inscriptions

an epitaph on
air
its

Hesiod with the name of Alcaeus, which has the


a genuine ancient production,

from

breathing the beautiful classic simplicity of the old

Grecian school

Nymphs

in their founts midst Locris'

woodland gloom

Laved Hesiod's corse and

piled his grassy

tomb

The shepherds

there the yellow honey shed,


:

And

milk of goats was sprinkled o'er his head

With

voice so sweetly breathed that sage would sing,


sip'd pure drops

Who

from every Muse's spring.

Some mention Ctemene,


account Hesiod
the
is

or Clymene,

on whose and

said to have been


:

murdered, as
;

name
is

of his wife

others call her Archiepe

he

supposed to have had by her a son named

Stesichorus.

In "

The Works"
I,

is this

passage:

Then may not


In

nor yet

my

son remain
:

this our generation just in vain


it

which, unless

be only a figure of speech, confirms

the fact of his having a son.

Pausanias describes a brazen statue of Hesiod in


the forum of the city Thespia, in Boeotia ; another
in the temple of Jupiter Olympicus, at
Elis;

Olympia in

and a third

in the temple of the Muses,

on

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.

XXV11

Mount
resting

Helicon, in a sitting posture, with a harp

on

his knees

a circumstance which he rather

formally

criticises,

on the ground that Hesiod recited

with the laurel-branch.

brazen statue of Hesiod stood also in the baths

of Zeuxippus, which formed a part of old Byzantium,

and retained the same


(See Gibbon's

title,

an epithet of Jupiter,

under the Christian Emperors of Constantinople.

Roman Empire, ii.

17; Dallaway's

Conin-

stantinople, p. 110.)

Constantine adorned the baths

with statues,
scriptions.

and for these Christodorus wrote


statue of

That on the

Hesiod

is

quoted
:

by Fulvius Ursinus, from the Greek Epigrams


Midst mountain nymphs
in brass th' Ascraean stood,

Uttering the heaven-breathed song in his infuriate mood.

The

collections of antiquities

by Fulvius Ursinus,

Gronovius, and Bellorius exhibit a gem, a busto and


a basso-relievo,
together with a truncated her ma
artist

which the ingenious

who designed

the frontis-

piece to this edition has united with one of the heads.

The

bust in the

Pembroke

collection differs

from

all

these.

In

fact the sculptures,

whether of Hesiod or
art;

Homer,
Grecian

are only interesting as antiquities of

for the likenesses assigned to


artists

eminent poets by the


:

were mostly imaginary * and must

evidently have been so in such ancient instances as these.

* See " Specimens of ancient Sculpture," by the society of


Dilettanti.

XXV111

DISSERTATION ON

Greece, at an early period, seems to have possessed

spirit

of just legislation, which formed in the very


certain code of practical re-

bosom of polytheism a
ligion
:

and from the semi-barbarous age of Orpheus, down to the times of a Solon, a Plato, and a Pindar, Providence continued to raise up moral instructors of
legislators, or

mankind, in the persons of bards, or


philosophers,

who by

their conceptions of a righteous


social

governor of the universe, and their maxims of

duty and natural piety, counteracted the degrading


influence of superstition

on the manners of the peo-

ple
lic

and sowed the germs of that domestic and pubwhich so long upheld
in

virtue

power and pros-

perity the sister communities of Greece.


spirit

The same

pervades the writings of Hesiod.


evident even in the times that have passed

It is

since the gospel light


nations,

was shed abroad among the


system of theology
:

that a perverted

may
that

perfectly consist with a pure practical religion


scholastic subtleties, unscriptural traditions,

and un-

charitable dogmas,

may

constitute the creed, while the

religion of primitive Christianity influences the heart.

So, in estimating the character of Hesiod,

we must

separate those superstitions which belong to a tradi-

tionary mythology,

from that system of opinions


life
;

which respected the guidance of human

the ac-

countableness of nations and individuals to a heavenly

judge; and the principles of public equity and popular justice

which he derived from the national

institu-

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


tions.

XXIX

If

tendency and

we examine his poems in this view of their spirit, we shall find abundant cause for
could

admiration and respect of a man, who, born and nurtured upon the lap of heathen superstition,

shadow out the maxims of truth in such allegories, and recommend the practice of
such powerful and

beautiful
virtue in

affecting appeals to the conscience

and the reason.


They, however, who can
feel

the infinite superi-

ority of Christianity over every system of philosophic

morals,

will

naturally expect that the morality of

Hesiod should come short of that point of purity, which he, who reads our nature, proposed through
the revealer of his will as a standard for the emulation of his creatures.

But

in the zeal of

commenting

upon an adopted author, we


sense;

find that every thing

equivocal has been strained to

some unobjectionable
Christian graces for

we

are presented with


;

heathen virtues

and Hesiod

is

not permitted to be
;

absurd even in his superstitions


to involve

which are thought


;

some refined emblematical meaning

some

lesson of ethical

wisdom or of economical prudence.


of patriarch and prophet, with
is

The

similitude

whom

he

is

compared by Robinson,
in

not a very

exaggerated comparison,
simplicity of

so far as respects the

an ancient husbandman, laying down

rules for the general

ceconomy of

life

or the graver

functions of a philosopher, denouncing the visitations

of divine justice on nations and their legislators,

XXX

DISSERTATION ON

greedy of the gains of corruption.


editor
is

But the learned

unfortunate in selecting for his praise the

meek

and placable disposition of Hesiod


patriarchal character.
felt at

as completing the

The

indignation which Hesiod


brother, and the

the injuries done

him by a

venality of his judges,


bitterness of rebuke
:

might reasonably excuse the


but he should not be held up

as

a model of equanimity and forbearance.

To
:

this

graceless brother

he seldom ever addresses himself


^tya. vmis, greatly foolish
if

in

any gentler terms than


I question

and

whether Perses,

he could

rise

from the
for the

dead,

would confess himself very grateful

tenderness of this reprehension.

The

adverse decision in the law-suit with his bro-

ther must be confessed to be the hinge on which the


alleged corruptness of his times perpetually turns:
yet as he does not conceal the personal interest which

he has in the question, his frankness wins our confidence;

and

simplicity

and candour are


artless style, that

so plainly

marked

in his grave

and

we

are in-

sensibly led to

form an exception in

his favour as to
;

the judgment of the character from the writer


believe his praises of frugality

to

and temperance

sin-

cere

and

to coincide with Paterculus, in the opinion

that he was a man of a contented and philosophical mind, " fond of the leisure and tranquillity " of rustic
life.

as Addison expresses it, must " as the oracle of the neighbourhave regarded him

His countrymen,

THE LIFE OF HESIOD.


hood."

XXXI

Plutarch adverts to his medical knowledge,

in the person of

Cleodemus the physician

and when

we

consider that he possessed sufficient astronomy for

the purposes of agriculture, and that he carried his


zeal for science even into nautical details, of which,

notwithstanding,
shall

he confesses

his

inexperience,

we

acknowledge him to have been a

man

of extra-

ordinary attainments for the times in which he lived.

SECTION
ON THE

II.

JERA OF HESIOD.

THE

question of the sera

when Hesiod
rise to

flourished,

and whether he were the elder or the junior of Homer,


or his contemporary, has given
such endless
disputes, that Pausanias declines giving

any opinion

on the

subject.

Some
:

of the moderns have attempted


:

to ascertain the point from internal evidence

1st,

by
:

the character of style


3dly,

2dly,

by philological

criticism

by astronomical

calculation.

In the first instance they are unfortunately by no means agreed. Justus Lipsius asserts that a greater simplicity and more of the rudeness of antiquity are
apparent in Hesiod
is
:

Salmasius
finished,

insists that

Hesiod

more smooth and

and

less

imbued with
respecting

antiquity than

Homer.
argument
of

As
effect

to

the

Heinsius

Tsxfuupopai being used

by Homer

in the sense of to

or bring

to pass,

and by Hesiod in

that of to

appoint, contrive, or will

the

; and as to the former being more ancient acceptation the proof totally fails
; :

inasmuch as

Homer

has repeatedly used the word in

THE 2EUA OF HESIOD*


in the latter sense
$e[jura$
:

XXXU1

and with regard to the use of

when Hesiod uses vopxc, known in Homer's age, the objection is vague unless we suppose that Homer's poems * contained every word in the language. The argument of the celebrated Dr. Samuel
for law,

by Homer

which

is

asserted not to have been


;

Clarke, in favour of their being of a different age,

and of Hesiod being the junior, turns on the word


xaXog
;

which in

Homer

is

invariably

made long
it

in

the

first

syllable;

whereas Hesiod makes


:

either
;

long or short at pleasure


of which the penult
is

and on the word

ovopivoc

long in Homer, and short in

Hesiod.
coeval,
it
:

But should the argument affect their being does not appear why Hesiod might not be
for

the elder
to the

who

will

be bold enough to decide as


?

most ancient quantity

nor could we possibly

determine the question, unless

we were

in possession

of other poets, contemporary with Homer,

who should

be found to conform exactly with the Homeric prosody


:

in

which case the disagreement of Hesiod might


least,

favour a presumption of his belonging, at


different age.

to a

The

criticism seems, however, in all


as

respects

unworthy of so acute a reasoner

Dr.

Clarke

for surely the difference of country alone


less

might induce a difference of prosodial usage, no


than a dissimilarity of
dialect.

But the most

decisive

answer to

all

such minute criticisms appears to be,

* Robinson, Dissertatio de Hesiodo.

XXXIV
that
all

DISSERTATION ON
the evidence afforded us on historical autho-

rity respecting the discovery, collection,

and arrange-

ment of the poems ascribed


presumption that their

to

dialect, diction,

Homer, justifies the and prosody

have undergone * such modifications and changes, as to baffle all chronological reasoning drawn from the
present state of the poems.
Scaliger

and Vossius have thought that the by astronomical


calculation,

aera of

Hesiod could be ascertained within seventy

years,

more or

less,

from the

following passage of

The Works and Days.


have
circled, since the

When

sixty days

sun

Turn'd from his wintry

tropic, then the star

Arcturus, leaving ocean's sacred flood,


First whole-apparent

makes

his evening rise.

It is singular that so great a

philosopher as Dr.

Priestley should also have argued for the certainty of

the same

Hesiod.

method of chronology in this instance of (Lectures on History, Lect. xii. p. 99.)


precise nature of

But neither the accuracy nor the


the

astronomical observation here


It is

commemorated

can possibly be ascertained.


*
<c

uncertain whether

If

we

consider the chronology of Homer's

life to

be

suffi-

ciently established, one

would be tempted

to believe that his

rhapsodies, as they were called, have not only been arranged and
digested in a subsequent period, as has been asserted on good
authority,

but have even undergone something similar to the Essays annexed

refaccimento by Berni of Boyardo's Orlando."


to Professor Millar's History of the English

Government.

: ;

THE iERA OF HESIOD.


the single star

XXXV

A returns may not

be placed for the

whole constellation of Bootes ; of which there are


examples in
Columella,

and other
this rising

writers.

It

is

wholly uncertain whether


Hesiod's

was observed in

own

country, or even in Hesiod's


is

own time
scarcely

a knowledge of both which particulars

essential to

our making a just calculation.


ascribe to Hesiod a

We

shall

more
;

scientific

accuracy than to

subsequent astronomers

yet we find that even their ob-

servations of the solstices

and of the

risings

and

set-

tings of the stars, are ambiguous,


fallacious.

and most probably

Hesiod makes the achronycal rising of


solstice
:

Arcturus sixty days after the winter

many

other writers, and particularly Pliny, say the same.

Now setting the difference between


800 years,
in
this will

Hesiod and Pliny at

the time of

make a difference of eleven days the phenomenon. Both therefore


and
from

cannot have written from actual observation,


probably neither did.

The

ancients

copied

each other without scruple ; because they


till

knew not
be^

the time of Hipparchus, that the times of rising

&c. varied by the course of ages.


sides to

They seem
difference.
this,

have copied from writers of various latitudes

unconscious that this also


shall not

made a

We

then be disposed to rely on

or similar

passages of Hesiod, for any secure data of chronology-

In the absence of internal evidence we are therefore referred to the opinions of antiquity.
c 2

There

is

XXXVI

DISSERTATION ON

remark of Gibbon in that part of his Posthumous Writings entitled " Extraits raisonne's de mes Lectures,"

which lays down an excellent rule of judgment

in matters of chronology.

He

very justly observes,

that the differences of chronologers


ciled

may be
The

recon-

by the consideration that they reckoned from


life.

different aeras of the person's

fixing the

date from different periods,

as

from the

birth

or

death, the production of a work, * or any other re-

markable event of a person's


the difference of
establish
diversities
life
it

life,

might

easily

a century.

"So

that

make we may

as a rule of criticism, that

where these

do not exceed the natural term of human


to think of reconciling,

we ought

and not of opwriters, with

posing them.
respect to
liate; since

There

are, indeed,
it
is

many

Homer, whom

impossible to conci-

they take in so enormous a period as 416

years,

from the return of the Heraclidae A. C. 1104

to the twenty-third

Olympiad A. C. 688.

But be-

sides that they are of inferior note, the great differ-

ence

among them

leaves the authority of each to

stand singly by

itself."

This reasoning very much diminishes whatever


* It
strange, however, that a critic like

is

Gibbon should have

allowed himself to talk of a definite time


his Iliad; " in an age

when " Homer wrote

when

alphabetic characters were not in use;

when
be

poets composed only rhapsodies, or such portions as could


;

recited at one time

which were preserved by oral tradition

through the recitations of succeeding bards.

THE JERA OF HESIOD.


force

XXXV11

to the computations of those writers

might be derived from the authority of names, who contend that


is

Hesiod

a century younger than Homer.


is

These are

the Latin writers ; whose concurrence

however so

exact as to induce a belief of their having merely

copied from each other.

Thus

Velleius Paterculus,

who Homer

wrote his history 30 years after Christ, says that


flourished
;

950 years before his time

that

is,

before Christ 920

puted that

and Pliny about the year 78 comHomer lived 1000 years before him; bePaterculus follows Cicero in placing
after

fore Christ 920.

Hesiod 120 years

Homer
:

Pliny, Porphyry,

and Solinus, concur

in the order of their ages,

and

in the interval between

them

varying only from ten


laid

to twenty or thirty years.

But on the plan

down

by Gibbon,
that of

this

chronology might be reconciled with

Ephorus,

and Varro and

who, according to

Aulus
raries
:

Gellius,

made Hesiod and Homer contempoPhilostratus.


is

as did Plutarch

This opinion

supported by the ancient authority

of Herodotus ; and by that of the Chronicler of the

Parian Marbles.
has, indeed,

The

authenticity of these marbles

of

been impugned by a learned dissertation Mr. Robertson, printed in 1788. To this an an-

swer was published in 1789, by Mr. Hewlett: and

Mr. Gough has defended the genuineness of the Chronicle in a Memoir of the Archaeologia, vol. ix. Gibbon observes, " I respect that monument as a
useful, as

an uncorrupt monument of antiquity

but

; ,

XXXVUI

ON THE iERA OF HESIOD.

its authority to that of Herodomore modern: (B. C. 264:) its author is uncertain we know not from what source he drew

why

should I prefer
it is

tus?

his chronology."*

The Parian Marble, however,

if

not

a modern forgery,

may

be allowed to stand on the


tablets of chronology.

same footing with other Greek and Homer


and fixing
Hesiod
907;

Herodotus was born B. C. 484.


to have preceded his
:

He affirms
own

Hesiod

time by four

hundred years

thus

making them contemporaries


the Marbles fixes the aera of

their aera at B. C. 884.

The Chronicler of
at

944 years B.C.: and that of


is

Homer

at

by which Hesiod
;

placed 37 years before


trifling to affect

Homer

a difference, however, too

the chronological evidence in favour of their contem-

porary existence.
* The
to have

first

specimen of a regular tablet of chronology

is

said

been given by Demetrius Phalereus

in his as^ovt^v Avaypa^r

about the middle of the fourth century B. C.


Timaeus,
first

The

historian

who

flourished in the time of

Ptolemy Philalelphus,
;

arranged his narrative in the order of Olympiads

which

began B. C. 776.

His contemporary Sosibius, gave a work en:

titled xpovoov Avayp&pti

Apollodorus wrote the iwrttfa Xfonxn


rests the credit

and

on such chronologers

of

all later

compilers, as

well as of the Arundelian Marbles.

Dr. Gillies.
in his

We

are informed

by Dr. Clarke,

" Travels," that these

marbles were not found in Paros, but in the Isle of Zia.

SECTION
ON THE POEMS OF

III.

HESIOD.*

PAUSANIAS informs

us that " the Boeotians,

who

dwell round Helicon, have a tradition among them

* The following are enumerated as the lost poems of Hesiod. The Catalogue of Women or Heroines, in five parts, of which

the

fifth

appears to have been entitled " The Herogony." Suidas.


;

The Melampodia
divination.

from the sooth-sayer Melampus ; a poem on

Pausanias, Athen^eus.

The

great

Astronomy or

Stellar

Book.

Pliny.

Descent of Theseus into Hades.

Pausanias. Pausanias, Aristo-

Admonitions of Chiron
phanes.

to

Achilles.

Soothsayings and Explications of Signs.

Pausanias.

Divine Speeches.

Maximus Tyrius.
Athen^us.
Suidas,

Great Actions.

Of

the Dactyli of Cretan Ida; discoverers of iron.

Pliny.
Epithalamium of Peleus and Thetis.
iEgimius.

Tzetzes.

Athen^eus. Apocryphal.
Suidas.

Elegy on Batrachus, a beloved youth.


Circuit of the Earth.

Strabo.

The Marriage

of Ceyx.

Athen;eus, Plutarch.

On

Herbs.

Pliny.

Xl
that
6

DISSERTATION ON

Hesiod wrote
: '

nothing
this

besides

the

poem of

Works

and from

they take away the intro-

duction,

and say that the poem properly begins with

The

Strifes.

They showed me a leaden

tablet

near

the fountain, which was almost entirely eaten away

with age, and on which were engraven the

Works

and Days of Hesiod."


It is difficult to

account for the manifest mutilation

On
to

Medicine.

Plutarch.

Fabricius (Bibliotheca Graeca) supposes the two latter subjects

be alluded to as incidental topics in other works of Hesiod.

But the passages quoted by him from Pliny and Plutarch seem
to justify the opinion that they

meant

to advert to distinct

poems.

There
idea.

is

nothing in the works extant which favours the former


:

Mallows and asphodel are the only herbs mentioned


:

and

that merely as synonymous with a frugal meal


levesque

like the cichorea

malvee

of Horace

nor

is

there

anything medical

for the passages respecting bathing, children,


stitions,

&c. are mere superiii.)

unconnected with health.

Athenaeus (book

quotes
fit

some verses
salting
;

as ascribed to Hesiod respecting the fishes

for

but says they seem to be rather the verses of a cook


cities are

than of a poet; and adds that

mentioned in them
Gyraldus states
Plutarch,

which were posterior

to Hesiod's time.

Lilius

that the fables of iEsop have been assigned to Hesiod.

indeed,

observes that iEsop might himself have profited by

Hesiod's apologue of the


tilian

Hawk

and the Nightingale; and Quin-

mentions Hesiod, and not iEsop, as the earliest fabulist


to bear the

which passages may have been strained


ing.

above mean-

As

to the

Greek

fables,

extant under the

name of iEsop,

they are proved to be spurious.

See Bentley's Dissertation on

the Epistles of Phalaris, Themistocles, &c. and the fables of

iEsop*

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


and corruption of
since
it

xli

this

venerable poet's compositions,

appears that they were extant in a complete,

or

at least, a

Vespasian.

Pliny,

more perfect form, so late as the age of book xiv. complaining of the agri-

cultural ignorance of his age, observes that even the

names of several trees enumerated by Hesiod had grown out of knowledge and in book xv. he adverts
:

to Hesiod's opinion of the unprofitableness of the


olive.

From some

verses

in

the Astronomicon of
it

Manilius, an Augustan writer,

would seem that he


soils

had treated of
corn and vines.

ingrafting,

and of the

adapted to

He

sings

Delight,

how corn in plains, how vines in hills how both with vast increase the olive fills
fruit

How
and
lated

foreign grafts th' adulterous stock receives,

Bears stranger
it is

and wonders at her

leaves.

Creech.

remarkable that the line in Virgil trans-

by Dryden,
And
old

Ascrean verse through

Roman

cities sing,

occurs in that book of the Georgics which


ted to planting, ingrafting,

is

dedicavines.

and the dressing of

In the " Works," as they

now

appear,

we

find

no

mention of any trees but such as are fit for the fabrication of the plough: and it is plain that the
getting the
tree.

countrymen of Pliny could be in no danger of fornames of the oak, the elm, or the bay-

and of ingrafting, there is no mention whatever, and but a cursory notice on the vine nor is there any comparison of the soils rethe olive,
:

Of

spectively adapted to the

growth of vines and of corn.

Xlii

DISSERTATION ON
in

The poem

some

editions has
title

two books ; under the general


Days," but with a subdivision

been divided into of " Works and

entitled

Days only:

by which arrangement
of three books.

it

is

made

virtually to consist

In Loesner's edition the distinction


is

of the second book

done away

but the subdivision

of Days

is

retained.

From
:

either

tion this incoherency results

that

mode of disposiWorks and Days


title,

no longer appear
there
is

to

be the general

but applica-

ble only to the former part of the poem, in which

no mention of Days
If

at

all.

The

ancient

copies, as Heinsius has


parts.

shown, had no division into

any minor distinction be deemed admissi-

ble for the


ject,

more convenient arrangement of the subthe disposition of Henry Stephens is obviously


:

the most rational

whereby the poem


entitled "

is

divided into

two parts: the first second " Days."

Works"

only,

and the

Cooke explains the " Works " of Hesiod to mean the labours of agriculture, and the " Days " the
proper seasons for the Works; but erroneously.

The
re-

term Works

is

to

be taken with greater


;

latitude, as

including not only labours, but actions


ferring equally to the moral,

and as

as to the industrious

ceconomy of human life. It is evident also that the term " Days " does not respect the seasons of labour
specified in the course of the

poem, but the days of


it:

superstitious

observance at the end of

and of

these

many have no

reference whatever to the works

of husbandry.

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.

xliii

The Theogony

has

all
;

the appearance of being a

patchwork of fragments
;

consisting of some genuine Hesiodean passages * pieced together with verses of

other poets,

and probably of a

different age.

The

mythology is occasionally inconsistent with itself: thus


the god Chrysaor
is

re-introduced

among

the demidiffer-

gods

and the Fates are born over again from


:

ent parents
to obviate
struction.

an incongruity which Robinson attempts


but over-refined con-

by an ingenious,

The proem
tively

bears the internal marks of compararefinement.


It

modern
of those

has not the simple


passage has the air of

outline of Hesiod.

The whole

one

introductions which the rhapsodists


:

were accustomed to prefix to their recitations

it is

conceived in a more florid taste than the usual composition of Hesiod, but expressed with considerable

elegance of fancy.

These arguments are not


opinions of

affected

by the individual
" Art of Love"

Romans and
proem

Greeks, themselves modern

with respect to Hesiod.


alludes to this

Ovid in

his

* Manilius, describing the subjects of Hesiod, has a line

Atque iterum patrio nascentem corpore Bacchum,


excellently rendered

by Creech, a

translator

now

too fastidiously

undervalued,

And
but

twice-born Bacchus burst the Thunderer's thigh

this tale,

which Ovid and Nonnus have related,

is

not found

in the present theogony.

Xliv

DISSERTATION ON
The
sister

Muses did
!

I ne'er behold,

While, Ascra

midst thy vales, I fed

my

fold.

Plutarch in the ninth book of his Symposiacs, quotes

two of the verses in


epithets:

illustration of the propriety of

Pausanias appeals to the presentation of

the branch as evidence that Hesiod did not sing to the lyre
literate
;

and Lucian in

his dialogue

" on the

il-

book-collector"

observes,

" how can

you

have known these things without having learnt them ?

how

or whence? unless at any time you have re-

ceived a branch from the

Muses
to

like that

shepherd.

They, indeed, did not disdain

appear to the shep-

herd, though a rough hairy man, with a sun-burnt

complexion; but they would never have deigned to

come near you " and in the " Dialogue with Hesiod" he banters him as promising to sing of futurity and affecting the Chalcas or Phineas, when there is nothing
:

of prophecy in his whole poem.

An

indirect argu-

ment
It

for the spuriousness of the verses.

must have been an impression of

this

proem
ob-

which led

Gibbon

in his " Notes

on the
vol.

editions of
v.) to

the Classics" (Miscellaneous


serve,
:

Works,

" in the Theogony


for

can discern a more recent

hand "

many

details in the

poem have

all

the

internal evidence

of antiquity.

Perhaps the cata-

logue of names, which Robinson superfluously defends

on the score of their metrical harmony, and compares with Homer's catalogue of ships, of which the merit is geographical and historical, may furnish a strong
presumptive argument of antiquity.

They would

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


appear to have been composed at a period when
phabetic writing was unknown, and the

xlv
al-

memory

of

names and things depended on the technical help of


oral tradition.

Pausanias says, speaking of the Theogony, " There


are some

who

consider Hesiod as the author of this

poem."
is

That some theogony was composed by Hesiod


;

evidenced by the passage in Herodotus

who, speak:

ing of Hesiod and Homer, affirms, " these are they

who framed a Theogony


fable
sess,

for the

Greeks " and the

of Pandora in the Theogony, that we


bears characteristical marks of having

now

pos-

come from
by Cooke,

the same

hand

as that in the

Works and Days.


it is

Of

the Shield of Hercules


is

asserted

that " there

great reason to believe this

poem was
:

not in existence in the time of Augustus " but he

merely advances, in proof of

this

assertion,

that

" Manilius,

who was an author


:

of the Augustan

age, takes notice of

no other than the Theogony,


" yet this, if indeed any-

and the

Works and Days

thing decisive could be concluded from the omission,

would only prove that he did not believe the piece authentic. He further remarks that critics should not
suppose
it

to have

formed a part of another poem,

unless they could

show when, where, or by


is

whom

the

title

had been changed. This

surely to

demand

a very unreasonable
proof.

as well as unnecessary kind of

The

distinct title affords, in fact,

no evidence
learn from

for the completeness of the

poem

as

we

iElian, that portions of

Homer's

Iliad

and Odyssey

xlvi

DISSERTATION ON

were known by such separate titles as, " the Funeral Games of Patroclus," the " Grot of Calypso;" and sung
as detached pieces.

The argument

of Cooke that

it

cannot be an imitation of the Shield of Achilles,


because the description of the mere Shield occupies

but a small part of the piece,


of Diana in the

is

equivalent to con-

tending that Virgil could not have imitated the simile


first

book of the iEneid from the

Odyssey, because the rest of the book bears no re-

semblance to any thing in Homer.

slight pre-

sumption

of the

Shield being from the hand of

Hesiod may be founded on a quotation of Polybius,


from one of Hesiod' s
scribes the iEacidae
:

lost

of the Macedonians as
;

works the historian speaks being " such as Hesiod de:

rejoicing in
i.

war rather than

in

the banquet " book v. ch.

In the Shield, Iblaus himself and Hercules, that battles " are better says of

to

them than a

feast."

The

expression, however,

may have been


than one.

proverbial,

and used by more poets

The poem is

ascribed to Hesiod

by Athenaeus
it

but

Aristophanes the grammarian rejected

as spurious,

and Longinus speaks doubtingly of Hesiod being the Tanaquil Faber confidently asserts " that author.
they

who

think the Shield not of Hesiod, have but a


"
:

very superficial acquaintance with Grecian poetry

and on the other side Joseph Scaliger speaks of the which author, whoever he may be, of the Shield
;

the critical world by a preposterous judgment have


attributed to the poet of Ascra.
It is

not by a re-

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


ference
.to

xlvti

authorities that the question

must be de-

cided, but

by an examination of the

interior structure

of the poem, and the evidence of

style.

The
in
its

objections to a great part of the

poem

consist
its

unlikeness to the style of Hesiod, and

re-

semblance to that of

Homer.
reply that
it
is

Robinson

insists in

very usual for


;

the same author to show a diversity of style


is

which

an admission that Hesiod is here different from himself. But to his question " whether we deat least

mand

the same fervour and force in the Georgics of


it

Virgil as in the iEnied ? "

may be asked
style

in return

whether a certain similarity of

be not clearly

distinguishable in these poems, however distinct their

nature? there

is,

indeed, a difference, but not ab-

solutely a discordance.

The whole

laboured argument which he has be-

stowed on the necessary dissimilarity of didactic and


heroical composition
is

plainly foreign to the question.


as

Who

would dream of urging


that the
style

an objection
"

to its
is

authenticity,

of

The
?

Shield "

unlike the georgical style of Hesiod


is,

the objection

that

it

is

unlike his epic style


fair

and Robinson has by


his

brought the question to a


that the Battle of the

issue

remark

Gods abounds no

less

than the

Shield with the ornaments of poetry.


It is not sufficient that these passages respectively

display ornament;

we must examine whether

the)r

display a similar style of ornament.

Now

the dc-

Xlviii

DISSERTATION ON
Shield
is

scriptive part of the

in a gorgeous taste

unlike the bold and simple majesty of the Theogony,

There

is

visible effort to surprise


;

by something mar-

vellous
ceit

and uncommon

which often verges on con-

and extravagance.

For sublime images we are


and

presented with gigantic and distorted figures,

with hideous conceptions of disgusting horror. There


is.

indeed a considerable degree of genius even in


:

these faulty passages

but whoever perceives a re-

semblance in the imagery of the Shield to that of


the Titanic

War, may

equally trace an affinity be-

tween Virgil and Ariosto.

These reasonings
chiefly,

affect

that part of

the

poem

which

is

occupied with the mere description

of the Shield; but a single circumstance will show


that the passages which represent the action of the

poem
in

are both foreign to Hesiod's manner, and are

manner of Homer. I allude to the employment of similes and to the character of those similes. Homer is fond of comparisons and of such, parthe
;

ticularly, as

are

drawn from animated


sort.

nature.

The

Shield of Hercules also abounds with similies, and

they are precisely of this


of similitudes
is

But the frequent use


characteristic of

so far

from being

Hesiod, that in the whole Battle of the Giants but

one occurs ; and only one in the Combat of Jupiter

and Typhaeus; and

in both

we

look in vain for any

comparison drawn from

lions,

or boars, or vultures.

Robinson appears, indeed, conscious of a more

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


crowded and
diversified

xhx

imagery in the Shield than


is

we

usually meet with in Hesiod's poetry ; for he

driven to the miserable alternative of supposing that

Hesiod may have produced the Shield in

his youth,

and

his other works in his old age.

Longinus in the

same manner accounts


plicity of the

for the comparative quiet sim-

Odyssey.

The

supposition in

either

case

is

founded on the erroneous principle, that a


beautiful in proportion to the noise

poem
of
its

is

and fury

action, or

the accumulation of

its

ornament.

The

notion of the genius necessarily declining with the


is

decline of youthful vigour

completely unphiloso-

phical

and

is

contradicted by repeated experience of


It

the

human

faculties.

was in his old age that


properly
its

Dryden wrote his " Fables." As to that portion of the poem which
title, it

is

the Shield, and from which the whole piece takes


is

self-evident that this

must have been borIliad, or the de-

rowed from the description in the


scription
in

the

Iliad

from

this.

do not allude
literally

merely to a whole

series

of verses being

the

same in each; but to long passages of description,


bearing so close a resemblance as to preclude the idea
of accidental coincidence;

such as the bridal pro-

cession, the siege, the harvest,

and the

vintage.

Robinson admits the imitation;


partisans of

but thinks the

Homer
copyist.

cannot easily show that


It were,

Homer

was not the


cide

however, easy to deis

from internal evidence which

the copy.

DISSERTATION ON

Where two poems


plagiarism,

are found so nearly resembling

each other as to convey at once the impression of


the scale of originality must doubtless
is

preponderate in favour of that which


simple
in
style

the

and invention.

Where

more poem
of

abounds with
imagination,

florid figures
it is

and irregular

flights

inconceivable that a copy of that


:

poem
it
is

should exhibit a chaste simplicity of fancy

but

highly natural that an imitator should think to

transcend his original by the aid of meretricious or-

nament
mity,
sort

that he should mistake

bombast
astonish.

for subli-

and

attempt to dazzle

and

Of

this

of elaborate refinement a single instance will

serve in illustration.

Both poets encircle their bucklers with the ocean. Robinson gives the preference to the author of The
Shield of Hercules
;

alleging that his description

is

decorated with the utmost beauty of imagery ; while


that of

The

Shield of Achilles

is

naked of embel-

lishment.
in

To

the unornamented style of the passage

Homer

I appeal, as

demonstrating the superiority

of his judgment, and as thereby establishing beyond


dispute the fact of his originality.

In one condensed verse he pours around the verge of the buckler " the great strength of the ocean
stream."
is

here at

image of roundness and completeness once presented to the eye, and fills the mind.

An

But the author of the Shield of Hercules, evidently striving to excel Homer, says that "high-soaring

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


swans there clamoured aloud, and many
floated

11

on

the surface of the billows, and near them fishes were leaping tumultuously. " does not perceive that

Who

the

full

image of the rounding ocean

is

broken and
of images?
at nunc

rendered indistinct by

this multiplicity
;

The

description

is,

indeed, picturesque

non

erat his locus.

Yet that Hesiod was the

plagiarist will scarcely

be

contended, until the assertion already advanced respecting the epic simplicity of his style shall have

been

set aside.

But the former part of the piece has all the internal marks of having been composed by an author of
totally dissimilar genius.
It

has the stamp of the


are

ancient simplicity
nificent
;

upon

it.

A few passages
and pure

but

still

in a noble

taste.

magHere

then I discern the hand of Hesiod.

But the precharacteristics

sumption
of
style.

rests

on surer grounds than

In the concluding verses of the Theogony, the


poet invokes the Muses to sing the praises of

women
titles

and among the

lost

works of Hesiod, whose

are dispersed in ancient authors, are enumerated the


four Catalogues of

Women

or Heroines

and the

Herogony, or Generation of Heroes descended from

them

which are thought to have been

five

connected

parts of the

same poem.

That

this

was the work of

Hesiod we have the testimony of Pausanias;


alludes to the tale of

who

Aurora and Cephalus, and that

d2

lii

DISSERTATION ON

of Iphigenia, as treated by Hesiod in his Catalogue of

Women.

The

fourth Catalogue had acquired a

secondary

title

of Hoiai [xeyutet;

the great Eoiai;


>j

fantastically
as,

framed out of the words


stories

onj,

or suck

which introduced the

of the successive

heroines.

got

From the use of this title a strange idea abroad that Eoa was the name of a young woman

of Ascra, the mistress of Hesiod.


Boeotian Hesiod, vers'd in various lore,

Forsook the mansion where he dwelt before

The Heliconian
There did the

village sought,

and woo'd

The maid of Ascra The

in her scornful

mood

suffering

bard his lays proclaim,

strain beginning with Eoa's

name.
in Athenaeus,

Hermisianax of Colophon,

book

xiii

Among
n
on?,

the minor fragments of Hesiod are pre-

served three passages, each beginning with the words


introductory of a female description.

They

are

naturally considered as remnants of the Fourth Catalogue.

Now

the piece entitled

" The Shield of

Hercules " also opens with these identical words, introductory of the story of Alcmena.
Fabricius decides that these introductory words
will

not permit us to doubt that "

The

Shield of

Hercules" formed part of the Fourth Catalogue;


* In the same poena, which
a love-elegy to his mistress Leon-

is

tium on the sufferings of lovers,

Homer

is

made

to visit Ithaca,

" sighing

like furnace" for the chaste Penelope.

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.

liii

but the inference does not necessarily extend beyond


the
first

portion of the piece.

Robinson

justly argues

on the incongruity of the


tale

poet's digressing
;

from the

of Alcmena, to

tell

a story of Hercules
is

and he

therefore conjectures that this piece

a fragment of

the Heroical Genealogies

but aware that the con-

currence of the exordium with the above-mentioned


fragments, points the attention to the Fourth Catalogue, he cuts the Gordian knot

by changing

wij,

or such

as,

into

vj

om, she alone.


uohj,

Guietus suggests the reading of

rising with the

dawn ;

for the purpose of rendering the piece

comin

plete in itself: but the very basis of the

argument

favour of the authenticity of the

poem

as a

work of

Hesiod,

is

the striking coincidence of the introduc-

tory lines with the fragments of the Fourth Catalogue.

This

may be

set aside
;

by the ingenious exif

pedient of altering the text


fered to remain,
tends,
is

bat

the text be sufit

the presumption, so far as


I

ex-

irresistible.

do conceive that Robinson,


to this alteration of

when
those

his

judgment consented

the reading, yielded a very important advantage to

who

dispute the genuineness of the poem, as


of-

the production

Hesiod;

that

by the abandondiffiis

ment of

these remarkably coincident words the

culty of proving the

poem

to

be a fragment
fact

in-

creased two-fold

and that with the

of

its

being

a fragment
ticity.

is

closely linked the fact of its authen-

liv

DISSERTATION ON

From what
fragments,

has been said,

it

will

perhaps be thought

extraordinary that the idea of a cento of dispersed


pieced
together

and interpolated with


suggested
itself to

Homeric
critics

imitations, never

those

who have bestowed such

elaborate scrutiny

on

the composition of the poem.

it

In the scholium of the Aldine edition of Hesiod, is stated, " The beginning of the Shield as far as
is

the 250th verse

said to
is

form a part of the Fourth


once an admission of the
;

Catalogue."

Here

at

patchwork texture of the piece


lowed

and we may be

al-

to conjecture that the scholiast

may

possibly be

mistaken as to the exact number of


portion, in fact,

lines.

This

comprehends the meeting of Her-

cules with Cygnus,

and

his

arming

for battle

which
imcon-

follows, with a strange

and

startling abruptness,
little

mediately on his birth

and seems to have

nexion with the praises of a heroine, in a poem devoted exclusively to celebrated women.
I
first

should, therefore, be
fifty-six lines

inclined

to

consider the

only as belonging to the Fourth

Catalogue.
birth

This introductory part, ending with the


is

of Hercules,

awkwardly coupled with

his

warlike adventure in the grove of Apollo by the line

Who

also slew

Cygnus, the magnanimous son of Mars.

This line

is

perceptibly the link of connexion be-

tween the two fragments, and betrays the hand of the


interpolator.

The succeeding passage,

as far as verse

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


153, I conjecture to have formed a part of the

Jv

Heli-

rogony.

It

seems probable that Hesiod's description

of the sculpture on the Shield of Hercules was

mited to the dragon in the centre, and the figure of

Discord hovering above


with the
effects

it;

and was meant to end


this shield

produced by the sight of

on the hero's enemies. This short description appears


to
it

have suggested the experiment of ingrafting upon


a florid parody of the Shield of Achilles
;

and that
the

here precisely

we may
is

fix the

commencement of

spurious additions
Ofcct,

probable from the verses


pivoio

a-<pi,

urepi

a-anum*,

leipia a^tthioiOy xtXaivn muQirai air.

Through the

flesh that

wastes away

Beneath the parching sun.

their whitening bones

Start forth, and moulder in the sable dust

being instantly followed by a passage from the Achillean Shield


:

Ev

3s vpoiu%t$ 9

&c.

Pursuit was there, and fiercely rallying Flight.

I suppose,

therefore,

the description of the pu-

trefying corses of the foes of Hercules to have joined

the 320th verse


shield

where he

is

made

to grasp the

and ascend the


as,

chariot.

Several of the sub-

sequent passages,

in particular, the description

of
vi-

the Cicada, appear to


sibly

me

genuine ; but they are

patched with Homeric similes,

which are in
all

general mere plagiarisms ; and are not at

in unison

with the style of the rest of the

poem

nor with the

lvi

DISSERTATION ON

characteristic

manner of Hesiod.

This mixture of

authenticity

and imposture

will explain the contra-

dictory decisions of learned


this curious question,

men

who, in examining
side.

have looked only at one

It

does not appear that Hesiod was the most an-

cient author either of a theogony or a rural

although Herodotus speaks of him as the

first

poem who

framed a theogonic system for the Greeks, and Pliny


cites

him

as the earliest didactic poet

on

agriculture.

But tradition has preserved the fame of theogonies by and Tzetzes mentions two Orpheus and Musaeus
:

poems of Orpheus, the one


Diaries
;

entitled Works, the other

the archetypes,

probably, of

The Works
rises,

and Days.
Quintilian observes that " Hesiod rarely

and
is

a great part of him

is

occupied in names ; yet he

distinguished by useful sentences conveying precepts,

and a commendable sweetness of words and construction and the palm is given him in that middle
;

kind of writing."
This
to that
is

niggardly praise

and

is

somewhat

similar

which the same


;

critic

awards to Apollonius
style

Rhodius

whose picturesque

and impassioned

* The Quarterly Reviewer, in his critique on of the Classic Poets," conceives


the
it

my "

Specimens

strange that I should prefer

heresies.

Medea of Apollonius to The deliberation


all

Virgil's

Dido; and

talks of critical

of

Medea on

her purposed suicide,

and her interview with Jason


matter beyond
question;

in the temple of Hecate, place the

except with those

who may be

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


sentiment are honoured with the diluted
tion of
'*

lvti

commendathat read

an equable mediocrity."

Who

the above character would suppose that Hesiod was


at all superior to the

gnomic or sententious poets


?

such as Theognis or Phocylides

that he

had ever

composed

his
?

Combat of

Giants, or his

Ages of Gold

and of Iron

If the battle of the Titans be Hesiod's genuine

composition, and

if

the Shield, as there

is

reason to

believe, contain authentic extracts

from

his Heroical

we shall pared with Homer,


Genealogies,
action
;

decide that Hesiod, as comis

less

rapid;

less fervent in
;

less

teeming with allusions and comparisons


energetic,

but

grand,
;

occasionally vehement

and

daring

but more commonly proceeding with a slow

and

stately

march.

In the mental or moral sublime

I consider Hesiod as superior to


sonification of

Homer.
is

The

per-

Prayers in the latter

almost the

only allegory that can be compared with the awful

prosopopeia of Justice, weeping her wrongs at the


feet

of the Eternal

while Justice and Modesty, de-

scribed as virgins in white raiment, ascending out of

the sight of
after

men into heaven, and

the

Holy Daemons,

having animated the bodies of just men, hover-

ing round the earth, and keeping watch over


actions, are equalled

human

by no conceptions

in the Iliad

or Odyssey.

Addison, with that squeamish


frightened by the

artificial taste

which

word heresy

into a surrender of their judgments

to vulgar prejudice and traditional error.

Jvili

DISSERTATION ON

distinguishes the age of

Anne,
as

as

compared with that

of Elizabeth, underrates,

might have been ex-

pected, the vigorous simplicity of Hesiod.

But the

strong though simple sketches of the old Ascraean

bard are often more striking than the finished paintings of the Mantuan.
Critics

admire the pastoral


;

board of Virgil's Corycian husbandman


is

but there

a far greater charm in the summer-repast of Hesiod


its

so picturesque in

scenery;

so patriarchal in its
is

manners.

The

winter tempest

a bolder copy of

nature than any thing in the Latin Georgics ; more


fresh in colouring

The
tains,

rising

rooting the

more circumstantiated in detail. of the north-wind, moving the ocean, pines and oaks from the tops of the moun;

and strewing them along the


its

valleys,

and

after

a pause, suddenly roaring in

strength through the

depths of the forests


life

the exquisite circumstances of


effects

intermingled with the


;

of the storm on in-

animate nature

the beasts quaking and grinding their

teeth with cold


flakes,

and famine

shuddering at the snow-

and shrinking
double with

into dens

and

thickets

the old

man bent

the blast ;* the delicate contrast


sheltered in a
soft chamber and bathing previously to

of the young virgin,

under her mother's


her nightly
rest,

roof,

compose a picture wild, romantic,


an uncommon degree.

and

interesting in

As

a legendary mythologist the elegant tale of


fine natural

* This

image

is

ridiculously parodied

by Addison,
Essay

" The old men, on

too, are bitterly pinched by the weather."

Virgil's Georgics.

THE POEMS OF HESIOD.


Pandora, and the Island of the Blessed

lix
Spirits, are far

beyond any thing of Ovid, and can only be compared


with

Homer and
:

as a poetical moralist, the strongest


is,

proof of his merit


Hesiod, as
is

that innumerable sentences of


his

well

remarked by Voltaire in

" Dic-

tionnaire Philosophique " have

grown

into proverbial

axioms. Cicero observes in one of his Epistles ; " Let

our dear Lepta learn Hesiod,

and have by heart


rules of decency,*

the gods have placed before virtue the sweat of the

brow.' "

His plain and downright

his superstitious saws,

and

his

lumber of names, be-

long to the manners of a semi-barbarous village and


the learning of a dark age
:

his genius

and

his wis-

dom

are his own.


it

From
is,

that

which remains, mutiwhole of


nu-

lated as

obviously

we may form a judgment of


to us, if the
his

what he would appear


mixture,

merous works, complete and unadulterated by foreign


were submitted to our observation.

Ex

pede Herculem.
* These were excluded from the
first

edition of

my translation,

but are

now

reinstated, as curiously illustrative of manners.

SECTION

IV.

ON THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.

DIOGENES LAERTIUS
infernal regions,

mentions that Pytha-

goras feigned to have seen the soul of Hesiod in the

bound

to a brazen pillar,

and howl-

ing in
Deities
for the
:

torture for his false representations of the

and that of Homer environed with serpents


same reason.
Plato, in

a similar feeling,

excluded both these poets from his ideal republic.


It

seems strange that the philosophers should have


that

failed to perceive

Hesiod and

Homer
;

repeated
is

merely the popular legends of their age


dantly evident from the style and
tion

as

abun-

manner of narra-

and

allusion throughout their poems.

The

following passage of Herodotus has been con-

strued to

mean
;

that they were the absolute


;

inven-

tors of the Grecian theology

"

Whence

each of the

Gods came
what
lately
;

whether

all

have continually existed, or

figures
or,

they severally had,

was known but


were older

if I

may

so speak, only yesterday ; for I

am

of opinion that Hesiod and

Homer

than myself by four hundred years, and not more

'

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.


these

lxi

are

they

who framed a theogony


titles

for

the

Greeks, and gave


their

to the gods

distinguishing

honours and functions, and describing their


'

forms."

Against such an hypothesis several reasons obviously


present themselves
:

1 st,

A
:

plurality of

gods could

scarcely be the production of a single age,

much

less

of one or two individuals

2dly, It

is

not likely that

Greece, which was visited by ^Egyptian and Phoenician colonists


at

an aera long antecedent to the


not credible that a whole

age of Homer, should have been destitute of a religious system


:

3dly,

It is

nation, at the suggestion of one or

two bards, should

have abandoned

this received

system in order to adopt

a whole hierarchy of divinities, of

whom

they had

never before heard.

But the doubt of Herodotus, " whether they have


continually existed," shows that he merely considered

Hesiod and

Homer

in

the light of collectors

and
as

illustrators of the ancient religion of their country

and Wesseling accordingly


referring to arrangement
tion.

interprets

wonjo-avTsj

and

description, not invenfact

This stupid inference could in

never have

been drawn,
himself: as
all

had Herodotus been compared with in a preceding passage he says, " Nearly
I

the

names of the gods have come into Greece from


;

iEgypt

for

have ascertained

it

to be a fact that

they are of barbaric extraction."

Herodotus, however, seems to have been in error,

lxii

DISSERTATION ON
this position

even as to
first

of Hesiod and

Homer

having

digested the mythology of Greece into a system


as

and
saeus

he could not be ignorant that theogonies were

ascribed to poets reputed their elders, such as

Mu-

and Orpheus, he was reduced


" who were
said

to the alternative

of making these poets their juniors.

" Those poets,"

he observes,
were in

to be before them,

my

opinion after them."


cap. xviii.) sensibly argues,

But Cicero (in Bruto, " nor can it be doubted

that there were poets before

Homer which may


;

be inferred from the songs de-

scribed
cians

by him

as

sung in the banquets of the Phaea-

that

and the suitors." Fabricius makes a comment, " it cannot be proved from this, that Greek
to posterity."

poems, before Homer, were committed to writing,

and so handed down


of

As
*
!

if

the poems

Homer
The

himself had been transmitted in any

other manner than by oral tradition

pre-existence of religious rites seems, indeed,

to involve that of poetical cosmogonies


logical

and mytholetters there

hymns.

Before the invention of

was no other traditionary record, or vehicle of po-

We know from

Homer

(II. vi.)

that

when

Prsetus sent Belleletter,

rophon to the king of Lycia he gave him, not a written


o-nfA-araXvypa,

but

mournful signs ; (probably


:)

like the picture-writing

of the Mexicans
turies

writing could not be

common
!ib.
ii.

till

many

cen-

afterwards,

since the first written laws were

given in
lib. vi.)

Greece only

six centuries

B. C. (Herod.

Strab.

Dr. Gillies.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.


pular instruction, or organ of religious
supplication, than verse
:

lxiii

homage and Homer,*


says,

the conclusion follows that

there were both poets anterior to the age of

and that these poets were

also mythologists.
;

Pausanias mentions Olen of Lycia

who, he
his
:

composed very ancient hymns


to Lucina,

and who in

hymn

makes her the mother of Love

and he

names Pamphus and Orpheus, and


as also

as succeeding OJen,

composing hymns to the mythological


entertained by Aristotle

Love.

The doubt

and Cicero
affects

of the personal existence of Orpheus, neither

the antiquity of the name, nor of that system of

theology which bears the


lics

title

of Orphic.

The

re-

now

extant under that

name

have, indeed, been

suspected as the forgeries of Onomacritus, the soothsayer,

who produced
:

the

hymns

to

the people of

Athens

but Gesner

is

of opinion that he only altered


remains,

the dialect of genuine Orphic

on which

he ingrafted his own additions.

The fragments which


more ancient than
it

have come down to us appear certainly from internal


evidence to contain a theology
of Hesiod and
*

that

Homer

for the nearer

approaches
xi. ch. 2/'

" The Trcezenian

histories," observes iElian,

book

" relate that the poems of Oraebantius, a native of Trcezene,

were

in existence before

Homer

and
is

know they

affirm that

Dares the Phrygian, whose


before Homer's time.

Iliad

even

now

extant,

lived

Melisander, the Milesian, likewise, com-

posed the battle of the Lapithae and the Centaurs."

Ixiv

DISSERTATION ON
its

in

any of

parts

to the religious system of the


is

^Egyptians, the stronger

the presumptive testimony

of

its

antiquity.

The ^Egyptians

held that the world was produced

from Chaos, or Water.


as Osiris,

Hammon, and Horus;

They worshipped the Sun, the Moon, as Isis;


of worship
the one

the Cabiri or Planets, as symbols of invisible divinities.

They had two systems

* A
S

exoteric or popular,

the other esoteric or mystical.


literal

The

adoration of the celestial bodies was

with

the people,

and emblematical with the priesthood.


divinity to

They supposed emanations from


sident in the parts of nature
;

be re-

and thus that the sun,


or virtue or

moon, and
verse,

stars,

and the other bodies of the unispirit


;

were animated with a divine

retained portions of a divine essence from

good demons
and having
which

or genii,

who

dwelt in them

these daemons had been

inclosed in the bodies of virtuous


left

men

them, passed into the

stars

and

planets,

were consequently worshipped as gods.


bably the legend of Hesiod,
of

Hence pro-

who

supposes the spirits

men

in the golden age to

become holy daemons


stars,

though these daemons are not sent to the


of humankind.

but

hover round the earth and keep watch over the actions

* Brucker, Historia Critica Philosophise,

torn.

i.

Homer
:

re-

presents father Oceanus as the generator of all things

and the

Chaos of Hesiod

is

merely the watery element.

THE MYTHOLOGY OP HESIOU.

lxV

Jablonski, in his Pantheon iEgyptiorum, considers


this stellar

theology as resolvable into an astronomical

and

Niliacal idolatry.

The

terrestrial

Osiris
his

is

the

Nile: the celestial Osiris the Sun,

in

zodiacal

progress through the signs that preside over the seasons.

Anion,

Jupiter,

designates the

Sun

in

the
is

constellation of Aries.

In the vernal equinox he


solstice

Hercules, in the

summer

Horus or Apollo,
Serapis was the

in the winter solstice Harpocrates.

Nile in

its

period of

fertilization,

or the autumnal

Sun of the lower hemisphere.

Isis

was the moon,

the mother of multiform nature;

the same also as

undations.

Neitha or Minerva, and the causer of the Nile's inTithrambo, Brimo, or Hecate, was Isis

incensed, or the maleficent

moon.

Bubastis, Diana,

or Latona, was the titular symbol of the

New Moon,

and Buto or Latona of the


Seven Planets,
the greater gods

Cabiri, or were worshipped as appendants of


full.
;

The

of

Isis,

thus the planet Venus was the star and the planet Jupiter the star of Osiris.

The dog-headed Anubis,


lestial

or Mercury, was the ce-

horizon, the guard of the Sun's gate, and the

follower of Isis or the

Moon.
;

The

bull Apis

was

a living symbol of the Nile

but was supposed to

have been generated in a heifer by the transmission


of celestial
fire

from the

Moon

and was sacred both

to that planet

and

to the

Sun.
;

living goat

was

the symbol of
ciple of all

Mendes or Pan the generative prinnature. These animal types were multi*

lxvi

DISSERTATION ON
;

plied

thus a lion figured the


;

Sun

a cow,

Isis

and

Venus

and a hawk,

Osiris.

Stones were also

made
the

typical.

An

obelisk represented the

Sun

and seven

columns,
Planets.

such as Pausanias saw in Laconia,

They worshipped
;

also Night, the supposed

creative principle of all things,

as Athor,
as well as

Venus,*

or Juno

and Pthas, the Vulcan

Minerva
or sub-

of the Grecians;
soul of the world
tile
;

the masculo-feminine cause and

a pervading infinite

spirit,

ethereal

fire,

superior to the solar and planetary

orbs ; from which emanated terrestrial souls, and to

which they returned.

This system may very well be


;

reconciled with the received theology


all

as

it is

not at

improbable that the subtile and

scientific

^Egyp-

tians should

have refined upon their original emblems,

by connecting with them a secondary astronomical signification. In the explication of certain terms, and the
identity
tian

and nature of many of the deities, the " ^Egyp-

Pantheon" agrees with the " New Analysis." Proclus (in Timaeum, book i.) mentions a statue of Neitha or Minerva in a temple at Sais, in iEgypt,
inscribed on the base with hieroglyphical characters
to this effect
:

"I am
The

whatever things

are,

whatever
lifted

shall be, and whatever have been.

None have

up

my

veil.

fruit

which I have brought forth

* So Orpheus

Night, source of

all things,

whom we Venus

name.

Night and Chaos, or the aqueous mass, seem reciprocally considered as the source of nature.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.


is

lxvii

the Sun."

Notwithstanding the mixed planetary

worship, the
as the

Sun was considered by the ^Egyptians


:

king and architect of the universe


Osiris

who under
the

the

name of

comprehended
of
all

in himself

power and

efficacy

the other material gods.

Consistent with this Hear me thou


!

is

the Orphic fragment


round the rolling heavens on high

for ever whirling

Thy far-travelling orb

of splendour midst the whirlpools of the sky


!

Hear, effulgent Jove and Bacchus

father both of earth

and sea

Sun

all-various! golden-beaming! all things teeming out of thee

In another passage Orpheus


the different deities.

identifies

with the sun

One

Jove and Pluto


alike in

Bacchus, and the

Sun ;

One God

all,

and

all

are one.

The

cosmogonists of JEgypt represented the De-

miurgus or Universal Maker, in a


ing forth from his mouth an egg
world.
;

human

form, send-

which egg was the


;

They

called

him Kneph

who was

the same

as Pthas, the essential pervading energy.

Chaos

is

described by Orpheus, in the

manner of Ovid,

as

an immense,

self-existent,

heterogeneous mass; nei;

ther luminous nor tenebrous ages generated an egg

which in the lapse of

this egg was pro; duced a masculo-feminine principle, which disposed

and from

the elements,

and created the forms of nature.

primaeval water or Chaos, and a

mundane

egg, are

found also in the mythology of India.

In the cosmogonic system of iEgypt the world was


Deity, and
its

parts other gods

a doctrine equivalent

e2

lxviii

DISSERTATION ON
7rav

to the to

of the Stoics

the inherent divinity of

the universe; which Lucan seems to intend in the

sentiment of Cato
Deus
est

quodcunque vides
see, where'er

quocunque moveris.
is

Whatever we

we move,

God.

This system
Jove
is

is

unfolded in the Orphic


all
:

hymns
same
beings hang:

the breath of

the force of quenchless flame

The
Jove

root of ocean Jove


is

the sun and

moon

the

the king, the

sire,

whence generation sprang


great,

One

strength, one

Daemon,

on

whom

all
:

His regal body grasps the vast material round

There

fire,

earth, air, and wave, and

day and night, are found.

The same
verses,

physico-theology appears in the Orphean

I swear by those, the generating powers,

Whence
Fire,

sprang the gods that have eternal being

Water, Earth, and Heaven, the


effulgent,

Moon and

Sun,

Great Love

and the sable Night

and

in

another fragment, preserved by Eusebius


iii.

(Praeparat. Evang.

9.)

Fire, water, earth,

and

ether, night

and day,

Metis,

first sire,

and all-delighting Love.

Metis

is

Minerva or Vulcan, the mind of the universe


a general view of the iEgyptian and Orphic

already noticed.

From

theogonies,

they would
;

appear

to

consist in

an

atheistic materialism

for although they


active, principle

acknowledge

a certain divine, or

pervading and

animating passive matter,

nothing can be inferred

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.


from
this,

Ix'lX

superior to a physical operative energy.

Jablonski

indeed

contends that,

exclusive of

the

worship of the signs of the zodiac, and the solar and


lunar phenomena, the

more ancient ^Egyptians

re-

cognized an intelligent power, or infinite Eternal Mind,

on whose wisdom the operations of the


visible

sensible or

divinities
this

depended.

But

it

may be doubted
any thing

whether
different

controlling intelligence were

from the before described emanation of the


spirit

supposed ethereal

of holy daemons, or deified

men.
Hesiod begins
his

poem on
;

the generation of the

gods with certain cosmogonical principles.


first

Chaos
Erebus

exists

then Earth

and thirdly Love.

and Night spring from Chaos, and generate Ether


and Day; and Earth produces Heaven.
search in vain through the rest of the
subtile intelligence of the

But we
for the
It

work

Orphic philosophy.
to reduce the

has

been attempted,
a
consistent

indeed,

whole into

scheme of
the

theogonic physiology,

by

allegorizing

supernatural battles into volcanic

eruptions, hurricanes,

and earthquakes

but

much

would

still

remain incapable of being wrested to a

physical sense.

On

certain crude principles of coslineal generations of gods,

mogonical tradition, and

intermingled with the generation of the world, the


theogonist has ingrafted ancient legendary histories,

and

poetical
is

and moral

allegories.
\

The

historical

mythology

alone significant

for every thing re-

1XX

DISSERTATION ON

specting the nature of the gods was in Hesiod's time

perverted and misunderstood.

The bard was no

longer clothed in the robe of the hierophant.

Very

different hypotheses

have been framed to ex-

plain the

Greek polytheism.

they were hypotheses.


tects

When
;

They have failed because the Abbe Banier * de-

the real characters

of profane history in the

gods of the Pantheon


in

and when

De

Gebelin f sees

them only emblematical shadows, personifying the


and
arts,
;

successive inventions of the sciences

we

are

reminded of the observation of Dr. Reid (Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man :) " that there never

was an hypothesis invented by an ingenious man,


which although destitute of direct evidence, did not
serve to account for a variety of

phenomena, and
its

had not therefore an

indirect evidence in

favour."

Even

the Alchemists have laid claim to the heathen


;

mythology

the pagan stories have been analysed into

chemical arcana: the golden fleece becomes a recipe


for the discovery of the philosopher's stone inscribed

on a ram's-skin, and Medea restores her by means of the grand elixir. %

father to

life

But

it

were an unreasonable scepticism to argue


theories, that the ancient fabu-

from these visionary


lous philosophy
is

a mass of inscrutable and unmean-

ing superstition.
*

The

affinity

between the different

La Mythologie, ou la Fable
Primitif.

expliquee par THistoire.

f Monde
"

Wotton's Reflections on ancient and modern Learning.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.

lxxi

systems of paganism rests on irrefutable proof.* This


affinity points to

common

origin.

The

light

of

history directs

us to iEgypt.

The

astronomical

genius of that nation led them to symbolize their


idols

by the

celestial

signs.

These

idols

were the

deified

memories of men.

As

to their individuality,

we

are assisted by certain resemblances in heathen

theology to Mosaic scripture.

This parallel
;
:

may

have been urged too closely and too fancifully as by Huet, in his " Demonstratio Evangelica " who
affirms that all the deities of the ^Egyptians, Indians,

Americans, Greeks, and


disguise;
;

Italians, are

only Moses in
his

and by Theophilus Gale, in

" Court

of the Gentiles "

who draws

a parallel between the


Israel
;

god Pan, and the Messias, Abel, and

and
all

who

derives not only both the mythic or fabulous,

and the physical theology of the heathens,

but

human
guage

letters

and sciences from the Hebrew lanand


the
philosophies

and

scriptures,

of

Joseph, Moses, and Solomon.


arisen
as
is

Mistakes

may have

from trusting too much to a specious analogy


artificer

where Tubal-cain, the


identified

of brass and iron,


conjectures

with Vulcan, f

The

of

* See Sir William Jones's Dissertation on the Gods of Greece,


Italy,

and India.

f The working of metals was not among the ancient attributes of Vulcan but a diversity of character or attributes is not
:

always an objection.
celestial,

Each god had not only a twofold


his history

nature,

and human or heroical, but

and

qualities

hodl

DISSERTATION ON
also,

Hebraic etymologists,

as of Bochart,

in the

Phaleg and Canaan of


changed with change of place.

his

Geographia

sacra,

must

Thus Hercules was the Sun ; he

was

also a

vagabond hero
in

but he

may have been one

person in
in

Greece,

and another

Phoenicia.

Gerard Vossius,

his

treatise " de Origine et Progressu Idolatriae,"

may

therefore be

right in his conjecture, that

among

the Phoenicians both Joshua

and Samson were commemorated

in the

Tyrian Hercules. Bacchus

was the Sun, and an Indian conqueror.


milates with that of

His history also

assi-

Noah.

He was
;

likewise in all probability

Caphtor, the grandson of


dispossessed the

Ham

the great ./Egyptian warrior

who

Avim

of that part of the land of Canaan, after(See Priestley's Lectures on History,


i.

wards called

Philistia.

5.)

But
the

it

is

natural that the Phoenicians,

who

visited

Greece when

memory

of

Moses was

still

vivid

among

the Canaanites,

should have brought with them miraculous reports of the Jewish


lawgiver, which were added to the history of Bacchus.
is

Bacchus
et Osiride)
:

called by Orpheus, Mio-vt

and by Plutarch (de Iside


in

Palsestinus.

Bacchus was exposed

an ark upon a river


is

double coincidence with


spirit

Noah and Moses, which


Nonnus,
sea,

exactly in the

of the old mythologists.

in his Dionysiacs,

men-

tions the flight of

Bacchus to the red


;

and

his battles with

the Princes of Arabia

and

relates that

he touched the rivers

Orontes and Hydaspes with his thyrsus, and that the rivers dried
up, and he passed through dry-shod.
ness, while the Bacchic

The Indians The

are in dark-

army

are in light.

ivy-rod of Bacfro like

chus

is

thrown on the ground, and creeps to and

live

serpent.

Snakes twist themselves about the hair and limbs of


;

Bacchus

which may be a shadow of the

fiery serpents in the

wilderness.

The host of Bacchus,


accompanied by women.
-at

like the

multitude led by

Moses,

is

One of

the Bacchae touches

a rock, and water gushes out;

another time wine and honey;

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.

Ixxiii

be acknowledged to be often vague and inconclusive.

But
the

so

plain

are the general traces of corrupted


that Celsus, in his books against

scripture-history,

Christians, attacks the biblical records as pla;

giarisms from the pagan mythology

and

asserts that

Paradise

is

borrowed from the gardens of Alcinous,

and the

flood of

Noah from

that of Deucalion

which

Origen refutes by the greater antiquity of the Jewish


traditions.
It is

not to be supposed that they,

who

trace these

parallels

of mythology with scripture,

mean

that

scripture

was

its

immediate source

as the

French

Encyclopaedists seem to think,

when they ridicule the

idea of the Grecian poets having deduced their fables

from the Mosaic books, of which they knew nothing.

The

religious separation of the

Jews renders

it

im-

probable, that even the intellectual philosophy of the

Greek
to the ceives

sages, as

Thales and Pythagoras, should have

been indebted for the idea of pure incorporeal deity


sacred oracles:
it

though Dr. Anderson con" the Mosaic scriptures, and probable that

other prophetical writings under the Jewish dispensation,

could not be

unknown

to the priests of iEgypt,

Chaldsea,

and other adjacent countries."

History of

Philosophy, p. 88.

But the improbability


and the
rivers

is

greatly increased with rere-

run with milk.


Stillingfleet,

These circumstances are very

markable.
nysiacs.

See

Origines Sacrae, ch. v. Nonnus, Dio-

Lxxiv

DISSERTATION ON
is
it

spect to the mythological philosophy ; nor


dible that the circumstances of

cre-

pagan

story,

on the

supposition of their representing the same events as

those recorded in the book of Genesis, should have

been

transferred

immediately from the volume of


into the popular re-

Moses by poets or philosophers


ligion.

Nations do not borrow vast systems of theopriests.

logy from poets or even from

Gale does not

suppose that priests or bards imported the Hebrew


accounts from the sacred writings; but that they were
leamr, through international communication with the
Jews, by the Phoenicians
tical enterprizes,
;

who, in their various nauto distant countries.

carried

them

But the temple of heathen mythology rests its pillars in the two hemispheres, and overshadows
climes unvisited

by the navigators of Phoenicia.

Its

basis must, apparently, be sought without the circle

of Jewish report and scripture, in ancient gentile tradition.


Stillingfleet

convincingly argues,

that,

as-

suming the descent of mankind from the posterity of Noah, the obliteration and extinction of all remnants
of oral history concerning the ancient world
inconceivable.
is

utterly

He

proceeds to show that such fragso preserved in

ments were, in

fact,
;

many

nations

after the dispersion

that they were appropriated

by

the Phoenicians, Greeks, Italians, and others to their


respective

countries;

and that portions of Noah's

memory,

in particular, were retained in

many

fables

under Saturn, Janus, Prometheus, and Bacchus.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.


Similar to this
is

1XXV
;

the outline of the Analytic System

in which, however, the daemon-worship of the patri-

archs of

mankind

is

connected with the arkite and

ophite idolatry under the types of the sun

and moon.

The

affinities in

the pagan sister-mythologies are ex-

plained by the general dissemination of these idolatrous mysteries,

and the

traditions

which they were


migrating from a

designed to commemorate, through the dispersion of a peculiar people in the early ages
central point,
;

and spreading through the extremest

regions of the east and west.

" This wonderful people were the descendants of

Chus
their

and

called Cuthites

and Cuseans.

They stood
They

ground

at the general migration of families, but

were

at last scattered over the face


first

of the earth.

were the

apostates

from the

truth, yet great in

worldly wisdom.

They

introduced, wherever they

came,

many

useful arts,

and were looked up

to as a

superior order of beings.

They were joined


;

in their
col-

expeditions by other nations


lateral

especially
;

by the

branches of their family

the Mizraim, Caph-

torim,

and the sons of Canaan.

These were

all

of

the line of

Ham, who was

held by his posterity in


;

the highest veneration.

They called him Amon and having in process of time raised him to a divinity, they worshipped him as the Sun and from this worship they were called Amonians. Under this deno;

mination are included

all

of this family

whether they

were Egyptians or Syrians, of Phcenicia or of Ca-

lxXVi

MYTHOLOGY OF HESIOD.
They were a people who
carefully preserved

naan.

memorials of their ancestors, and of those great events

which had preceded

their dispersion.

These were de-

cribed in hieroglyphics on pillars and obelisks.

" The deity whom they originally worshipped was the Sun; but they soon conferred his titles upon some other of their ancestors whence arose a mixed worship. Chus was one of these; and the idolatry began among his sons. The same was practised by
;

the ^Egyptians; but this nation


distinctions;

made many

subtile

and supposing that there were certain

emanations of divinity, they affected to particularize


each by some
attributes.
title,

and

to worship the deity

by

his

This gave

rise

to a multiplicity of gods.

The

Grecians,

who

received their religion from

iEgypt and the East, misapplied the terms which


they had received, and
Preface
to the

made

a god out of every

title."

Analysis of Ancient Mythology.

%\)t

Woits

anti

Baps,

THE WORKS AND DAYS.


fje 9trsument*

THE

poem comprehends
In the
first

the general oeconomy of industry and

morals.

division of the subject, the state of the


is

world, past and present,

described

for the
:

purpose of exentails

emplifying the condition of

human

nature

which

on

man

the necessity of exertion to preserve the goods of

life

and leaves him no alternative but honest industry or unjust


violence
;

of which the good and

evil

consequences are re-

spectively illustrated.

Two

Strifes are said to have been sent

into the world, the one promoting dissension, the other


lation.

emu-

Perses
;

is

exhorted to abjure the former and embrace


is

the latter

and an apposite allusion

made

to the circum-

stance of his litigiously disputing the patrimonial estate, of

which, through the corruption of the judges, he obtained the


larger porportion.

The judges

are rebuked, and cheap con-

tentment

is

apostrophized as the true secret of happiness.

Such

is

stated to have been the original sense of

mankind

before the necessity of labour existed.


is

The

origin of labour

deduced from the resentment of Jupiter against Prometheus


:

which resentment led to the formation of Pandora

or

Woman who
:

is

described with her attributes, and

is

repre-

sented as bringing with her into the world a casket of diseases.

The degeneracy of man

is

then traced through successive ages.

The
the

three
silver,

first

ages are severally distinguished as the golden,

and the brazen.

The

fourth has no metallic dis-

tinction, but is described as the heroic age,

and

as

embracing

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the aera of the Trojan war.

The
is

fifth

is

styled the iron age,

and, according to the Poet,


general corruption

that in which he lives.


is

The
and

of mankind in this age

detailed,

Modesty and Justice are represented taking


ven.

their flight to hea-

pointed allusion to the corrupt administration of the

laws, in his

own

particular instance,

is

introduced in a fable,
fol-

typical of oppression.

Justice

is

described as invisibly

lowing those

who

violate her decrees with avenging power,

and

as lamenting in their streets the wickedness of a corrupted

people.

The temporal

blessings of an upright nation are con-

trasted with the temporal evils

which a wicked nation draws

down from an angry


the actions of men.

Providence.

Holy Daemons are

repre-

sented as hovering about the earth, and keeping watch over


Justice
is

again introduced, carrying her

complaints to the feet of Jupiter, and obtaining that the crimes

of rulers be visited on their people.

pathetic appeal

is

then
to

made

to these rulers in their judicial capacity, urging


injustice.

them

renounce

After some further exhortations to virtue

and industry,

and a number of unconnected precepts, the


his

Poet enters on the Georgical part of

subject

which

contains the prognostics of the seasons of agricultural labour,

and rules appertaining


sowing,
.

to wood-felling, carpentry, ploughing,

reaping,

threshing,

vine-dressing,

and the vintage.

This division of the subject includes a description of winter

and of a repast

in

summer.

He
and

then treats of navigation


religion,

and concludes with some desultory precepts of


decorum, and superstition
:

moral

lastly,

with a specification of

Days
cious
:

which, are divided into holy, auspicious, and inauspi-

mixed and intermediary

or such as are entitled to

no

remarkable observance.

WORKS,
i.

COME,
The song

Muses

ye, that

from Pieria

raise

of glory, sing your father's praise.

By

Jove's high will th'

unknown and known of fame


fair

Exist, the nameless

and the

of name.

"lis

He

with ease the bowed feeble rears,

And

casts the

mighty from

their highest spheres

The bowedfeeble

rears.']

This proem was wanting

in the leadenaffinity

sheeted copy, seen by Pausanias in Bceotia.


scriptural

The

with

language
:

is

remarkable.

" The Lord maketh poor


lifteth up.

and maketh rich

he bringeth low and

He

raiseth

up

the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill to set

him among

princes."

Samuel

v. 1, ch. 2.

" God

is

the

judge

he putteth down one, and setteth up another.


all

Lord upholdeth
down.

that

fall,

and raiseth up them that


:

The be bowed
originally

The Lord

lifteth

up the meek

he casteth the wicked


I

down

to the ground."

Psalms 75, 145, 147.

was

led to suspect that this introduction

had been ingrafted on the


;

poem by one
this

of the Alexandrian Jews


;

who were

addicted to

kind of imposture

but

it is

probably more ancient than the

establishment of the Jewish colony at Alexandria, under the


Ptolemies.

There

is

nothing conclusive to be drawn from coinci-

dences of this sort between ancient writings.

The

first

princi-

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
ease of ease

With

human grandeur

shrouds the ray

With

on abject darkness pours the day


:

Straightens the crooked

grinds to dust the proud


is

Thunderer on high, whose dwelling

the cloud.

Now

bend thine eyes from heaven

behold and hear


fear

Rule thou the laws in righteousness and

While

I to Perses' heart

would

fain

convey

The

truths of

knowledge which inspire


human

my

lay.

pies of morality, implanted in the

heart

by

its

author,

have

in

all

ages been the same

and Socrates and Confucius

might be found to agree, surely without any suspicion of imitation.

Many

passages

of

Hesiod may be paralleled with


:

verses in the Psalms


consideration,

and Proverbs

and

in the

proem under

there

seem

no

grounds for the conjecture of

plagiarism from views of the vicissitudes of

human

condition,

and the ordinations of a ruling providence which are continually


passing before our eyes, and which must have struck the reasoning and serious part of

mankind

in all ages.

Horace has a

si-

milar passage

b.

i.

od. 34.

The God by sudden

turns of fate
:

Can change

the lowest with the loftiest state

Eclipse of glory the diminished ray,

And
Le Clerc

lift

obscurity to day.

conjectures this exordium to be the addition of one


:

of the rhapsodists

of

whom

Pindar says,

Nem. Od.

2.

Th' Homeric bards, who wont to frame

A motley-woven verse,
Ere they the song rehearse,
;in

from Jove, and prelude with his name.

::

WORKS.

Two
The

Strifes on earth of soul divided rove


wise will this

condemn and

that approve
afar,

Accursed the one spreads misery from

And

stirs

up discord and pernicious war


:

Men
The
The

love not this


strife

yet heaven-enforced maintain


still

abhorr'd, but

abhorr'd in vain.

other elder rose from darksome night


dwells in ether's light,

The God high-throned, who

Fix'd deep in earth, and centred midst mankind

This better

strife,

which

fires

the slothful mind.

The needy

idler sees the rich,

and hastes
:

Himself to guide the plough, and plant the wastes


Ordering his household
:

thus the neighbour's eyes

Mark emulous
Beneficent this

the wealthy neighbour rise


strife's

incensing zeal

The

potters angry turn the forming wheel

Smiths beat their anvils ; almsmen zealous throng,

And

minstrels kindle with the minstrel's song.


Night

The other elder


the Strifes.

rose.]

is

meant

to

be the mother of both


is

Guietus remarks that


to

evtyovn

a term

for night

from

t<f>povfe>,

be wise.

She was the mother of wise designs,


:

because favourable to meditation


as well as of
evil.

the mother of good, therefore,

The good

Strife is

made

the elder, because

the evil one arose in the later and degenerate ages of mankind.

Almsmen
bard might

zealous throng,]
in

The proximity of

the beggar to the

a modern writer convey a

satirical inuendo,

of

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Oh
Nor

Perses

thou within thy secret breast

Repose the maxims by

my

care imprest
strife

ever let that evil-joying


to

Have power

wean thee from the

toils

of

life

The

whilst thy prying eyes the


ears the process,

forum draws,

Thine

and the din of laws.

Small care be his of wrangling and debate

For whose ungather'd food the garners wait

Who wants within the summer's plenty stored,


Earth's kindly
fruits,

and Ceres' yearly hoard.

With
For

these replenish'd, at the brawling bar

others' wealth
this

go

instigate the war.


:

But

thou mays't no more

let justice

guide,

Best boon of heaven, and future

strife decide.

Not

so

we shared

the patrimonial land


fill'd

When

greedy pillage

thy grasping hand


The
bard, as
is

which Hesiod cannot be suspected.

evident from

Homer's Odyssey, enjoyed a


bestowed with reverence and
ever,

sort of conventional hospitality,


affection.

It should

seem, how-

from

this

passage that the asker of alms was not regarded

in the light of a

common mendicant

with

us.

It

was a popular
for

superstition that the gods often

assumed similar characters

the purpose of trying the benevolence of men.


tive to

A noble incen-

charity,

which indicates the hospitable character of a

semi-barbarous age.

The patrimonial.,land.~\ The manner of inheritance


Greece was that of gavelkind
:

in ancient

the sons dividing the patrimony

WORKS.

The
The

bribe-devouring Judges

lull'd

by thee
:

sentence gave and stamp'd the false decree


fools
!

Oh

who know not


is

in their selfish soul

How far the half


The good which The
feast

better than the

whole

asphodel and mallows yield,


field
!

of herbs, the dainties of the

in equal portions.

When

there were children

by a concubine,
is illustrated

they also received a certain proportion.

This
:

by a

passage in the 14th book of the Odyssey

An
His
illustrious sons

humbler mate,
to

His purchased concubine, gave birth

me

among themselves
:

Portion'd his goods by lot

to

me

indeed

They gave a

dwelling,

and but

little

more.

Cowper.
The good which asphodel and
mallozos yield.']

similar senti-

ment occurs
where love
v. 17.

in the Proverbs

" Better

is

a dinner of herbs

is,

than a stalled ox and hatred therewith." Ch. 15.

Plutarch in the " Banquet of the Seven Sages,"


that " the herb mallows
is

observes,

good

for food, as is the

sweet stalk of

the asphodel or daffodil."

These plants were often used by

metonymy

for a frugal table.

Homer (Odyssey

24.) places the

shades of the blessed in

meadows of asphodel, because they


the simple

were supposed to be restored to the state of primitive innocence,

when men were contented with


ment of the ground.
in their

and spontaneous
this

ali-

Perhaps the Greeks had

allusion

custom of planting the asphodel in the cemeteries,


it

and also burying


from Pliny,

with the bodies of the dead.


that Hesiod

It appears

b. xxii. c. 22.

had treated of the aspho-

10

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
food of

The

man

in deep concealment lies

The angry gods have

hid

it

from our

eyes.

Else had one day bestow'd sufficient cheer,

And, though

inactive, fed thee

through the year.


rudder by,
;

Then might thy hand have

laid the

In blackening smoke for ever hung on high


some other work

del in

as he

is

said to have spoken of

it

as a

native of the woods.

The food of man


this

in deep concealment lies.]

The meaning of
first

passage

resembles that of the passage in Virgil's

Georgic

The

sire

of gods and

men

with hard decrees

Forbade our plenty

to

be bought with ease.

Dryden.
Have
to refine

laid the

rudder

by.~\

It

seems the vice of commentators

with needless subtleties on plain passages.

Le Clerc

explains this to

mean

that " in one day's fishing you might have


fish, as to

caught such an abundance of


laid

allow of the rudder being


sense of the passage,

by

for
is

a long interval."
that,

The common
after a

however,

were the former state of existence renewed,


it

the rudder, which

was customary

voyage to hang up in

the smoke, might remain there for ever.

You needed

not have
the

crossed the sea for merchandise.

The custom of suspending


is

helms of ships in chimneys, to preserve them from decay,


verted to again

ad-

among

the nautical precepts.


in the

The well-framed rudder


Virgil

smoke suspend.
to the tim

recommends the same process with respect


plough
:

hewn

for the

Georg.

1.

Hung where the chimney's curling fumes arise, The searching smoke the hardened timber dries.

WORKS.

Then had

the labouring ox foregone the

soil,
toil.

And

patient mules

had found reprieve from


:

But Jove conceal'd our food

incensed at heart,
art.

Since mock'd by wise Prometheus' wily

Sore

ills

to

man

devised the heavenly Sire,


fire.

And

hid the shining element of

Prometheus then, benevolent of

soul,

In hollow reed the spark recovering stole

Cheering to

man

and mock'd the god, whose gaze

Serene rejoices in the lightning's blaze.

"

Oh

son of Japhet " with indignant heart,


:

Spake the Cloud-gatherer

"oh, unmatch'd in

art

Exultest thou in this the flame retrieved,

And

dost thou triumph in the god deceived

Mock'd by wise Prometheus^] The


provoked the wrath of Jupiter was the
tioned in the Theogony.
It

original deception
sacrifice

which

of bones men-

would appear extraordinary that the crime of Prometheus,


a god, should be visited on man.

who was
mortal.

This injustice bedeified

trays the real character of

Prometheus; that he was a

If Prometheus, the

maker of man according


to

to Ovid,
reality

and

his divine benefactor according

Hesiod.

be in

Noah,
of
fire

as

many circumstances concur

to prove, the

concealment

by Jupiter might be a type of the darkness and dreariness


;

of nature during the interval of the deluge

and the recovery of

the flame might signify the renovation of light and fertility and
the restitution of the arts of
life.

;:

; :

12

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
posterity of

But thou, with the

man,
ills

Shalt rue the fraud whence mightier


I will send evil for thy stealthy fire,

began

An

ill

which
Sire

all shall love,

and

all desire.

The

who

rules the earth


fill'd

and sways the pole

Had

said,

and laughter

his secret soul

He bade
Mould

famed Vulcan with the speed of thought


with tempering waters wrought

plastic clay

Inform with voice of man the murmuring tongue

The
An

limbs with man's elastic vigour strung


which all shall
In the scholia of Olympiodoru ,
1

ill

love.]

on Plato,
sensuality
:

Pandora

is

allegorized
intellect.

into

the irrational soul or

as opposed to

By

Heinsius she
less

is

sup-

posed to be Fortune.

But there never was


the mother of

occasion for
in plain

straining after philosophical mysteries.

Hesiod asserts

terms, that Pandora

is

woman; he

tells

us she

brought with her a casket of diseases ; and that through her the
state of

man became
is

a state of labour, and his longevity was


is

abridged. It

an ancient Asiatic legend ; and Pandora

plainly
to

the Eve of Mosaic history.

How

this primitive tradition


is

came

be connected with that of the deluge

easily explained.

" Time

with the ancients," observes Mr. Bryant, " commenced at the


deluge
;

all their traditions

and genealogies terminated here. The


this

birth of

mankind went with them no higher than

epocha."

We
ters.

see here a confusion of events, of periods,

and of charac-

The
is

fall

of

man

to

a condition of labour, disease, and


to the flood
;

death

made subsequent

because the great father


off

of the post-diluvian world was regarded as the original father


mankind.

WORKS.

The

aspect fair as goddesses above,

A
A

virgin's likeness with the

brows of
skill,

love.

He

bade Minerva teach the

that sheds

thousand colours in the gliding threads


lovely

Bade

Venus breathe around her


of
air,

face

The charm

the witchery of grace

Infuse corroding pangs of keen desire,

And
Of

cares that trick the form with prank'd attire


last

Bade Hermes
thievish

implant the craft refined

manners and a shameless mind.

He
The

gives

command

th' inferior

powers obey

crippled artist moulds the temper'd clay

By

Jove's design a maid's coy

image rose
:

The

zone, the dress, Minerva's hands dispose

Adored Persuasion, and the Graces young,

With

chains of gold her shapely person

hung

The zone, the


as the inventress

dress.']

This

office is

probably assigned to Pallas,

and patroness of weaving and embroidery, and

works

in wool.

With chains of gold.]


person

Opuou-,

rendered by the interpreter

monilia, are not merely necklaces, but chains for any part of the
:

as the arms and ankles.

Ornaments of

gold,

and par-

ticularly chains, belong to the

costume of very high antiquity.

" Ye daughters of

Israel,

weep over Saul


:

in scarlet with other delights

who clothed you who put on ornaments of' gold


:

upon your apparel.


"

Samuel

b.

ii.

ch. 1. v. 24.
feet,

And

she took sandals upon her

and put about her her

14?

KEMAINS OF HESIOD.
her smooth brow the beauteous-tressed Hours

Round

garland twined of spring's purpureal flowers


whole, Minerva with adjusting art
to her shape

The

Forms

and

fits

to every part.

Last by the counsels of deep-thundering Jove,

The

Argicide, his herald from above,

bracelets,
all

and her

chains,

and her

rings,

and her

ear-rings,

and

her ornaments, and decked herself bravely, to allure the eyes


all

of

men

that should see her."

Judith ch.

x. v. 4.

The beauteous-tressed Hours^] The Hours, according

to

Homer,

made

the toilette of

Venus

The smooth

strong gust of Zephyr wafted her

Through billows of the many-waving sea


In the soft foam
:

the Hours, whose locks are bound

With

gold, received her blithely,


:

and enrobed

With heavenly vestments

her immortal head


fillet,

They wreathed with golden

beautiful,

And

aptly framed

her perforated ears

They hung with jewels of the mountain-brass

And precious gold Of dazzling white,


Such
as the

her tender neck, and breast

they deck'd with chains of gold,


their locks.

Hours wear braided with

Hymn
His herald from above.] The
first

to Venus.

edition

had " winged herald ;"

but the wings of Mercury are the additions of later mythologists.

Homer,

in the Odyssey, speaks only of

The
The
and

sandals

fair,

Golden, and undecay'd, that waft him o'er


sea,
o'er th'

immeasurable earth
:

With
there
is

the swift-breathing wind

no mention of the sandals being winged.

They seem

to

::

WORKS.

15
lies,

Adds

thievish manners, adds insidious

And

prattled speech of sprightly railleries

Then by

the wise interpreter of heaven


to the

The name Pandora


Since
all

maid was given

in heaven conferr'd their gifts to charm,


race, this beauteous

For man's inventive

harm.

When now the Sire had form'd this mischief fair, He bade heaven's messenger convey through air
To
Epimetheus' hands
th' inextricable snare

Nor he

recalTd within his heedless thought


lesson

The warning

by Prometheus taught
skies,
:

That he disclaim each present from the

And

straight restore, lest


;

ill

to

man

arise

But he received
Th' insidious

and conscious knew too

late

gift,

and

felt

the curse of fate.

On
From

earth of yore the sons of


evil free

men

abode,

and labour's galling load

Free from diseases that with racking rage


Precipitate the pale decline of age.

Now
And

swift the

days of manhood haste away,

misery's pressure turns the temples gray.

have possessed a supernatural power of velocity, like the sevenleagued boots, or the shoes of swiftness, in
Giants.
the Tales of the

16

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
casket bear
in air.
sole remained,
:

The woman's hands an ample


She
lifts

the lid
th'

she scatters

ills

Within

unbroken vase Hope


vessel's

Beneath the

rim from

flight detained

The

maid, by counsels of cloud-gathering Jove,


coffer seal'd

The

and dropp'd the

lid above.

Issued the rest in quick dispersion hurl'd,

And

woes innumerous roam'd the breathing world


ills

With

the land

is rife,

with

ills

the sea,
:

Diseases haunt our

frail

humanity

Through noon, through night on


glide,

casual

wing they

Silent, a voice the

Power

all-wise denied.
bopcio-i.

Th unbroken
critic,

vase.] appnxroio-i

Seleucus,
:

an ancient

quoted by Proclus, proposed

nifoto-i

as if the casket in

which Hope dwelt,

might not

literally

be called her house.


After

Heinsius supposes an allusion to the chamber of a virgin.


this,

who would
?

expect that ^pouri means nothing more than a


EXao-a KS^ftvm $o uoov
t

chest

Ea-Sijrity Hoe-fxov

t.

EURIPIDES. AlCESTIS. 158.

taking from her cedar coffers

Vestures and jewels.

On

casual wing they glide.] Perhaps Milton had Hesiod in his


:

ye, in the speech of Satan to Sin

Par. Lost, b.

ii.

line 840.

Thou and Death


Shall dwell at ease, and

up and down unseen


air.

Wing

silently the

buxom

*-i->^.

WORKS.

Thus mayst thou not elude

th'

omniscient mind

Now

if

thy thoughts be to

my

speech inclin'd,

I in brief

phrase would other lore impart


well
:

Wisely and

thou, grave

it

on thy

heart.

When

gods alike and mortals rose to birth,


th'

golden race

immortals form'd on earth


:

Of many-Ian guaged men

they lived of old

When

Saturn reign'd in heaven, an age of gold.


lived,

Like gods they


Free from the

with calm untroubled mind

toils

and anguish of our kind

Nor

e'er decrepid

age mishaped their frame,


still

The

hand's, the foot's proportions


ill,

the same.

Strangers to

their lives in feasts flow'd


;

by

-v

Wealthy

in flocks

dear to the blest on high

v.

Dying they sank

in sleep,
;

nor seem'd to

die.

Theirs was each good


Yielded
its

the life-sustaining soil

copious

fruits,

unbribed by

toil

Wealthy

in Jiocks.]

Grsevius has misled


fruits

all

the editors by
as

arguing that f*x are, in this place,


a-rbutes, figs,

of any trees;

nuts

and not flocks

but his arguments respect-

ing the food of primitive


tions

mankind are drawn from the concep-

of

modem

poets

such as Lucretius and Ovid.

The

tra-

ditionary age described

by Hesiod was a shepherd

age.

Flocks

are the most ancient symbol of prosperity, and are often syno-

nymous with

riches and dominion.

18

REMAINS OF HKSIOD.
with abundant goods midst quiet lands

They

All willing shared the gatherings of their hands.

When

earth's

dark

womb had

closed this

race

around,

High Jove
High Jove
account of

as

daemons raised them from the ground.


demons raised them from
the ground.] In the

as

this

age

we have a just

history of the rise of idolatry

when

deified

men had first

divine honours paid to them; and


it

we

may be
Cusean;

assured of the family in which

began

as

what was

termed. Crusean, the golden race, should have been expressed


for it relates to the age of

Chus, and the denomination

of his sons.

This substitution was the cause of the other divi-

sions being introduced ; that eacn age might be distinguished in

succession by one of baser metal.

Had

there been no mistake

about a golden age,


of silver ;

we

should never have been treated with one

much

less

with the subsequent of brass and iron.

The
and

original history relates to the patriarchic age,

when

the time of

man's

life

was not yet abridged

to its

present standard,
first

when
selves

the love of rule and acts of violence

displayed themsettled,

on the earth.

The Amonians, wherever they

carried these traditions along with them,


to the history of the country
;

which were thus added

so that the scene of action

was
to

changed.
Italy,

colony

who

styled themselves Saturnians


natives.

came

and greatly benefited the

But the

ancients,

who
supthis

generally speak collectively in the singular, and instead of Her-

culeans introduce Hercules; instead of Cadmians,

Cadmus ;

pose a single person, Saturn, to have betaken himself to


country.
Virgil mentions
;

the story in this light, and speaks of


state of the nation gold.
it

Saturn's settling there


his arrival;

and of the rude

upon
314.

where he introduced an age of


is

iEn.

viii.

The account

confused

yet

we may

discern in

a true history

WORKS.
Earth-wandering
spirits

they their charge began,

The

ministers of good, and guards of


air

man.

Mantled with mist of darkling

they glide,
side

And compass

earth,

and pass on every

And mark

with earnest vigilance of eyes

Where just

deeds

live,

or crooked wrongs arise:

Their kingly

state; and, delegate

from heaven,
fields is given.

By

their vicarious

hands the wealth of

The gods
Degenerate

then form'd a second race of man,


far
;

and

silver years

began.
:

Unlike the mortals of a golden kind

Unlike in frame of limbs and mould of mind.

of the

first

ages, as

may

be observed likewise in Hesiod.

Both

the poets, however the scene

may be
;

varied, allude to the

happy

times immediately after the deluge

when

the great patriarch

had

full

power over

his descendants,

and equity prevailed without

written law.

Bryant.
state.']

Their kingly

The administration of

forensic justice

is

implied in the words

^=p<*?

/WiXhiov, regal office.

The wealth of jields.~] Heinsius quotes Hesychius


ttXhto?

to

show that
;

does not always


:

mean

riches, properly so called


is

but the

riches of the soil

and says that it

here applied to the good de-

mons

as presiding over the productions of the seasons.

Bac-

chus, in the Lenaean rites,

was invoked by the epithet wXaToJo'w,


to the vineyard.
It

wealth-bestower

in allusion

seems

inti-

mated

here, that the Spirits reward the deeds of the just


;

by

abundant harvests

the

common

belief of the Greeks, as appears

both from Hesiod and Homer.

C2

2U

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
still

Yet

a hundred years beheld the boy


roof,
:

Beneath the mother's

her infant joy

All tender and unform'd

but when the flower


wither'd in an hour.

Of manhood
Their

bloom'd,

it

frantic follies

wrought them pain and woe


their
;

Nor mutual outrage could

hands forego
nor
altars raise

Nor would they


That

serve the gods

in just cities shed their holy blaze.

Them

angry Jove ingulf'd


their glory

who dared

refuse

The gods

and

their sacred dues


lie,

Yet named the second-blest in earth they

And
A
this

second honours grace their memory.

hundred years.] Heinsius explains

this

passage to mean,

that " although this age was indeed deteriorated from the former,

much

of good remained

that the boys were not early ex-

posed to the contagion of vice, but long participated the chaste

and

retired education of

their sisters in the seclusion of

the
that

female

apartments."
it

Graevius,

on the contrary,

insists

Hesiod notes

as a

mark of

depravation, that the youth were


it

educated in sloth and effeminacy, and grew up, as


the

were, on

lap

of their

mothers.
["

These two

opinions are about


alludes to the lon-

equally to the purpose.


gevity

The poet manifestly


age
;

of persons

in the patriarchic

for

they did not,

it

seems, die at three-score and ten, but took more time even in

advancing towards puberty.

He

speaks, however, of their being


life
it

cut off in their prime; and whatever portion of

nature might

have allotted
folly

to

them, they were abridged of

by

their

own

and

injustice."

Bryant.

;:

WORKS.

21

The

Sire of heaven

and earth created then

race, the third of

many-languaged men.
:

Unlike the

silver they

of brazen mould

With ashen

war-spears terrible and bold

Their thoughts were bent on violence alone,

The

deeds of battle and the dying groan.


their feasts, with

Bloody

wheaten food unblest

Of adamant was

each unyielding breast.


stands,

Huge, nerved with strength each hardy giant

And mocks approach

with unresisted hands

Their mansions, implements, and armour shine


In brass
;

dark iron

slept within the

mine.
fell,

They by each

other's

hands inglorious

In freezing darkness plunged, the house of hell


Fierce though they were, their mortal course was run

Death gloomy seized, and snatch'd them from the

sun.

Them when
Lo
!

th'

abyss had cover'd from the skies,

the fourth age on nurturing earth arise

Jove formed the race a better, juster line;

race of heroes and of stamp divine

Lights of the age that rose before our

own

As demi-gods

o'er earth's

wide regions known.

Yet these dread

battle hurried to their

end
:

Some where

the seven-fold gates of Thebes ascend

22

REMAIN'S OF HESIOD.
:

The Cadmian realm

where they with

fatal

might

Strove for the flocks of (Edipus in fight.

Some war

in navies led to Troy's far shore

O'er the great space of sea their course they bore

For sake of Helen with the beauteous hair

And

death for Helen' sake o'erwhelm'd them there.


earth's

Them on

utmost verge the god assign'd

A life,

a seat, distinct from

human kind

Beside the deepening whirlpools of the main,

In those blest
To Troy's far
and the

isles

where Saturn holds

his reign,

shore.]

Dr. Clarke in his travels in Greece,

Egypt, and the Holy-land, has noticed that the existence of Troy,
facts relative

to the

Trojan war, are supported by a

variety of evidence independent of

Homer

as has been abun-

dantly

shown

in

the course of the controversy between Mr.

Bryant and his able antagonist, Mr. Morritt.

This passage of

Hesiod seems to
than Homer, as
Marbles,
invention
it is
:

me
is

decisive testimony.

If Hesiod be older

computed by the chronicler of the Parian

self-evident that the Trojan


if

war

is

not of Homeric
if

and

they were contemporary, or even

Hesiod,

according to the vulgar chronology, were really junior by a century,


it

is

not at

all

probable that he should have copied the

fiction

of another bard, while tracing the primitive history of

mankind.
nation, of

He

manifestly used the ancient traditions

of hia

which the war of Troy was one.

In

those blest isles.] Pindar also alludes to these in his second


:

Olympic Ode

They take the way which Jove

did long ordain

To

Saturn's ancient tower beside the deep

WORKS.
Apart from heaven's immortals
:

23 calm they share

rest unsullied

by the clouds of care

And

yearly thrice with sweet luxuriance crown'd

Springs the ripe harvest from the teeming ground.

Oh
Midst

would

that

Nature had denied


;

me

birth
:

this fifth race

this iron

age of earth

Where

gales, that softly breathe,

Fresh-springing from the

bosom of

the

main

Through the

islands of the blessed blow.

As

the

life

of these beatified heroes was a renewal of that in


it is

the golden age,

figured

by the reign of Saturn or Cronus

the father of post-diluvian time.

The

era in which, after the

waste of the deluge, the vine was planted and corn again sown,

was represented by
and
fields

tradition as a time of wonderful

abundance
Elysian

fruitfulness.
:

Hence apparently the

fable of .the

which some have supposed to orginate from the reports


fertile regions.

of voyagers, who had visited distant


usually placed in Tartarus
:

Saturn
:

is

but Tartarus meant the west


:

from

the association of darkness with sunset

and the Blessed Islands

were the Fortunate

Isles

on the Western Coast of Afric.


is

" These heroes, whose equity

so

much spoken

of,

upon a

nearer inquiry are found to be continually engaged in wars and

murders

and

like the

specimens exhibited of the former ages,


other's

are finally cut off

by each

hands in acts of robbery and

violence

some

for stealing sheep, others for carrying

away the

wives of their friends and neighbours.


these laudable banditti
:

Such was the end of

of

whom

Jupiter,

we

are told, had so

high an opinion, that after they had plundered and butchered one
another, he sent

them

to the island

of the Blest to partake of

perpetual felicity."

Bryant.

This iron age of earth.] Les ecrivains de tous les tems ont

24

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
I lay,.
!

That long before within the grave

Or long

hereafter could behold the day


toils

Corrupt the race, with

and

griefs opprest,
rest.

Nor day nor


Still

night can yield a pause of

do the gods a weight of care bestow,


still

Though
Jove on

some good

is

mingled with the woe.

this race of

many-languaged man,

Speeds the swift ruin which but slow began

For scarcely spring they


Ere age untimely strews
r^garde leur siecle
qui ait dit du sien,

to the light of

day

their temples gray.

comme
bon

le pire

de tous

il

n'y a que Voltaire

O le
Encore

terns

que ce

siecle
:

de

fer
il

etait-ce dans

un acces de gaiete

car ailleurs
C'est

appelle le
sujets

dixhuitieme siecle, l'egout des siecles.


sur. lesquels

un de ces

on

dit ce

qu'on veut

selon qu'il plait d'envisager

tel

ou

tel

cote des objets.

La Harpe, Lycee, tome


to the light

premier.

For scar cell/ spring they

of day, Dr. Martyn, in a

Ere age untimely


interpreters

strezcs their

temples gray.~\

note on Virgil's 4th Eclogue, has fallen into the error of the old
;

when he quotes Hesiod


to

as describing the iron age

" which was


gray."

end when the men of that time grew old and


circa

Postquam Jacti
is,

tempora cani fuerint


vix nati canescant
:

but the

proper interpretation

quum

as Graevius

has corrected

it.

The same

critic is

unquestionably right in his

opinion, that the future tenses of this passage in the original are
to
i.

be understood as indefinite present:


e.

/xefmLovTat,

incusabunt:

incusare solent
iii.

use to revile.

Mark,

27.

xai tote

tH oijv wts

hapir&ri*'."

and then he

will

::

WORKS.

25

No

fathers in the sons their features trace

The
The

sons reflect no

more the

father's face

host with kindness greets his guest no more,


friends

And

and brethren love not

as of yore.

Reckless of heaven's revenge, the sons behold

The hoary

parents

wax

too swiftly old

And
Nor

impious point the keen dishonouring tongue


reproofs

With hard

and

bitter

mockeries hung

grateful in declining age repay

The nurturing

fondness of their better day.


is

Now
And
Nor

man's right hand


lay their

law

for spoil they wait,


:

mutual

cities desolate

Unhonour'd

he,

by

whom

his oath

is

fear'd,

are the good beloved, the just revered.

With
Nor

favour graced the evil-doer stands,


:

curbs with shame nor equity his hands

spoil his

house

" that

is,

he

is

accustomed

to spoil.
:

The imas in the

perfect time has also frequently the

same acceptation
,

same
over
:

evangelist

ch. xiv. 12. to wo<r^a e&vo


kill it.
is

they killed the pass-

they are used to

Now

man's right hand

law.]

Imitated by Milton in the

vision of

Adam
So violence
Proceeded, and oppression,
avid

sword-law

Through

all

the plain.

26

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
slanders

With crooked

wounds the virtuous man,

And
Lo
!

stamps with perjury what hate began.


ill-rejoicing

Envy, wing'd with

lies,
flies,

Scattering calumnious rumours as she

The

steps of miserable

men pursue

With haggard

aspect, blasting to the view.

Till those fair forms in

snowy raiment bright

Leave the broad earth and heaven-ward soar from


sight

Justice

and Modesty from mortals driven,


th'

Rise to

immortal family of heaven


to forsaken
:

Dread sorrows

man remain

No

cure of

ills

no remedy of pain.
I

Now

unto kings

frame the fabling song,

However wisdom unto kings belong.


Leave the broad earth.] Virgil alludes
ii.

to this passage, Georg.

473.

From hence
The

Astraea took her

flight,

and here

prints of her departing steps appear.


:

Dryden.

As

also Juvenal

Sat. vi. line 19.

I well believe in Saturn's ancient reign

This Chastity might long on earth remain

By slow degrees her steps Astraea sped To heaven above, and both the sisters fled.

Now

unto

kings.']

baxntev?,

which we render king, was properly,

in the early times of Greece, a magistrate.

The

kings against

works.

27

stooping hawk, crook-talon'd, from the vale


his

Bore in

pounce a neck-streak'd nightingale,

whom
who

Hesiod inveighs, are therefore simply a kind of nobles,


like

exercised the judicial office in Bceotia;

the twelve

of Phceacia mentioned in the Odyssey. of Greece, vol.


i.

See Mitford's History

ch. 3. nomo.ohipov,

A
gale.
<pxvov,

neck-streak 'd nightingale.]

with variegated

throat.

This has not been thought appropriate to the nightinTzetzes and Moschopolus interpreted the term by Tmxao-

with varied voice; a very forced construction; yet


it

it

is

adopted by Loesner, who renders

by canoram.
is

Ruhnken

pro-

poses the emendation of TroM-Xoy^w , which

synonymous. Others

have doubted whether a^v, which

is

literally singer,
is

might not

apply to some other bird, as the thrush, which


naeus,

defined by Lin-

" back brown, neck spotted with white."

But the name

singer might have been applied to the nightingale by nence.

way of emi-

In fact I see no
bill

difficulty.

Linneeus, indeed, describes

the nightingale, "

brown, head and back pale mouse-colour,


Simonides,

with olive spots," and says nothing of the throat.

however, speaks of p^Xapi^svs?

asj^vs?,

green-necked nightingales,

which might justify Hesiod's epithet.

Bewick

in the

" British

Birds" thus describes the luscinia: "the whole upper part of the

body of a rusty brown tinged with


colour; almost white at the throat"

olive;

under parts pale ashornithologist

more ancient

has a description

still

more nearly approximating


is

to the term of

Hesiod

and

it

seems evident that there

more than one

species

of nightingale.

" Luscinia, philomela, an^w.


" The nightingale
is

about the bigness of a goldfinch.


i. e.

The

co-

lour on the upper part,


(lion, or

the head and back,

is

a pale fulvous

deep gold colour) with a certain mixture of green, like


Its tail is of a
its

that of a red-wing.
red-start's.

deeper fulvous or red, like a


took the

From

red colour

it

name of rossignuolo,

::

28

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
snatch'd

And

among

the clouds: beneath the stroke

This piteous shriek'd, and that imperious spoke

Wretch

why these screams ?

a stronger holds thee

now:
Where'er
I

shape

my

course a captive thou,

Maugre thy
I

song, must

company my way

rend

my

banquet or

I loose

my

prey.

Senseless

is

he who dares with power contend


shall

" Defeat, rebuke, despair

be his end."

The

swift hawk spake, with wings spread wide in


air;

But thou

to justice cleave,
if

and wrong

forbear.

Wrong,

he yield

to its abhorr'd controul,

Shall pierce like iron in the poor man's soul:

Wrong

weighs the rich man's

conscience to the

dust,

When
Far

his foot stumbles


is

on the way unjust


;

different

the path

a path of light,

That guides the

feet to equitable right.

The end

of righteousness, enduring long,

Exceeds the short prosperity of wrong.

m Italian

(rossignol, French).

The

belly

is

white.

The

parts

under the wings, breast, and throat, are of a darker colour, with a tincture of green: Willoughby's Ornithology, fol. 1678.
1

;;

WORKS.

29

The

fool

by suffering

his experience buys

The

penalty of folly makes

him
lo
!

wise.

With crooked judgments,


Avenging
runs,

the oath's dread

God

and tracks them where they trod

Rough

are the ways of Justice as the sea


to

Dragg'd

and

fro

by men's corrupt decree


!

Bribe-pamper'd

men

whose hands perverting draw

The

right aside,

and warp the wrested law.


their sentence waits,

Though, while corruption on

They

thrust pale Justice from their haughty gates

Invisible their steps the virgin treads,

And

musters evils o'er their sinful heads.

She with the dark of air her form arrays

And walks

in awful grief the city- ways

The fool by suffering


apophthegm

his experience buys.] rr9v

fc n.

vwio$ eynw.

This seems to have been a national proverb.


lar
:

Homer

has a simi-

11.17.33.

ripiv tj xa.'.ov 7ref.8ssi;'

ps^Sev Js ra vn

riot;

syvx.
:

Confront

me not,

lest

some

sore evil rise

The

fool

must rue the act that makes him wise.

Plato uses the same proverbial sentiment


EuXapv.onvat kai {av, Kara. tv Trapoi/xiav, auririp vmriov TraBovrai yvoovai.

Beware
fool,

lest,

after the proverb,

you get knowledge

like the

by

suffering.

Walks

in awful grief the city-ways.']

Something similar

is

the

prosopopaeia of

Wisdom

in the

Proverbs of Solomon, ch.

viii.

30

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
wail
is

Her

heard, her tear upbraiding

falls

O'er their stain'd manners, their devoted walls.

But they who never from the right have

stray'd,

Who

as the citizen the stranger aid

They and

their cities flourish

genial Peace

Dwells in their borders, and their youth increase


She standeth on the top of high places, by the way, and the
places of the paths.

She crieth at the gates


in

at the entry of the city

at the

coming

of the doors.
O'er their stain'd manners.]
Graevius observes that the inter-

preters render Qsa

7*&3v,

" most foolishly " by the manners of the


also habitations.

people

because

?a signifies

But as

it

is

not

pretended that v6ea does not equally signify manners, " the ex-

treme folly" of the interpreters has,


netration.
Is
it

I confess,

escaped

my

pe-

so very forced an

image that Justice should weep

over the manners of a depraved people?

They and

their cities flourish.]

This passage resembles one

in

the nineteenth book of the Odyssey: but not so closely as to justify

the charge of plagiarism which Dr. Clarke prefers

against

Ilesiod,

and which might be retorted upon Homer.

These were

sentiments

common

to the popular religion.

Like the praise of some great king

Who

o'er

a numerous people and renown'd,

Presiding like a deity, maintains


Justice and truth.

Their harvests overswell


:

The
The

sower's hopes
fruit sustain

their trees o'erladen scarce

Their

no sickness thins the folds


shores,

finny
all

swarms of ocean crowd the


happy

And

are rich and

for his sake.

Cowpee.

: ;

: :

WORKS.

31
afar,

Nor

Jove,

whose radiant eyes behold

Hangs

forth in heaven the signs of grievous war.

Nor

scathe nor famine on the righteous prey

Feasts, strewn

by

earth,

employ their easy day


:

Rich are

their

mountain oaks
full,

the topmost trees

With

clustering acorns

the trunks with hiving

bees.

Burthen'd with

fleece their

panting flocks

the race

Of woman

soft reflects the father's face

Reflects the father's face.]


ple

Montesquieu remarks

" The peo-

mentioned by Pomponius Mela (the Garamantes) had no

other
est

way of

discovering the father but

by resemblance.

Pater

quem

nuptiae demonstrant."

But

this uncertain criterion

was

considered as infallible generally by the ancients.

She
Still

whom

no conjugal

affections bind,
fickle

on a stranger bends her

mind

But easy

to discern the spurious race,

None

in the child the father's features trace.

Theocritus

Encomium of Ptolemy.

Oh may
From

a young Torquatus bending


his mother's breast to thee,

His tiny infant hands extending,

Laugh with half-open'd

lips in childish ecstasy

May he

reflect the father in his face

Known

for

a Mallius to the glancing eye


trace

Of strangers unaware, who

In the boy's forehead of paternal grace

mother's shining chastity.

Catullus

Epithalamium on Julia and Mallius.

32

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
nor tempt with ships the main
;

Still flourish they,

The

fruits

of earth are pour'd from every plain.

But

o'er the

wicked race, to
evil,

whom

belong

The thought

of

and the deed of wrong,

Saturnian Jove of wide-beholding eyes

Bids the dark signs of retribution

rise
fall:

And
The

oft the

crimes of one destructive


all.

crimes of one are visited on


sends

The god

down

his
:

angry plagues from high,


in heaps they die.

Famine and

pestilence

He

smites with barrenness the marriage-bed,

And generations moulder


Again
in

with the dead

vengeance

of his wrath

he

falls

On

their great hosts,

and breaks

their tottering walls

Arrests their navies on the ocean's plain,

And whelms
main.

their strength with

mountains of the

Ponder, oh judges

in

your inmost thought

The

retribution

by

his

vengeance wrought.

Invisible, the

gods are ever nigh,


th' all-seeing

Pass through the midst, and bend

eye

The men who grind

the poor,

who

wrest the right,

Awless of heaven's revenge,


sight.

stand naked to their

WORKS.
For thrice ten thousand holy demons rove
This breathing world, the delegates of Jove.

33

Guardians of man, their glance alike surveys

The

upright judgments and


:

th'

unrighteous ways.
birth,

A virgin pure is Justice


August, from him

and her

who

rules the heavens

and earth

creature glorious to the gods


is

on high,
sky.
seat

Whose mansion

yon everlasting

Driven by despiteful wrong she takes her


In lowly grief at Jove's eternal
feet.

Holy demons
This breathing world.

rove
]

Milton

is

thought to have

copied Hesiod in this passage


Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth

Unseen, both when we wake and when we

sleep.

But the coincidence seems merely


wants completeness.

incidental,

as the parallel

There

is

nothing of angelic guardianship or

judicial inspection in the spirits of Milton:

he says only,

All these with ceaseless praise his works behold

Both day and

night.

How

often from the steep

Of echoing

hill,

or thicket, have

we heard

Celestial voices to the midnight air,


Sole, or responsive to

each other's note,

Singing their great Creator?

Par. Lost,

iv.

Their glance alike surveys

The upright judgments and

tti

unrighteous nays.]
evil

The eyes

of the Lord are in every place, beholding the

and the good.


xv. 3.

Proverbs,
I)

34.'

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
plaints ascend

There of the soul unjust her

So rue the nations when

their kings offend

When

uttering wiles

and brooding thoughts of ill,

They bend the

laws and wrest

them

to their will.
Theobald, in a
fcs/uoc,

So rue the nations when their kings offend.]


note on Cooke's translation, proposes to change
into
Tijftof,

the people,

then
:

and renders

avrorttrn

in the sense of punish, in-

stead of rue

thus the meaning would be, " that he might then,

at that instant, punish the sins of the judges."

Never was an

interference with the text so

little

called for.
is

The meaning which

Theobald

is

so scrupulous to admit

exactly conformable with

that of a preceding passage

And

oft the crimes of

one destructive
all.

fall

The crimes of one


It is idle to inquire

are visited on
is

where

the justice of this kind of retributhe history of mankind that such

tion ? since
is

it is

evident from

all

the course of nature.

By

the blessing of the upright the city

is

exalted

but
11.

it is

overthrown by the mouth of the wicked.

Proverbs,

xi.

The king by judgment


ceiveth
gifts

establisheth the land; but he that reit.

overthroweth

Ch. xxix.

4.
is

In Simpson's notes on Beaumont and Fletcher, this passage

compared with the following


We'll waken

in Philaster

In whose
all

name
up
:

the Gods, and conjure

The
and
it is

rods of vengeance, the abused people


it

proposed to understand

in the sense of Fletcher,

" that
which

the people might be raised up to punish the crimes of their


prince."

There

is

taste

and

spirit in this interpretation,


:

cannot be said for the amendment of Theobald


acceptation seems to
stated.

but the

common

me

the right one, for the reasons already

WORKS.

35
!

Oh gorged with
Make
straight
fear:

gold

ye kingly judges hear


:

your paths

your crooked judgments

That the

foul record

may no more be
it

seen,
!

Erased, forgotten, as

ne'er

had been

He
His

wounds himself that aims

another's

wound:

evil counsels

on himself rebound.

Jove at his awful pleasure looks from high

With

all-discerning
its

and all-knowing eye


ken what injured right
J

^
/

Nor hidden from


Within the

city-walls eludes the light.

Or oh

if evil

wait the righteous deed,

If thus the wicked gain the righteous meed,

Then may not

I,

nor yet

my

son remain
!

In this our generation just in vain

But sure

my

hope, not this doth Heaven approve,

Not

this the

work of thunder-darting Jove.


Perses
!

Deep let my words, oh


Hear
Justice,

graven be

and renounce

th' oppressor's plea

This law the wisdom of the god assign'd

To human

race and to the bestial kind

To

birds of air

and

fishes

of the wave,

And

beasts of earth, devouring instinct gave

D 2

36

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
lives
:

In them no justice

he bade be known

This better sense to reasoning

man

alone.

Who
The

from the seat of judgment

shall

impart
his heart

truths of

knowledge utter'd from

On him

the

god of all-discerning eye

Pours down the treasures of felicity.

Who sins against the right,


With

his wilful

tongue

perjuries of lying witness


is

hung;

Lo

he
is

hurt beyond the hope of cure

Dark

his race,

nor

shall his

name

endure.
to shine

Who fears his

oath shall leave a

name

With brightening lustre through


much

his latest line.


In the house of the

Pours dozen the treasures of felicity.]


righteous
is

treasure

but in the revenues of the wicked


xv. 6.

there

is

trouble.

Proverbs,

The Lord

will not suffer the soul of the righteous to famish

but he casteth away the substance of the wicked.

Ch.

x. 3.

The memory
shall rot.

of the just
x. 7.

is

blessed

but the

name of the wicked

Ch.

false witness shall

not be unpunished
xix. 9.
:

and he that speaketh

lies shall perish.

Ch.

The The

righteous shall never be removed

but the wicked shall not

inhabit the earth.

Ch.

x. 30.

inheritance of sinners' children shall perish: and their pos-

terity shall

have a perpetual reproach.


xli. 6.

Wisdom

of Jesus the

Son of Sirach,
Their

fruit shalt

thou destroy from the earth, and their seed

from among the children of men.

Psalms,

xxi.

10

; :

WORKS.
Most
foolish Perses
!

37
tell,

let

the truths I

Which Lo
!

spring from knowledge, in thy


rife in

bosom dwell

wickednesses
is

troops appear

Smooth

the track of vice, the mansion near:

On

virtue's

path delays and perils grow


the sweat that bathes the

The gods have placed before


brow:
Smooth
the track of vice..]
:

is

The way of
is

sinners

is

made

plain

with stones

but at the end thereof

the pit of hell.

Wisdom

of Jesus the Son of Sirach,

xxi. 10. this line of

Both Plato and Xenophon who quote


xeiw,

Hesiod, read

smooth, instead of

x<>>:,

short.

Krebsius prefers the read-

ing, as

a short road and

dzcells

near make a vapid tautology

and smooth forms a good

antithesis to rough.
brow.']
:

The sweat that bathes the


rable in his description of

Spenser has imitated this pa-

Honour

In woods, in waves, in wars she wonts to dwell,

And

will

be found with peril and with pain

Ne

can the

man

that moulds in idle cell


attain.

Unto her happy mansion


Before her gate high

God

did sweat ordain,


:

And

wakeful watches ever to abide


is

But easy

the

way and passage


:

plain

To Pleasure's palace it may soon be spied, And day and night her doors to all stand open wide.
This allegory of Hesiod seems the basis of the apologue of Hercules, Virtue
2, 21,

and Vice, which Xenophon in his

(<

Memorabilia,"

quotes by

memory from Prodicus's " History of Hercules."

38

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
ere the foot can reach her high abode,
th' ascent,

And

Long, rugged, steep

and rough the road.

The

ridge once gain'd, the path so rude of late

Runs

easy on, and level to the gate.


is

Far best

he

whom

conscious

wisdom guides
fit

Who
His

first
is

and

last

the right and

decides:

He too

good, that to the wiser friend

docile reason can submissive

bend

But worthless he

that reason's voice defies,

Nor

wise himself, nor duteous to the wise.


!

But thou, oh Perses


Let mem'ry bind

what

my

words impart

for ever

on thy heart.

Oh

son of Dios

labour evermore,

That hunger turn abhorrent from thy door


To
eyes
xii.
:

the wiser friend.~\

The way of a

fool is right in
is

his

own

but he that hearkeneth to counsel

wise.

Proverbs,

15.

A scorner
Oh
a toy
there

loveth not one that reproveth

him

neither will he

go unto the wise.


son of Dios.]

Ch. xv. 12.


Atov yevae:

Tzetzes had written in the margin

yivoq,

and

this is in all probability the true reading; not that

is

any thing extraordinary


Greeks used
applies
it in it

in the application of the

term

divine, as the

a wide latitude, and on frequent


It
in-

occasions.

Homer

to the swineherd of Ulysses.

vas a term of courtesy or respect; and Hesiod may have


tended to compliment, not Perses, but their father.

We have,

WORKS.
That Ceres
blest,

39

with spiky garland crown'd,

Greet thee with love and bid thy barns abound.


Still

on the sluggard hungry want attends,


the hate of heaven impends

The scorn of man,

however, the testimony of Ephorus, as recorded by Plutarch,


that Dius was the father of Hesiod
;

and a copyist might


the

easily

have mistaken a

u for

v.

The author of
to

" Contest of Hoas he

mer and Hesiod" seems

have read

Aioy yivoc y

make

Homer

address his competitor,

Hcu*

exyove Atcv
!

in the

Oh
The reading
toire
is

Hesiod

Dius' son

recommended hy the Abbe Sevin


7

" Hisis

de l'Academie des Inscriptions/

and by Villoison; and

adopted by Brunck in his " Gnomici Poetae Graeci."

The herma

of Hesiod exhibited by Bellorio in his " Veterum Poetarum Ima-

gines" has the inscription,


the son of Dios.
Still

nc-iobav,

Lim

Ao-Kpaios,

Ascraean Hesiod

on the sluggard hungry want attends.]


is

He

that gatheris

eth in

summer

a wise son; but he that sleepeth in harvest

son that causeth shame.

Proverbs,

x. 5.
:

He

that tilleth his land shall have plenty of bread

but he that

followeth after vain persons shall


xxviii. 19.

have poverty enough.

Ch.

Hate not laborious work; neither husbandry


High has ordained.
vii.

which the Most

Wisdom

of Jesus the Son of Sirach,

15.

He becometh
The
labour

poor that dealeth with a slack hand

but the hand

of the diligent maketh rich.

Proverbs,

x. 4.

desire of the slothful killeth


:

him;

for his
:

hands refuse to

he coveteth greedily

all

the day long

but the righteous

giveth and spareth not.

Ch.

xxi. 25.

;:

40

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
he, averse

While

from labour, drags

his days,

Yet greedy on the gain of others preys

Even

as the stingless drones

devouring

seize

With

glutted sloth the harvest of the bees.


ev'ry seemly
toil,

Love

that so the store

Of foodful From

seasons heap thy garner's floor.

labour

men

returns of wealth behold

Flocks in their

fields

and

in their coffers gold

From

labour shalt thou with the love be blest


;

Of men and gods


Not
Toil,
toil,

the slothful they detest.

but sloth shall ignominious be;


slothful

and the

man

shall

envy thee;

Shall view thy growing wealth with alter'd sense,

For

glory, virtue walk with opulence.


like a god, since labour
still is

Thou,

found

The
If,

better part, shalt live belov'd, renown'd

as I counsel,

thou thy witless mind,


as the veering wind,

Though weak and empty

From

others' coveted possessions turn'd,

To

thrift

compel, and food by labour earn'd.


find,

Shame, which our aid or injury we

Shame to

the needy clings of evil kind

Shame, which our aid or injury wefind^]

The
aid,

verse

No

shame

is his,

Shame, of mankind the injury or

WORKS.

41
:

Shame
Bold

to

low indigence declining tends

zeal to wealth's

proud pinnacle ascends.


;

But shun extorted riches

oh

far best

The heaven-sent
Whoe'er
shall

wealth without reproach possest.

mines of hoarded gold command,

By
As

fraudful tongue or
oft betides

by rapacious hand

when

lucre lights the flame,

And

shamelessness expels the better shame


shall the

Him

god

cast

down, in darkness hurl'd,


from the world
we meet with

His name,

his offspring wasted

occurs in the Iliad, 24; and in the Odyssey, 17,

An

evil

shame the needy beggar holds

but Le Clerc should have known better than to follow Plutarch


in the supposition of the lines being inserted

from

Homer by some

other hand.

It is

one of the proverbial and traditionary sayings


in their writings,

which frequently occur

and which belong rather

to the language than to the poet.

The admirable Jewish

scribe, in that ancient

book of the Apo-

crypha entitled Ecclesiasticus, uses the same proverb

Observe the opportunity and beware of

evil;

and be not

ashamed when
For there
is

it

concerneth thy soul.


is

a shame that bnngeth sin; and there

a shame

which
jv.

is

glory and grace.

Wisdom

of Jesus the Son of Sirach,

20, 21.

But shun
an
evil eye,

extorted riches.]

He

that hasteth to be rich, hath

and considereth not that poverty shall come upon


xxviii. 22.

him.

Proverbs,

He

that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he


it

shall gather

for

him

that will pity the poor.

Ch.

xxviii, 8.

42

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
for

The goods

which he pawn'd his soul decay,


shining bubble of a day.
of sin
is

The breath and


Alike the

man

he confest,

Who spurns the suppliant and who wrongs the guest; Who climbs, by lure of stolen embraces led,
With
ill-timed act, a brother's marriage

bed

Who
His

dares by crafty wickedness abuse

trust,

and robs the orphans of

their dues;

Who, on

the threshold of afflictive age,


stings with taunting rage

His hoary parent

On him shall Jove in And deep requite the

anger look from high,

dark iniquity
refrain thy mind,
as the wind.

But wholly thou from these

Weak

as

it is,

and wavering

With

thy best means perform the ritual part,


spotless at the heart,

Outwardly pure and

And on

thy altar

let

unblemish'd thighs

In fragrant savour

to th'

immortals

rise.

Who spurns

the suppliant.]

The ninth book of the Odyssey

exhibits a beautiful passage illustrative of the high reverence in

which the Grecians held the duties of hospitality.


Illustrious lordi respect the gods,

and us

Thy
The

suitors: suppliants are the care of Jove

hospitable

he their wrongs resents,


is

And where

the stranger sojourns there

he.

Cowper.

; ;

WORKS.

43

Or thou

in other sort may'st well dispense

Wine-offerings and the smoke of frankincense,

Ere on the nightly couch thy limbs be

laid

Or when
So
shall

the stars from sacred sun-rise fade.

thy piety accepted move


to propitious love
:

Their heavenly natures

Ne'er shall thy heritage divided be,

But others part


Let friends

their heritage to thee.

oft

bidden to thy
social

feast repair

Let not a foe the

moment

share.
call

Chief to thy open board the neighbour

When,

unforeseen, domestic troubles

fall,

The neighbour
And, lingering

runs ungirded

kinsmen

wait,

for their raiment, hasten late.


is

As
So

the good neighbour


is

our prop and

stay,

the bad a pit-fall in our way.


blest or curs'd,

Thus

we

this or that obtain,

The

first

a blessing and the last a bane.

How
The

should thine ox by chance untimely die?


evil

neighbour looks and passes by.


;

If aught thou borrowest, well the measure weigh

The same good measure


If aught thou borrowest .]
his need,

to thy friend repay,

Lend

to thy

neighbour in time of
in

and pay thou thy neighbour again

due season.

44

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
more,
shall
if

Or
So

more thou

canst, unask'd concede,

he prompt supply thy future need.


;

Usurious gains avoid


Equivalent to
loss,

usurious gain,

will

prove thy bane.

Who
Give

loves

thee,

love;

him woo

that

friendly

wooes:
to the giver, but to
;

him

refuse
;

That giveth not

their gifts the generous earn


is

But none bestows where never

return.

Keep thy word and

deal faithfully with him, and thou shalt


is

always find the thing that

necessary for thee.

Wisdom

of

Jesus the Son of Sirach.


1/

Who
pel.

loves thee, love.]

Far
it

different is the spirit of the

Gos-

" Ye have heard that

hath been
:

said,

Thou

shalt love

thy neighbour and hate thine enemy

but I say unto you, Love

your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that
hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you, that ye
in

may be

the children of your Father which


rise

is

heaven

for

he maketh his sun to

on the

evil

and on the

good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.


v.

Matthew,
for sin-

43.

If ye love

them which love you, what thank have ye?

ners also love those that love them.

And

if

ye lend to them of

whom

ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also

lend to sinners, to receive as

much

again.

But love ye your ene;

mies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again

and your

reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest;


for

he

is

kind unto the unthankful and to the

evil.

Luke,

vi.

32

: :

WORKS.
Munificence
is

45

blest

by heaven accurst

Extortion, of death-dealing plagues the worst.

Who bounteous gives

though large

his

bounty flow,

Shall feel his heart with inward rapture glow

Th' extortioner of bold unblushing

sin,

Though

small the plunder, feels a thorn within.


little

If with a

thou a

little

blend

Continual, mighty shall the heap ascend.

Who bids his gather'd substance gradual grow


Shall see not livid hunger's face of woe.

No bosom-pang attends
But
rife

the home-laid store,

with loss the food without thy door

'Tis good to take from hoards, and pain to need

What

is

far

from thee

give the precept heed.


lees,

When
To
To him

broach'd or at the

no care be thine

save the cask, but spare the middle wine.

the friend that serves thee glad dispense

With bounteous hand


Spare the middle
zcine.~\

the

meed of recompense.
Ave should

Hesiod says that

use the

middle of the cask more sparingly, that

we might

enjoy the best

wine the longer.


in the

It

was the ancient opinion that wine was best


and honey at the bottom. Gbjevfus.
discussed by Plutarch in his
in his Saturnalia, vii. 12.

middle,

oil

at the top,
is

This opinion of Hesiod


*iacs,
iii.

Sympo-

7,

and by Macrobius

46

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
Not on a
brother's plighted

word

rely,

But, as in laughter, set a witness by

Mistrust destroys us and credulity.

Let no

fair

woman tempt

thy sliding mind

With garment
She But

gather'd in a knot behind;

prattling with gay speech inquires thy


trust a

home

woman, and

a thief

is

come.

One

only son his father's house

may

tend,

And e'en

with one domestic hoards ascend


diest in

But when thou

hoary years declin'd,

Then mayst thou


As
I

leave a second son behind

in laughter.]

kj te aaeriyvtira ytXao-as

tiri

fxaprvpa

The

interpreters say,

Etiam cum

fratre ludens,

testem adhibeto.

But

I should place the

comma
in a

after fratre,

and join ludens with

testem adhibeto.

" Even
it

compact with your brother, have a

witness: you

may do

laughingly, or as if in jest."'
in a knot behind.]
irvyog-ohes,

With garment gather'd

adorning

the hinder parts, seems to refer to

some meretricious

distinction

of dress.

Solon compelled

women

of loose character to appear in


in that beautiful chapter of

public in flowered robes.

Solomon

the Proverbs has a similar allusion.

" There met him a woman


vii.

with the attire of a harlot, and subtle of heart." Ch.

10.

Prattling with gay speech.]

With her much

fair

speech she
she forced

caused him to yield: with the flattering of her

lips

him.

Proverbs,

vii.

21.

WORKS.
For many sons from heaven
shall
is

47
wealth obtain

The

care

is

greater, greater
:

the gain.

Do
By

thus

if riches

be thy soul's desire,


thy hope aspire.

toils

on

toils to this

II.

When,

Atlas-born, the Pleiad stars arise


skies,

Before the sun above the dawning


'Tis time to reap
;

and when they sink below


west,
'tis

The morn- illumined

time to sow.

Arise
Before the sun.
is

In the words of Hesiod there

made mention of one


:

rising of the Pleiads,

which

is

heliacal,

and

of a double setting

the time of the rising


first setting,

may

be referred to the

11th of May.

The

which indicated ploughing-time,


below the

was cosmical; when,

as the sun rises, the Pleiads sink

opposite horizon, which, in the time of Hesiod, happened about the


.beginning of

November.

The second

setting is

somewhat ob-

scurely designated in the line

They
and
is

in his lustre forty days lie hid;

the heliacal setting, which happened the third of April,

and

after

which the Pleiads were immerged


Hesiod, however, speaks as

in the sun's splendour


if

forty days.

he confounded the

two

settings, for

no one would suppose but that the first-menafter

tioned setting

was that

which the Pleiads are said to be

hidden previous to the harvest.


plained with

But

his

words are

to be ex-

more indulgence,

since he could not be ignorant

of

the time that intervened between the season of ploughing and


that of harvest.
f

Le Clerc.
In the original, begin ploughing; by which

Tis time to sou\]

48

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
too they
set,

Know
While
is

immergcd

into the sun,

forty days entire their circle run


last ploughing,

meant the

when they turned up


Georg. 1
:

the soil to re-

ceive the seed.

Thus

Virgil,

First let the morning Pleiades go

down

From
Ere

the sun's rays emerge the Gnossian crown,

to th' unwilling earth

thou trust the seed.

Warton.

Heyne
the

observes, " they sink below the region of the West, at


cos-

same time that the sun emerges from the East ; " * the

mical setting described by Hesiod.


star of the

The

receding of the bright


is

crown of Ariadne, which


is,

Virgil mentions,

its

reced-

ing from the sun; that

its

heliacal rising.

The
that
is,

heliacal rising

is

a star's emersion out of the sun's rays;

a star rises heliacally when, having been in conjunction


it

with the sun, the sun passes

and recedes from


it

it.

The

star

then emerges out of the sun's rays so far that


visible, after

becomes again

having been for some time lost in the superiority of


in

day-light.
at the

The time of day


it is

which the

star rises heliacally is

dawn of day;

then seen for a few minutes near the


it

horizon, just out of the reach of the morning light; and

rises in

a double sense from the horizon and from the sun's rays.
wards, as the sun's distance increases,
every morning.
it is

After-

seen

more and more

The
tion

heliacal rising

and setting

is

then, properly, an apparito the Pleiads,


it

and occultation.

With respect

appears

* In a note by Holdsworth on Warton's Georgics,


that the heliacal setting of these stars
is

it is

observed

pointed out by the word

abscondantur.
is

But

this is a contradiction; for

Eoa

absconduntur

the same as occidunt matutina, set in the morning; but the


in

time of day

which a

star sets heliacally is in the evening, just


is

after sun-set,

when

it

seen only for a few minutes in the west

near the horizon, on the edge of the sun's splendour, into which
in a

few days more

it

sinks.

WORKS.

49

And

with the lapse of the revolving year,

When sharpen'd is the sickle, re-appear. Law of the fields, and known to every swain

Who

turns the fallow soil beside the

main

Or who, remote from

billowy ocean's gales,

Tills the rich glebe of inland- winding vales.

Plough naked

still,

and naked sow the


toil

soil,

And naked

reap

if

kindly to thy

that different authors vary in fixing the duration of their occultation

from about thirty-one days to above forty.


still.]

Plough naked

Virgil copies this direction, Georg.


!

Plough naked swain

and naked sow the land,

For lazy winter numbs the labouring hand.

Dryden.

Servius explains the meaning to be, that he should plough and

sow "

in fair weather,

when

it

was so hot

as to

make

clothing

superfluous."

This seems to be very idle advice, and fixes on

Virgil the imputation of a truism.


sel
is

An

equally superfluous coun-

ascribed by Robinson and Graevius to Hesiod.

We

are

correctly told that both yv^oq


laid aside their

and nudus applied to men who had

upper garment, whether the pallia or toga, the Gre-

cian cloak or the


in

Roman gown and


;

thus

is

explained the passage


is

Matthew,

xxiv.

18

" Neither

let

him which

in the field re-

turn back to take his clothes:" but as no husbandman, whether

Greek or
plough
in

Italian, unless insane,

would dream of following the

trailing cloak,

Hesiod

may

safely be acquitted of so

unnecessary a piece of advice.


Italy,
it

In the hot climates of Greece and


for active

was probably the custom

husbandmen

to bare

50

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
to gather all that Ceres yields,
fields

Thou hope

And

view thy crops in season crown the

Lest thou to strangers' gates penurious rove,

And
That

every needy effort fruitless prove

E'en as to

me

thou cam'st ; but hope no more

I shall give or lend thee of


!

my store.
man
assign

Oh

foolish Perses

be the labours thine

Which

the good gods to earthly

Lest with thy spouse, thy babes, thou vagrant ply,

And
And
If

sorrowing crave those alms which

all

deny.

Twice may thy

plaints benignant favour gain,

haply thrice

may

not be pour'd in vain

still

persisting plead thy wearying prayer,

Thy words
Did

are nought, thy eloquence

is air.

exhortation move, the thought should be,

From

debt releasement, days from hunger


a

free.

A house,
Thy
Within

woman, and a

steer provide,

slave to tend the cows, but not thy bride.


let all fit

implements abound,

Lest with refused entreaty wandering round,


the upper part of their bodies.
fine

Virgil does not say

u Plough

in

weather and not in winter;" but " Plough with your best disoon be here :" equivalent to Hesiod'g

ligence, for winter will


si

Summer

will not last for ever."

WORKS.

51

Thy wants

still

press, the season glide

away,

And
Thy
Or

thou with scanted labour mourn the day.


task defer not
till

the

morn

arise,

the third sun th' unfinish'd

work
fill,

surprise.

The

idler never shall his garners

Nor he

that

still

defers

and lingers

still.

Lo

diligence can prosper every toil


loiterer strives with loss

The

and execrates the

soil.

When rests the keen strength of th' o'erpowering sun


From
heat that

made

the pores in rivers run

When
And

rushes in fresh rains autumnal Jove,

man's unburthen'd limbs


star of

now

lightlier

move;

For now the

day with transient

light

Rolls o'er our heads and joys in longer night;

When

from the

worm

the forest boles are sound,

Trees bud no more, but earthward cast around

Their withering

foliage,

then remember well


fell.

The

timely labour, and thy timber


idler never shall his garners fill.]
:

The

He

that tilleth his land

shall have plenty of bread

but he that followeth after vain per-

sons shall have poverty enough.

Proverbs,
trees,

xxviii. 19.

Trees bud no more.]


to germinate,
is

The sap of the


rest.

which causes them

then at

Trees when moist with sap are

subject to worms, and the timber in consequence would be liable,


to putrefaction. in the autumn.

Vitruvius also

recommends that timber be

felled

E 2

; ; :

52

REMAINS OP HESIOD.

Hew from
Three
Seven
cubits

the

wood

a mortar of three feet

may

the pestle's length complete

feet the fittest axle-tree

extends

If eight the log, the eighth a mallet lends.

Cleave

many curved
three spans

blocks thy wheel to round,


its

And
Ten

let

outmost orbit bound

Whereon

slow-rolling thy suspended wain,

spans in breadth,

may

traverse firm the plain.

If hill or field supply a holm-oak

bough

Of bending
Bear
it

figure like the


:

downward plough,

away

this

durable remains

While

the strong steers in ridges cleave the plains

mortar of three feet.] The purposes to which ancient mar-

bles are applied

by the Turks may serve to explain the use of

the mortar, which Hesiod mentions as part of the apparatus of


the husbandman.

" Capitals, when of large dimensions, are

turned upside down, and being hollowed out are placed in the

middle of the
rice, as in

street,

and used publicly

for

bruising wheat and

a mortar."

Dallaway's Constantinople.
i.

Of

bending figure.] So also Virgil, Georg.

169

Young

elms, with early force, in copses bow,

Fit for the figure of the crooked plough.

Dryden.
Dr. Martyn,
in his

comparison of

Virgil's

plough with that of

Hesiod, has fallen into the mistake of the old interpreters


render yvnp dentate, the share-beam: whereas ymv,
the plough-tail, to which the share-beam joins.
is

who

burim,

WORKS.
If with firm nails thy artist join the whole,

53

Affix the share-beam,

and adapt the

pole.

Two

ploughs provide, on household works intent,

This art-compacted, that of native bent

A prudent fore-thought
The

one may crashing

fail,

other, instant yoked, shall

prompt

avail.

Of elm

or bay the draught-pole firm endures,

The

plough-tail holm, the share-beam oak secures.

Two
Then
Nor

males procure

be nine their sum of years


toil

hale and strong for

the sturdy steers

shall they headstrong-struggling

spurn the

soil,

And
Of

snap the plough and

mar

th' unfinish'd toil.


:

In forty's prime thy ploughman

one with bread

four-squared loaf in double portions fed.


artist join
is,

Thy

the zvhole.] In the original

" the servant of


all

Minerva," that
crafts,

the carpenter.

Minerva presided over

and was the patroness of works in iron and wood.


with bread

Of four-squared loaf
tioned
is

The
:

loaf here

men-

similar to the

quadra of the Romans

so denominated

from

its

being marked four-square by incisions at equal distances.


iii.

See Athenaeus,

29.

By " a
to that

quadruple loaf containing eight portions,"


;

Hesiod,

perhaps, means a loaf double the usual size

similar, probably,
:

mentioned by Theocritus, Idyl. xxiv. 135

A huge Doric loaf:


Which he
that digs the ground and sets the plant
fill'd.

Might eat and well be

54

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
steadily shall cut the furrow true,

He

Nor towards
Still

his fellows glance a


:

rambling view

on

his task intent

a stripling throws

Heedless the seed, and in one furrow strows

The

lavish handful twice

while wistful stray


far

His longing thoughts

to

comrades

away.

Mark
Thou
The

yearly

when among

the clouds on high

hear'st the shrill crane's migratory cry,

shrill crane's
for

migratory

cry.~\

The

cranes generally leave

Europe

a more southern climate about the latter end of auin the beginning of
;

tumn

and return

summer.

Their cry

is

the

loudest

among

birds
it is

and although they soar

to such a height as

to be invisible,

distinctly heard.

It is often a

prognostic of

rain

as from the

immense

altitude of their ascent they are pe-

culiarly

susceptible of the motions and changes of the atmo-

sphere

but Tzetzes

is

mistaken in supposing that the migratory


its sensibility

cry of the crane denotes only

of cold.

These mi-

grations are performed in the night-time, and in

numerous bodies;
is

and the clangous scream, alluded


govern their course.

to

by Hesiod,

of use to
;

By

this

cry they are kept together

are

directed to descend upon the corn-fields, the favourite scene of


their depredations,

and

to betake themselves again to flight in case

of alarm.

Though they

soar above the reach of sight they can,

themselves, clearly distinguish every thing upon the earth be-

neath them.

See " Goldsmith's Animated Nature.''


i.

Virgil

notices the crane's instinct as to rain, Georg.

375

The wary crane

foresees

it first,

and

sails

Above

the storm, and leaves the lowly vales.

Drydek.

WORKS.

55
:

Of ploughing-time

the sign and wintry rains

Care gnaws his heart who destitute remains

Of

the

fit

yoke

for then the season falls


stalls.

To
says,

feed thy horned steers within their


the sign.]

Of ploughing-time
Etopc

Of

the

first
;

ploughing Hesiod
Sepeos

7to\;;v

turn

the soil in spring

of the second,
tilth:

mvu.v.t,

ploughed again in summer; the summer


:

of the

third apoTo\

by which he invariably means the seed-ploughing,


the ground.
in Solinum, 509.

when they both ploughed up and sowed

Salmasius

Kobinson quotes a passage of Aristophanes:

Birds,

711:

" Sow when the screaming crane migrates

to Afric."

The ploughing
last.

first

mentioned by Hesiod

is,

then, actually the


:

It

appears that he recommends ground to be twi-fallowed

or prepared twice
directs
it

by ploughing before the seed-ploughing.


i.

Virgil

to

be

tri-fallowed, Georg.

47

Deep

in the furrows press the shining share at last repay the peasant's care,

Those lands

Which twice the sun and twice the frosts sustain, And burst his barns surcharged with ponderous grain.

Warton.
Fallowing, or ploughing the soil while at rest from yielding a
crop, prepares
it

for the

growth of seed by pulverizing

it,

ex-

posing

it
:

to the influences of the


is

atmosphere, and destroying the

weeds

and

of essential use in recovering land that had been

impoverished and exhausted by a succession of the same crops.

The

practice of fallows seems, however, to be

now

in a great

degree superseded by that of an interchange of other crops in


rotation
;

and the succession of green or leguminous plants


:

al-

ternately with the white crops or grain


this

the frequent hoeings, in

mode of

tillage,

cleaning the soil no less effectually than

fallowings.

56

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
to speak the word, " beseech thee friend
!

Easy

Thy waggon and


Easy the prompt

thy yoke of oxen lend


refusal
;

:"

" nay, but I


is

Have need of
Rich
in his

oxen, and their work


conceit,

nigh."

own

he then too

late

May
Fool

think to rear the waggon's timber'd weight


!

nor yet knows the complicated frame


fitly

hundred season'd blocks may


let

claim

These

thy timely care provide before,

And

pile beneath thy roof the ready store.


:

Improve the season


Both thou and thine
Haste to the
field
;

to the

plough apply
wet and dry
:

and

toil in

with break of glimmering morn,

That

so thy grounds

may wave
:

with thickening corn.

In spring upturn the glebe

and break again

With summer
Rich
in his

tilth

the iterated plain,

own

conceit than seven


xxvi. 16.

conceit.] The men who can

sluggard

is

wiser in his

own

render a reason.

Proverbs,

These
i.

let

thy timely care provide before.] See Virgil, Georg.

167

The sharpen'd

share and heavy-timber'd plough

And And

Ceres' ponderous

waggon

rolling

slow

Celeus' harrows, hurdles, sleds to trail

O'er the press'd grain, and Bacchus' flying sail

These long before provide.

Warton.

WORKS.
It shall

57
last

not

mock

thy hopes
to

be

thy

toil,

Raised

in light ridge,

sow the fallow'd


fly,

soil:

The

fallow'd soil bids execration

And

brightens with content the in flint's eve.

Jove subterrene, chaste Ceres claim thy vow,

When
With

grasping

first

the handle of the plough,

O'er thy broad oxen's backs thy quickening hand


lifted

stroke lets

fall

the goading

wand

Whilst yoked and harness'd by the fastening thong,

They
So

slowly drag the draught-pole's length along.

shall the sacred gifts

of earth appear,

And

ripe luxuriance clothe the plenteous ear.

A
The

boy should tread thy

steps

with rake o'erlay

buried seed, and scare the birds away

Jove subterrene.] Guietus supposes that the husband of Proserpine


pine,
is

invoked from the consanguinity between Pluto, Proser-

and Ceres.

But

this is not the only reason.


all

Graevius pro-

perly remarks, that the earth, and


ject to Pluto, as the air

under the earth, were sub:

was

to Jupiter

Pluto, therefore,

was
:

supposed the giver of those treasures which the earth produces

whether of metals or grain.


Plutus
wealth.
:

He was

in fact the

same with
7txto?,

and both names are formed from the Greek word

And

scare the birds away.~\

So

Virgil,

Georg.

i.

156

Et

sonitu terrebis woes.

Scare with a shout the birds.

: : :

58

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
is

(Good

the apt oeconomy of things

While
Thus,

evil

management

its

mischief brings:)

if aerial

Jove thy cares befriend,

And crown

thy tillage with a prosperous end,


its

Shall the rich ear in fulness of

grain

Nod on
So
shalt

the stalk and bend

it

to the plain.

thou sweep the spider's films away,


bins
lie

That round thy hollow

hid from day

I ween, rejoicing in the foodful stores

Obtain'd at length, and laid within thy doors

For

plenteousness shall glad thee

through the year

Till the white blossoms of the spring appear

Nor thou on

others' heaps a gazer be,


their

But others owe


If,

borrow'd store to thee.

ill-advised,

thou turn the genial plains

His wintry

tropic

when

the sun attains

Thou,

then, may'st reap,

and

idle sit

between

Mocking thy
Whilst,

gripe the meagre stalks are seen


gather'st thou in bands

little joyful,

The

corn whose chaffy dust bestrews thy hands.

Nor

thou on others' heaps a gazer

be.] Virgil,

Georg.

i.

158

On others' crops you may with envy look, And shake for food the long-abandon'd oak. Drydek

WORKS.
In one scant basket
shall

59
lie,

thy harvest

And

few shall pass thee, then, with honouring eye.


thus,

Now
But

now

otherwise

is

Jove's design
:

To men
if

inscrutable the ways divine


late

thou

upturn the furrow'd


a remedy

field,

One happy chance

may

yield.

O'er the wide earth when

men

the cuckoo hear


delight their ear,
in ceaseless rains

From

spreading oak-leaves
let

first

Three days and nights

heaven

Deep
So

as thy ox's

hoof o'erflow the plains;

shall

an equal crop thy time repair

With
Lay

his

who

earlier launch'd the shining share.


:

all to

heart

nor

let
;

the blossom'd hours

Of

spring escape thee

nor the timely showers.

Pass by the brazier's forge where loiterers meet,

Nor

saunter in the portico's throng'd heat

And few

shall pass

thee then

with honouring

eye.']

The

Psalmist alludes to a blessing given by the passers-by at harvest


while comparing the wicked to grass withering on the house-top
:

" Wherewith the mower


sheaves his bosom
blessing of the
:

filleth

not his hand, nor he that bindeth

neither do they which go by say,

" The

Lord be upon you."

Psalm

cxxix. 7, 8.
seat or bench
:

The
Xe^
-

brazier's forge.] b&kos

was properly a

and

conversation, chit-chat

but

they came to be applied to

the places were loungers sat and talked: hence the former meant

a shop, and the latter a portico,

piazza,

or public exchange,

60

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
in the wintry season rigid cold
its

When
Lo

Invades the limbs and binds them in


!

hold.

then

th' industrious

man

with thriving store

Improves

his

household management the more


:

And
Of

this

do thou

lest intricate distress


:

winter seize, and needy cares oppress

Lest, famine-smitten, thou, at length, be seen

To

gripe thy tumid foot with hand from hunger lean.


his

Pampering

empty hopes, yet needing food,

On
On

ill

designs behold the idler brood

Sit in the

crowded portico and feed


hope, while starving with his need.
to thy labourers cry,

that
in

ill

Thou

mid-summer

" Make now your


whither idlers of
that
all

nests," for

summer hours
It should

will fly.

kinds resorted.

seem from Homer


such places

beggars
xvii.

took

up

their

night's

lodging in
for

Odyssey
him,

Melantho, taking Ulysses

a mendicant, says to

Thou
Or

wilt not seek for rest

some

brazier's forge,

portico.

To gripe thy tumid foot.]

Aristotle remarks that, in famished

persons, the upper parts of the body are dried up, and the

lower extremities become tumid.

Scaliger.

Make now your

nests.]

Grsevius finds out that^a^tai


nests-,

may mean
of a

huts and barns, as well as

and in the true

spirit

verbal commentator, explodes the old interpretation of " facite

nidos" and substitutes " exstruite casas:". in which he

is fol-

WORKS.

61

Beware the January month


Those

beware
i

hurtful days, that keenly piercing air


flays the

Which

herds

those frosts that bitter sheathe

The nipping

air

and glaze the ground beneath.

From

Thracia, nurse of steeds, comes rushing forth,


sea, the

O'er the broad

whirlwind of the north,


:

And moves
Of
earth,

it

with his breath

then howl the shores


forest roars.
-\

and long and loud the

He

lays the oaks of lofty foliage low,

Tears the thick pine-trees from the mountains brow >

And
These

strews the vallies with their overthrow.


all

J
editors.

lowed, like the leader of the flock, by


viri

the

modern

doctissimi are for ever stumbling


their

on school-boy ab-

surdities

in

labour to be critical and sagacious:

"they
to set

strain at a gnat,

and swallow a camel."

Are the labourers

about building huts and barns in the middle of harvest?


does not see that "
renders
it,

Who

make

nests,"

as old
?

is

a mere proverbial figure

Chapman " Make hay

properly

while the

sun shines."
Those icy frosts.] Hesiod
imitated Orpheus
:

is

said, in this description, to

have

as if

two poets could not describe the appear-

ances and effects of winter, without copying from each other.

Many and
The

frequent from the clouds of heaven

frosts rush

down, on beeches and


:

all trees,

Mountains and rocks and men


Is touch'd with sadness.

and every face


sore-nipping smite

They
:

The

beasts

among the

hills
:

nor any

man

Can leave his dwelling By galling cold in all


:

quell'd in every limb

his limbs congeal'd.

62

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
stoops to earth
all
;

He
The

shrill swells

the storm around,

And And

the vast

wood

rolls

a deeper roar of sound.

beasts their cowering tails with trembling fold,

shrink and shudder at the gusty cold.


is

Thick

the hairy coat, the shaggy skin,

But

that all-chilling breath shall pierce within.


his

Not

rough hide can then the ox

avail
:

The

long-hair'd goat defenceless feels the gale


to

Yet vain the north-wind's rushing strength

wound

The

flock,

with thickening fleeces fenced around.


;

He
But

bows the old man, crook'd beneath the storm


spares the smooth-skin'd virgin's tender form.
rites aloof,

Yet from bland Venus' mystic

She

safe abides

beneath her mother's roof:

The

suppling waters of the bath she swims,


shining ointment sleeks her dainty limbs
riles aloof.']

With

Yet from bland Venus' mystic

Hesiod introduces

the privacy and retiredness of a virgin's apartment in the house

of her mother, as conveying the idea of more complete shelter.

With shining ointment.] Ointment always accompanied the


bath.

Thus Homer
in the sixth

describes

the bathing of Nausicaa and her

maids

book of the Odyssey

And

laving next and smoothing o'er with oil


all

Their limbs,

seated on the river bank

They took

repast.

And

afterwards of Ulysses

WORKS.
In her
soft

63

chamber

pillow'd to repose,

While through the wintry

nights the tempest blows.


his feet

Now

gnaws the boneless polypus

Starved midst bleak rocks, his desolate retreat

At

his side they spread


oil

Mantle and vest; and next the limpid


Presenting to him in a golden cruse,

Exhorted him to bathe.

Cowper.
book
feet,
vii.

Now gnaws
states

the boneless polypus his feet.'] Athenaeus,


its

explodes the notion of the polypus gnawing


that
its

own

and

feet are so

injured by the congers or sea-eels.

Pliny accounts for the mutilation in rather a marvellous manner.

" They are ravenously fond of oysters


close their shell,
their food

these,

at the

touch,

and cutting

off the

claws of the polypus take


polypi,
therefore,
little

from their plunderer.

The
;

lie

in

wait for them

when they

are open

and placing a
oyster,

stone, so
to

as not to touch the

body of the

and so as not

be

ejected by the muscular motion of the shell, assail


curity and extract the flesh.

them

in se-

The

oyster contracts

itself,

but to

no purpose, having been thus wedged open."

Lib.

ix. c.

30.

The same
monkey.
["

story has been told, with greater probability, of the

The name of

polypi has been peculiarly ascribed to

these animals by the ancients, because of the

number of

feelers

or feet of which they are all possessed, and with which they

have a slow progressive motion

but the moderns have given the


lives in

name of polypus
means

to

a reptile that

fresh water,
at the

by no

so large or observable.

These are found

bottom of

wet ditches, or attached to the under-surface of the broad-leaved


plants that grow and

swim on the waters.

The same

difference
all

holds between these and the sea-water polypi, as between


the productions of the land and the ocean.

The marine

ve-

64

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

For now no more the sun with gleaming ray

Through

seas transparent lights

him

to his prey.

getables and animals grow to a monstrous size.


pike, or the

The

eel,

the

bream of

fresh waters

is

but small

in the sea they

grow to an enormous magnitude.


both elements.

It is so

between the polypi of


feet in

Those of the sea are found from two


:

length to three or four

and Pliny has even described one, the


less

arms of which were no


contracts itself
the water
is

than thirty feet long.

The polypus
touched, or as

more or

less in proportion as it is

agitated in which they are seen.


:

Warmth

animates

them, and cold benumbs them

but

it

requires a degree of cold

approaching congelation, before they^are reduced to perfect inactivity.

The arms, when

the animal

is

not disturbed, and the

season

is

not unfavourable, are thrown about in various directions

in order to seize

and entangle

its
;

prey.

Sometimes three or four

of the arms are thus employed


like the

while the rest are contracted,


It
:

horns of a snail, within the animal's body.


it

seems
it

capable of giving what length


tracts

pleases to these arms


;

con-

and extends them

at

pleasure

and stretches them only


it

in proportion to the remoteness of the object

would

seize.

Some

of these animals so strongly resemble a flowering vegetable they have been mistaken for such by

in their forms, that


naturalists.

many

Mr. Hughes, the author of the Natural History


nature, and called
to

of Barbadoes, has described a species of this animal, but has

mistaken
observed

its
it

it

a sensitive flowering plant.

He

take refuge in the holes of rocks, and,

when un-

disturbed, to spread forth a

number of

ramifications, each termi-

nated by a flowery petal, which shrunk at the approach of the hand,

and withdrew into the hole from which


issue.

it

had before been seen

to

This plant, however, was no other than an animal of


:

the polypus kind

which

is

not only to be found in Barbadoes,

but also on many parts of the coast of Cornwall, and along the

WORKS.
O'er the swarth iEthiop
roils his

65
bright career,

And

slowly gilds the Grecian hemisphere. the horned and unhorned kind

And now

Whose
Where
They

lair is in the

wood, sore-famish 'd grind


fly-

Their sounding jaws, and froz'n and quaking

oaks the mountain dells imbranch on high

seek to couch in thickets of the glen,

Or

lurk deep-shelter'd in the rocky den.

Like aged

men who,

prop'd on crutches, tread

Tottering with broken strength and stooping head,


shores
vol. vi.

of the Continent."

Goldsmith, Animated Nature,

The Polypus is mentioned by Homer, Odys.

v.

As when

the polypus enforced forsakes


in his contracted claws
still

His rough recess,

He

gripes the pebbles

to

which he clung:

So he within his lacerated grasp

The crumbled

stone retain'd,

when from

his hold

The huge wave

forced him, and he sank again.

Cowper.
Like aged
mortal
:

men.']
is,

In the original, rpnroh QpoTa, a three-footed

that

man

with a crutch

a metaphor suggested,

probably, by the aenigma of the Sphinx.

" What
propounded

is

that,

which

is

two-footed, three-footed, and four?

footed, yet one


to
:

and the same

(Edipus declared that the thing


:

him was man

for that
;

a man, while an infant,

went on four

when grown

up, on two

and when

old,

on three

as using a staff through feebleness."

Diodorus,

Bibl. 4.

66

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
beasts of earth
;

So move the

and creeping

low-

Shun
I

the white flakes and dread the drifting snow.


thee,

warn

now, around thy body

cast,

thick defence,
soft

and covering from the


its

blast
:

Let the

cloak

woolly warmth bestow

The

under-tunic to thy ankle flow

On
Nor

a scant warp a woof abundant weave


the mantling cloak receive

Thus warmly wov'n


shall thy limbs

beneath

its

ample

fold

With

bristling hairs start shivering to the cold.

Shoes from the hide of a strong-dying ox

Bind round thy

feet

lined thick with woollen socks

On

a scant warp.] The nap

is

formed by the threads of the

woof: Hesiod therefore directs the woof to be thick and strong,


that the nap

may

the better exclude wet.


ox.~\

A
man.
This

strong-dying

Thus we
is

find in

This expression is borrowed from ChapHomer, " a thong from a slaughtered ox."
in his Symposiacs, 2.

illustrated

by Plutarch

by the fact

that the skins of slaughtered beasts are tougher, less flaccid, and
less

liable to

be broken than those of animals which have died

of age or distemper.
shoes of the raw hide.

The

ancients, says

Grsevius,

made

their

mxoi, in Latin udones, were woollen socks


inside the shoes
slippers,
;

worn, when abroad,

or as substitutes for shoes, in the


in the

manner of

when within doors and

bed-chamber.

Le Clerc

WORKS.

67

And

kid-skins 'gainst the rigid season sew

With

sinew of the

bull,

and sheltering throw

Athwart thy shoulders when the rains impend;

And
And

let

a well-wrought cap thy head defend,

screen thine ears, while drenching showers

descend.

And

kid-skiyis 'gainst the rigid season sea'.]

This was a sort of

rough cloak of skins

common

to the

country people of Greece.

Stripp'd of

my

garberdine of skins, at once

I will from high leap

down

into the waves.


iii.

Theocritus, Idyl.

25.

Graevius quotes Varro as authority for a similar covering being

worn among the Romans


poor people.

by

soldiers in

camp, by mariners, and

zcell-urought-cap .]
for

In very ancient times the cap answered

no other purpose

the

head than the sock, which was worn

inside the shoe, did for the foot.


it.

The helmets were

lined with

Of

this

kind was that of the helmet which Ulysses, Odys.


:

x.

received from Merion

Without

it

was secured

With

boar's-teeth ivory-white, inserted thick

On
Eustathius
term,

all sides,

and with woollen head-piece

lined.

Cowper.
tells

us,

that in after-times they gave the


for the head,

same

anXor, to

any covering

and thus they ascribed

to Ulysses a cap such as they then used.

Thus
:

as the club

is

the

badge of Hercules, so

is

the cap of Ulysses

as appears

from

coins and other antiques.

The
it

ancient Greeks did not use any

covering for the head

and

was from them that the Romans

borrowed the custom of going bare-headed.


only on journeys
;

They used caps

in excessive heat or cold

or in rainy weather.

F2

68
Bleak
Oft
is

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the morn,

when blows

the north from high

when

the dawnlight paints the starry sky,

A misty

cloud suspended hovers o'er


fertilizing store
:

Heaven's blessed earth with

Drain'd from the living streams

aloft in air

The whirling winds


Resolved

the buoyant vapour bear,

at eve in rain or gusty cold,


is roll'd.

As by

the north the troubled rack


this,

Preventing

the labour of the day

Accomplish'd, homeward bend thy hastening way

Lest the dark cloud, with whelming rush deprest,

Drench thy cold limbs and soak thy dripping

vest.

This winter-month with prudent caution fear


Severe to flocks, nor
less to

men

severe

Feed thy keen husbandman with larger bread

With

half their provender thy steers be fed


rest assists
:

Them

the night's protracted length

Recruits their vigour and supplies their strength.

This rule observe, while


Gives every
fruit

still

the various earth


birth
:

and kindly seedling

These caps the Latins called petasos

they were a kind of broad-

brimmed
cury.

hat, like that

which

is

observed in the figures of Mer-

Otherwise,

when

in the city, they merely

wrapped

their

heads in the lappet of the gown.

Gravius.

WORKS.
Still to

69

the

toil

proportionate the cheer,

The day

to night,

and equalize the year.

When
Lo

from the wintry tropic of the sun

Full sixty days their finish'd round have run,


!

then the sacred deep Arcturus leave,

First whole-apparent

on the verge of

eve.
lifts

Through the grey dawn the swallow

her wing,

Morn-plaining bird, the harbinger of spring.


Anticipate the time
:

the care be thine

An

earlier

day to prune the shooting vine.


is

When
And

the house-bearing snail

slowly found

To shun

the Pleiad heats that scorch the ground,


tall

climb the plant's

stem, insist

no more

To

dress the vine, but give the vineyard o'er.

The wintry tropic] The winter

solstice,

according to the table

of Petavius, happened in Hesiod's time on the 30th of December.

The acronychal
March.

rising of

Arcturus took place in the 14th degree

of Pisces, which corresponds in the calendar with the 5th of

Le Clerc
rising

The acronychal
of night
night.
:

of a star

is

when

it rises it

at the beginning at the end of


settings
:

the acronychal setting

is

when

sets

But there are two acronychal


rises exactly as

risings

and

the

one when the star

the sun sets, and sets ex-

actly as the sun rises.


setting,
is

This

is

the trite acronychal rising and

but

it is

invisible

by reason of the day-light.


;

The other
which
is,

the visible or apparent acronychal rising and setting


star
is

when the

actually seen in the horizon.

:;

70

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the keen sickle, hasten every swain,
booths, from

Whet
Now,

From shady

morning

sleep refrain

in the fervour of the harvest-day,

When the strong sun dissolves the frame away Now haste a-field now bind thy sheafy corn,
:

And
Lo
!

earn thy food by rising with the morn.


the third portion of thy labour's cares
early

The

morn

anticipating shares
swiftly wastes

In early morn the labour

In early morn the speeded journey hastes

The

time

when many

a traveller tracks the plain,

And

the yoked oxen bend

them

to the wain.

When
When,

the green artichoke ascending flowers,


in the sultry season's toilsome hours,

Perch'd on a branch, beneath his veiling wings

The loud

cicada shrill and frequent sings

The green artichoke] 2Ko\vpos is not the thistle, as has been commonly supposed. Pliny says of it, lib. xxii. c. 22, " The scolymos is also received for food in the East. The stalk is never

more than a cubit


of a sweet taste."

in height, with scaly leaves,


It
is,

and a black root

therefore, the artichoke.

The loud cicada]


and Myvpnv dulcem
;

The

interpreters translate x tra canora,


is

and hence an idea

prevalent that Hesiod

speaks of the cicada as having a sweet note; but of these epithets the first
is

properly vocal or sonorous, and the second shrill


calls

or stridulous.

Anacreon

the insect " wise in music," but

WORKS.

71

Then

the

plump goat a savoury food bestows,


in mellowest flavour flows

The poignant wine

he seems to think the note musical from


with summer:

its

cheerful association

Mortals honour thee with praise,

Prophet sweet of summer days.


Virgil applies to
it

the characteristics of hoarse and querulous.

Eel.

ii.

Georgic.
this

iii.

" Of

genus the most

common European
This
;

species

is

the

cicada plebeia of Linnaeus.

is

the insect so often com-

memorated by the ancient poets

and generally confounded by


It is

the major part of translators with the grasshopper.

a native

of the warmer parts of Europe, and particularly of Italy and

Greece
tinuing

appearing in the latter months of summer, and conits

shrill

chirping during the greatest part of the day


the leaves of trees.

generally sitting

among

Notwithstanding the
it is

romantic attestations in honour of the cicada,

certain that
its

modern
which

ears
is

are offended rather than pleased with


it

voice
its in-

so very strong and stridulous, that


;

fatigues

by

cessant repetition

and a

single cicada,

hung up

in a cage, has

been found to drown the voice of a whole company.

The male

cicada alone exerts this powerful note, the female being entirely

mute.

That a sound so

piercing should proceed from so small a

body may well excite our astonishment; and the curious apparatus, by which
it is

produced, has justly claimed the attention

of the most celebrated investigators.


particular, have

Reaumur and

Roesel, in

endeavoured to ascertain the nature of the meis

chanism by which the noise


it

produced; and have found that

proceeds from a pair of concave membranes, seated on each


first

side of the

joints of the

abdomen

the large concavities of

the abdomen, immediately under the two broad lamella in the

male

insect, are also faced

by a

thin, pellucid, irridescent

mem-

72

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the blood then bounds in woman's veins,
reins

Wanton

But weak of man the heat-enfeebled

Full on his brain descends the solar flame

Unnerves the languid knees, and


Exhaustive dries away
:

all

the frame

oh then be thine
;

To

sit

in shade of rocks

with Byblian wine,

brane,

serving to increase and reverberate the sound


is

and a

strong muscular apparatus

exerted for the purpose of moving


vol. vi.

the necessary organs."

Shaw, General Zoology,

The same
in this

naturalist specifies several large

and elegant insects


the body of a
:

division of the genus cicada.

One with

polished black colour,

marked with

scarlet rings

another of a
;

green hue, with transparent wings, veined also with green

and

third of a fine black varied beneath with yellow streaks,

and the

wings black towards the base.

Then
341:

the.

plump

goat.]

This

is

imitated

by

Virgil,

Georg.

i.

For then the

hills

with pleasing shades are crown'd,


:

And

sleeps are sweeter on the silken ground

With milder beams

the sun serenely shines,

Fat are the lambs and luscious are the wines.

Dryden.

But weak of man


the same opinion.
naire de

the heat-enfeebled reins.]

Aristotle is of

The
222.

curious reader

may

consult the Diction-

Bayle,

iv.

Note A.
:

Byblian wine.] This was so called from a region of Thrace


it

was a
is

thin wine,

and not intoxicating.


xiv.

See Athenaeus,

i.

31.

It

mentioned by Theocritus, Idyl.


I open'd

15

them a
:

flask

of Byblian wine

Well-odour'd

with the flavour of four years.

;:

WORKS.

73
kid, to slake

And
Thy
The

goat's milk, stinted


thirst,

from the

and

eat the shepherd's

creamy cake ;

flesh of

new-dropt kids and youngling cows,

That, never teeming, cropp'd the forest browse.

With

dainty food so saturate thy soul,

And
Thy

drink the wine dark-mantling in the bowl


in the cool
is

While

and breezy gloom reclined

face

turn'd to catch the breathing

wind

And

feel the

freshening brook, whose living stream


:

Glides at thy foot with clear and sparkling gleam

Three parts

its

waters in thy cup should flow,

The

fourth with
first

brimming wine may mingled glow.

When

Orion's

beamy

strength

is

born,
:

Let then thy labourers thresh the sacred corn

Smooth be

the level floor,


gales

on gusty ground,
in eddies round.

Where winnowing
Hoard
in thy

may sweep

ample bins the meted grain


I advise,

And

now, as

thy hireling swain

Orion's beamy strength.'] In the table Qf Petavius the bright


star of the foot of Orion

makes

its

heliacal rise in the

18th

degree of Cancer: that

is,

on the 12th of July.

Le Clerc.
i.

On

gusty ground.] So Varro, de

Re

Rustica,

lib.

c.

51.

" The

threshing-floor should be in a field, on higher ground,

where the
20.

wind might blow over

it."

See also Columella,


hireling swain
]

lib. xi. c.

Thy

From forth

thy house dismiss.

e^a

aomov n-onwSa*

74

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
forth thy house dismiss,
is

From

when

all

the store

Of

kindly food

laid within thy

door

And
But

to thy service let a female


childless, for a child

come

were burtliensome.
thrifty spare

Keep, too, a sharp-tooth'd dog, nor

To

feed his fierceness high with generous fare

Lest the day-slumbering thief thy nightly door

Wakeful

besiege,

and

pilfer

from thy

store.

For ox and mule the yearly fodder


Within thy
loft
;

lay

the heapy straw and hay

This care dispatch'd, refresh the bending knees

Of
is

thy tired hinds, and give thy unyoked oxen ease.


rendered
:

by

Grsevius

comparare

slbi

servum
to

domo

ca*

rentem

and Schrevelius explains the passage

mean
his

that

" you should seek out a servant who, having no house of


to look after, could direct his

own

whole attention to your concerns."


laid

80 when the harvest he


is

is

over,

and the corn


!

up

in the granaries,

to look out for a labourer

Was

there ever a direction so

unmeaning

as this?
e

I translate the words,

{meo periculo) "ser-

vum operarium
Keep,
too,

domo

dimitte."

a sharp-tooth'd dog.]

Virgil has
iii.

a more poetical

passage on the same subject, Georg.

404
:

Nor

last forget

thy faithful dogs

but feed

With

fattening

whey

the mastiff's generous breed


for the fold's relief
thief,

And

Spartan race,

who

Will prosecute with cries the nightly

Repulse the prowling wolf, and hold at bay

The mountain robbers rushing

to the prey.

Dryden.

: ;;

WORKS.

7/5

When
The

Sirius

and Orion the mid-sky

Ascend, and on Arcturus looks from high


rosy-finger'd morn, the vintage calls
:

Then bear

the gather'd grapes within thy walls. nights exposed the clusters lay

Ten days and

Bask'd in the lustre of each mellowing day

Let

five their circling


lie

round successive run,


:

Whilst

thy

frails

o'ershaded from the sun

The

sixth in vats the gifts of

Bacchus press

Of Bacchus gladdening earth with store of pleasantness.


But when beneath the
skies

on morning's brink

The

Pleiads,

Hyads, and Orion sink

Know
Thus
But

then the ploughing and the seed-time near


well-disposed shall glide thy rustic year.
if

thy breast with nautical desire

The

perilous deep's uncertain gains inspire,

When

chased by strong Orion


stars in

down

the heaven

Sink the seven

gloomy ocean driven


looks

On Arcturus
The rosy-jingerd morn.

from

high
]

By

this is

understood

the heliacal rising of Arcturus, which happened in the time of

Hesiod about the 21st of September.

Le Clerc.
This
the morning,

On

morning's brink
sink.]
is

The Pleiads, Hyads, and Orion


or cosmical, setting of the Pleiads
;

which, according to Petavius,

happened some time

in

November.

Le Clerc

76

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
in gustful eddies roar

Then varying winds Then

to black ocean trust thy ships


to this

no more

But heedful care

my

caution yield,

And,

as I bid thee, labour safe the field.

Hale on firm land the

ship

with stones

made

fast

Against the staggering force of humid-blowing blast:

Draw from

its

keel the peg, lest rotting rain


:

Suck'd in the hollow of the hold remain

Within thy house the tackling order'd

be.

And
The

furl

thy

vessel's

wings that skimm'd the sea

well-framed rudder in the smoke suspend,

And And

calm and navigable seas attend.


the rapid bark
:

Then launch

fit

cargo load,

freighted rich repass the liquid road.

Then varying

zcinds.~\

Virgil cautions the navigator against the


i.

appearances of the sun, Georg.

455

If dusky spots are varied on his

brow
show:

And
That

streak'd with red a troubled colour

sullen mixture shall at once declare


rain,

Winds,

and storms, and elemental war

What
The

desperate

madman

then would venture o'er


?

frith,

or haul his cables from the shore

Dryden.

Black ocean.]

Omm
otvw,

ttgvt&j,

wine-coloured.

This evidently
to wine.

means black

as the

Greek poets apply the epithet black


black coloured wine.

Hesiod has a^ova,


latter epithet is

The

sense of this
:

deduced from the blackness caused by burning

as a&a)

is to

burn.

WORKS.

77

Oh

witless Perses

thus for honest gain,


father plough the main.

Thus did our mutual


Erst,

from iEolian Cuma's distant shore,

Hither in sable ship his course he bore ;

Through

the wide seas his venturous


;

way he took

No

rich revenues

prosperous ease forsook

His wandering course from poverty began,

The

visitation sent

from heaven

to

man

Ascra's sad hamlet he his dwelling chose

Where
Nor

nigh impending Helicon arose

In summer irksome and in winter drear,


ever genial through the joyless year.
labour, Perses
!

Each
But

let

the seasons guide

o'er thy navigation chief preside


:

Decline a slender bark

intrust thy freight


:

To

the strong vessel of a larger rate

In summer irksome.] This inconvenience arose from the


the place
:

site

of

as the scholiasts Proclus

and Tzetzes

relate

for

by
the
in-

the

neighbourhood

of

so

high a mountain as Helicon,

breezes,

which might have alleviated the summer heat, were


:

tercepted

and
;

in winter, the rays

of the sun were excluded from


to torrents

the village

which was also exposed

from the melting

of the snow.

Robinson.
slender
bark.]
Atv-jy,

Decline

<l

commend.

This passage

is

quoted by Plutarch in illustration of words used in a different


sense from what they seem to import.

Praise means refuse.


:

The same idiom occurs

in Virgil's second Georgic

78

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
larger cargo doubles every gain,

The

Let but the winds their adverse blasts restrain.


If thy rash thoughts

on merchandise be placed,

Lest debts ensnare or joyless hunger waste,

Learn now the courses of the roaring

sea,

Though

ships

and voyages are strange

to

me.

Ne'er o'er the sea's broad way

my

course I bore
:

Save once from Aulis to

th'

Eubcean shore

From

Aulis,

where the Greeks

in days of yore,

The winds

awaiting, kept the harbouring shore

From

sacred Greece a mighty


for Troy, wide

army

there

Lay bound

famed

for

women

fair.

Commend
Of
spacious vineyards
:

the large excess


cultivate the less.

Dryden.
it

O'er the sea's broad way.~]

From

the following extracts

will

not appear extraordinary that this prodigious voyage of Hesiod

should have afforded


practical

him but

little

opportunity of acquiring a

knowledge of navigation.

On an

inspection of

the

map we
direct to

must, however, concede that the passage from Aulis


Chalcis
is

somewhat wider than the part of the


dans un endroit ou a

strait

crossed by a draw-bridge.

" Elle (Chalcis)

est situee

la faveur

de

deux promontoires qui s'avancent de part


file

et d'autre, les cotes

de

touchent presque a celles de Beotie.


intervalle, qu'on appelle Euripe, est

" Ce leger

en partie comble

par une digue.


le defendre, et

chacune de ses extremites est une tour pour


laisser passer

un pont-lever pour

un vaisseau."
torn.
ii.

Baethelemy, Voyages d'Anacharsis,

p. 82.

WORKS.
I pass'd to Chalcis,

79

where around the grave


in

Of king Amphidamus,

combat brave,

His valiant sons had solemn games decreed,

And

heralds loud proclaim'd


let

full

many

meed

There,
I

me

boast, that victor in the lay

bore a tripod ear'd,

my

prize,
I

away
vow'd

This to the maids of Helicon

Where
Thus

first their

tuneful inspiration flow'd.

far in ships does I speak the

my

experience rise
skies

Yet bold

wisdom of the

Th' inspiring Muses to

my

lips

have given

The

lore of song,

and

strains that breathe of heaven.

When from
Have
rolFd,

the

summer

tropic fifty days


toil

when summer's time of

decays

Where first
Helicon.

their tuneful inspiration flow' d.~\

That

is,

on mount

Both Le Clerc and Robinson unaccountably refer the


:

terra sv3y, where, to Chalcis

and regard
to the

this

passage as con:

tradictory to that in the

proem

Theogony

whereas the

one confirms the other.

When from Have rolVd.


wanting here,

the summer-tropic fifty days


]

If no verses be
skill in

Hesiod

truly

needs

not boast of his

nautical affairs.
all

For what can be more absurd than


fifty

to confine

navigation within

days, and those beginning from the

summer-solstice; especially as the

summer

solstice

fell

on the

3d of July

I should

suppose that there was a deficiency of two

verses to this effect

80

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
is

Then

the season fair to spread the

sail

Nor then

thy ship shall founder in the gale

And

seas

o'erwhelm the crew

unless the Power,

Who
Or he

shakes the shores with waves, have will'd their

mortal hour
th'

immortals' king require their breath,


the issues hold of
evil
life

Whose hands
For good and

and death

men

but

now

the seas

Are

dangerless,

and

clear the

calmy breeze.
thy vessel sweep

Then
With

trust the winds,


all

and

let

her freight the level of the deep.


retrace thy

But rapidly

homeward way
delay:

Nor

till

the season of

new wine
:

Late autumn's torrent showers

bleak winter's sweep


:

The

south-blast ruffling strong the tossing deep


air

When
And

comes rushing

in

autumnal

rain,

curls with

many

a ridge the troubled main.


days

Before the summer-tropic

fifty

Thy
The
gation

keel

may

safely plough the azure ways.

similarity

of the lines
I
:

omission of the two former.

was

in that age imperfect

may have caused the copyist's am aware that the art of navibut if sea-faring men had learnt
fifty

from experience that navigation was safe

days after the

summer
it

solstice, they could

have learnt from the same teacher that


it
:

was equally
and June.

safe fifty days before

namely,

in the

months of

May

Le Clerc.

WORKS.

81
:

Men,

too,

may

sail in

spring

when

first

the crow

Imprinting with light steps the sands below,

As many

thinly-scatter'd leaves are seen

To

clothe the fig-tree's top with tender green.

This vernal voyage practicable seems,

And

pervious are the boundless ocean-streams


it

I praise

not

for thou with anxious


th'

mind

Must hasty snatch

occasion of the wind.


baffle all

The
Yet

drear event

may

thy care

thus, even thus, will

human

folly dare.
is

Of wretched
But death
is

mortals lo

the soul

gain

dreadful midst the whelming main.


to heart
;

These counsels lay

and, warn'd by me,


sea,

Trust not thy whole precarious wealth to

Tost in the hollow keel

a portion send

Thy

larger substance let the shore defend.


losses of the

Wretched the

ocean

fall,

When
And
And

on a

fragile

plank embark'd thy

all

wretched when thy sheaves o'erload the wain,


the crash'd axle spoils the scatter'd grain.

Men,

too,

may

sail in spring.]

What

the poet says here of a

spring voyage, I understand of that which

may

be made

in the

month of April

which

is

not

much

less

liable to gales
it

and

storms than even the winter months.


that the fig-tree began to be in leaf.

Certainly

was

in April

Le Clerc

82

REMAINS OP HESIOD.
of conduct should confine

The golden mean


Our
every aim
;

be moderation thine.

Take

to thy house a

woman

for thy bride

When
Nor

in the ripeness of thy

manhood's pride

Thrice ten thy sum of years ; the nuptial prime


fall far short,

nor

far

exceed the time.

Four years the ripening

virgin should consume,

And wed

the

fifth
:

of her expanded bloom.

A virgin

choose

and mould her manners chaste

Chief be some neighbouring maid by thee embraced

Look circumspect and long

lest

thou be found

The merry mock of

all

the dwellers round.

No
i

better lot has Providence assign'd

Than

fair

woman

with a virtuous then

mind

v\

Nor can a worse

befall,

when thy

fate

Allots a worthless, feast-contriving

mate

She, with no torch of mere material flame,


Shall burn to tinder thy care- wasted frame
Shall send a fire thy vigorous bones within,

And

age unripe in bloom of years begin.


the fifth of her expanded bloom.]

And wed
that
is,

She begins

to

bloom

in her twelfth year.

Let her wed

in the fifth year

of her puberty;

in her sixteenth.

Guietus.

Robinson, not considering the difference of climate, supposes


that the fourteenth year
is
is

the

first

of her puberty, and that she

directed to

wed

in her nineteenth.

Shall send a fire thy vigorous bones within.]

A virtuous wo-

WORKS.

83

Th* unsleeping vengeance heed of heaven on high.

None
But

as a friend should with a brother vie

if like

him thou hold another


side
:

dear,

Let no offences on thy

appear

Nor

lie

with idle tongue

if

he begin

Offence of word and deed, chastise his sin

man

is

a crown to her husband, but she that maketh ashamed

is

as rottenness in his bones.

Proverbs,

xii. 4.

Nor

lie

with idle tongue.^ Devise not a

lie

against thy brother,


vii.

neither do the like to thy friend.

Ecclesiasticus,

12.

Chastise his sinJ] Far

more

liberal is the counsel of the son of

Sirach

Admonish a
have done
it,

friend

that he

Admonish thy
Admonish a
There
and who

and if he it may be, he hath not done it may do it no more. friend and if it may be he hath not said it
:

he have, that he speak

it

not again.

friend, for

many

times

it

is

a slander

and be-

lieve not every tale.


is is

one that slippeth in his speech, but not from his heart
he, that hath not offended with his tongue
?

Ecclesiasticus,
Cicero says elegantly, " Care
is

xix.

to

be taken

lest friendships
:

convert themselves even into grievous enmities


bickerings, backbitings, contumelies
if
:

whence

arise

these are yet to be borne,


to the

they be bearable

and

this

compliment should be paid

ancient friendship, that the person in fault should be he that inflicts

the injury, not he that suffers

it."

De Amicitia,
:

c.

21.

The author of the Pythagorean " golden verses" has a


deserves indeed to be written in letters of gold

line

which

Hate not thy

tried friend for a slender fault.

G 2

84

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
for each act

Once

and word

but

if

he grieve,

And make
Wretched

atonement, straight his love receive


!

his friends

who changes

to

and

fro

Let not thy face thy mind's deep

secrets show.

Be

not the host of

many nor

of none

The good

revile not,

and the wicked shun.


;

Rebuke not want,


It is the gift

that wastes the spirit dry

of blessed gods on high.


is

Lo
The The

the best treasure

a frugal tongue

lips

of moderate speech with grace are hung

evil-speaker shall perpetual fear


evil

Return of

ringing in his ear.


guests combine in

When many

common

fare
:

Be not morose nor grudge thy


This
is

liberal share

probably one of the maxims of Hesiod which induced


to observe,

La Harpe
leure

" Cette morale


torn.
i.

n'est pas toujours la meil-

du monde.''

Lycee,

Hesiode.
his

Maker.

Rebuke not want.] Whoso mocketh the poor reproacheth Proverbs, xvii. 5.

Lo /
wise.

the best treasure

is

a frugal tongue.] In the multitude of


sin
:

words there wanteth not

but he that refraineth his


is

lips is

The tongue of

the just

as choice silver.

Proverbs,

x. 19, 20.

When many
at

guests combine.] There were two sorts of enter:

tainments among the ancient Grecians

the

first

was provided

the expense of one man, the second was at the


all

common

charge of

present: at the latter

some of the guests occasionally

; :

WORKS.

85

When
Great

all
is

contributing the feast unite,


is light.

the pleasure and the cost


the libation of the

When
The

morn demands

sable wine, forbear with unwash'd hands

To

lift

the cup

with ear averted Jove

Shall spurn thy prayer,

and every god above.

Forbear to

let

your water flow away


sun's all-seeing ray
till

Turn'd upright tow'rds the


E'en when his splendour

sets,

morn has glow'd

Take heed

nor sprinkle, as you walk, the road,


;

Nor

the road-side

nor bare affront the sight

For there are gods who watch and guard the night.
contributed more than their exact proportion.
rally

These were gene-

most frequented, and are recommended by the wise men of

those times as most apt to promote friendship and good neigh-

bourhood. They were for the most part managed with more order

and decency, because the guests who ate of their own collation
were usually more sparing than when they were feasted at another
man's expense; as we are informed by Eustathius.

So

different

was

their behaviour at the public feasts

from that

at private

en

tertainments, that Minerva, in

Homer, having seen the intempe-

rance and unseemly actions of Penelope's courtiers, concludes


their entertainment
t

was not provided


Behold

at the

common

charge.

I here
?

A banquet,
With such

or a nuptial feast

for these

Meet not by

contribution to regale;

brutality

and din they hold

Their riotous banquet.

Cowper,

Odyss.

1.

Potter, Archaologia Graca.

8'6

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
sits

The holy man discreet

decently,

And

to

some
rites

sheep-fold's fenced wall draws nigh.

From
Nor
sit

of love unclean the hearth forbear,

beside ungirt, for household gods are there.


feast to

Leave not the funeral

sow thy race

From

the gods' banquet seek thy bride's embrace.


feet the river-ford essay,
its

Whene'er thy

Whose

flowing current winds

limpid way,

Thy hands amidst

the pleasant waters lave,

And

lowly gazing on the beauteous wave


:

Appease the river-god

if

thou perverse

Pass with unsprinkled hands, a heavy curse


Shall rest

upon thee from

th'

observant skies,

And

after-woes retributive arise.


in the fane the feast of gods
is laid,

When

Ne'er to thy five-branch'd hand apply the blade


The feast of gods.']
were supposed

sacrifice

was followed by a general banitself.

quet, and the tables were spread in the temple


invisibly to be present.

The gods

Thus we
II.
i

are to explain

their visit to the ./Ethiopians in

Homer,

For

to the

banks of the Oceanus

Where

ZEthiopia holds a feast to Jove

He journied
Went
is

yesterday; with

whom

the gods

also.

Cowper.
This precept
:

Ne'er to thy five-branch? d hand apply the blade.]

somewhat obscurely expressed,

like the

symbols of Pythagoras

that things of no value might appear to involve a mysterious im-

WORKS.

S7

Of sable
The dry
Ne'er

iron

from the

fresh forbear

excrescence at the board to pare.


let

thy hand the wine-filled flaggon rest

Upon

the goblet's edge ; th'


fault his

unwary guest
disaster drink,

May
For

from thy
evil

own

omens lurk around the brink.


th'

Ne'er in the midst

unfinished house forego,

Lest there perch'd lonely croak the garrulous crow.

portance.

Hesiod seems to intimate that we should not choose

the precise time of the feast for washing the hands and paring the
nails,

but

sit

down

to table with hands ready washed.

No

per-

son, indeed, even at a private entertainment,

would have thought


fly

of cutting his nails at table,


into the dishes,

if

he did not wish the parings to

which

conceive could not have been more

agreeable to the Greeks than to ourselves.

Le Clerc.

Upon
eojou to

the goblet's edge.]

Robinson supposes a sentiment of


is

hospitality; that the flaggon

not to stand
in libation,

still.

Others suppose
it

be a bowl used only

and which

was

in-

decent to prostitute to

common

use.

But

for this there

seems

not the least authority.

" All the

allegorical glosses invented

by the

latter

Greeks to

varnish over the doting superstitions of their ancestors are utterly


destitute of verisimilitude.

Even

in

our day traces of the old

superstitions

remain in many places.


think
it

There are people,

for

instance,

who

a bad

omen

if

the loaf be inverted, so that

the

flat

part

is

uppermost ;
table. It

if

the knives be laid across, or the


to find a mystical

salt spilt

on the

would be just as easy

sense in these, as in the idle fancies of Hesiod."

Le Clerc.

88

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
Ne'er from unhallow'd vessels hasty feed,

Nor

lave therein; for thou mayst rue the deed.

Set not a twelve-day or a twelve-month boy

On
In

moveless stones

they shall his strength destroy.

Ne'er in the female baths thy limbs immerse


its

own
let

time the guilt shall bring the curse.


the mystic sacrifices
;

Ne'er

move

Deriding scorn

but dread indignant Jove.

Unhallow'd

vessels.']

There

is

here an allusion to the ancient


to a

custom of purifying new vessels and consecrating them


use;
or, as

happy

we

say, blessing them.

Guietus.

Le Clerc imagines

a prohibition against seizing the flesh from

the tripods before a sacrifice, which he illustrates by the offence

of the sons of Eli, 1 Sam.

ii.

13

but what has the bathing to

do with

this

On
by

moveless stones.]

By

Muvnra, immoveable things, he ap;

pears to

mean

the ground or stones, which are cold and hard

or

sitting

on immoveable things we may understand habits of

sloth.

Guietus.

Proclus interprets the word to

mean

sepulchres, which
it

it

was

unlawful to

move

but on the same grounds

may

be interpreted
it

land-marks.

One

should rather understand by

any sort of

stones ; Hesiod preferring that a boy should be placed on


slabs that might

wooden

be moved about.

But the being placed on a

stone could not be

more

hurtful to

him on the

twelfth day or

month than
mere

at

any other period of his childhood.

This was a

superstition;

and we
is

may

as well seek to interpret the

dreams of a man who

light-headed.

Le Clerc

DAYS.

89
stain,

Ne'er with unseemly deeds the fountains

Or limpid

rivers flowing to the


:

main.

Do

thus

and
evil

still

with

all

thy dint of

mind

Avoid that

rumour of mankind;
at the first to bear,

Easy the burthen

And

light

when

lifted as

impassive air

But scarce can human strength the load convey,

Or shake
Swift

th' intolerable

weight away.

rumour

hastes nor ever wholly dies,


flies.

But borne on nations' tongues a very goddess

DAYS.
Thy
And
Thy The
household teach a decent heed to pay,

well observe each Jove-appointed day.


thirtieth of the

moon
all

inspect with care

servants' tasks

and

their rations share

What
The
for the

time the people to the courts repair.


of the moon.] That
is,

<}

thirtieth

the last day of each month;

most ancient Greeks, as well as the Orientals, employed lunar months of thirty days. Le Clerc.

The Greek month was

divided into T ? a tampspa, three decades

:;

90

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
all-wise Jove's behest

These days obey the

The

first

new moon,
this,

the fourth, the seventh

is

blest

Phoebus, on

from mild Latona born,


the morn.

The golden-sworded god, beheld

The

eighth, nor less the ninth, with favouring skies,

Speeds of th' increasing month each rustic enterprise

And

on

th'

eleventh let thy flocks be shorn,

And on
More
of days.
fxrmoq

the twelfth be reap'd thy laughing corn


:

Both days are good

yet

is

the twelfth confest

fortunate, with fairer

omen

blest.

The first was


j

called y.wog ap^uevy or iray-avy; the second,


third, fAnvoq
(p&ivovrot;,
TTcivcfxzvii,

[jlko-uvtoc;

and the

or XnyovTcs

the beginning month, the middle month, the declining or ending

month.

The words were put

in the genitive case

because some
first

day was placed before them. Thus the middle-first or

of the
first

second decade was the eleventh of the whole month; and the
of the end, or of the last decade, was the twenty-first:
twenty-ninth was called
Ettas fxeyaXn,

the

the great twentieth.

The

French Republican calendar was formed on the Greek model.

What
this

time the people to the courts rep air. ]

The forenoon was

distinguished by the time of the court of judicature sitting, as in

passage of Hesiod ; the afternoon by the time of its breaking

up, as in the following of Homer

After decision

At what hour the judge, made of numerous strifes


for honour, leaves

Between young candidates

The forum,

for refreshment's sake at

home.
Odyss.
xii.

Cowpek,

; ;

DAYS.

91

On

this the
full

air-suspended spider treads


his fine

In the

noon

and

self-spun threads

And

the wise emmet, tracking dark the plain,


store of gather'd grain.

Heaps provident the

On

this let careful


first

woman's nimble hand

Throw

the shuttle and the

web expand.
sow the grain

On the
The

thirteenth forbear to
shall

But then the plant

not be set in vain.


is

sixteenth profitless to plants

deem'd

Auspicious to the birth of men esteem'd

But

to the virgin shall unprosperous prove,


to light or join'd in

Then born
So

wedded

love.

to the birth of girls with adverse ray

The

sixth appears, an unpropitious day:


his wattled fold,

But then the swain may fence

And

cut his kids and rams ; male births shall then be


bold.

This day

is

fond of biting gibes and


tales

lies,

And jocund

and whisper'd

sorceries.

Cut on the eighth the goat and lowing

steer
clear.

And

hardy mule

and when the noon shines

Seek on the twenty-ninth to sow thy race,

For wise

shall

be the

fruit

of thy embrace.

: :

::

92

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

The

tenth propitious lends


to gentle

its

natal ray

To men,
Tame
And

maids the fourteenth day

too thy sheep

on

this auspicious

morn,

steers of flexile

hoof and wreathed horn,

And
Thy

labour-patient mules; and mild

command

sharp-tooth'd dog with smoothly flattering hand.


fourth and twenty-fourth

The

no grief should prey

Within thy

breast, for holy either day.

Fourth of the moon lead home thy blooming bride,

And

be the

fittest

auguries descried.

Beware the

fifth,

with horror fraught and

wo

'Tis said the furies walk their

round below

Avenging the dread oath

whose awful birth

From

discord rose, to scourge the perjured earth.

Beware

the fifth.']

Virgil copies this, as well as

some other of

these superstitions,

Georg.

i.

275:

For various works behold the moon declare

Some days more

fortunate

the

fifth

beware

Pale Orcus and the Furies then sprang forth

Next

to the tenth the seventh to luck inclines


for planting vines

For taming oxen and

Then

best her

woof the prudent housewife weaves

Better for flight the ninth; averse to thieves.

Wabton.

: :

DAYS.

93
the seventeenth

On

the smooth

threshing-floor,

morn,
Observant throw the sheaves of sacred corn

For chamber furniture the timber hew,

And

blocks for ships with shaping axe subdue.


fourth upon the stocks thy vessel lay,
light keel to

The

Soon with

skim the watery way.


the better days

The

nineteenth

mark among

When
And

past the fervour of the noon-tide blaze.


:

Harmless the ninth

'tis

good

to plant the earth,


birth.

fortunate each male

and female

Few know

the twenty-ninth, nor heed the rules

To broach
And
Launch

their casks,

and yoke their steers and mules,


;

fleet-hoof 'd steeds

and on dark ocean's way


few will trust the day.

the oar'd galley

Pierce on the fourth thy cask ; the fourteenth prize

As holy

and when morning paints the


is

skies

The

twenty-fourth

best

(few this have


fainter

known ;)

But worst of days when noon has

grown.

These are the days of which the careful heed

Each human

enterprise will favouring speed


fall,

Others there are, which intermediate

Mark'd with no auspice and unomen'd

all

94

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
these will some,

And
In

and those

will others praise,

But few are versed

in mysteries of days.

this a step-mother's stern hate

we prove,

In that the mildness of a mother's love.

Oh

fortunate the

man

oh

blest is he,

Who skill'd in these fulfils his ministry He to whose note the auguries are given,
No
rite transgress'd,

and void of blame

to heav'n.

%\)t Cfjeogonp.

THE THEOGONY.
f)e

Argument
It opens

THE

proem

is

a rhapsody in honour of the Muses.

with a description of their solemn dances on mount Helicon,

and of the hymns which they sing during their nightly


of earth.

visitation

The poet then


their birth

relates their

appearance to himself,

and
in

his

consequent inspiration; describes their employments


;

heaven

and dignity;

their influence

on kings or

magistrates, minstrels and bards; and finishes with invoking


their assistance

and proposing his subject.

The Cosmogony,
continued through

or origin

of nature, then commences, and blends into the


or generation of gods, which
is

Theogony,

the whole poem, and concludes with the race of demi-gods, or


those born from the loves of goddesses and mortals.

The

fol-

lowing legendary traditions are interwoven episodically with


the

main

subject.

I.

The imprisonment of
or

his

children

by

Uranus

or

Heaven

in a subterranean cave;

and the conseII.

quent conspiracy of

Earth and Cronus,


III.

Saturn.

The

concealment of the infant Jupiter.

The impiety and puVI. The

nishment of Prometheus.

IV. The creation of Pandora, or

Woman.

V. The war of the Gods and Titans.

combat of Jupiter with the giant Typhous.

THE THEOGONY.

JlJEGIN we from
Muses of Helicon
:

the

Muses oh

my

song

their dwelling-place

The mountain The


altar

vast

and holy

where around

of high Jove and fountain dark

From
With

azure depth, they lightly leap in dance


delicate feet
;

and having duly bathed

Their tender bodies in Permessian streams,


In springs that gush'd fresh from the courser's hoof,

They
is

lightly leap in dance.] This representation of the

Muses

taken from the ancient custom of dancing round the altar

during sacrifice.

In springs that gush'd fresh from the

courser's hoof.]

Hippos

was an ^Egyptian
obsolete,

title

of the sun.

This ancient term became

and was misapplied by the Greeks, who uniformly apto horses.

plied

it

Hippocrene was a sacred fountain denomilight,

nated from the god of


science.

who was
it

the patron of verse and

But by the Greeks

was

referred to an animal,

and

supposed to have been produced by the hoof of a horse.


nations, says Athanasius, reverenced rivers and fountains

Other
:

but

above

all

people in the world the Egyptians held them in the

highest honour, and esteemed

them

as divine.

From hence

the

custom passed westward

to Greece, Italy,

and the extremities of

LOFC.

100

REMAINS OF HKSIOD.
blest Olmius' waters,

Or

many

a time

Upon

the topmost ridge of Helicon

Their elegant and amorous dances thread,

And

smite the earth with strong-rebounding


forth tumultuous,
air,

feet.

Thence breaking

and enwrapt

With

the deep mist of

they onward pass

Nightly, and utter, as they sweep on high,

voice in

stilly

darkness beautiful.

They hymn

the praise of iEgis-wielding Jove,

And

Juno,

named of Argos, who august


:

In golden sandals walks


Glitter with azure light,

and

her,

whose eyes

Minerva born

From Jove

Apollo, sire of prophecy,

And Dian

gladden'd by the twanging

bow

Earth-grasping Neptune, shaker of earth's shores:

Europe.

One

reason for holding waters so sacred arose from a

notion that they were gifted with supernatural powers.


Sire of prophecy.]
/Sjy,

Bryant.
<J>io?

Phoebus

is

thought to be derived from

light of

life

but the Greeks always associated with the


:

name
it

the prophetic attribute of Apollo


:

hence they formed from

the word &, to prophecy


is

as (Scm-xzw, to celebrate orgies


like

or madden,

formed from $M,.yj>s'.


:

the debacchor of the

Latins. Lycophron, v. 6

From foaming mouth with

laurel fed

She pour'd the voice of prophecy.

THE THEOGONY.
Majestic

101

Themis and Dione

fair

And Venus
Morn, the

twinkling bland her tremulous


fillet

lids

Hebe, her brows with golden


vast Sun,
:

bound

and the resplendent


and him
:

Moon

Latona and Japetus

Of

crooked wisdom, Saturn

and the Earth

And
And

the huge Ocean, and the sable Night


all

the sacred race of deities

Existing ever.

They

to

Hesiod
song
:

erst

Have taught

their stately

the whilst he fed

His lambs beneath the holy Helicon.

And
is

Venus twinkling bland her tremulous


:

lids.]

E\utcfae<pa?oi;

explained by Guietus arcuatis superciliis

so Creech, in his

translation of a chapter of Plutarch's Morals,

where the verse

is

quoted

And Venus
But the Greek
interprets
it

beauteous with her bending brows.


is xppuc.

for

an eyebrow

Robinson more properly


eye-lids
:

orbiculatis palpebris, with semicircular


;

after the old scholiast


X
:

who
is

conceives

it

a metaphor drawn from

the bending tendril of ivy or the vine.


:

Le Clerc

explains

it

roolubilibus palpebris

and

supported by Graevius,

who

quotes

Petronius in illustration of the peculiar propriety of the epithet


as applied to

Venus
Blandos oculos et inquietos,

Et quadam
Soft

propria nota loquaces.


restless eyes,
all their

and ever

Still talkative,

with language
roll

own>

eus-o-u is

circumvolvo, to

about.

102

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
thus the goddesses, th'
sire is Jove,
!

And
Whose

Olympian maids

first

haiPd

me

in their speech
;

" Shepherds

that tend in fields the fold


!

ye shames

Ye

fleshly appetites

the

Muses hear

'Tis

we can
if

utter fictions veil'd like truths,

Or,

we

list,

speak truths without a

veil."

So

said the daughters of the


:

mighty Jove,

Sooth-speaking maids

and gave unto

my

hand

rod of marvellous growth, a laurel-bough

Ye

fleshly appetites.'] This degrading address seems to betray

a modern hand.

If the proem be genuine, the shepherd's occuits

pation must have degenerated in the time of Hesiod from


ancient honourable character.
cultural poet should

But

it

is

not likely that an agri-

speak of husbandmen in these debasing

terms.

Le

Clerc's apology, that revilings such as these belong to

the manners of primeval simplicity, does not appear very satisfactory.

The

poet,

whoever he was, meant the address, probably,

as an exhortation to higher pursuits.

A
skill

laurel bough.] Salmasius observes that they


in divination,

who

aspired to

chewed the leaf of the

laurel.

Its poisonous

quality produced a preternatural action on the nerves, and a con-

vulsion and frothing at the mouth, favourable to the idea of being

possessed or inspired.

As

poets feigned a kind of divination,


things, the laurel
:

and a knowledge of supernatural


a symbol of poesy and prophecy
the god of verse and divination.

was equally

and held sacred to Phoebus,

We

find

from Pausanias that

those poets

who

did not play on the lyre held a laurel-bough in

their hand, during their public recitations, as the

badge of their
ith,

profession.

Hence probably the term " rhapsodist "

prfte

THE THEOGONY.

103

Of blooming

verdure ; and within


that I

me

breathed

A heavenly voice,
The

might utter forth


:

All past and future things

and bade me praise


:

blessed race of ever-living gods

And

ever

first

and

last

the

Muses

sing.
?

Away
afoiv,

then

why

this tale

of oaks and rocks

* to

sing to the branch

" and a rhapsody seems to have

designated such a portion of verses as the bard would recite at

one time.

Salmasius seems therefore mistaken in deriving the


pawTeiv ra? nhtf, stitching together songs
:

word from

in allusion to

the centos which the Homeric rhapsodists were accustomed to


recite

from the works of

Homer

although the derivation appears


aoifct,

countenanced by Pindar's expression of pavruv inim

singers

of tissued

verses.
of'

This tale

oaks.]

This seems to have been a proverbial ex-

pression to signify any idle tale or preamble.


illustrate it

The
"

Scholiasts

from Odyssey

xvii.

163, where Penelope asks Ulysses,

vhom she does not yet

recognise,

" whence he is

and observes,
:

Thou comest not from some ancient oak or rock


in

allusion to the fable of

men born from


is

trees

originating,

possibly, in children being found exposed in hollow trees


cavities of rocks.

and

But there
xx.

another passage in

Homer more

to the purpose,
It is

II.

126

no time from oak or hollow rock


to parley, as a

With him

nymph and

swain,

A nymph and swain


Mr. Bryant explains
this
:

soft parley

mutual hold.

Cowper.

passage in

Homer by
into

the traditionary

reverence paid" to caverns


oracular temples
:

which

in the first ages

were deemed

whence persons entered

compacts under

"

104?

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Begin we from the Muses oh

my

song

They

the great spirit of their father Jove


:

Delight in heaven
All past,
all

their tongues

symphonious breathe

present,

and

all

future things

Sweet, inexhaustible, from every

mouth

That

voice flows
scatter'd

on

the Thunderer's palace laughs

With

melody of honied sounds


all

From

the breathed voice of goddesses, and

The snow-topp'd summits

of Olympus ring,

The mansions

of immortals.

They send

forth

Their undecaying voice, and in their songs


Proclaim before
all

themes the race of gods

rocks and oaks as places of security.

But surely there

is

no

need to go back to the

first

ages, or to dive into traditional su-

perstitions for the solution of a circumstance so extremely ob-

vious, as that of
his

two lovers conversing

in the shade.

Harmer

in

"

Illustrations of the Classics," vol.iii. of his

"Observations
:

on Scripture," renders airo fyyor, on account of an oak instead " when people meet each other on account of of from an oak
:

some rock or some


But the
alteration
is

tree

which they happen upon


:

in travelling."

quite unnecessary
is

the word

from perhaps
:

indicates that one

resting under the tree, while the other is


in

passing by.

The adage

Hesiod

is

expressed " around an oak

which implies a number of persons.

The rock

associated with

the oak marks the peculiar climate of Greece and the East.

The shade

cast

by a rock

is

described by Eastern travellers as

singularly cool.

:;

>

THE THEOGONY.

10/5

From

the beginning
earth

the majestic race,


life

Whom
And
The
all

and awful heaven endow'd with

the deities

who sprang from


Then

these,

Givers of blessings.

again they change

strain to Jove, the sire of

gods and
:

men

Him
And

praise the choral goddesses


last
:

him

first

with rising and with ending song


'

How
And
And
They

excellent
in his

he

is

above

all

gods,

power most mighty.

Once again

sing the race of men,

and giants strong

soothe the soul of Jupiter in heaven.


:

They, daughters of high Jove

Olympian maids

Whom erst Mnemosyne,


Of
With Jove
Conceived
Rest
: :

protecting queen

rich Eleuther's fallows, in

embrace

their sire amidst Pieria's groves

of

ills

forgetfulness ; to cares

thrice three nights did counsel-shaping Jove

Melt in her arms, apart from eyes profane

Of

all

immortals to the sacred couch


:

Ascending

and when now the year was

full,

When moons had wax'd and waned,


Pieria's groves.]
in

and reasons roll'd,

The

Pierians were celebrated for their skill


Pieria

music and poetry.

Hence

came

to be regarded as the

birth place of the Muses.

Bryant.

106

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
days were number'd, she, some space remote
highest towers in snow,

And

From where Olympus

Bare the nine maids, with souls together knit


In harmony
:

whose thought

is

only song

Within whose bosoms dwells

th'

unsorrowing mind.

There on the mount they shine

in troops of dance,
:

And

dwell in beautified abodes

and nigh

Bare

the nine maids.']

The

origin of verse itself,

which

is

to

be

sought in the necessity of some mechanical help for the


at an aera

memory
of

when

letters

were not invented, and every thing defor the


is

pended on oral

tradition, obviously accounts

fiction

memory
reason.

being the mother of the Muses.

But there

a farther
all tradi-

The

ancient temples were the depositaries of

tionary knowledge.

We

are told

by Homer that the voice of the

Syrens was enchanting, but their knowledge of the past equally


so.

The Syrens appear

to

have been merely priestesses of one


Sicily,

of this description of temples, which stood in

and was

erected on the sea-shore, answering also the purpose of a light-

house.

The

rites

of the temple consisted partly of hymns

chanted by young and beautiful

women

to the sound of harps

and

flutes

and

it

was

their office to entangle

by
:

their allure-

ments such strangers as touched upon the coast


instantly seized

who were

by the

priests

and

sacrificed to

the solar god.

The Syrens
fact the

are described as the daughters

of Calliope, Mel:

pomene, and Terpsichore; three of the Muses

they were in
col-

same with the Muses.

These temples were sacred


:

leges

sciences were taught there

in particular

music and astropriestesses of

nomy.

The

transition

was easy from the young

these temples, to blooming goddesses


poetry, &c.

who

presided over history,

See the " Analysis of Ancient Mythology."

THE THEOGONY.

107

The Graces

also dwell,
feast.

and Love

himself,
lips

And

hold the

But they through parted


;

Send forth a lovely voice

they sing the laws

Of Of

universal heaven
deathless gods,

the manners pure


is

and lovely

their voice.

Anon

they bend their footsteps tow'rds the mount,

Rejoicing in their beauteous voice and song

Unperishing

far

round the dusky earth


voices,

Rings with their hymning


Their many-rustling

and beneath
sound

feet a pleasant

Ariseth, as tumultous pass they

on
reigns in heaven,

To

greet their heavenly


bolt

sire.

He

The

and glowing lightning

in his grasp,

Since by the strong ascendant of his

arm

Saturn his father

fell

he to the gods

Appoints the laws, and he their honours names.

So sing the Muses

dwellers

on the mount

Of heaven

nine daughters of the mighty Jove

Melpomene, Euterpe, Erato,


Polymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia,
Urania, Clio, and Calliope

The

chiefest she

who walks upon

the steps

Of

kingly judges in their majesty

And whomsoe'er

of heavenly-nurtured kings

:;

10&

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Jove's daughters will to honour, looking

down

With

smiling aspect on his cradled head


gentle

They pour a

dew upon

his tongue
lips.

And

words, as honey sweet, drop from his


the people look
:

To him
Wait

on him

all

eyes

awful,

who

in righteousness discerns
:

The ways of judgment

in a single breath,
strife,

Utter'd with knowledge, ends the mightiest

And
That

all is

peace.

The wisdom

this

of kings

in their judgment-hall they

from the oppress'd


wrongs

Turn back

the tide of

ills,

retrieving

With mild

accost of soothing eloquence.


forth

On him, the judge and king, when passing Among the city-ways, all reverent look
With
a mild worship, as he were a god
is
:

And

in the great assembly first

he.

Soothing eloquence.] This passage


the Odyssey, b.
viii.

is

exactly similar to one in

Jove

Crowns him with eloquence

his hearers

charm'd

Behold him, while with unassuming tone

He bears the prize of fluent speech from all And when he walks the city, as they pass,
All turn and gaze, as they had pass'd a god.

Cowper.

The great
sius

assembly.]

The

ancient Grecian princes, as Diony-

?f Halicarnassus

remarks,

were not absolute

like

the

THE THEOGONY.
Such
is

109

the Muses' goodly gift to man.

The Muses, and Apollo


Asiatic

darting far

monarchs

their
:

power
is

being limited by laws and


perfectly

established

customs

" and this

consonant to the

higher authority of Homer.


friend to monarchical rule,
to inculcate loyalty.

The poet himself appears a warm


and takes every opportunity zealously
is

" The government of many


It is,

bad

let

there

be one

chief,

one king."

however,

sufficiently evident
:

means here to speak of executive government only " Let there be one chief, one king," he says but he adds, " to
that the poet
:

whom

Jupiter has intrusted the sceptre and the laws, that by

them he may govern"

Accordingly in every Grecian government

which he has occasion to enlarge upon, he plainly discovers


to us strong principles of republican rule.

Not

only the council


is

of principal men, but the assembly of the people also


to him.

familiar

The name agora


it

signifying a place of meeting,

and the

verb formed from

to express haranguing in assemblies of the

people, were already in

common

use

and

to be

a good public

speaker was esteemed among the highest qualifications a


could possess.

man

In the government of Phaeacia, as described in

the Odyssey, the mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and

demo-

cracy

is

not less clearly marked than in the British constitution.


peers
(all

One
title

chief, twelve

honoured, like the chief, with the

which we translate king), and the assembly of the people,

shared the supreme authority.

The

universal and undoubted

prerogatives of kings were religious supremacy and military

comin
all

mand.
civil

They

often also

exercised judicial power.

But
Every

concerns their authority appears very limited.

thing,

indeed, that remains concerning government in the oldest Grecian

poets and historians, tends to demonstrate that the general spirit


of
it

among

the early Greeks

was nearly the same as among our

Teutonic ancestors. The ordinary business of the community was

110

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
his splendour, raise
:

The arrows of

on earth

Harpers and men of song

but kings arise


is

From Jove
Whome'er
That from

himself.

Oh

blessed
!

the
is

man

the

Muses

love

sweet

the voice

his lips flows ever.

Is there

one

Who hides some fresh grief in his wounded mind


directed by the chiefs.

Concerning extraordinary matters and

more

essential interests, the multitude claimed a right to be con-

sulted.

Mitford, History of Greece,


song.~\

i.

3.

Harpers and men of

Singer was

common name

among
ble

the Hebrews, Greeks,

Romans, and other ancient people,


and
or no

for poet
:

and musician ; employments which were then inseparano poetry was written but to be sung
;

as

little

music composed, but as an accompaniment


History of Music, 312.

to poetry.

Burney,

Is there one

Who
sage

hides some fresh grief.


is

This whole pas-

found among the fragments attributed to Homer.

This

sentiment of the power of poesy and the subjects chosen by the

bard

is

entirely in the spirit of antiquity,

when mythology and


is

heroism were the favourite themes.

Achilles

described by

Homer

as diverting the uneasiness of his


lyre, II. ix.

mind by warlike odes


:

which he accompanied on the

189

Arriving soon

Among

the Myrmidons, their chief they found

Soothing his sorrows with the silver-framed

Harmonious

lyre, spoil
:

taken

when he took

iEetion's city

with that lyre his cares

He

soothed, and glorious heroes were his theme.

Cowper.

THE THEOGONY.

Ill

And mourns
The

with aching heart

but he, the bard,

servant of the Muse, awakes the song

To

deeds of

men

of old, and blessed gods


Straight he feels
:

That dwell on mount Olympus.


His sorrow

stealing in forgetfulness

Nor of

his griefs
gift

remembers aught

so soon

The Muse's

has turn'd his woes away.


!

Daughters of Jove

all hail

but oh inspire

The

lovely song

record the heavenly race


:

Of

gods existing ever

those

who sprang
murky
night,

From

earth and starry heaven and

verse,

The servant of the Muse.~\ Laws were always promulgated and often publicly sung ; a practice which remained
places long
:

in

in

many
lity

after letters

were become common:


in verse.

mora-

was taught

history

was delivered

Lawgivers,

philosophers^ historians,

all

who would apply

their experience or

their genius to the instruction

and amusement of others, were

necessarily poets.
racter of dignity
:

The

character of poet was therefore a cha-

an opinion even of sacredness became ateffect

tached to
inspiration

it

a poetical genius was esteemed an


:

of divine

and a mark of divine favour

and the poet, who

moreover carried with him instruction and entertainment, not to


be obtained without him, was a privileged person, enjoying by a
kind of prescription the rights of universal hospitality.

Mitford.
by the

Yet

in the vulgar tradition,


!

Homer

is

represented as a mere
refute,

ballad-singing mendicant
light
dities

and whoever attempts to

of historic evidence and of reason, this or similar absurof modern ignorance,

when sanctioned by popular


in paradoxes.

pre-

judice,

must expect

to

be set down as a dealer

112

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the salt deep quicken'd.

And whom

Say how

first

The gods and

earth

became

how

rivers flow'd
swell,

Th' unbounded sea raged high in foamy

The

stars
its

shone forth, and overhead the sky

Spread

broad arch

and say from these what gods,


:

Givers of blessings, sprang

and how they shared

Heaven's splendid attributes and parted out


Distinct their honours
:

and how

first

they fix'd
vales

Their dwelling midst Olympus' winding


Tell,

oh ye Muses

ye

who
:

also dwell

In mansions of Olympus

tell

me

all

From

the beginning

say

who

first arose.
:

First of all beings

Chaos was

and next

Wide-bosom'd Earth, the

seat for ever firm


is

Of

all th'

immortals, whose abode

placed
heads,

Among
Or

the

mount Olympus' snow-top'd

in the

dark abysses of the ground


The

First of all beings Chaos was.]


materialists,

ancients were in general

and thought the world

eternal.

But the mundane

system, or at least the history of the world, they supposed to

commence from
the deluge
is

the deluge.

The

confusion which prevailed at


:

often represented as the chaotic state of nature


all

for

the earth was hid, and the heavens obscured, and


in disorder.

the elements

Bryant.
dark abysses of the ground.]
in his

Or

in the

Tartarus

is

considered

by Brucker

epitome of the Theogony (Historia Critica

THE THEOGONY.

113
rose
;

Then Love most beauteous of immortals

He
By

of each god and mortal

man

at

once

Unnerves the limbs,


reason
steel'd,

dissolves the wiser breast quells the very soul.

and

From

Chaos, Erebus and sable Night


arose the Sunshine and the

From Night

Day

Offspring of Night from Erebus' embrace.

Earth

first

conceived with Heaven: whose starry cope,

Like to herself immense, might compass her

On

every side

and be

to blessed

gods

resting-place

immoveable

for ever.

She teem'd with the high

Hills, the pleasant

haunts

Of Of

goddess nymphs,
mountains.

who

dwell within the glens


aid of tender love

With no

She gave

to birth the sterile Sea, high-swol'n


:

In raging foam

and, Heaven-embraced, anon


rolling in deep whirls

She teem'd with Ocean, His


vast abyss of waters.

Crceus, then,

Caeus, Hyperion,

and Iapetus,
:

Themis, and Thea rose


Philosophise, torn.
after introduced

Mnemosyne,
Tartarus
is,

1.)

as the third birth.

indeed,
:

as

a person, but in the singular


it

number

the

word

is

here used in the plural, and I conceive

to

mean simply

the cavities of the earth, and to be connected with the preceding


sentence.

114

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
;

And Rhea

Phoebe diadem'd with gold,


:

And
The

love-inspiring Tethys

and of

these,

Youngest

in birth, the wily Saturn came,

sternest of her sons; for


sire

he abhorr'd

The

who gave him

life.

Then brought

she forth

The Cyclops
The Cyclops

brethren, arrogant of heart,


Thucydides acquaints us concerning

brethren.']

the Cyclopes, that they were the most ancient inhabitants of


Sicily,

but that he could not

find out their race.

Strabo places

them near iEtna and Icontina, and supposes


over that part of the island
;

that they once ruled

and

it is

certain that a people called


It is generally agreed

Cyclopians did possess that province.


writers

by

upon the

subject, that they

were of a

size superior to the

common race of mankind. Among the many tribes of the Amowho went abroad, were to be found people who were styled Anakim and were descended from the sons of Anak so that
nians
;
:

this

history,

though carried to a great excess,

was probably

founded in truth. They were particularly famous for architecture;

and

in all parts

whither they came, they erected noble structures,


for their height

which were remarkable

and beauty

and were

often dedicated to the chief deity, the sun, under the

name

of

Elorus and P'Elorus.

People were so struck with their grandeur,

that they called every thing great or stupendous Pelorian (weXw^f,

huge): and
race, they

when they
came

described the Cyclopians as a lofty towering

at last to

borrow their ideas of

this

people from
in height

the towers to which they alluded.


to reach the clouds,

They supposed them

and in bulk equal to the promontories on


were founded.

which these

edifices

As

these buildings were

often-times light-houses, and had in their upper story one round

casement, " like an Argolick buckler or the moon," by which they


afforded light in the night-season, the Greeks

made

this

a cha-

: :

THE THEOGONY.
Undaunted Arges, Brontes, Steropes

115

Who forged
His thunder

the lightning shaft, and gave to Jove


:

they were like unto the gods


fix'd

Save that a single ball of sight was


In their mid-forehead.

Cyclops was

their

name,

From

that round eye-ball in their

brow

infix'd

And

strength and force and manual craft were theirs.

racteristic of the people.

They supposed
fiery

this

aperture to have

been an eye, which was


middle of their foreheads.
representation of an eye,

and

glaring,

and placed in the

What
the

confirmed the mistake was the

which was often engraved over the


:

entrance of these temples


elegantly represented

chief

deity

of

Mgypt

being
in-

by the symbol of an eye, which was

tended to signify the superintendency of Providence.

The notion

of the Cyclopes framing the thunder and lightning for Jupiter,


arose chiefly from the Cyclopians engraving hieroglyphics of this
sort

upon the temples of the

deity.

The

poets considered them

merely in the capacity of blacksmiths, and condemned them to


the anvil.

Bryant.
doubtless had
its

The proximity of iEtna


Virg. iEn.
viii.

share in this delusion,

417

Deep below
In hollow caves the
fires

of iEtna glow.

The Cyclops here


*

their

heavy hammers deal

Loud

strokes and hissings of tormented steel


:

Are heard around

the boiling waters roar,

And smoky

flames through fuming tunnels soar.


fire

Hither the father of the

by night,

Through the brown

air precipitates his flight

On

their eternal anvils here he found

The

brethren beating, and the blows go round.


I

Drydejt.

116

REMAINS OF HKSIOD.
:

Others again were born from Earth and Heaven

Three giant sons

strong, dreadful but to name,


:

Children of glorying valour


Cottus and Gyges
:

Briareus,

from whose shoulders burst

A hundred arms that mock'd approach,


Their limbs hard-sinew'd
fifty

and

o'er

heads upsprang

Mighty

th'

immeasurable strength display'd


:

In each gigantic stature

and of

all

The

children born to earth and heaven these sons


dreadfullest
:

Were

and

they, e'en
:

from the

first,

Drew down

their father's hate


all,

as each

was born

He

seized
:

them

and hid them

in th' abyss

Of Earth nor
Heaven
Groan'd

e'er released

them
:

to the light.
vast Earth

in his evil deed rejoiced


inly, sore

aggrieved

but soon devised

A stratagem of mischief and of fraud.


Sudden creating
for herself a

kind

Of

whiter iron, she with labour framed


:

A scythe enormous
"

and address'd her sons


at heart.

She spoke emboldening words, though grieved

My sons
we

alas

ye children of a

sire

Most
So

impious,

now obey

a mother's voice
fell

shall

well avenge the


father,

despite

Of him

your

who

the

first

devised

THE THEOGONY.
Deeds of
Fear
fell
:

117

injustice."

While she

said,

on

all

nor utterance found they,

till

with soul

Embolden'd, wily Saturn huge address'd

His awful mother.

" Mother

be the deed

My own
This
feat

thus pledged I will most sure achieve


:

nor heed I him, our


for that

sire,

of

name

Detested

he the

first

devised
said,

Deeds of

injustice."

Thus he

and Earth

Was gladden'd

at her heart.
:

She planted him


in his grasp

In ambush dark and secret

She placed the sharp-tooth'd scythe, and tutor'd him


In every wile.

Vast Heaven came down from high,


the gloominess of Night

And

with

him brought
:

On

all

beneath

with ardour of embrace

Hovering

o'er Earth, in his

immensity
son stretch'd forth
:

He
He

lay diffused around.

The

His weaker hand from ambush

in his right

took the sickle huge and long and rough

He

took the sickle.]

In a fragment of Sanchoniatho, the Phoeis

nician philosopher, translated by Philo the Jew,

recorded this

very history of Uranus and Cronus, or Saturn.

De

Gebelin, in his

" Monde Primitif," resolves


invention of
reaping,
is

it,

according to his system, into the

which he supposes Saturn to personify.


;

But Saturn

often represented with a ship, as well as a sickle

118

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
sharpen'd teeth
:

With

and

hastily

he reap'd

The

genial organs of his


:

sire,

at once

Cut sheer

then cast behind him far away.


:

They not

in vain escaped his hold

for

Earth
roll'd

Received the blood-drops, and as years

round

Teem'd with strong

furies

and with giants huge,

Shining in mail, and grasping in their hands

Protended spears
Dryads, o'er

and wood-nymphs, named of men


immeasurable earth.
said,

all th'

So

severing, as

was

with edge of

steel

The

genial spoils, he from the continent


sea

Amidst the many surges of the


Hurl'd them.
Till

Full long they drifted o'er the deeps

now

swift-circling a white

foam arose
and a nymph
The explanation may,

From

that immortal substance,

which has no reference


however, be correct,
if

to agriculture.

we

consider Saturn not as a mere figura-

tive prosopopoeia of reaping,

but as the real person

who

restored

the labours of harvest ; in the

same manner

as his

Greek name

Cronus, which some have thought to intimate a personification


of Time, points out very significantly the person

who began

the

new

sera

of time

the great father of the post-diluvian world.


is

The
site

type of the ship on the ancient coins of Saturn

an appo-

emblem of

the ark

and the concealment of the children of


tra-

Heaven
dition.

in a cavern

seems an obscure remnant of the same

THE THEOGONY.

119
wafting waves

Was
Then

quicken'd in the midst.

The

First bore her to Cythera's heavenly coast

reach'd she Cyprus, girt with flowing seas,

And
Of

forth

emerged a goddess,

in the

charms
feet

awful beauty.

Where

her delicate

Had press'd the sands,

green herbage flowering sprang.


mortals name,

Her Aphrodite gods and The foam-born goddess


The foam-born goddess.]
ancient
:

and her name


the

is

known,
the

The name of

Dove among
is
:

Amonians was Ion and Ionah.

This term

often found

compounded, and expressed Ad-Ibnah, queen dove


title

from which

another deity,

Adiona, was constituted.


ancient, as
is it is

This

mode of
worship,

idolatry
viticus

must have been very

mentioned in Lefalse

and Deuteronomy, and

one species of

which Moses forbade by name.


rendering the

According to our method of


called Idione.
:

Hebrew term

it

is

This Idione or

Adione was the Dione of the Greeks

the deity
:

who was some-

times looked upon as the mother of Venus

at other times as

Venus

herself:

and styled Venus Dionaea.


:

Venus was no other

than the ancient Ibnah

and we
to

shall

find in her history

num-

berless circumstances relating

the Noachic dove, and to the

deluge.

We

are told,

when
to

the waters covered the earth, that

the dove

came back

Noah, having roamed over a vast unin-

terrupted ocean, and found no rest for the sole of her foot.

But

upon being sent

forth a second time

by the

patriarch, in order to

form a judgment of the state of the earth, she returned to the


ark in the evening, and "

plucked

off."

Lo in her mouth was an olive leaf From hence Noah conceived his first hopes of the
!

waters being assuaged, and the elements reduced to order.


likewise began to foresee the change that

He

was

to

happen

in the

120

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the blooming wreath,

As Gytherea with
For

that she touch'd Cythera's flowery coast

And
She

Cypris, for that on the Cyprian shore


rose,

amidst the multitude of waves


life.

And
Love

Philomedia, from the source of


track'd her steps
;

and beautiful Desire

earth

that seed-time and harvest would be renewed, and the ground


its

restored to

pristine fecundity.
this history

In the hieroglyphical sculptures

and paintings where

was represented, the dove was

depicted hovering over the face of the deep.

Hence

it is

that
it

Dione, or Venus,
is,

is

said to have risen from the sea.

Hence

also, that she is said to preside over waters, to

appease the
:

troubled ocean, and to cause by her presence a universal calm

that to her were owing the fruits of the earth, and the flowers of

the field were renewed by her influence.


to this goddess
is

The

address of Lucretius

founded on traditions, which manifestly allude

to the history above mentioned.

Bryant.
the Greeks called
Iris,

Love track' d her

steps.]

What

was

expressed Eiras by the ^Egyptians,

The Greeks out of Eiras


they annexed to Venus, and
his symbol, instead

formed Eros, a god of love,

whom

made
of the

her son
iris

and finding that the bow was

they gave

quiver and arrows.

him a material bow, with the addition of a The bows of Apollo and Diana were formed
After the descent from the ark the
first

from the same

original.

wonderful occurrence was the bow in the clouds, and the cove-

nant of which
sera began.

it

was made an emblem.

At

this season

another

The

earth was supposed to be renewed, and

Time

to return to a second infancy.

They

therefore formed an

emblem

of a child with the rainbow, to denote this renovation in the world,

and called him Eros, or Divine Love.

But however

like a child

THE THEOGONY.
Pursued, while soon as born she bent her way

121

Towards heaven's assembled gods

her honours these

From
Her

the beginning

whether gods or

men
fell

presence bless, to her the portion

Of

virgin whisperings
deceits,

and alluring

smiles,

And smooth And


That

and gentle

ecstasy,
love.

dalliance,

and the blandishments of

But the great Heaven, rebuking those


issued
:

his sons

from

his loins,

new-named them now

Titans

and said

that they avenging dared

crime ; but retribution was behind.

he might be expressed, the more early mythologists esteemed him


the most ancient of the gods
;

and Lucian, with great humour,


to account for the

makes Jupiter very much puzzled


of this infant deity.
gods,

appearance

"

Why

thou urchin/' says the father of the


little

" how came you with that

childish face,

when

know

you to be as old as Iapetus ? " The Greek and


duced the character of
this deity to that of

Roman

poets re-

a wanton, mischievous
old.

pigmy

but he was otherwise esteemed of


;

He

is

styled by

Plato a mighty god

and

it is

said that Eros

was the cause of the

greatest blessings to mankind.

Bryant.

Virgin wisperings.]

These attributes of Venus suggest a com-

parison with the properties of her cestus as described by


It

Homer

was an ambush of sweet snares

replete

With

love, desire, soft intercourse of hearts,

And music of resistless whisper'd sounds, Which from the wisest steal their best resolves.
Cowpeb.

122

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Abhorred Fate and dark Necessity

And Death
And

were born from Night by none embraced


:

These gloomy Night brought self-conceiving forth


Sleep and
she
all

the hovering host of dreams.


;

Then bare

Momus
;

Care,
th'

still

brooding sad

On many

griefs

and next
Momus.]

Hesperian maids,
has truly painted the
it

Then bare
nature of

she

Hesiod
in

detraction

(Momus)
is

describing

as

born from
all

Night.

The same

origin

given to Care: because

anxieties

are increased in the night-season:

whence Night

is

styled

by

Ovid, " the mighty nurse of Cares."

Le Clerc.
large extent.

TK

Hesperian maids.]

The

ancient temples in which the sun

was adored often stood within enclosures of


and fountains.
description

Some

of them were beautifully planted, and ornamented with pavilions


Places of this nature are alluded to under the

of the gardens of the Hesperides


also regal edifices
signified
:

and Alcinous.

They were
chon
;

and termed Tor-chom and Tar-

which

a regal tower,

and was of old a high


it

place or temple of

Cham.

By

a corruption
still

was

in later times

rendered Trachon.
the Greeks,

The term was

further sophisticated

by

and expressed Drachon.

The

situation of these

buildings on a high eminence, and the reverence in which they

were held, made them be looked upon as places of great security.

On these When the


a serpent
:

accounts they were the repositories of

much

treasure.

Greeks understood that

in

these temples the people

worshipped a serpent-deity, they concluded that Trachon was

hence the name Draco came to be appropriated to

that imaginary animal.

Hence

also arose the notion of treasures

being guarded by dragons, and of the gardens of the Hesperides


being under the protection of a serpent.

Bryant.

Perhaps also

in these gardens

was kept up the ancient Para-

THE THEOGONY.

123

Whose
Beyond

charge o'er-sees the

fruits

of blooming gold

the sounding ocean, the fair trees

Of

golden fruitage.

Then

the Destinies
pitiless

Arose, and Fates in vengeance

Clotho, and Lachesis, and Atropos

Who

at the birth of

men

dispense the lot

disiacal tradition

as the golden apples and the dragon present

an analogy with the hieroglyphic account given by Moses of the


forbidden fruit and the serpent.
it

This

is

the

more probable, as

is

evident this tradition had mixed itself in the dispersed

legends of pagan mythology from the remarkable coincidence of

the " serpent-woman," considered by the Mexicans as the mother

of the

human

race,

paradise. "
spirit,"

The Mexican
in his

and ranked next to " the god of the celestial temples, also, where " the great

or sun personified,

was worshipped, are described by


as

Humboldt

" American Researches,"

raised

in

the

midst of a square and walled enclosure, which contained gardens

and fountains.

This mixed worship of the Paradisiacal serpent


fillet,

may
being

account for a serpent, twisted into the form of a

made an emblem

of the sun's disk


:

and

for

snaky hair

being typical of divine wisdom

while the tresses were, at the

same time,

so disposed as to figure the sun's rays,

and the human

visage represented his orb.

The Hesperian

virgins

seem the same with the Muses and


:

Syrens, the priestesses of the temple

and

their singing sweetly

on their watch, as described afterwards by Hesiod, alludes to


the

hymns which they chanted

at the altar.

They

are

made the
:

daughters of Night, because the gardens were in Afric


equally with Italy and Spain,

which,

was denominated Hesperia by the

Greeks

and the region of the west was considered as synony-

mous with Night.

; :

124

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
evil.

Of good and
The

They of men and gods

crimes pursue, nor ever pause from wrath


till

Tremendous,

destructive

on the head
fall.

Of him

that sins the retribution

Then teem'd

pernicious Night with Nemesis,

The

scourge of mortal
lascivious

men
:

again she bare

Fraud and

Love

slow-wasting Age,

And

still-persisting Strife.

From

hateful Strife

Came

sore Affliction and Oblivion drear


:

Famine and weeping Sorrows

Combats, Wars,
:

And

Slaughters,

and

all

Homicides

and Brawls,
with them

And

Bickerings,

and deluding Lies


galling Injury,

Perverted

Law and
:

Inseparable mates

and the dread Oath

A mighty bane to him of earth-born men Who wilful swears, and perjured is forsworn.
The Sea
Eldest of

with Earth embracing, Nereus rose,


race
filial
:

all his
:

unerring

seer,

And

true

with

veneration

named
was
re-

Eldest of all his

race.']

The

history of the patriarch

corded by the ancients through their whole theology.

All the

principal deities of the sea, however diversified, have a manifest


relation to him.

Noah was

figured under the history of

Nereus

and

his character of

an unerring prophet, as well as of a

just,

righteous, and benevolent

man,

is

plainly described

by Hesiod.

Bryant.

THE THEOGONY.
Ancient of Years
:

125

for mild

and blameless he
still

Remembering

still

the right ;

merciful
vast,

As just

in counsels.

Then

rose
fair

Thaumas

Phorcys the mighty, Ceto

of cheek,

And
Of
Of
Is

stern Eurybia, of an iron soul.

From Nereus and

the fair-hair'd Doris,

nymph

ocean's perfect stream, the lovely race

goddess Nereids rose to

light,

whose haunt

midst the waters of the

sterile

main

Eucrate, Proto, Thetis, Amphitrite,

Love-breathing Thalia, Sao, and Eudora,


Then
rose

Thaumas

vast.]
call

That

beautiful

phenomenon

in the

heavens,
styled

which we

the rainbow, was by the /Egyptians

Thamuz, and
it

signified

" the wonder."

The Greeks
to

ex-

pressed

Thaumas

and hence was derived

Qa.uy.a^o- i

wonder.

This Thaumas they did not immediately appropriate to the

bow

but supposed them to be two personages, and Thaumas the


parent.

Bryant.

Phorcys the mighty.]

Homer

calls

him " the

old

man

of the

sea :" and gives precisely the same appellation to Proteus.

The

character of the latter varies only from that of Nereus in the


quality of transforming himself into sundry shapes.

This

may
the

have a reference to the great diluvian changes, varying the face


of nature.

The connexion of Phorcys and Ceto

favours

supposition that these three deities are one and the

same per-

sonage.

" The ark in which mankind were preserved was figured under
the semblance of a large
Cetos
is

fish.

It

was

called Cetos."

Bryant.

the Greek term for a whale.

: :: : :

126

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
Spio,

And

skimming with

light feet the

wave

Galene, Glauce, and Cymothoe:

Agave, and the graceful Melita

Rose-arm'd Eunice, and Eulimene


Pasithea, Doto, Erato, Pherusa,

Nesaea, Cranto, and

Dynamene

Protomedia, Doris, and Actaea

And

Panope, and Galataea


:

fair

Rose-arm'd Hipponbe

soft

Hippothbe

Cymodoce who

calms, at once, the waves

Of

the dark sea, and blasts of heaven-breathed winds

With whom

Cymatole'ge, and the

nymph

Of

beauteous ankles Amphitrite glide

Cymo, Eione, Liagore,

And

Halimede, with her sea-green wreath

Pontopori'a,

and Polynome;

Evagore, and blithe Glauconome

Laomedia, and Evarne

blest

With

gracious nature and with faultless form


oo^citi^v-, rosy-elbow''d
:

Rose-arm'd Eunice.]
gether with that of
the
artificial

this epithet, to-

pcSolccy.-

uXc

rosy-fingered,

was derived from


fingers

custom of staining the elbow and tops of the


In Dallaway's Constantinople
girls
it is

with rose-colour.

remarked
and

of the modern Greek

" that the

nails

both of the
:

fingers

the feet are always stained of a rose-colour

" a curious vestige

of Grecian antiquity.

: :

THE THEOGONY.
Lysianassa, and Autonome,

127

And

Psamathe, with shape of comeliness

Divine Menippe, Neso, and Themistho

And

Pronoe, and Eupompe, and Nemertes

Full of her deathless sire's prophetic soul.

These sprang from blameless Nereus

Nereid nymph

Who midst the waters ply their blameless tasks.


Electra,

nymph

of the deep-flowing ocean,


:

Embraced with Thaumas

rapid Iris thence

Rose, and Aello and Ocypetes,

The

sister-harpies, fair with streaming locks

Who track the breezy winds


On
Then

and

flights

of birds,

wings of swiftness hovering nigh the heaven.


Ceto, fair of cheek, to Phorcys bore

Nereid nymphs.]

Spenser, in his
cant.
task,
ii.

" Spousals of the Thames

and Medway,"
.posed

b. 4.

of the " Faery Queen," has im-

on himself a
:

from which a translator would fain


into
his

escape

and has transposed

stanzas the whole

fifty

Nereids of Hesiod, together with his catalogue of Rivers.

The

sister-harpies. ~\

The

harpies were priests of the sun

they were denominated from their seat of residence, which was

an oracular temple called Harpi.

The

representation of

them

as

winged animals was only the insigne of the people, as the eagle and vulture were of the ^Egyptians.
a
set

They seem
for

to

have

bee,n

of rapacious persons,

who

their

repeated acts of

violence and cruelty were driven out of Bithynia, their country.

Bryant.

128

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
Graiae ; from their birth-hour gray
:

The

and hence
:

Their name with gods, and

men

that walk the earth

Long-robed Pephredo, saffron-veiPd Enyo

And Gorgons

dwelling on the brink of night


:

Beyond the sounding main


Th' Hesperian maidens in
Stheno, Euryale,

where silver-voiced

their watches sing

Medusa

these

The

last ill-fated,

since of mortal date

The two

immortal, and unchanged by years.

The Grata

from

their birth-hour gray.]

The circumstance

of their being gray seems to be explained by a passage of /Eschylus,

who

describes

them

as halt-women, half-swans

The Gorgonian

plains

Of

Cisthine, where dwell the Phorcydes

Swan-form'd, three ancient nymphs, one

common

eye

Their portion.

Prometheus Chained.

" This

history relates to an

Amonian temple founded

in the

extreme parts of Africa, in which there were three priestesses of


Canaanitish race,

who on

that account are said to be in the

shape of swans

the swan being the insigne under which their

country was denoted.

The
rise

notion of their having but one eye

among them took


iEgypt

its
:

from a hieroglyphic very

common

in

and Canaan

this

was the representation of an


their temples."
:

eye,

which was engraved on the pediment of

Bryant.

The Gorgons were probably


scribed

similar personages

they are delocks


:

by iEschylus with wings and


Gorgon was a

serpentine

attri-

butes apparently borrowed from the emblematical devices in the

temples of JEgypt.

title

of Minerva at Cyrene in

Xybia.

THE THEOGONY.
Yet her alone the blue-hair'd god of waves
Enfolded, on the tender

129

meadow
:

grass,

And bedded
Her

flowers of spring

when Perseus smote

neck, and snatch'd the sever'd bleeding head,

When
Her
and
it

Perseus smote
]

neck.
is

The

island

of

Seriphus
is

represented as having once abounded with serpents;

styled

by

Virgil in his Ciris serpentifera

it

had

this

epithet, not

on account of any real serpents, but according to

the Greeks, from Medusa's head, which was brought thither by


Perseus.

By

this is

meant the serpent-deity, whose worship was


It

here introduced by a people called Peresians.

was usual with

the ^Egyptians to describe upon the architrave of their temples

some emblem of the deity who there presided


use of

among

others the

serpent was esteemed a most salutary emblem, and they


it

made

to signify superior skill

and knowledge.

beautiful

female countenance surrounded with an assemblage of serpents

vas made

to denote divine

wisdom.

Many

ancient temples were

ornamented with

this curious hieroglyphic.

These devices upon

temples were often esteemed as talismans, and supposed to have

a hidden influence by which the building was preserved.

In the

temple of Minerva, at Tigea, was some sculpture of Medusa,

which the goddess was said


from ever being taken in war.

to
It

have given to preserve the city

was probably from

this opinion

that the Athenians had the head of


walls of their Acropolis
as
;

Medusa

represented on the
cities,

and

it

was the insigne of many

we

find

from ancient coins.

Perseus was one of the most


:

ancient heroes in the mythology of Greece

the merit of

whose

supposed achievements the Helladians took to themselves, and


gave out that he was a native of Argos.
represents

Herodotus more truly


is

him

as an Assyrian;

by which

meant a Babylonian.

130

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
great Chrysaor then leap'd into
life

The

And

Pegasus the steed

who born

beside

Yet he resided

in iEgypt,

and

is

said to have reigned at


:

Memphis.
Perseus

To

say the truth, he was worshipped at that place


title

for

was a

of the deity, and was no other than the Sun, the

chief god

of the gentile world.

His true name was Perez


:

rendered Peresis, Perses, and Perseus

and

in the account given

of this personage

several peregrinations;

we have the history of the Peresians in their who were no other than the Heliadae and
the father of
life

Osirians.

It is
:

a mixed history in which their forefathers are

alluded to

particularly their great progenitor,

mankind.

He was

supposed to have had a renewal of

they therefore described Perseus as enclosed in an ark and ex-

posed in a state of childhood on the waters, after having been


conceived in a shower of gold.

Bryant.
./Egyptians

The great

Chrysaor.']

Chus by the
:

and Canaanites

was

styled Or-chus,

and Chus-or

the latter of which was ex-

pressed by the Greeks by a word more familiar to their ear

Chrusor ; as

if it

had a reference to
:

gold.

This name was somein

times changed into Chrusaor


the Cuthites were
in iEgypt
:

and occurs
settled.

many

places where

known

to

have

They were a

long time
is

and we read of a Chrusaor

in those parts,

who

said

to have sprung

from the blood of Medusa.

We

meet with the

same Chrusaor in the regions of Asia Minor, especially among the in those parts he was particularly worshipped, and Carians
:

said to have been the


this term,

first deified
it

mortal.
:

The Grecians borrowed


this epithet,

and applied

to Apollo

and from

ChruThis

saor,

he was denominated the god of the golden sword.


at

weapon was

no time ascribed to him, nor

is

he ever represented

with one either on a gem or marble.


in the

He

is

described by

Homer
There

hymn

to Apollo, as wishing for a harp

and a bow.

THE THEOGONY.
Old
Nilus' fountains thence derived a

13l

name.

Chrysaor, grasping in his hands a sword

is

never any mention

made of

a sword, nor
then,

was the term Chruassured


that

saor of Grecian etymology.


that so

Since,
to,

we may be

Chus was the person alluded


cities,

we need not wonder

many

where Apollo was particularly worshipped, should

be called Chruse, and Chrusopolis.


cities only,

Nor

is

this observable in

but in

rivers.

It

was usual
call

in the first ages to conafter their


:

secrate rivers to deities,

and to

them

names.

Hence many were denominated from Chrusorus


this mistake, the

which by the
:

Greeks was changed to x?'-??', flowing with gold and from Nile was called Chnisorrhoas, which had no
In
all

pretensions to gold.

the places where the sons of

Chus

spread themselves, the Greeks introduced some legend about gold.

Hence we read of a golden


the Hesperides
:

fleece at Colchis

golden apples at

at Tartessus a golden

cup

and at

Cuma

in

Campania a golden branch.


vertible into Chrusus, there

But although

this repeated

mistake

arose in great measure from the term Chusus being easily con-

was another obvious reason


Cuthim.

for the

change.

Chus was by many of the Eastern nations expressed


his posterity, the

Cuth ; and

This term, in the ancient


signified

Chaldaic and other Amonian languages,

gold

and

hence

many

cities

and countries where

the.

Cuthites settled were

described as golden.

Bryant.
steed.]

And

Pegasus the

Pegasus received
:

its

name from a

well-known emblem, the horse of Poseidon


to understand an ark or ship.

by which we are

" By horses," says Artemidorus,


it

the poets

mean

ships :" and hence

is

that Poseidon

is

called

Hippius

for there is

a strict analogy between the poetical or


in the sea.

winged horse on land, and a real ship


that Pegasus
often

Hence

it

came

was esteemed the horse of Poseidon (Neptune), and


scuphius
;

named

name which

relates to a ship,

and shows

K2

132

REMAINS OF HESIOD
gold, flew
left

Of

upward on the winged horse


flocks,

And And

beneath him earth, mother of


:

soar'd to heaven's immortals

and there dwells

In palaces of Jove, and to the god

Deep-counselPd bears the bolt and arrowy flame.


Chrysaor with Callirhoe, blending
love,

Nymph

of sonorous ocean, Geryon rose,

the purport of the emblem.

The

ark,

we know, was

preserved

by divine

providence
it
:

from the sea, which would have over

whelmed

and as
it

it

was often represented under


to the fable of the

this

symbol
deities,

of a horse,

gave

rise

two chief

Jupiter and Neptune, disputing about horses.

Bryant.
fable of the dis-

To

this

we may add

the

still

more remarkable
:

pute between Neptune and Pallas


horse, and the latter an olive-tree.

when

the former produces a

" These notions," observes the

author of the Analysis, " arose from emblematical descriptions of


the deluge, which the Grecians had received by tradition
:

but

what was general they


places."

limited,

and appropriated to particular

Old Nilus* fountains.]


that " this derivation
is

nxsuvu

th^i nnyac.

Le Clerc remarks

absurd

as

we do
:

not talk of the foun-

tains of the sea, but of rivers."

He
is

adds, however, that " Hesiod

more than once


led

calls the

ocean the river " and this should have


it

him

to

perceive that
river

in fact a river of

which Hesiod

speaks.

The oceanic
rose.]

was the Nile, which

in very ancient

times was called the Oceanus.

Geryon
ments
of

One

of the principal and most ancient settle-

the

Amonians

upon the ocean was


to

at

Gades;

where a prince was supposed

have reigned, named Geryon.


fine one,

The harbour

at

Gades was a very

and had

several- tor,

THE THEOGONY.
Three headed form
Despoil'd of
life
:

13S

him the strong Hercules


his hoof-cloven herds
:

among

On
To

Erythia, girdled by the wave

What
Once

time those oxen ample-brow'd he drove

sacred Tyrinth, the broad ocean frith


past
;
:

and Orthrus, the grim herd-dog,


in their

stretch'd

Lifeless

and

murky den beyond

The

billows of the long-resounding deep,

The keeper

of those herds, Eurytion,

slain.

Another monster Ceto bare anon


In the deep-hollow'd cavern of a rock

or towers, to direct shipping deity to


this

and as

it

was usual

to imagine the

whom

the temple

was erected

to have been the builder,

temple was said to have been built by Hercules.

All this

the Grecians took to themselves.

They

attributed the whole to


to
:

Hercules of Thebes
ever he came, they
tor or towers into

and as he was supposed

conquer where-

made him subdue Geryon and changing the so many head of cattle, they describe him as
triumph.

leading

them

off in

Tor-keren signified a regal tower

and

this being interpreted Tppw>$, this

personage was in con-

sequence described with three heads.


Erythia, according to Pliny,
1

Bryant.

is

another

name

for

Gades.

In the deep-hollow d cavern of a rock^\

It is probable that at
;

Arima

in Cilicia there

was an Ophite temple

which, like

all

the

most ancient temples, was a vast cavern.


sculpture of the serpent-deity
of this mythological prodigy.

Some emblematical
si-

may have

given rise to the creation

The Hydra had, probably, a

milar origin.

134

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Stupendous nor in shape resembling aught

Of human

or of heavenly

the divine

Echidna, the untameable of soul

Above, a

nymph

with beauty-blooming cheeks,

And

eyes of jetty lustre; but below,

speckled serpent horrible and huge,


in caves

Gorged with blood-banquets, monstrous, hid

Of

sacred earth.

There

in the uttermost depth

Her

cavern

is,

within a vaulted rock

Alike from mortals and immortals deep

Remote

the gods have there decreed her place

In mansions known to fame.

So pent beneath

The

rocks of
:

Arima Echidna dwelt


immortal, and in youth

Hideous

nymph

Unhcanged

for evermore.

But legends

tell,

That with the jet-eyed nymph Typhaon mix'd


His
fierce

embrace

a whirlwind rude and wild

whirlwind rude and wild.] There were two distinct Typhons

or Typhaons, although they are sometimes confounded together.

The one
scribed

is

the same as the gigantic TyphaBus, subsequently de:

by Hesiod
this

the other the whirlwind here mentioned.


signified a

" By
tion.

Typhon was

mighty whirlwind, or inundaIn hieroglyphical de-

It

had a

relation to the deluge.

scriptions, the

dove was represented as hovering over the munto the fury of


life,

dane egg which was exposed


containing in
it

Typhon

for

an egg,

the proper elements of

was thought no im-

THE THEOGONY.
She,
fill'd

135

with love, conceived a progeny

Of

strain undaunted.
first

Geryon's dog of herds,


:

Orthrus, the

arose

the second birth,

Unutterable, was the dog of hell

Blood-fed and brazen-voiced, and bold and strong,

The

fifty-headed Cerberus

and third

Upsprang the Hydra,

pest of Lerna's lake

Whom Juno,
With deep

white-arm'd goddess, fostering rear'd


fill'd,

resentment

insatiable,

proper emblem of the ark, in which were preserved the rudiments


of the future world."

Bryant.
wrong
:

Robinson

is

therefore manifestly
av|Uo,

in

proposing to sub-

stitute avo.uov, lawless, for

a wind

though the reading be

countenanced by the Bodleian copy and the Florentine edition of


Junta.

The jifty-headed Cerberus.]


place,

Cerberus was the


hell.

name of a
are
told
:

though esteemed the dog of

We
-the

by

Eusebius from Plutarch, that Cerberus was

Sun

but the

term properly
great luminary
that
is, light,

signified

the temple, or place, of the Sun.

The

was

styled

by the Amonians both Or and Abor


light
:

and the parent of

and Cerberus

is

properly
dif-

Kir-abor, the place of that deity.


ferent

The same temple had

names from the


It

diversity of the god's titles,

who was

there

worshipped.
TptxE<j>a\oc
:

was

called Tor-caph-el;

which was changed to

and Cerberus was from hence supposed to have had

three heads.

Bryant.
number of heads,
as they

The

poets increased the

seem

to

have thought a multitude of heads or arms sublimely


Pindar out-does Hesiod by a whole
fifty,

terrific.

and speaks of the

hundred-headed Cerberus.

xtov

to. ni<$a\ov.

136

REMAINS OF HKSIOD.
:

'Gainst Hercules

but he, the son of Jove,

Named
Bathed

of Amphytrion, in the dragon's gore


his unpitying steel
:

by warlike aid

Of Of

Iolaus,

and the counsels high


Last came forth

Pallas the Despoiler.


fire

Chimaera, breathing

unquenchable
swift

monster grim and huge, and


:

and strong
one

Her's were three heads

a glaring

lion's

One

of a goat

a mighty snake's the third

In front the lion threatened, and behind

The

serpent,

and the goat was in the midst,


of burning flame.

Exhaling

fierce the strength

But the wing'd Pegasus

his rider bore,

The brave

Bellerophon, and laid her dead.

Chimara, breathing Jire unquenchable.']


occurs in the 6th book of the Iliad.
Phaselis, situated

The same passage " In Lycia was the city


is

upon the mountain Chimaera; which mountain


god of
fire.

was sacred
which
Az-el
nifies
:

to the

Phaselis
is

a compound of Phi,

in the

Amonian language

a mouth or opening, and of

another

name
fire.

for Orus, the

god of

light.

Phaselis sig-

a chasm of

The reason why


Chimaera

this

name was imposed

may be
ur, the

seen in the history of the place.


in fiery eruptions.
is

All the country around

abounded

compound of Cham-

name

of the deity, whose altar stood towards the top of

the mountain.

But the most

satisfactory idea of
its vicinity,

it

may be

ob-

tained from coins which were struck in


larly describe it as

and particu-

a hollow and inflamed mountain."

Bryakt.

THE THEOGONY.

137

She, grasp'd by forced embrace of Orthrus, gave

Depopulating Sphinx, the mortal plague

Of Cadmian

nations

and the

lion bare

Named

of Nemaea.
:

Him

Jove's glorious spouse


his secret lair

To

fierceness rear'd

and placed

Among
The

Nemaea's

hills,

the pest of men.

There lurking

in his haunts

he long ensnared

roving tribes of man, and held stern sway


:

O'er cavern'd Tretum

o'er the

mountain heights
:

Of

Apesantus, and Nemaea's wilds

Till strong Alcides quell'd his gasping strength.

Now

Ceto, in embrace with Phorcys, bare


:

Her youngest born

the dreadful snake, that couch'd

In the dark earth's abyss, his wide domain,

Holds

o'er the

golden apples wakeful guard.


rivers forth,

Tethys to Ocean brought the


Depopulating Sphinx.]
fall

The Nile begins

to rise during the


is

of

the Abyssinian rains;


:

when

the sun

vertical

over

iEthiopia

and
is

its

waters are at their height of innundation


the signs

when
seem

the sun
to

in

Leo and Virgo.

The Egyptians

have invented a colossal representation of the two

zodiacal signs, which served as a water-mark to point out the


.risings

of the Nile

and

this

biform

emblem of a

virgin

and

lion constituted the

famous aenigma.

Tethys to Ocean brought the rivers forth.]


situated

When

towers were

upon eminences fashioned very round, they were by the


called

Amonians

Tith, answering to Titthos in Greek.

They

: :

138

REMAINS OF HESlOD.
roll'd
:

In whirlpool waters

Eridanus

Deep-eddied, and Alpheus, and the Nile


Fair-flowing Ister, Strymon, and Meander,

Phasis and Rhesus

Achelous bright
:

"With silver-circled tides

Heptaporus,

And

Nessus

Haliacmon and Rhodius

Granicus and the heavenly Simois


iEsapus, Hermus, and Sangarius vast

Pen e us, and Caicus smoothly flowing

And Ladon, and


Then bore

Parthenius, and Evenus

Ardescus, and Scamander the divine.


she a blest race of Naiad nymphs,

Who

with the rivers and the king of day

O'er the wide earth claim the shorn locks of youth

Their portion

this

and

privilege

from Jove.
:

Admete, Pitho, Doris and Ianthe

were so denominated from their resemblance to a woman's breast,

and were particularly sacred


light,

to

Orus and

Osiris, the deities of


title

who by

the Grecians were represented under the the ancient goddess of the sea,

of

Apollo.
else

Tethys,

was nothing
it

but an old tower upon a mount.

On

this

account

was

called Tith-is, the

mount of

fire.

Thetis seems to have been a

transposition of the

same name, and was probably a Pharos, or

fire-tower, near the sea.

Bryant.
It

Claim the shorn

locks.~\

was the custom of the Greeks

for

adult youths to poll their hair as an offering to Apollo and the


Rivers.

THE THEOGONY.
Urania heavenly-fair
:

139

and Clymene

Prymno,

Electra,

and Calliroe:

Rhodia, Hippo, and Pasithoe:


Plexaure, Clytie, and Melobosis:
Idya, Thoe,

Xeuxo, Galaxaure:

And
Of

amiable Dione, and Circeis


soft,

nature

and Polydora

fair

And

Ploto, with the bright dilated eyes


Ploto, with the bright dilated eyes.]

And
that
is,

Boa>rj?,

ox-eyed

with eyes

artificially enlarged.

Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxiii.

6, speaks of the stibium or as to the eye-lid


:

antimony as an astringent, especially

and mentions that it was called platyophthalmum,


its

eye-opener: from

forming an ingredient in the washes of


effect

women,
tom.
li

as

it

had the
lid.

of opening or dilating the eye by


retain the cus-

contracting the

The modern Greek women

Of

the few that I have seen with an open veil or without

one, the faces were remarkable for

symmetry and
:

brilliant

com:

plexion

with the nose straight and small


:

the eyes vivacious


partly

either black or dark-blue

having the eyebrows,


art,

from

nature, and as
nose.

much from

very

full,

and joining over the


line

They have a custom,

too, of

drawing a black
oil

with

a mixture of powder of antimony and


eye-lashes in order to give the eye

above and under the

more

fire."

Dallaway,

Constantinople Ancient and Modern.

Strutt, in the general introduction to his

" View of the Dress

and Habits of the People of England," observes that the Moorish


ladies in Barbary, the

women

in

Arabia Felix, and those about

Aleppo continue the same


of the eye-lid.

traditional

custom of tinging the inside

Dr. Russel describes the operation as effected


silver;

" by means of a short smooth probe of ivory, wood, or

HO
Perseis, Ianira,

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
and Acaste

Xanthe, the sweet Petraea, saffron-robed


Telestho, Metis, and

Eurynome

And

Crisie,

and Menestho, and Europa:

Lovely Calypso, Amphiro, Eudora:

charged with a powder named the black Kohol.


is

This substance
is

a kind of lead-ore brought from Persia


it

and

prepared by

roasting

in a quince,

an apple, or a
it

truffle

then, adding a few

drops of
marble.

oil

of almonds,

is

ground to a subtile powder on a


dipped in water, a
part
is

The probe being


is

first

little

of the

powder

sprinkled on
to the eye,

it.

The middle
eye-lids

then applied hoit,

rizontally

and the

being shut upon

the

probe

is

drawn through between them, leaving the


all

inside tinged,

and a black rim

round the edge.

The Kohol

is

used likewise
:

by the men

but not so generally by

way of ornament merely


It is

the practice being

deemed rather

effeminate.

supposed to

strengthen the sight and prevent various disorders of the eye."

Natural History
Mr.

of Aleppo,

vol.

i. iii.

22.

Gifford, in the notes to his admirable version of Juvenal,

supposes the effeminate practice of the .Roman fops to assimilate


with this
:

in the passage

which he translates,

Some with a

tiring-pin their eye-brows dye,

Till the full arch gives lustre to the eye.

Sat.

ii.

67.

Juvenal,

however, mentions only the painting of the eye-

brows

unless

by the epithet tremulous, trementes, which he

applies to the eyes, he

means

to intimate the

whole operation,

and the eye-ball quivering under the application of the needle. In the second book of Kings, ix. 30, when it is said " Jezebel
painted her face," the Septuagint has
eyes
:

it,

" she antimonized her

" Eg-i/^fx^aro rug

of8a}s uu; aimj?.


t

THE THEOGONY.
Asia,

141

and Tyche, and Ocyroe


Styx, the chief of oceanic streams.

And

The
The

daughters these of Tethys and of Ocean,


:

eldest-born

for

more untold remain

Three-thousand graceful Oceanides


Long-stepping tread the earth
:

or far and wide

Dispersed, they haunt the glassy depth of lakes,

glorious sisterhood of goddess birth.


rivers also, yet untold,

As many

Rushing with hollow-dashing echoes, rose


Long-stepping tread the earth.]
their female epithets,

The Greeks,

as appears

from

were very attentive to the form of the


:

ankle, and the

manner of walking

and a long step, no


figure,

less

than a well-turned ankle, as implying a tallness of


thought characteristic of graceful beauty.

was

The glassy depth of


sacred
lity
:

lakes.]

All fountains were esteemed

but especially those which had any preternatural quaIt

and abounded with exhalations.

was an universal notion


effluvia
;

that

a divine energy proceeded from the

and that the

persons
quality.

who

resided in their vicinity were gifted with a prophetic

Fountains of this nature,

from the divine influence

with which they were supposed to abound, the Amonians styled

Ain-omphe, or oracular fountain.


tracted to numphe, a
:

These terms the Greeks con-

an

inferior

nymph and supposed such a person to be goddess who presided over waters. Hot springs were
Another name
for
;

imagined to be more immediately under the inspection of the

nymphs.

these places

was Ain-Ades, the manner was changed

fountain of
to Naiades,

Ades or the Sun


a species of

which

in like

deities

of the same class.

Bryant,

142

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
awful Tethys: but their every

From
Is

name

not for mortal


;

man

to

memorate,

Arduous

yet

known

to all the borderers round.

Now

Thia, yielding to Hyperion's arms,

Bare the great Sun and the refulgent

Moon

And Morn,

that scatters wide the rosy light

To men

that walk the earth,


is

and deathless gods

Whose mansion
With

yon ample firmament.

Eurybia, noble goddess, blending love


Crius, gave the great Astraeus birth,

Pallas the god,

and Perses, wise

in lore.

The Morning

to Astraeus bare the

Winds

Of spirit untamed:

East,

West, and South, and North


.

East, West, and South, and North.]


lity

Le Clerc and

the genera-

of editors suppose Hesiod to omit the east-wind entirely


apys^su

and consider

as an epithet, signifying swift or serene

as the term is so used by


line of the

Homer.

Graevius quotes a subsequent

Theogony
:

as authority for apya$-c being so used


is

by

Hesiod also
a wind
wind,
;

but there

evidence for apyern; being the


it

name of
obas

though Aulus Gellius and Pliny suppose

to be a westis

called

by the Latins Caurus.

Aristotle also, as
a.pyi<rn*

served by the Monthly Reviewer,

describes the

westerly wind, which blows from that part of the heaven in

which the sun

sets

at the

summer

solstice

and adds that by

some
from

it

is

called Olympias,

by others Iapyx.

We

see however

this very passage

of Aristotle, that the names of winds


:

were capricious and arbitrary


in Greece called the winds

and

in fact almost every district

by names

different

from those which

THE THEOGONY.
Cleaving his rapid course
:

143

a goddess thus

Embracing with a god.

Last, Lucifer

Sprang radiant from the dawn- appearing Morn

And

all

the glittering stars that gird the heaven.

Styx, ocean-nymph, with Pallas mingling love,

Bare Victory, whose


In palaces
:

feet are beautiful

and Zeal, and Strength, and Force,

Illustrious children.

Not apart from Jove


is

Their mansion

is

nor

there seat, or way,

the neighbouring district used.

The same
that

critic

observes that in

a note to the word


sychius,

rxetpav
is

(Caurus), in Alberti's edition of


cp/scn,is

He-

an

opinion

intimated
avty.o<;'.

properly an

easterly wind, aTrvMwrns

nor can there be the least doubt

of the matter, in so far as regards Hesiod.

The London Rea similar

viewer, indeed, remarks that " the omission of the wind would

be no proof of Hesiod's ignorance of


omission occurs in the Psalms.

its

existence

" Promotion cometh neither

from the

east,

nor the west, nor yet from the south."


is

But

it is
:

forgotten that Hesiod

describing the genealogy of the winds

and

it is

very inconceivable that one of the four cardinal winds

should have escaped his notice.


Trincavellus read
N03-.JH

The

editions of Stephens

and

NOTtf, BopEW Tf, HO.I Ap>?-> '/EfVptf TE

instead of apyarea)
true reading.

zsfi-psio:

and I have no doubt that

this is the

Not apart from Jove


Their mansion
is.

So Callimachus^.

Hymn

to Jupiter

: :

144

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
in his glory sits
is,

But he before them

Or

passes forth
is

and where the Thunderer

Their place

found for ever.

So devised

The nymph

of Ocean, the eternal Styx

What
To

time the Lightning-sender call'd from heaven,


all th'

And summon'd
" Hear

immortal
:

deities

broad Olympus' top


all

then thus he spake

ye gods

That god who wars with me


gifts

Against the Titans, shall retain the

Which

Saturn gave, and honours heretofore


th'

His portion midst

immortals

and whoe'er

Unhonour'd and ungifted has repined

Under Saturnian sway,


" As just
it is,

the same shall

rise,

to

honours and rewards."

Then

first

of every power eternal Styx,


careful counsels of her sire,

Sway'd by the

Stood on Olympus, and her sons beside

Her Jove

received with honour, and endowed


gifts
:

With goodly

ordain'd her the great oath

Of

deities

her sons for evermore


have made thee king above
:

No

lots

all

gods

But works of thy own hands

thy Strength and Force,

Whom

thou hast, therefore, stationed next thy throne.

Strength and Force are introduced by j^schylus as characters,


in the first scene of his

" Prometheus Chained."

::

THE THEOGONY.
Indwellers with himself.

145

Alike to

all,

Even

as

he pledged that sacred word, the god

Perform'd ; so reigns he, strong in power and might.

Now
Of

Phcebe sought the love-delighting couch


:

Cceus

so within a god's

embrace
arose to
life

Conceived the goddess.

Then
:

The

azure-robed Latona

ever mild

Gracious to

man and
first

to

immortal gods
:

Mild from the


Gentlest of
all

beginning of the world

within th' Olympian courts.

Anon

she bare Asteria, blest in fame

Whom
With

Perses to his spacious palace led,


call

That he might
Hecate.

her spouse

and she conceived


Jove

Her

o'er all others

Asteria, blest in fame.']

According to Callimachus Asteria was


:

metamorphosed
its

into the Isle of Delos

a term which alludes to


^Xcr,

appearing after having been submerged in the sea:


Asteria
is

visible.

from amp a

star.

Asteria was thy name Of old since like a star from heaven on high Thou didst leap down precipitate within
:

A fathomless
From

abyss of waters, flying

nuptial violence of Jove.

Hymn
]

to Delos.

She conceived

With Hecate.
title

Exam was a
off: alluding

of Diana, as txaro; of Apollo

from

g*a?

far

to the distance to

which the sun and moon dart

their rays.

This

146

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
with splendid
gifts
:

Hath honour d, and endow'd

With power on

earth and o'er the untill'd sea

goddess

is

represented in ancient sculptures as three females


:

joined in one, with various attributes in their hands


figure

this triple

was combined of the three characters sustained by the


:

moon

who was

Selene or

Luna

in

heaven, Diana on earth,

and Proserpine

in the subterranean regions.

Luna

is

said

by
:

Cicero to be the same as Lucina, the goddess of child-bearing

title

given also to

Diana and Juno.


office

Hecate has also assigned


This

to her

by Hesiod the

of foster-mother of children.

may be

explained partly by the reckoning of pregnant


;

women

being guided by the number of lunar periods

and partly by the

emblematic character of the moon, as an object of worship.

" The moon was a type of the ark

the sacred ship of Osiris

being represented in the form of a crescent, of which the

moon

was made an emblem.


in any degree to

Selene was* the reputed mother of the


:

world, as Plutarch confesses

which character cannot be made


Selene was the

correspond with the planet.

same

as Isis

the

same

also as

Rhea, Vesta, Cubele, and Da-

mater, or Ceres."

Bryant.
melt into each other, but at
:

These female

deities not only

last

resolve themselves into the one Zeus

so that the lunar ido-

latry is absorbed ultimately in the solar.

" The patriarch had the


a moon, and was
Strabo mentions
:

names of

Meen
all

or

Menes

which

signify

worshipped

over the east as

Deus Lunus.

several temples of this lunar god in different places

all

these

were dedicated to the same Arkite deity, called Lunus, Luna,

and Selene.

The same

deity

was both masculine and feminine

what was Deus Lunus

in one country

was Dea Luna


titles

in another.

Meen was
Osiris
;

also

one of the most ancient


as Apollo."

of the ^Egyptian

the

same

Bryant.

The sacred

bull

Apis

is

figured in the ancient coins and sculp-

THE THEOGONY.

147

Nor

less

her glory from the starry heaven,


:

Chief honour'd by immortals

and

if

one

Of Of

earthly

men performing

the due rite

victim divination, would appease

The gods

above, he calls on Hecate*

To

him, whose prayer the goddess gracious hears,


spontaneous, and to
;

High honour comes


She

him
hers.

yields all affluence

for the

power

is

Whatever gods, the sons of heaven and

earth,
all

Shared honour at the hands of Jove, o'er

Her wide

allotment stands

nor whatsoe'er
his

tures, with a crescent

moon upon

head instead of horns

by

which the great restorer of husbandry, Noah, was connected


with the ark in which he had been miraculously preserved ; and of which the lunar crescent was an emblem.

Her wide

allotment stands.]

The other gods were


:

either ce-

lestial, terrestrial,

marine, or subterranean

but the divinity of

intermixed with Luna,

Hecate pervaded heaven, earth, and the abyss, from her being Dian, and Proserpine and the sea,
:

from the moon influencing the


crifices,

tides.

She was invoked

at sa-

probably, as presiding over divination from the entrails


:

of beasts

because she was the patroness of magical


:

rites

and
se-

incantations

from such ceremonies being performed in the

crecy of night by the light of the moon.

The Greeks, on every


in the cross-ways,

new moon, were accustomed to spread a feast which was carried away by the poor: this was
supper
;"

called

" Hecate's
See

and was said

to

have been eaten by Hecate,

Aristophanes, Plutus.

l2

; ;

148

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
she held, midst the old Titan gods,

Of rank
Has

Saturn's son invaded or deprived

As was the

ancient heritage of power


:

So hers remains

e'en

from the

first

of things.

Nor Nor

is

her solitary birth reproach

less,

though singly born, her rank and power

In heaven and earth and main, but higher meed

Of

glory, since her

honour

is

from Jove.
is

She, in the greatness of her power,

nigh

With

aid to

whom

she

lists

whoe'er she wills

O'er the great council of the people shines

And when
Destroying

the mailed

men

arise to

wage
lists

battle, she to

whom

she

Is present, yielding victory

and fame

And on
She
sits

the judgment-seat with awful kings


;

and when

in the gymnastic strife

Men

struggle, the propitious goddess


:

comes

Present with aid

then easily the man,

Conqueror in hardiment and strength, obtains

The

graceful wreath,

and glad-triumphing sheds

Her
vileges

solitary birth.]

This alludes to the honour and the pri-

attached by the ancients to numerous children.


said to be single in birth, as the only planet of the

The
same

moon

is

apparent size and lustre.

THE THE0G0NY.

149

A gleam of glory
She, as she
lists,

o'er his parents' days.


is

nigh to charioteers
:

Who
They

strive

with steeds

and voyagers who cleave

Through
call

the blue watery vast th' untractable way.

upon the name of Hecate*


:

With vows

and

his,

loud-sounding god of waves,


Easily at will

Earth-shaker Neptune.

The

glorious goddess yields the woodland prey


:

Abundant

easily,

while scarce they start

On
To

the mock'd vision, snatches


is

them

in flight.

She too with Hermes


herd and fold
:

propitious found

and bids increase the droves


flocks,

Innumerable of goats and woolly

gleam of glory

o'er his parents' days.]

The odes of Pindar


by the Greeks
to the

are traditional records of the glory attached

conquerors in

their

games

a glory which extended to their

parents and connexions, and even to the city in which they were
born.

Cicero describes the return from an Olympic victory as

equivalent to a

Roman

triumph.

The

victor in fact rode in a

triumphal chariot, and entered through a breach in the walls


into the city
:

which Plutarch explains

to signify that walls are

useless with such defenders.

The same

writer relates, that a


in the

Spartan meeting Diagoras,

who had been crowned


for

Olympic

games, and had seen his sons and grand-children crowned after
him, exclaimed, " Die Diagoras
!

thou canst not be a god."


will

memorial on the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks

be

found in the " Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles


Lettres," torn.
i.

286.

150

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
swells their

And

numbers or

their

numbers

thins.

And

thus, although her mother's lonely child,


th'

She midst

immortals shares

all attributes.

Her Jove

appointed nursing-mother bland

Of

babes,
lift

who

after

her to morn's broad light


:

Should

the tender lid

so
:

from the

first

The

foster-nurse of babes

her honours these.


to light

Embraced by Saturn, Rhea gave


Illustrious children.

Golden-sandal'd Juno,
Pluto strong,

Ceres,

and Vesta

who

dwells

Golden-sandal'd

Juno.~\

Juno was the same

as Iona

and she

was

particularly styled

Juno of Argus.

Argus was one of the

terms by which, the ark was distinguished.

The Grecians

called
title
:

her Hera; which was not originally a proper name, but a


the

same
" or

as

Ada

of the Babylonians

and expressed " the

Lady
as

" Queen."

She was the same as Luna or Selene, from

her connexion with the ark; and at Samos she was described
standing in a lunette, with the lunar

emblem on her head.


:

She was sometimes worshipped under the symbol of an egg


that her history had the same reference as that of Venus.

so

She

presided equally over the seas, which she was supposed to calm

or trouble.
also

Isis, Io,

and Ino were the same as Juno, and Venus


different title.

was the same deity under a

Hence

in

Laco-

nia there was an ancient statue of the goddess

styled

Venus
was

Junonia. Juno was also called Cupris, and under that

title

worshipped by the Hetrurians.

As Juno was

the

same with Iona

we need
Ceres,

not wonder at the Iris being her concomitant.

Bryant.
hence at

and

Vesta.]

Ceres was the deity of


title

fire

Cnidus she was called Cura: a

of the Sun.

The Roman

THE THEOGONY.
In mansions under earth
:

151

of ruthless heart
:

Earth-shaker Neptune, loud with dashing waves

name

Ceres, expressed by Hesychius Gerys, was by the Dorians


It

more properly rendered Garis.


city called Charis
:

was

originally the

name

of a

for

many

of the deities were erroneously

called

by the names of the places where they were worshipped.


is

Charis

Char-is, the city of

fire

the place where Orus and


after this

Hephaistus were worshipped.

It

may

seem extraor-

dinary that she should ever be esteemed the goddess of corn.

This notion arose from the Greeks not understanding their


theology.

own
:

The towers of Ceres were

P'urtain or Prutaneia

so

called from the fires

which were perpetually there preserved.


:

The Grecians

interpreted this purou tameion


corn.

and rendered what


this,

was a temple, a granary of

In consequence of

though they did not abolish the ancient usage of the place, they

made

it

a repository of grain

from whence they gave largesses

to the people.

In early times the corn there deposited seems to


:

have been

for the priests or divines

but this was only a secon-

dary use to which these places were adapted.


perly sacred towers, where a perpetual
fire

They were
It

pro-

was preserved.

was

sacred to Hestia, the Vesta of the

Romans, which was only


:

another
the

title

for

Damater

or Ceres

and the sacred hearth had

same name.

Bryant.
" Some," says Diodorus, " think that Osiris
is is

Pluto strong.]
Serapis
:

others that he

Dionusus

others

still

that he

is

Pluto

many

take him for Zeus or Jupiter, and not a few for Pan."
all titles

This was an unnecessary embarrassment, for they were


of the same god.
Pluto,

among the
;

best mythologists,

was

esteemed the same as Jupiter

and indeed the same as Proserpine,

Ceres, Hermes, Apollo, and every other deity.

Bryant.

Earth-shaker Neptune.]

The

patriarch

was commemorated

152

REMAINS OF HESIOD,
Jupiter th' all-wise
;
:

And

the sire of gods

And men
The wide

beneath whose crashing thunder-peal

earth rocks in elemental war.


as issuing

But them,

from the sacred

womb
huge

They touch'd
Devour
:

the mother's knees, did Saturn

revolving in his troubled thought


Under the character of Neptune
:

by the name of Poseidon.

Genesius he had a temple in Argolis

hard by was a spot of

ground called the place of descent; similar to the place on

mount Ararat, mentioned by Josephus


from the same ancient history.
Argolis was, that
it

and undoubtedly named


tradition of the people of

The

was so

called because in this spot


in

Danaus

made

his first descent

from the ship

which he came over.

In Arcadia was a temple of" Neptune looking-out." Poseidon god


of the sea was also reputed the chief god, the deity of
fire.

This

we may
is

infer

from his priest; who was styled P'urcon.


fire

P'urcon
priest

the lord of

or light

and from the name of the

we may know

the department of the god.

other than the supreme deity, the Sun: from

He was no whom all may


is,

be supposed
like

to descend.

Hence Neptune

in the

Orphic verses

Zeus or Jupiter, styled the father of gods and men. Bryant.


tti all-wise.,]

Jupiter

In the Orphic fragments both Jove and

Bacchus are
source of
all

identified with the

Sun

which

is

described as the
is

things.
;

tioned by Lucan

Hammon, who specifies

the African Jupiter,


his having horns.

men-

These were

the lunar crescent of Apis or Osiris, the Arkite god.


triarch, his son

The pa-

Ham, and

his grandson

Chus, are reciprocally


as the ark and the

mixed with each other ;


dove
:

in the

same manner

the moon, the sun, and the typical serpent, are often
in this hieroglyphical

mixed and confounded

mythology.

THE THEOGONY.
Lest other one of beings heavenly-born

153

Usurp the kingly honours.

For from earth


his ear,

And
That

starry heaven the


it

rumour met

was doom'd by Fate, strong though he were,

To

his

own son he

should

bow down

his strength.

To
the

his

own son he should bow down


distinction

his strength.]

Although

Romans made a
titles

between Janus and Saturn they

were two

of one and the same person.

The former had the

emarkable characteristic of being the author of time, and the


god of the new year
:

the latter also was looked upon as the


tail

author of time, and held in his hand a serpent, whose


in his

was

mouth and formed a

circle

by which emblem was de-

noted the renovation of the year.


equally represented with keys in their

On
:

their coins they

were

hand and a ship near them.


the one that of an aged

Janus was described with two faces

man the other that of uncommon age with hair


;

a youthful personage. white like snow


:

Saturn as of an

but they had a notion


also said to

that he would return to infancy.

He

is

have dein-

stroyed
crease.

all

things

which however were restored with vast

Bryant.
faces of Janus, supposed
is

The

to look

to the time past

and

that which

to
:

come, evidently regard the

sera before the flood

and that

after it

and the aged and youthful visage represent the

old world and the new.

The keys may

allude to the shutting

up

the productions of the earth, and again opening them.


is

The

ship

the ark.

The

story of Saturn and the infant Jupiter involves

similar allusions.

The

old god devouring his children

signi-

ficantly points to the destruction of the

human

race.

Saturn and

Jupiter seem only separate personifications of the double visage

of Janus

and the infant Jupiter personifies the second infancy

of Saturn.

The new order of

things which took place on the

154?

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
wisdom
this fulfill'd.

Jove's

No
in

blind design

He

therefore cherish'd,
his children.

and

crooked craft

Devour'd

But on Rhea prey'd

Never-forgotten anguish.

When
sire

the time

Was

full,

and Jove, the

of gods and men,

Came

to the birth, her parents she besought,


starr'd

Earth and

Heaven, that they should counsel

yield

How

secretly the

babe

may

spring to

life

And how
They

the father's furies 'gainst his race

In subtlety devour'd

may meet

revenge

to their daughter listen'd

and complied

Unfolding what the Fates had sure decreed

Of
Of

kingly Saturn and his dauntless son

And
The

her they sent to Lyctus

to the clime

fallow'd Crete.

Now when

her time was come,

birth of Jove her youngest-born, vast Earth


to herself the

Took

mighty babe, to rear


isle

With

nurturing softness in the spacious

Of

Crete.

So came she

then, transporting

him

With

the swift shades of night, to Lyctus

first

And

thence, upbearing in her arms, conceal'd

renovation of nature

is

typified in the

dethronement of the aged

monarch by

his youthful son.

: :

THE THEOGONY.
Beneath the sacred ground, in sunless cave,

15.5

Where

shagg'dwith thick ening wood sth'Egaean mount

Impends.

Then swathing an enormous


it

stone

She placed

in the

hands of Heaven's huge son,


:

The

ancient king of gods

that stone he snatch'd

And

in his ravening breast convey'd


!

away

Wretch
His own

nor bethought him that the stone supplied


son's place
;

survivor in
:

its

room,

Unconquer'd and unharm'd

the same,

who soon

Subduing him with mightiness of arm,


Should drive him from
his state,

and reign himself

King of immortals.

Swiftly

grew the strength

And hardy
And when

limbs of that same kingly babe


the great year

had

fulfill'd its

round,

Gigantic Saturn, wily as he was,

Yet

foil'd

by Earth's considerate
and

craft,

and

quell'd

By

his son's arts

strength, released his race

The

stone he

first

disgorged, the last devour'd

This Jove on

earth's

broad surface firmly

fix'd

At Pythos

the divine, in the deep cleft


:

Of high

Parnassus

to succeeding times
to

A monument,

and miracle

man.

To succeeding times

monument.

The

stone,

156

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
brethren of his father too he loosed,

The

Whom
They

Heaven,

their sire,

had

in his frenzy

bound

the

good deed

in grateful

memory bore

And

gave the thunder, and the burning bolt,


lightning,

And
Hid

which vast Earth had heretofore


In these confides

in her central caves.

The

god, and reigns o'er deities and men.

Iapetus ascends the bed of love

With Clymene,
She brought

fair-ankled
:

ocean-nymph

forth Atlas

her undaunted son

Glorying Mencetius and Prometheus vers'd


In changeful turns and shifting subtleties
:

And Epimetheus

of unwary

mind
evil curse

Who from
To
The

old time

became an
;

man's inventive race

for

he received

clay-form'd virgin-woman sent from Jove.

All-seeing Jove struck with his smouldering flash

which Saturn was supposed

to

have swallowed instead of a


:

child,

stood according to Pausanias at Delphi

it

was esteemed very


upon
it

sacred, and used to have libations of wine poured

daily

and upon

festivals

was otherwise honoured.


this.

The purport of
was
for a long
:

the

above history I take to have been

It

time

the custom to offer children at the altar of Saturn


cess of time they
pillar, before

but in pro-

removed

it,

and

in. its

form erected a stone


sacrifices

which they made their vows, and offered

of another nature.

Bryant.

'

THE THEOGONY.
Haughty Mencetius, and
cast

157
to hell

down

Shameless in crime and arrogant in strength.


Atlas, enforced

by stem

necessity,
earth's far borders,

Props the broad heaven: on

where

Full opposite th' Hesperian virgins sing

With
Aye

shrill

sweet voice, he rears his head and hands


:

unfatiguable

Heaven's counsellor

So doom'd

his lot.

But with enduring chains


wiles,

He bound

Prometheus, train'd in shifting

Props the broad heaven.] " This Atlas," says Maximus Tyrius,

" is a mountain, with a

cavity of a tolerable height, which the


:

natives esteem both as a temple and a deity

and

it is

the great

object by which they swear, and to which they pay their devotions."

The cave
:

in the

mountain was certainly named Coel,

the house of god

equivalent to Ccelus of he

Romans

and

this

was the heaven which Atlas was supposed

to support.

Bryant.

He hound

Prometheus.]

Prometheus, who renewed the race

of men, was Noos, or Noah.


the gods, constructed the

Prometheus raised the

first altar to

first ship,

and transmitted to posterity

many

useful

inventions.

He was

supposed to have lived at the

time of the deluge, and to have been guardian of iEgypt at that


season.

He was

the

same as

Osiris, the great

husbandman, the
Prometheus
is

planter of the vine, and inventor of the plough.


said to have been exposed on

mount Caucasus, near

Colchis,

with an eagle placed over him, preying on his heart.

These

strange histories are undoubtedly taken from the symbols and

devices which were carved upon the front of the ancient

AmoOrus

nian temples, and especially those of iEgypt.


vulture were the insignia of that country.

The

eagle and

We

are told by

Apollo that a heart over burning coals was an emblem of iEgypt.

158

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
galling shackles fixing

With

him

aloft

Midway a column.

Down

he sent from high

His eagle hovering on expanded wings

She gorged
Immortal
;

his liver
for
it

still

beneath her beak


life,

sprang with

and grew

In the night-season, and repair'd the waste

Of what

the wide-wing'd bird devour'd by day.


fair

But her the

Alcmena's hardy son

Slew ; from Prometheus drove the cruel plague,

And

freed

him from

his pangs.

Olympian Jove,
;

Who reigns on high,


That thence

consented to the deed

yet higher glory might arise,

O'er peopled earth, to Hercules of Thebes

And

in his honour, Jove


felt

now made
'gainst

to cease

The wrath he

before

him who

strove

In wisdom e'en with Saturn's mighty son.

Of

yore when

strife

arose for sacrifice,


walls,

Twixt gods and men, within Mecona's


Prometheus
The
wilful parted a

huge ox
and many other poetical

history of Tityus, Prometheus,

personages was certainly taken from hieroglyphics misunderstood

and badly explained.

Prometheus was worshipped by the Col-

chians as a deity, and had a temple and high place upon mount

Caucasus

and the device upon the portal was ^Egyptian, an

eagle over a heart.

Bryant.
or.]

Parted a huge

Pliny,

book

vii.

ch, 56, speaks of

Pro-

:;

THE THEOGONY.

159

And

set before the

god

so tempting
:

him
laid
flesh

With purpose

to deceive

for here

he

The unctuous

substance, entrails,

and the

Close cover'd with the belly of the hide

There the white bones he

craftily

disposed

And

with the marrowy substance wrapt them round.


the father of the gods and
!

Then spake

men
!

" Son of Iapetus

" thou
!

famous god

How
So

partial,

friend

are thy divided shares


:

"
!

in rebuke spoke Jupiter

whose thoughts

Of wisdom

perish not.

Then answer'd him


a laugh suppress'd,

Wily Prometheus, with

And

well

remembering
!

his insidious fraud

" Hail glorious Jove

thou mightiest of the gods


:

WTio

shall

endure for ever

choose the one

Which now

the spirit in thy breast persuades."

He

spoke, revolving treachery. perish never,


first

Jove, whose thoughts the guile,


This traditionary

Of wisdom

knew

metheus as the
circumstance
is

who

slaughtered an ox.

agreeable to that passage in scriptural history,


to kill animals for

where Noah receives the divine permission


food
:

and Hesiod's

tale

of the division of the ox of the


first

may be

only a

disfigured

representation

sacrifice

after the flood.

The
is

affinity

of Iapetus, the father of Prometheus, with Japher,

very remarkable.

This confusion of personages has been


in the ancient

already noticed as

common

mythology.

160

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
:

Not unforewarn'd

and

straight his soul devised

Evil to mortals, that should surely be

He
His

raised the

snowy portion with


wroth
:

his hands,

And

felt his spirit

yea, anger seiz'd

spirit,

when he saw

the whitening bones


:

O'erlaid with cunning artifice

and thence,

E'en from that hour, the dwellers upon earth

Consume

the whitening bones,

when climbs

the smoke

Wreath'd from

their flaming altars.

Then

again

Cloud-gatherer Jove with indignation spake

" Son of Iapetus


Still,

of

all

most wise

friend

rememberest thou thy

arts of guile ?

"

So spake, incensed, the god, whose wisdom

yields

To no
The

decay

and from that very hour,


still

Remembering

the treachery, he denied

strength of indefatigable fire

To
For

all

the dwellers

upon

earth.

But him

Benevolent Prometheus did beguile


in a hollow reed

he

stole

from high

The

far-seen splendour of unwearied flame.

Then deep resentment

stung the Thunderer's soul

And
The

his heart chafed in anger,


fire

when he saw

far-gleaming in the midst of men.

And

for the flame restored,

he straight devised

THE THEOGONY.

161

mischief to mankind.

At

Jove's behest

Famed Vulcan

fashion'd from the yielding clay


likeness
:

A bashful virgin's
Of

and the maid

azure eyes, Minerva, round her waist

Clasp'd the broad zone, and dress'd her limbs in robe

Of

flowing whiteness
veil

placed upon her head

A wondrous
Of

of variegated threads
delicious wreaths

Entwined amidst her hair

verdant herbage and fresh-blooming flowers


set

And

a golden mitre on her brow framed, and with adorning hands

Which Vulcan
Wrought,

at the pleasure of his father Jove.

Rich-labour'd figures, marvellous to sight,

Enchased the border

forms of beasts that range


of the rolling deep
:

The

earth,

and

fishes

Of

these innumerable he there

had graven

And

exquisite the beauty of his art


in these wonders, like to animals

Shone

Moving

in breath, with vocal sounds of


his plastic
this

life.

Now when
Had

hand instead of good

framed

beauteous bane, he led her forth

Where were

the other gods and mingled men.


in her graced array,

She went exulting

Which

Pallas, daughter of a

mighty

sire,

; :

162

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
her eyes of azure, had bestow'd.

Known by

On

gods and

men

in that

same moment

seiz'd

The

ravishment of wonder, when they saw


deceit, th' inextricable snare.

The deep

From

her the sex of tender


is

woman

springs

Pernicious

the race

the

woman

tribe

Dwell upon

earth, a

mighty bane to men

No mates for wasting want, but luxury And as within the close-roof'd hive, the
Helpers of
sloth, are
till

drones,

pamper'd by the bees


sinks the

These

all

the day,

ruddy sun,

Pernicious
History of

is

the race.~\
i.

Lord Kaimes,

in his sketches of the

Man,

6.

observes that in the more polished age


treated with but
little

of Greece
their

women were
:

consideration by
to the artful

husbands

and female influence was confined

accomplishments of courtezans.
earlier sera of society.

But

it

was very

different at

an

"

Women

in the

Homeric age/' remarks


in

Mr. Mitford, " enjoyed more freedom, and communicated more


business and

amusement among men, than


;

in after-ages has

been

usual in those eastern countries


flourishing

far

more than

at Athens, in the

times

of

the

commonwealth.

Equally,

indeed,

Homer's elegant eulogies and Hesiod's severe sarcasm prove

women

to

have been in their days important members of society."


this description

Milton has imitated

of the

infelicities

sup-

posed to be produced by woman-kind, in a prophetic complaint,

which comes with beautiful propriety from the


and which
with
his

lips

of

Adam

own domestic unhappiness enabled him

to express

feeling.

THE THEOGONY.

163

Haste on the wing, " their murmuring labours ply,"

And

still

cement the white and waxen comb


hive,

Those lurk within the cover'd

and reap
toil

With
Such

glutted
evil

maw

the fruits of others'

did the Thunderer send to

man

In woman's form, and so he gave the sex,


111

helpmates of intolerable
ill

toils.

Yet more of

instead of

good he gave

The man who shunning wedlock

thinks to shun

The vexing

cares that haunt the woman-state,

And

lonely waxes old, shall feel the want


to foster his declining years
his life

Of one

Though not

be needy, yet

his death

Shall scatter his possessions to strange heirs,

And
Be

aliens

from

his blood.

Or

if his lot

marriage, and his spouse of modest fame,


ill

Congenial to his heart, e'en then shall

For ever struggle with the

partial good,

And

cling to his condition.

But the man,

Who gains the woman of


Inevitable sorrow
:

injurious kind,

Lives bearing in his secret soul and heart


ills

so deep

As

all

the balms of medicine cannot cure.


it is

Therefore

not lawful to elude

164

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
eye of Heaven, nor

The

mock

th'

Omniscient Mind.

For not Prometheus, the benevolent,


Gould shun Heaven's heavy wrath
:

and vain were

all

His

arts of various

wisdom

vain to 'scape

Necessity, or loose the

mighty chain.

When
And

Heaven

their sire 'gainst Cottus, Briareus,

Gyges,

felt his

moody anger

chafe

Within him,

sore

amazed with

that their strength

Immeasurable? their aspect

fierce,

and bulk

Gigantic, with a chain of iron force

He bound

them down

and

fix'd their dwelling-place


:

Beneath the spacious ground

beneath the ground


:

They dwelt
There

in pain

and durance

in th' abyss

sitting,

where

earth's utmost bound'ries end.

Full long oppress'd with mighty grief of heart

They brooded

o'er their

woes

but them did Jove

Saturnian, and those other deathless gods

Whom fair-hair'd
By

Rhea bare

to Saturn's love,

policy of Earth, lead forth again


light.

To

For she

successive all things told

How with
With
toil

the giant brethren they should win

Conquest and splendid glory.


soul-harrowing
:
:

Long

they fought

they the deities

Titanic and Saturnian

each to each

THE THEOGONY.
Opposed,
in valour of

165

promiscuous war.

From Of

Othrys' lofty summit warr'd the host


:

glorious Titans

from Olympus they, The


host
]

Of

glorious Titans.

The

giants,

whom
re-

Abydenus makes the

builders of Babel, are

by other writers

presented as the Titans.

They
:

are said to have received their

name from
worship.

their

mother Titaea

by which we are

to understand

that they were

denominated from their religion and place of


ancient altars consisted of a conical
hill

The

of earth,
It

in the shape of a
is

woman's

breast.

Titaea

was one of

these.

a term compounded of Tit-aia, and signifies literally a breast

of earth.

These

altars

were also called Tit-an, and Tit-anis,

from the great fountain of night, styled

An

and Anis:

hence

many

places were called Titanis and Titana where the worship

of the sun prevailed.

By

these giants and Titans are always

meant the sons of

Ham

and Chus.

That the sons of Chus were

the chief agents both in erecting the tower of Babel, and in

maintaining principles of rebellion,

is

plain

for it is

said of

Nirarod, the son of Chus, that " the beginning of his kingdom

was Babel."

The

sons of

Chus would not submit

to the divine
:

dispensation in the original disposition of the several families

and Nimrod, who

first

took upon him regal state, drove Ashur


in the higher

from his demesnes, and forced him to take shelter


parts of Mesopotamia.

This was their

first

act of rebellion and

apostacy.

Their second was to erect a

lofty tower, as

a land-

mark

to repair to, as a token to direct them, and prevent their


It

being scattered abroad.

was an idolatrous temple, erected


:

in

honour of the sun, and called the tower of Bel


from
its

as the
:

city,

consecration to the sun, was

named Bel-on

the city of

the solar god.

Their intention was to have founded a great, if


:

not an universal, empire

but their purpose was defeated by

166

REMAINS OF

HJBSIOD.

The band of

gift-dispensing deities

Whom

fair-hair'd

Rhea bore

to Saturn's love.

the confounding of their labial utterance.

By this judgment
;

they
left

were dispersed
unfinished.

the

tower was deserted

and the

city

These circumstances seem,

in great

measure, to be

recorded by the gentile writers.

They add,

that a

war soon

after

commenced between the Titans and the family of Zeuth. This was no other than the war mentioned by Moses which was
;

carried on

by four kings of the family of Shem against the sons

of

Ham

and Chus.

The

dispersion from Babylonia

had weaktheir

ened the Cuthites.


dissipation,

The house of Shem took advantage of

and recovered the land of Shinar, which had been


After this success they proall their

unduly usurped by their enemies.


ceeded farther
:

and attacked the Titans in

quarters.
:

After a contest of some time they

made them

tributaries

but

upon

their rising in rebellion, after a space of thirteen years, the

confederates

made a

fresh inroad into their countries.


:

" Twelve

years they served Chedorlaomer


belled
:

and

in the thirteenth they re-

and

in the fourteenth year

came Chedorlaomer, and the

kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaims in Ashtaroth

Karnaim ; " who were no other than the Titans. They were accordingly rendered by the Seventy, " the giant brood of Ashtaroth
:

"

and the valley of the Rephaim, in Samuel,

is

trans-

lated " the valley of the Titans."

From

the sacred historians

first,

we may then infer that there were two periods of this war. The when the king of Elam and his associates laid the Rephaim
:

under contribution

the other, when, upon their rebellion, they


to obedience.
is

reduced them a second time

The

first

part

is

mentioned by several ancient writers, and


ten
years.

said to have lasted


first

Hesiod takes notice of both, but makes the

rather of longer duration


v

Ten years and more they

sternly strove in arms.

THE THEOGONY.
So waged they war soul-harrowing
:

167
each with each

Ten

years and
:

more the

furious battle join'd,

Unintermitted

nor to either host


strife

Was issue
Did

of stern

or end

alike

either stretch the limit of the war.


set before his

But now when Jove had


All things befitting
;

powers

the repast of gods

The

nectar and ambrosia, in each breast


spirit

Th' heroic

kindled

and now

all

With

nectar and with sweet ambrosia filPd,


the father of the gods and
!

Thus spake
" Hear

men
!

me

illustrious race
spirit in

of Earth and Heaven

That what the


I

my bosom

prompts

now may

utter.

Long, and day by day,

Confronting each the other, we have fought


In the second engagement the poet informs us that the Titans

were quite discomfited and ruined


thology of the Greeks, they were
tarus, at the extremity of the

and according to the myto reside in Tar-

condemned
world.

known

large
:

body of
which
is

Titanians, after their dispersion, settled in Mauritania

the region called Tartarus.

The mythologists adjudged the


This word described the West, and

Titans to the realms of night merely from not attending to the

purport of the term


it

o<{>c?.

signified also

darkness.

From

this

secbndary acceptation the


:

Titans of the

West were consigned


Greece

to the realms of night

being

situated, with respect to


ting sun.

towards the regions of the set-

Bryant.

168

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
:

For conquest and dominion

Titan gods,
Still

And we
.

the seed of Saturn.

do

ye,

Fronting the Titans in funereal war,

Show mighty
Remembering

strength

invulnerable hands

that mild friendship,

and those pangs

Remembering, when ye trod the upward way

Back

to the light

and by our counsels broke


chain,

" The burthening

and

left

the

murky gloom."

"

He spake and Oh Jove august


:

Cottus brave of soul replied


!

not darkly hast thou said


excellent thou art
:

(
r>

Nor know we not how

In counsel and in knowledge

thou hast been

Deliverer of immortals from a curse

Of

horror

by thy wisdom have we


!

risen,

Oh

kingly son of Saturn


bitter bonds,

from dark gloom


relief.

And
Of

unhoping of

Then

with persisting spirit and device


shall

prudent warfare,

we

still

assert

Thy

empire midst the


conflict

fearful fray,

and

still

" In hardy

brave the Titan foe."


all

He

said

the gods, the givers of


:

good,

Heard with acclaim


So burn'd each

nor ever

till

that hour

breast with ardour to destroy.


strife,

All on that day stirr'd up the mighty

THE THEOGONY.
Female and male
:

169

Titanic gods, and sons


;

And
Of

daughters of old Saturn

and that band


forth th' abyss

giant brethren,

whom, from

Of

darkness under earth, deliverer Jove


:

Sent up to light
Gigantic
:

grim forms and strong, with force

arms of hundred-handed gripe


:

Burst from their shoulders

fifty

heads up-sprang,

Cresting their muscular limbs.

They

thus opposed

In dreadful In
all their

conflict 'gainst the Titans stood,

sinewy hands w ielding aloft


T

Precipitous rocks.

On

th'
:

other side, alert

The Titan phalanx

closed

then hands of strength

Join'd prowess, and show'd forth the works of war.

Th' immeasurable sea tremendous dash'd

With

roaring

earth re-echoed
:

the broad heaven


reel'd

Groan'd shattering

vast

Olympus

throughout

Down
Of

to

its

rooted base beneath the rush


:

those immortals

the dark

chasm of

hell

Wielding
Precipitous rocks.

aloft
]

This, perhaps*
:

suggested to Milton the arming the angels with mountains

They

pluck'd the seated


;

hills

with

all their

load;

Rocks, waters, woods


Uplifting, bore

and by the shaggy tops

them

in their hands.

Par. Lost.

yi.

170

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
shaken with the trembling, with the tramp

Was
Of

hollow footsteps and strong battle-strokes,


measureless uproar of wild pursuit.
air

And

So they against each other through the

Hurl'd intermix'd their weapons, scattering groans

Where'er they

fell.

The

voice of armies rose

With

rallying shout through the starr'd firmament,

And

with a mighty war-cry both the hosts

Encountering closed.

Nor
;

longer then did Jove

Curb down

his force

but sudden in his soul


it

There grew dilated strength, and

was

fill'd

With

his

omnipotence

his

whole of might

Broke from him, and the godhead rush'd abroad.


The dark chasm of
Was
shaken.
:

hell
]

This

is

ex-

panded by Milton with uncommon sublimity


:

Hell heard th' insufferable noise hell saw Heaven ruining from heaven, and would have
Affrighted
:

fled

but

strict

Fate had cast too deep

Her dark

foundations, and too fast

had bound.

Book

vi.

His whole of might

Broke from him


to a higher conception of

Milton attains
:

omnipotence
he put not
:

in the passage
forth,

Yet half

in strength

but check'd

His thunder in mid-volley

for

he meant

Not
There
is,

to destroy, but root

them out of heaven.

however, nothing in Milton which equals in sublimity

THE THEOGONY.

171
flash'd

The

vaulted sky, the

mount Olympus,
;

With

his continual presence

for

he pass'd

Incessant forth, and lighten'd where he trod.

Thrown from

his nervous grasp the lightnings flew

Reiterated swift ; the whirling flash

Cast sacred splendour, and the thunderbolt


Fell.

Then on

every side the foodful earth


far

Roar'd in the burning flame, and

and near

The
Yea

trackless depth of forests crash'd with fire.

the broad earth burn'd red,

the floods of Nile


sea.

Glow'd, and the desert waters of the

Round and around


Jloll'd the

the Titans' earthy forms

hot vapour, and on fiery surge

Stream'd upward, swathing in one boundless blaze

The purer

air

of heaven.

Keen rush'd

the light
flash

In quivering splendour from the writhen

Strong though they were, intolerable smote

Their orbs of

sight,

and with bedimming glare

the sudden expansion of power in the soul of the deity


/otfv

zAaf
evi-

(t*6eo;

ttXhvto

<f>fEve?.

The plan of

the battle of angels


:

is

dently built

on that of the battle of giants

the Messiah, like


;

Hesiod's Jove, coming forth to decide the contest


before

and sending

him

thunderbolts
is

and plagues.

Milton's magnificent

imagery of the chariot


phet Ezekiel.

borrowed from the vision of the pro-

172

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Scorch'd up their blasted vision.

Through the void

Of

Erebus, the preternatural flame


fire

Spread, mingling

with darkness.

But

to see

With human

eye and hear with ear of

man

Had
Met

been, as on a time the heaven and earth


hurtling in mid-air
:

as nether earth

Crash'd from the centre, and the wreck of heaven


Through
the void
]

Of
is

Erebus.

xc?
to

is

here only
it

a gulf or void.

Le Clerc quotes Aristophanes


:

show that

the vacuity of air

but the conflagration of air has already


is

been described.

Graevius

undoubtedly right in interpreting


:

it

the subterraneous abyss, or Erebus

in

which sense

it

is after-

wards used by Hesiod

when
205

the Titans are said to dwell

" be-

yond the obscure chaos," or chasm.


acceptation, iEneid.
vi.
:

Virgil uses chaos in this

Ye

silent shades
!

Oh Chaos
So
pine
:

hoar

and Phlegethon profound


x.

Pitt.

also Ovid,

Metamorph.
you by those

Orpheus

to Pluto

and Proser-

I call

sights so full of fear

This chaos vast; these silent kingdoms drear

The heaven and earth

Met

hurtling in mid-air.

Milton, Para-

dise Lost,

book

ii

Nor was
With

his ear less pealed

noises loud and ruinous

than

if this

frame

Of heaven were
The

falling,

and these elements

In mutiny had from their axle torn


steadfast earth.

THE THEOGONY.
Fell ruining

173

from high.

Not

less,

when gods

Grappled with gods, the shout and clang of arms

Commingled, and the tumult roar'd from heaven.


Shrill rush'd the hollow winds,

and roused throughout

A shaking and a gathering dark of dust


Crushing the thunders from the clouds of
air,

Hot

thunderbolts and flames, the fiery darts


:

Of
Of

Jove

and

in the midst of either host


their blast the cry confused

They bore upon


battle,

and the shouting.

For the din

Tumultuous of that
Rose without bound.

sight- appalling strife

Stern strength of hardy proof


till

Wreak'd there
But
first,

its

deeds,

weary sank the

fight.

array'd in battle, front to front,

Full long they stood, and bore the brunt of war.

Amid

the foremost, towering in the van,


Briareus,

The war-unsated Gyges,

And

Cottus, bitterest conflict

waged

for they

The war-unsated Gyges.]

Hesiod has confounded the history


to have

by supposing the Giants and Titans


sons.

been

different per:

He

accordingly makes

them oppose each other


all

and even

Cottus, Briareus,
as Titans, are by

and Gyges, whom


him introduced

other writers mention

in opposition,
is

and described as
to the pur-

of another family.
pose,

His description

however much

and the

first

contest and dispersion are plainly alluded to.

Bayajjt.

174*

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Successive thrice a hundred rocks in air

HurPd from
The Titan

their sinewy grasp

with missile storm

host o'er shadowing, them they drove,

Vain-glorious as they were, with hands of strength

O'ercoming them, beneath

th'

expanse of earth
:

And bound

with galling chains


is

so far beneath

This earth, as earth

distant

from the sky

So deep the space

to

darksome Tartarus.

brazen anvil rushing from the sky


thrice three days
this earth,
till

Through

would

toss in airy whirl,


:

Nor touch

the tenth sun arose

Or down
Nor
till

earth's

chasm

precipitate revolve,

the tenth sun rose attain the verge

Of

Tartarus.

A fence of massive brass


Milton, Par. Lost, b.
their heads
in the air
vi.

The Titan

host overshadowing .]

Themselves invaded next and on

Main promontories

flung,

which

Came
This earth.

shadowing, and oppressed whole legions arm'd.

So far beneath
] Virgil,

ZEn. vi.

577

The gaping

gulf low to the centre


is

lies,
:

And
The

twice as deep as earth


rivals

distant from the skies

of the gods, the Titan race,


roll

Here, singed with lightning,

within th' unfathom'd space.

_
Of
Tartarus.

_____

Dryden.
The verge

The

ancients had
ter-

a notion that the earth was a widely extended plain, which

THE THEOGONY.
Is forged

175
is

around

around the pass


;

rolTd

A night of
Impend

triple darkness

and above

the roots of earth and barren sea.


in murkiest

There the Titanic gods


Lie hidden
:

gloom

such the cloud-assembler's will

There

in

a place of darkness, where vast earth


:

Has end

from thence no egress open

lies

Neptune's huge hand has closed with brazen gates

The mouth

a wall environs every

side.

There Gyges, Cottus, high-souled Briareus,


Dwell
vigilant
:

the faithful sentinels


Successive there

Of

iEgis-bearer Jove.

minated abruptly in a vast

clift

of immeasurable descent.

At

the bottom was a chaotic pool, which so far sunk beneath the
confines of the world, that, to express the depth and distance,

they imagined an anvil of iron, tossed from the top, could not
reach
it
:

in ten days.

This mighty pool was the great Atlantic

ocean

and these extreme parts of the earth were Mauritania


:

and Iberia

for in

each of these countries the Titans resided.

Bryant.
This explains the introduction of Atlas before the gates of Tartarus
:

Guietus

is

therefore in error when, not being able to ac-

count for this situation of Atlas, he marks the passage as supposititious.

Milton's classical reading appears in his admeasurement of the


distance which the rebel angels passed in their
fall

from heaven

Nine days they


Received them.

fell:

the tenth the yawning gulf

176

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
Earth, and darksome Tartarus,

The dusky
The
sterile

Ocean, and the starry Heaven,

Arise and end, their source and boundary.

drear and ghastly wilderness, abhorr'd


;

E'en by the gods

a vast vacuity
slow-circling year

Might none the space of one

Touch

the firm

soil,

that portal enter'd once,

But him the whirls of vexing hurricanes


Toss to and
fro.

E'en by immortals loathed

Arise and end.]

Seneca, Hercules Frantic

Rank with corruption's moss the sterile vast Of that abyss th' unsightly earth is numb'd
:

In

its

eternal barren hoariness

The dismal end of things The limits of the world


:

Air moveless hangs with clinging weight above

And black night brooding sits Upon the lifeless universe.

drear and ghastly wilderness.]

Homer,

II.

xx.

A dismal wilderness
Hoary with
desolation
:

which the gods

Behold, and shuddering turn their eyes away.

But him
Toss to

the whirls of vexing hurricanes


]

and fro.
I venn' in luogo d'ogni luce

Dante,

Inferno,

canto quinto

muto

Che mughia, come

fa

mar per tempesta,


:

Se da contrarii venti se combattuto

'

: :

THE THEOGONY.
This prodigy of horror.

177

There too stand

The mansions

drear of gloomy Night, o'erspread


:

With

blackening vapours

arid before the

doors

Atlas upholding heaven his forehead rears,

And

indefatigable hands.

There Night
still

And Day,
The

near passing, mutual greeting

Exchange, alternate as they glide athwart


brazen threshold vast.
issues
;

This enters, that

Forth

nor the two can one abode

La bufera infernale, che mai non resta, Mena gli spiriti con la sua rapina,
Voltando
et

percuotendo

gli

molesta.

They reach a Which howls

spot, void of all ray of light,

as seas in storms,

where winds opposing

fight

The The

hellish whirlwind, never resting, hurls

hovering spirits snatch'd upon

its

whirls

And

vexing smites, and eddying turns them round.


this

Milton seems to have conceived from


his idea of

passage of Hesiod
ii.

Satan

falling

down
:

the chaotic void, book

A vast vacuity

all

unawares,

Fluttering his pennons vain,

plumb down he drops


:

Ten thousand fathoms deep

and

to this

hour

Down
The

had been

falling,

had

not,

by

ill

chance,

strong rebuff of

some tumultuous cloud


nitre hurried

Instinct with fire

and

him

As many
The brazen

miles aloft.

Alternate as they glide athzcart


threshold.
]

Milton, Par. Lost,

vi.

There

is

a cave

Within the mount of God,

fast

by

his throne,

178

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
constrain.

At once

This passes forth and roams


;

The round
Till the

of earth

that in the mansion waits,


travel

due season of her

come.
light

Lo

from the one the far-discerning


earthly dwellers
;

Beams upon

but a cloud
:

Of

pitchy blackness veils the other round

Pernicious Night : aye-leading in her hand


Sleep, Death's half-brother
:

sons of gloomy Night

There hold they

habitation,

Death and Sleep

Dread

deities

nor them the shining Sun


contemplates,

E'er with his

beam

when he climbs
descends.

The cope

of heaven, or

when from heaven

Of

these the one glides gentle o'er the space

Where

light

and darkness

in perpetual

round

Lodge and dislodge by

turns,

which makes through heaven

Grateful vicissitude, like day and night

Light issues forth, and at the other door

Obsequious darkness enters,

till

her hour

To

veil the heaven.

Sleep, Death's half brother.']

Virg. iEn.

vi.

278

Here Toils and Death, and Death's half-brother Sleep,

Forms

terrible to view, their sentry keep.

Dryden.

Nor them
With

the shining
^
:

Sun
]

E'er with his beam contemplates.


clouds and darkness veil'd
his

on

whom

Odyssey,
the Sun
:

xi.

14

Deigns not to look with

beam-darting eye

Or when he

climbs the starry arch, or

when
Cowper.

Earthward he slopes again

his westering wheels.

THE THEOGONY.

179

Of
Of

earth and broad expanse of ocean waves,

Placid to man.
iron
;

The

other has a heart

yea, the heart within his breast

Is brass,

unpitying
:

whom

of

men he

grasps

Stern he retains

e'en to immortal

gods

foe.

The

hollow- sounding palaces

Of

Pluto strong the subterranean god,


stern Proserpina, there full in front
:

And

Ascend

a grisly dog, implacable,


To immortal gods

A foe.
destroying the

Probably from his

human

favourites of the gods,


to mortal

and the sons of the


:

goddesses

who have descended

amours
;

as in the in-

stances of Hyacinthus, the

favourite of Apollo

and Memnon,

the son of Aurora

whose death and

burial are described with

such romantic fancy in Quintus Calaber, Post-Homerics, or Supplemental Iliad.

And

stern Proserpina.]

Many

of the temples of Ceres were deor Proserpine,

dicated to the deity under the

name of Persephone
;

who was supposed


misinterpreted
the

her daughter

but they were in reality the

same personage. Persephone was


virgin or
title

styled

Cora ; which the Greeks


This was the same as

damsel.
;

Cura,
called

a feminine
at

of the Sun

by which Ceres also was


gentle Proserpine

Cnidos.

However mild and

may
In

have been represented in her virgin state by the poets, yet her
tribunal seems in

consequence of

this

many we

places to have been very formidable.


find her, with

Minos and Rhadamanthus,

condemned to the shades below as an infernal inquisitor. Nonnus says, " Proserpine armed the Furies " the notion of which
:

Furies

arose from the cruelties practised in the Prutaneia, or

N2

180

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
:

Holds watch before the gates


Is his, malicious
:

a stratagem
there,

them who enter

With
But

tail

and bended ears he fawning soothes


not that they with backward step

suffers
:

Repass

whoe'er would issue from the gates

Of

Pluto strong and stern Proserpina,


;

For them with marking eye he lurks


Springs from his couch, and
pitiless

on them

devours.

There, odious to immortals, dreadful Styx


Inhabits
:

refluent Ocean's eldest-born


for ever dwells

She from the gods apart

In far-re-echoing mansions, with arch'd roofs

Of

loftiest

rock o'erhung
They were

and

all

around
;

fire-temples.

originally only priests of fire


hellish tormentors.

but were

at last ranked

among the

Herodotus speaks
fearful

of a Prutaneion in Achaia Pthiotic, of which he gives a


account.

No
:

person, he says, ever entered the precincts, that

returned
seized

whatever person strayed that way was immediately


priests

upon by the

and

sacrificed.

Bryant.
roofs
] is

With arch'd

Of

loftiest

rock o'erhung.

Not

far

from the
I have

ruins (of

Nonacrum, a town of Arcadia,)


This water

a lofty

cliff:

seen none that ascended to such a height.


the declivity.
It is deadly to
is

A stream distils from


Pausanias,

denominated Styx by the Greeks.

man and

to all animals whatever.

Arcadics, b.

viii.

Le

Clerc supposes an opinion to have existed, that a person


:

wrongfully accused might securely drink the water of Styx

and

THE THEOGONY.

181

The

silver

columns lean upon the


Iris,

skies.

Swift-footed

nymph

of

Thaumas

born,

Takes with no frequent embassy her way


O'er the broad main's expanse, when haply
strife

Be

risen,

and midst the gods dissension sown


be among
th'

And

if there

Olympian race
Iris

Who falsehood utters,


To
The

Jove sends

down

bring the great oath in a golden ewer


far-famed water, from steep, sky- cap t rock

Distilling in cold stream.

Beneath wide Earth


river-head,

Abundant from the sacred


conceives Hesiod to

the same time that they

mean that the gods drank of the water at made a libation, and if they took a false

oath, were convicted by the lethargic properties of this noxious

stream.

Jove sends Iris down.~\


alludes
Iris,
:

To

this

covenant (with Noah) Hesiod

he

calls

it

the great oath.

He
to

says that this oath

was

or the

bow

in the

heavens

which the deity appealed

when any of

the inferior divinities were guilty of an untruth.

On

such an occasion the great oath of the gods was appointed to


fetch water from the extremities of the ocean, with

which those

were tried who had

falsified their

word.

Bryant.
construction ; but the

The words
water.

will certainly

admit of

this

context directs that the great oath be connected with the Stygian

The employment of

Iris

on the mission

is still

a remark-

able coincidence with the diluvian covenant.

The sacred river-head.]


received this
title

That

is,

the ocean

which probably

from the Nile, a river highly venerated, being


Styx
is

of old called the Oceanus.

said to be a horn, or branch

182

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
blackest night, the Stygian horn
all

Through shades of

Of

ocean flows

a tenth of

the streams

To

the dread oath allotted.

In nine streams

Circling the round of earth and the broad seas,

With

silver whirlpools

twined in

many

a maze,

It falls into the

deep

one stream alone


a mighty bane to gods.
still

Flows from the rock

Who of
Olympus

immortals, that inhabit

top'd with snow, libation pours

And

is

forsworn, he one whole year entire

of the ocean, from the ancient idea that


it:

all rivers

sprang from

Homer

II.

21

Therefore not kingly Acheloius,

Nor

yet the strength of ocean's vast profound


all rivers

Although from him


All fountains and

and

all seas,

all

wells proceed,

can boast

Comparison with Jove.

Cowper.
;

The

rivers of

Earth and Orcus were believed to communicate


vi.

thus Virgil, iEn.

658, of the Elysian

fields

In fragrant laurel groves, where Po's vast flood

From upper
,

earth rolls copious through the wood.

Libation pours
is

And

forsworn.

It

was custom-

ary to pour a libation, while taking a solemn oath.


third Iliad

Thus

in the

Then pouring from They


fill'd

the beaker to the cups

them.
!

All-glorious Jove, and ye, the powers of heaven

THE THEOGONY.
Lies reft of breath
:

183

nor yet approaches once

The
But

nectar 'd and ambrosial sweet repast


still

reclines

on the spread
;

festive

couch

Mute, breathless

and a mortal lethargy


but, his

Overwhelms him

malady absolved

With
More

the great round of the revolving year,


ills

on

ills afflictive

seize

nine years

From
His

ever-living deities remote


in council
till

lot is cast:

nor in

feast
full

Once joins

he,

nine years entire are

The

tenth again he mingles with the blest

Societies,

who

fill

th'

Olympian
deities of

courts.

So great an oath the

heaven

Decreed the water of eternal Styx,

The ancient stream

that sweeps with wandering waves

A rugged region
And darksome

where of dusky Earth,

Tartarus, and

Ocean

waste,

And
And

starry

Heaven, the source and boundary


:

Successive rise and end

a dreary wild

ghastly

e'en

by

deities abhorr'd.
rise
;

There gates resplendent

the threshold brass

Whoso
So be

shall violate this contract first,

their blood, their children's

and

their

own,

Pour'd out, as this libation on the ground.

Cowper.

184

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
;

Immoveable
Self-framed.

on deep foundations

fix'd

Before them the Titanic gods


th'

Abide, without

assembly of the Blest,

Beyond

the gulf of darkness.


th' auxiliaries

There beneath
renown'd

The

ocean- roots,

Of Jove who

rolls the

hollow-pealing thunder,

Cottus and Gyges in near mansions dwell

But

He

that shakes the shores with dashing surge

Hailing him son, gave Briareus as bride

Cymopolia

prize of brave desert.


all

But now when Jupiter from

the heaven

Had
By

cast the Titans forth,

huge Earth embraced

Tartarus, through balmy Venus' aid,


;

Her youngest-born Typhceus bore


Her youngest-born
Typhceus.']

whose hands

Taph,

which at times was

rendered Tuph, Toph, and Taphos, was a

name

current

among Lower

the Amonians, by which they called their high places.

iEgypt being a

flat,

and annually overflowed, the natives were

forced to raise the soil on which they built their principal edifices,
in order to secure

them from the inundation

and many of their


earth.

sacred towers were erected on conical

mounds of

There

were often
poses,
altars
;

hills

of the same form constructed for religious purbuilding.


offer

upon which there was no

These were high

on which they used sometimes to

human
Those
and

sacrifices.

Tophet, where the Israelites made their children pass through


fire

to

Moloch, was a mount of

this

form.

cities

in

iEgypt which had a high place of

this sort,

rites in

conse-

THE THEOGONY.

185

Of

strength are fitted to stupendous deeds


indefatigable are the feet

And

quence of

it,

were styled Typhonian.

Many
at the

writers say that

these rites were performed to

Typhon

tomb of

Osiris.

Hence he was
one of immense
arose from the
for the deities

in later times
size;

supposed to have been a person

and he was also esteemed a god.

But

this

common

mistake by which places were substituted

there worshipped.
offerings

Typhon was the Tuph-on,

or

altar

and the
as Osiris

were made to the Sun, styled

On

the

same

and Busiris.

What
:

they called his tombs were


also lofty

mounds of earth

raised very high

some of these had

towers adorned with pinnacles and battlements.


carved on them various symbols
hieroglyphics
; ;

They had

also

and particularly serpentine


to

in

memorial of the god

whom
that

they were sacred.


in

In their upper story was a perpetual


the night.

fire,

was plainly seen

The

gigantic stature of Typhon

was borrowed from this

object: and his character

was formed from the hieroglyphical


This

representations in the temples styled Typhonian.


inferred

may be
;

from the

allegorical description of

Typhoeus given by

Hesiod.

Typhon and Typhoeus were

the

same personage

and

the poet represents

him of a mixed form; being partly a man,


asfire

and partly a monstrous dragon, whose head consisted of an


semblage of smaller serpents
:

and as there was a perpetual


it

kept up in the upper story, he describes


apertures of the building.

as shining through the

The tower of Babel was undoubtedly


Sun
;

a Tuph-on, or
a temple.

altar of the

though generally represented as

Hesiod certainly alludes to some ancient history con-

cerning the demolition of Babel,

when he

describes

Typhon
him

or

Typhoeus as overthrown by Jove.


youngest son of Earth
stature
;
;

He

represents

as the

as a deity of great strength


is

and immense
it

and adds what

very remarkable, that had

not been

186

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the strong

Of

god

and from

his shoulders rise

hundred snaky heads of dragon growth,

Horrible, quivering with their blackening tongues

In each amazing head, from eyes that

roll'd
:

Within

their sockets, fire shone sparkling

fire

Blazed from each head, the whilst he

roll'd his

glance

Glaring around him.

In those fearful heads

Were

voices of

all

sound, miraculous

Now
Meet

utter'd they distinguishable tones


for the ear of

gods

now

the deep cry

Of

a wild-bellowing bull untamed in strength


the roaring of a lion, fierce

And now
In
spirit
:

and anon the


:

yell of

whelps
hiss'd,

Strange to the ear

and now the monster

That the high mountains echoed back the sound.

Then had a dread

event that fatal day

for the interposition

of the chief god,

this

diemon would have

obtained a universal empire.

Bryant.
In the Mexican
the form of a py-

Equally remarkable

is

the diversity of voices, described as

issuing from the different heads of the giant.

mythology a giant builds an

artificial hill, in

ramid, as a memorial of the mountain, in whose caverns he,

with six others, had taken shelter- from a deluge.

This monuit

ment was
fire.

to reach the clouds

but the gods destroyed

with

See Humboldt's American Researches.

THE THEOGONY.
Inevitable
fall'n,

187

and he had ruled


;

O'er mortals and immortals

but the Sire

Of gods and men


Intuitive
;

the peril instant

knew

and vehement and strong


:

He
Of

thunder'd

instantaneous

all
:

around
the firmament

Earth

reel'd with horrible crash


:

high heaven roar'd


uttermost caverns.

the streams of Nile, the sea,

And
The

While

the king in wrath


feet

Uprose, beneath his everlasting


great

Olympus trembled, and

earth groan'd.

From
The

either

god a burning radiance caught


:

darkly azured ocean

from the

flash

Of

lightnings,

and that monster's darted flame,

Hot

thunderbolts, and blasts of fiery winds.


air, sea,

Earth,

glow'd

the billows, heaved on high,

Beneath

his everlasting feet

The great Olympus trembled.

his

Mr. Todd,

in his

notes on Milton, quotes the passage describing the rushing of the

Messiah's chariot, as superior in grandeur to this of Hesiod

Under

burning wheels

The

steadfast

empyreum shook throughout,

All but the throne itself of God.

The majesty of
loftiness

Milton's exception certainly exceeds Hesiod in


:

of thought
to rock

but the mere rising of Jupiter causing the


feet, is

mountain

beneath his eternal

more sublime than

the shaking of the firmament from the rolling of wheels.

188

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
shores,

Foam'd round the

and dash'd on every side


Concussion wild
:

Beneath the rush of gods.

And

unappeasable uprose
of

aghast

The gloomy monarch


Shudder'd
:

th' infernal

dead

the sub-tartarean Titans heard

E'en where they stood, with Saturn in the midst

They heard

appall'd the unextinguish'd rage

Of

tumult, and the din of dreadful war.


all

But now when Jove had gather'd

his strength,

And

grasp'd his weapons, bolts, and bickering flames,

He

from the mount Olympus' topmost ridge


at a

Leap'd

bound, and smote him

hiss'd at

once

The

horrible monster's heads enormous, scorch'd

In one conflagrant blaze.

When

thus the

god

Had

quell'd him, thunder-smitten, mangled, prone,


:

He fell

earth groan'd and shook beneath his weight.


lightning-stricken deity

Flame from the

Flash'd, midst the mountain-hollows, rugged, dark,

Where he
From
As
that

fell

smitten.

Broad earth glow'd intense


dissolv'd
:

unbounded vapour, and

fusile tin

by

art of youths

above

The wide-brimm'd vase up-bubbling foams with heat;


The lightning-stricken
title

deity.]

toio avaxros.

King

is

merely a

of deity, and was applied before to Prometheus.

THE THEOGONY.

189

Or

iron, hardest of the mine,

subdued
dales

By burning

flame amidst the

woody

Melts in the sacred caves beneath the hands

Of

Vulcan, so earth melted in the glare


blazing
fire.

Of

He down
is

wide Hell's abyss

His victim hurl'd in

bitterness of soul.

Lo

from Typhceus

the strength of winds

Moist-blowing: save the South, North, East, and West:

These born from gods, a blessing great

to

man
man

Those, unavailing gusts, o'er the waste sea

Breathe barren

with sore peril fraught to


fall

In whirlpool rage

black upon the deep

Now

here,

now

there, they rush with stormy gale,

Scatter the rolling barks,

and whelm

in death

The mariner

an

evil succourless

To men, who
The woody

midst the ocean-ways their blast


Forges were erected in woody valleys, oa
fuel.

dales.]

account of the abundance of

Guietus.

Lo I from
that Hesiod

Typhceus

is

the strength of winds.]


:

By

these are

meant the intermediary winds


by names.
:

with some of which

it is

evident

was acquainted, although perhaps they were not yet

distinguished

The

ancient Greeks at

first

used only

the four cardinal winds

but afterwards admitted four collaterals.


in

Vitruvius
practice.

enumerates twenty collateral winds

the

Roman

These born from gods.] That

is,

from superior gods

as Aurora

and Astraeus.

190
Encounter.

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

They again

o'er all th'

expanse

Of

flowery earth the pleasant works of


fill

man

Despoil, and

the blacken'd air with cloud

Of eddying

dust and hollow rustlings drear.


fulfill'd

Now
Their

had the blessed Powers of Heaven


for

toils,

meed of glory

'gainst the
:

gods

Titanic striving in their strength


Earth-counsell'd, they exhort

and now,

Olympian Jove,
sway

Of wide beholding

eyes,

to regal
:

And

empire o'er immortals

he to them

Due honours

portion'd with an equal hand.

First as a bride the

Monarch of

the gods

Led Metis
Led
dom.

her o'er
One of

deities

and men
Amonians

Metis.]

the most ancient deities of the


;

was named Meed or Meet


It

by which was

signified divine wis-

was rendered by the Grecians Metis.

It

was repre-

sented under the symbol of a beautiful female countenance sur-

rounded with serpents.

Bryant.

The

figure ch.

of wedding
viii.

Wisdom

occurs in "

The Wisdom of

Solomon/'

v. 2.

"

I loved her,

and sought her out from

my

youth

I desired to

make her my

spouse, and I was a lover

of her beauty." In the Proverbs, Solomon describes

Wisdom
:

as the companion

of Deity, in the language of exquisite poetry

"

was

set

up from

everlasting,

from the beginning, or ever

the earth was.

When

there were no depths I

was brought

forth

when

there were no fountains abounding with water.


':

When

he

prepared the heavens I was there

when he

set a

compass upoa

THE THEOGONY.
Vers'd in
all

191

knowledge.

But when now the time

Was

full,

that she should bear the blue-eyed

maid

Minerva, he with treacheries of smooth speech


Beguiled her thought, and hid his spouse away

In his own breast

so Earth

and starry Heaven


advising warn'd

Had
The

counselled

him they both

Lest, in the place of Jove, another seize

kingly honour o'er immortal gods.


destined, that

For so the Fates had

from her

An

offspring should be born, of wisest strain.

First the Tritonian virgin azure-eyed


the face of the depths

when he

established the clouds above


:

when he strengthened
to the sea his decree
:

the fountains of the deep

when he gave
and I
viii.

when he appointed

the foundations of the


:

earth

then I was by him, as one brought up with him

was

daily his delight, rejoicing always before him."

Chap.

The blue-eyed maid


]

Minerva.
the fountain of light
:

An-ath

signified

and was abreviated Nath and Neith by


this title

the ^Egyptians.

They worshipped under


Sais,
in iEgypt,

a divine ema-

nation, supposed to be the goddess of

Wisdom.

The Athenians,
this

who came from


deity,

were denominated from

whom

they expressed Athana, or in the Ionian manner,

Athene.

Bryant.

Cudworth mentions
the

Hammon

and Neith as

titles for

one and
Isis

same

deity

and quotes Plutarch as authority that

and

Neith were

also the

same among the ^Egyptians

and therefore

the temple of Neith or Athene (Minerva) at Sais,


called the temple of Isis.
Intellectual System, b.
i.

was by him

ch. 4.

192

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
equal might and prudence with her sire

Of

And Had

then a son, king over gods and men,


she brought forth, invincible of soul,
in his

But Jove

own

breast before that hour


:

Deposited the goddess

evermore

So warning him of
Next
led

evil

and of good.
:

he shining Themis

and she bare

Order, and Justice, and the blooming Peace,

The Hours by name

who

perfect all the works

Of human kind

and

Destinies,
:

whom
men

Jove

All-wise array'd with honour

Lachesis,

Clotho, and Atropos

who

deal to

The

dole of

good or

ill.

To him anon

Old Ocean's daughter, amiablest of mien,


Eurynome, brought the three Graces
forth

Beauteous of cheek: Euphrosyne, Aglaia,

And

Thalia blithe
love,

their eye-lids, as they gaze,


:

Drop

unnerving

and beneath the shade

Brought the three Graces forth,.] As Charis was a tower sacred


to
fire,

some of the poets supposed a nymph of that name, who

was beloved by Vulcan.


same

Homer

speaks of her as his wife.

The

Graces were said to be related to the Sun, who was, in


the
as Vulcan.

reality,

The Sun, among


this the

the people of the East,

was

called Hares,

and with a strong


:

guttural,

Chares

and his

temple was styled Tor-chares


ris
:

Greeks expressed Tricha-

and from thence formed a notion of three Graces.

Bryant.

THE THEOGONY.

193
glance

Of

their arch'd

brows they

steal the sidelong

Of

sweetness.

To

the couch

anon he came

Of many-nurturing
The snowy-arm'd

Ceres

Proserpine
:

she bare

her gloomy Dis

Snatch'd from her mother, and all-prudent Jove

Consign'd the prize.

Next loved he the

fair-hair'd

Mnemosyne
Are born
:

from her the Muses nine brows with golden


fillets

their

wreath'd

Whom

feasts delight,

and rapture sweet of song.


aegis- wielding

In mingled joy with

Jove

Latona bore the arrow-shooting Dian,

And

Phcebus, loveliest of the heavenly tribe.


last

He
And

the blooming Juno led as bride

she,

embracing with the king of gods


bore Mars, and Hebe, and Lucina.
his

And men,

He
The

from

head disclosed himself to birth


fierce,

blue-eyed maid, Tritonian Pallas ;

The arrow-shooting
Dione were
ments.
well as

Dian.]

Artemis Diana
deity,

and Venus

in reality the

same

and had the same depart-

This sylvan goddess was distinguished by a crescent, as

Juno Samia

and was an emblem of the Arkite history,


it

and

in

consequence of

was supposed

to preside over waters.

Bryant.
Hebe.]

Hebe

is

a mere personification of youth.

The poets
their

made her
mortality.

the cup-bearer of the gods, as an

emblem of

im

19*

REMAINS OF

IIKSIOD.

Rousing the

war-field's tumult
;

unsubdued
delight

Leader of armies

awful

whom

The shout of
Without

battle

and the shock of war.

th'

embrace of love did Juno bear

Illustrious Vulcan, o'er celestials graced

"With arts

and

strove contending with her spouse

Emulous.

From

the

god of sounding waves,

Shaker of earth, and Amphitrite, sprang


Sea-potent Triton huge
:

beneath the deep


Pallas
;

fierce.
]

Rousing the

war-field's tumult.
is

In

her martial

character Minerva

intended to personify the wisdom and policy

of war as opposed to brute force and animal courage ; which are


represented by Mars.
Illustrious Vulcan,.]

The author of
Genesis
:

the

New

Analysis has ex:

ploded the notion that Vulcan was the same with Tubal-cain

who

is

mentioned

in

iv.

22, as

" an instructor of every

artificer in

brass and iron

" for nothing of this craft was of old


:

attached to Hephaistus or Vulcan


that
is,
;

who was

the god of

fire

the Sun.

Later mycologists degraded him to a black-

smith

and placed him over the Cyclops, or Cyclopians, the

Sicilian worshippers of fire.

The emblem? carved


armoury.

in the temples

led to the idea of

Vulcan and the Cyclops forging thunderbolts

and weapons

for the celestial

Sea-potent Triton.]

The Hetrurians

erected on their shores

towers and beacons for the sake of their navigation,, which they
called Tor-ain
:

whence they had a


Another name
which
signified a

still

farther denomination of

Tor-aini (Tyrrheni).

for buildings

of this nature

was Tint or Turit


of Triton
is

tower or turret.
:

The name
tower of

a contraction of Tirit-on

and

signifies the

THE THE0G0NY.

195

He
Of

dwells in golden edifice, a

god
to

awful might.

Now

Venus gave

Mars,
:

Breaker of

shields, a dreadful offspring


:

Fear,

And
Of

Consternation

they confound, in rout

horrid war, the phalanx dense of men,


city-spoiler

With
the Sun

Mars.

Harmonia
it,

last

but a deity was framed from

who was supposed

to

have had the appearance of a


have been
like a fish.

man

upwards, but downwards to


are thought to have been

The Hetrurians
;

the inventors of trumpets

and

in their towers

on the sea-coast

there were people appointed to be continually on the watch, both

by day and by

night,

and to give a proper

signal if

any thing

happened extraordinary.
trumpet.

This was done by a blast from the


however, these brazen
instruments

In early times,
little
;

were but

known ; and people were


the conchs of the sea
:

obliged to use

what were

near at hand

by sounding these they

gave signals from the tops of the towers when any ship appeared
:

and

this

is

the implement with which Triton is

more

commonly

furnished.

So Amphi-tirit

is

merely an oracular tower,

which by the poets has been changed into Amphitrite, and made
the wife of Neptune.

Bryant.
Venus gave
to

Mars,

Breaker of

shields, a

dreadful offspring.]

The making

the god-

dess of Love, Concord, and Fertility, the spouse of Mars, and


the mother of Fear and Terror,
is

obviously of later invention


suggested by the

and of Grecian origin

and was, no doubt,

Rape
cal

of Helen, which was supposed to be instigated by Venus,

and which kindled the war of Troy.

See that elegant and

classi-

poem of

the sixth century: "

The Rape of Helen" of Colu-

thus.

o2

196

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
bare,

She

whom

generous

Cadmus

clasp'd as bride.

Daughter of

Atlas,

Maia bore

to Jove

Harmonia

last

She bare, zvhom generous Cadmus clasp'd as bride.]


suaded that no such person as Cadmus ever existed.
sider the
it

am
we

per-

If

con-

whole history of
for

this celebrated hero,

we

shall find that


is

was impossible

any one person to have effected what he

supposed to have performed.

They were not the achievements of


the travels of

one person nor of one age


peditions of Perseus,

Cadmus,

like the ex-

Sesostris,

and

Osiris, relate

to colonies,

which

at different times

went abroad and were distinguished by

this title.

As

colonies of the

same denomination went

to parts of

the world widely distant, their ideal chieftain, whether


or Bacchus, or Hercules,

Cadmus,

was supposed

to

have traversed the

same ground.
Harmonia, the wife of Cadmus, who has been esteemed a

mere woman, seems

to

have been an emblem of nature, and the


In some of the Orphic verses she

fostering nurse of all things.


is

represented not only as a deity, but as the light of the world.


to

She was supposed

have been a personage from

whom

all

knowledge was derived.

On

this

account the books of science


:

were styled the books of Harmonia

as well as the books of

Hermes.

These were four

in

number ; of which Nonnus

gives

a curious account, and says that they contained matter of wonderful antiquity.

The

first

of them

is

said to be coeval with the

world.

Hence we
the
first

find that
is

Hermon

or

Harmonia was
is

a deity to

whom
The

writing
is

ascribed.

The same

said of
is

Hermes.
said not

invention

also attributed to Thoth.

Cadmus

only to have brought letters into Greece, but to have been the
inventor of them.

Whence we may

fairly

conclude, that under

the characters of Hermon,

Hermes, Thoth, and Cadmus, one

person

is

alluded to.

THE THEOGONY.

197

The
The

glorious

Hermes, herald of the gods


Semele,

sacred couch ascending.

The

story of

Cadmus, and of

the serpent with which he en-

gaged upon his arrival in Bceotia, relates to the Ophite worship

which was there

instituted

by the Cadmians. So Jascn

in Colchis,
:

Apollo in Phocis, Hercules at Lerna, engaged with serpents

all

of which are histories of the same purport, but mistaken by the


latter
life,

Grecians.

It is said of

Cadmus

that, at the close of his

he was, together with his wife Harmonia, changed into a


This wonderful metamorphosis
Illyria.
is

serpent of stone.

supposed to
true history

have happened at Encheliae, a town of


is this.

The

These two personages were here enshrined

in

a temple,

and worshipped under the symbol of a serpent.

Bryant.

The glorious Hermes, herald of the


Thoth.
all

gods.~\
title
;

The
of

./Egyptians

acknowledged two personages under the

Hermes and

The

first

was the same


and likewise,
is

as Osiris
all.

the most ancient of

the gods, and the head of


;

The

other was called the


styled Trisme-

second Hermes
gistus.

for

excellence,

This person

said to have been a great adept in mystewill

rious knowledge,

and an interpreter of the


;

of the gods.

He was

a great prophet

and on that account was looked upon

as a divinity.

To him
:

they ascribed the reformation of the

JEgyptian year

and there were many books, either written by

him, or concerning him, which were preserved by the ^Egyptians


in the

most sacred recesses of

their temples.

As he had been
gain.

the cause of great riches to their nation, they styled him the
dispenser of wealth, and esteemed
are told that the true
is

him the god of


and

We
What

name of

this

Hermes was Siphoas.


?

Siphoas

but Aosiph

misplaced

is

not Aosiph the

^Egyptian

name of

the patriarch Joseph, as he was called by the

Hebrews

Bryant.

Semele.]

The amour of Jupiter with Semele

is

described with

198

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Daughter of Cadmus, melting in embrace

With

Jove, gave jocund Bacchus to the light:


:

mortal an immortal
deities.
:

now

alike

Immortal

Alcmena bare
dissolving in embrace

Strong Hercules

With
In

the cloud-gatherer Jove.

The

crippled god,

arts illustrious,

Vulcan, as his bride


the youngest Grace.
hair, his

The gay

Aglaia

led,

Bacchus of golden

blooming spouse
in his

brilliant luxuriancy of fancy

and diction by Nonnus

Dio-

nysiacs.

Bacchus of golden
Dionusos

hair.]

The

history of Dionusus

is

closely

connected with that of Bacchus, though they were two distinct


persons.
is

interpreted by the Latins Bacchus

but

very improperly.
as

Bacchus was Chus, the grandson of Noah


Dionusus was Noah; expressed Noos,

Ammon

was Ham.
;

Nus, Nusus

the planter of the vine, and the inventor of fer:

mented
signifies

liquors

whence he was
;

also

denominated Zeuth ; which

ferment

rendered Zeus by the Greeks.

Dionusus was
is

the

same

as Osiris.

According to the Grecian mythology, he


;

represented as having been twice born

and

is

said to have

had

two

fathers

and two mothers.

He was

also exposed in an ark,


histories is

and wonderfully preserved.


plain.

The purport of which

We
:

must, however, for the most part, consider the ac-

count given of Dionusus as the history of the Dionusians.


is

This

two-fold

part relates to their rites and religion, in which

the great events of the infant world and preservation of mankind


in general

were recorded

in the other part,

which contains the


are enumerated

expeditions and conquests of this personage,

the various colonies of the people

who were denominated from

THE THEOGONY.
Daughter of Minos, Ariadne
clasp'd

199

With

yellow tresses.

Her

Saturnian Jove

Immortal made, and

fearless of decay.

Fair-limb'd Alcmena's valiant son, achieved

him.

They were the same

as the Osirians

and Herculeans.
:

There were many places which claimed his birth where was shown the spot of
his

and as many

interment.

The Grecians,
it

wherever they met with a grot or cavern sacred to him, took


for granted

that he

was born there

and wherever he had a

taphos, or high altar, supposed that he

was there buried.


appear more

The
dis-

same

is

also observable in the history of all the gods.


first

There are few characters which at


tinct than those of

sight

Apollo and Bacchus.

Yet the department

which

is

generally appropriated to Apollo as the Sun, I


is

mean
i.

the

conduct of the year,

by Virgil given
!

to Bacchus, Georg.

Lights of the world

ye brightest orbs on high,

Who
Hence we
they were
world.

lead the sliding year around the sky,


!

Bacchus and Ceres


find that

Warton.
is

Bacchus

the Sun or Apollo

in reality

all

three the

same

he was the ruling deity of the

Bryant.
passage of Virgil, Ceres
son.]
:

In

this

is

Luna, or the Moon.


title

Alcmenas valiant

Hercules was a

given to the

chief deity of the gentiles


as

who has been

multiplied into almost

many

personages

as

there were countries where he

was

worshipped.

What

has been attributed to this god singly was

the work of Herculeans, a people

who went under

this

title,

among

the

many which

they assumed, and

who were

the

same

as the Osirians, Peresians, and Cuthites.

Wherever there were

Herculeans, a Hercules has been supposed.


ter has

been variously represented.

Hence his characOne while he appears little

200

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
labours,

His agonizing

Hebe

led

A bashful bride,
And Juno
Olympus

the daughter of great Jove

golden-sandal'd, on the

mount

top'd with snow.

Thrice blest who thus,


midst the gods

A mighty task accomplish'd,


For evermore.
Perseis,

Uninjur'd dwells, and free from withering age

ocean-nymph

Illustrious, to th'

unwearied Sun produced

Circe and king iEetes.

By

the will

Of Heaven,
The

JEetes, boasting for his sire

world-enlightning Sun, Idya led

Cheek-blooming,

nymph

of ocean's perfect stream


aid

And

she, to love

by balmy Venus'

Subdued, Medea beauteous-ankled bare.


better than a sturdy vagrant
:

at other times he

is

mentioned as
;

a great benefactor

also as the patron of science

the god of

eloquence, with the

Muses

in his train.
;

He was
rites

the

same

as

Hermes,

Osiris,

and Dionusus

and his

were introduced

into various parts

by the Cuthites.

In the detail of his peregri-

nations

is

contained in great measure a history of that people,

and of

their settlements.

Each of

these the Greeks have deit

scribed as a warlike expedition, and have taken the glory of


to themselves.

Bryant.
natives

Medea.']

The
:

of Colchis and Pontus were of the


skilled in simples.

Cuthite race

they were

much

Their country

abounded

in medicinal

herbs, of which they

good and bad purposes.


character of the people
:

In the fable

made use both to of Medea we may read the

for that princess is represented as very

THE THEOGONY.

201
!

And now
Ye
islands,

farewell, ye heavenly habitants

and ye continents of earth

And

thou, oh

main

of briny wave profound


!

Oh
Of

sweet of speech, Olympian Muses


aegis-wielding Jove
;
!

born

From

sing

now

the tribe

goddesses

whoe'er,

by mortals

clasp'd

In love, have borne a race resembling gods.


Ceres, divinest goddess, in soft joy

Blends with Iasius brave, in the rich tract

Of

Crete,

whose fallow'd glebe

thrice-till'd

abounds

And

Plutus bare, all-bountiful,

who roams

Earth, and th' expanded surface of the sea

And him

that meets

him on

his

way, whose hands

He
Of

grasps,

him

gifts

he with abundant gold,

And

large felicity.

Harmonia, born

lovely Venus, gave to


:

Cadmus' love
of cheek

Ino and Semele

and

fair

Agave, and Autonoe, the bride

Of

Aristaeus with the clustering locks

And

Polydorus, born in towery Thebes.

knowing

in all the productions

of nature, and as gifted with

supernatural powers.
Plutus.]

Bryant.
is

Plutus

the

same with Pluto


all

who,

in his subter-

ranean character, presided over

the riches of the ground

whether metallic or vegetable.

202

REMAINS OP HESIOD.
to Tithonus

Aurora

Memnon
and

bare,

The

brazen-helm'd, the ^Ethiopian king,

And

king Emathion

to

Cephalus

Bare she a son illustrious, Phaethon,


Gallantly brave, a mortal like to gods
:

Whom,
Of

while a youth, e'en in the tender flower

glorious prime, a boy,

and

vers'd alone

In what a boy

may know,

love's
:

amorous queen
in her blest fane

Snatch'd with swift rape away

Appointing him her nightly-serving priest

The heavenly daemon

of her sanctuary.
will,

Jason iEsonides, by heaven's high


Jason.]

In the account of the Argo we have, undeniably, the


;

history of a sacred ship

the

first

which was ever constructed.


;

This truth the best writers among the Grecians confess

though

the merit of the performance they would fain take to themselves.

Yet

after all their prejudices, they continually betray the truth,

and show that the history was derived

to

them from iEgypt.

Plutarch informs us, that the constellation, which the Greeks


called the Argo,
Osiris
:

was a representation of the sacred ship of


it

and that

was out of reverence placed


first

in the heavens.
;

The

ship of Osiris

was esteemed the


ark.

ship constructed
title

and

was no other than the


Arkite god
theus
:

Jason was certainly a

of the

the same as Areas, Argus, Inachus, and Prometo

and the temples supposed

have been built by him

in

regions so remote were temples erected to his honour.


said of this personage that,

It is

when a

child,

he underwent the
:

same

fate

as Osiris,
in

Perseus, aud Dionusus

" he was con-

cealed,

and shut up

an

ark, as if

he had been dead."

Bryant.

THE THEOGONY.
Bore from iEetes, foster-son of Jove,
His daughter
:

203

those afflictive

toils

achieved,

Which

Pelias,

mighty monarch, bold in wrong,


:

Unrighteous, violent of deed, imposed

And much-enduring
Wafting
in

reach'd th' Iolchian coast,

winged bark the jet-eyed maid,

His blooming spouse.

She yielding thus in love

To

Jason, shepherd of his people, bare

Medeus,

whom

the son of Philyra,

Sage Chiron, midst the mountain-solitudes


Sage
Chiron.']

Chiron, so celebrated for his knowledge, was

a mere personage formed from a tower or temple of that name.


It stood in Thessaly
;

and was inhabited by a

set of priests called

Centauri.

They were

so denominated from the deity they wor-

shipped,
styled

who was

represented under a particular form.


:

They

him Cahen-taur

and he was the same as the Minotaur


:

of Crete, and the Tauromen of Sicilia

consequently of an

emblematical and mixed

figure.

The

people, by

whom
;

this

worship was introduced, were

many

of them

Anakim

and are

accordingly represented as of great strength and stature.

Such

persons

among
and
in

the

people of the East were styled nephele,


after-times, supposed to relate to

which the Greeks, in


a cloud
cloud.
:

Nephele,

consequence described the Centaurs as born of a


:

Chiron was a temple

probably at Nephele in Thessalia;

the most ancient seat of the Nephelim.

His name

is

compound

of Chir-on
sort,

the tower or temple of the Sun.

In places of this
;

people used to study the heavenly motions


for seminaries,

and they were

made use of

where young persons were instructed.

204?

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Train'd up to
Fulfill'd.

man

thus were high Jove's designs

Now

Psamathe, the goddess famed,


sea,

Who
By

sprang from ancient Nereus of the


;

Bare Phocus

through the lovely Venus' aid

iEacus embraced.

To

Peleus'

arms

Resign'd, the silver-footed Thetis bare


Achilles lion-hearted
:

cleaving fierce

The

ranks of men.
:

Wreath'd Cytherea bare

iEneas

blending in ecstatic love

With

brave Anchises on the verdant top

Of

Ida,

wood-embosom'd, many-valed.
Circe,

Now

from the Sun Hyperion-born

Descended, with the much- enduring


Hence
Achilles

man
by Chiron
;

was

said to have been taught

who

is

reported to have had


Circe.']

many

disciples.

Bryant.

From

the knowledge of the Cuthites in herbs

we may

justly infer a great excellence in physic.

./Egypt the nurse of arts,

was much celebrated

for botany.

To

the Titanians, or race of


:

Chus, was attributed the invention of chemistry


said

hence

it

is

by Syncellus,

that chemistry

was the discovery of the


Medea,
represented
as

Giants.

Circe and Calypso are,

like

very experienced in pharmacy and simples.


racters

Under these cha-

we have

the history of Cuthite priestesses,

who

presided

in particular temples near the sea-coast, and

whose charms and

incantations were thought to have a wonderful influence.

The

nymphs who attended them were a lower order


colleges
;

in these sacred

and they were instructed by

their superiors in their arts

and mysteries.

Bryant.

THE THEOGONY.
Ulysses blending love, Latinus bare,

205

And

Agrius, brave and blameless

far they left

Their native

seats in Circe's hallow'd isles,

And

o'er the

wide-famed Tyrrhene

tribes held sway.

Calypso, noble midst the goddess race,

Clasp'd wise Ulysses

and from rapturous love

Nausithous and Nausinous gave to day.

Lo
Of

these were they,

who

yielding to embrace

mortal men, themselves immortal, gave

A race resembling gods. Oh now the tribe


Of
gentle

women

sing

Olympian maids
!

Ye Muses, born from

aegis-bearer Jove

%\)t

g>f)teto

of Hercules*

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES,


lje 3Lrgitmcnt
I.

The

arrival of
exile.

Alcmena

at Thebes, as the

companion of her

husband's
Teloboans.

The

expedition of Amphitryon against the

The

artifice

of Jupiter,

and
II.

steals the

embraces of Alcmena.

who anticipates his return, The birth of Hercules.


:

The meeting of Hercules with Cygnus


armour
:

the description of
diversified

his

and particularly of his Shield,

with

sculptured imagery.
III.

The combat

and the burial of Cygnus.

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

\JR
And

as

Alcmcna, from Electryon born,


of his people, her lov'd

The guardian

home

natal soil abandoning, to

Thebes

Came
She

with Amphitryon

with the brave in war.

all

the gentle race of

womankind
:

In height surpass'd and beauty

nor with her

In height
stature

surpassed.']

Aristotle observes that persons of small

may

be elegantly and justly formed, but cannot be styled

beautiful, Ethics, iv. 7.

Xenophon
as

in his Cyropaedia,

ii.

5, de-

scribes

the beautiful Panthea

" of surpassing height and

vigour."

Theocritus mentions a fulness of form as equally cha-

racteristic of

beauty
in

So bloom'd the charming Helen

our eyes

With

full

voluptuous limbs and towering size


fair,
:

In shape, in height, in stately presence

Straight as a furrow gliding from the share

A cypress of the gardens, spiring high, A courser in the cars of Thessaly.


It is

Idyl, xviii.
this

remarkable that Chaucer appears to glance at

compa-

rison

Winsing she was, as

is

a jollie

colt,

Long

as a

maste and upright as a

bolt.

The Miller's

Tale.

p 2

'

212

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
in

Might one

prudence

vie,

of

all

who sprang

From
With

mortal fair-ones, blending in embrace


mortal men.

Both from her

tressed head,

And from

the darkening lashes of her eyes,


like the breath

She breathed enamouring odour

Of balmy Venus
Yet not the
less
;

passing fair she was,

her consort with heart-love

Revered she

so

had never woman loved.

From
that this
to

the darkening lashes of her eyes


]

She breathed enamouring odour.


is

am

satisfied

be taken in a

literal,

not in a metaphysical or

poetic sense.

Nearly

all

the Greek female epithets had a re-

ference to

some
:

artificial

mode of
;

heightening the personal al:

lurements
is

as rosy-fingered

rosy-elbowed
:

I think xuaveowy, black,

an epithet of the same cast

and alludes
it

to the darkening of

the eye-lid by the rim drawn round

with a needle dipped in

antimonial

oil.

" The eye-lashes breathing of Venus," has a


this.

palpable connexion with

Athenaeus, xv. describes the se-

veral unguents for the hair, breast, and arms, which were in use

among the Greeks,


myrtle, or crocus.

as

impregnated with the odour of


oily

rose,

The

dye employed by the

women

to

blacken their eye-brows and eye-lashes was doubtless perfumed


in the

same manner.

Virgil probably
lady,

had

in his

mind the perthe tresses of

fumed hair of a Roman

when he described
i.

Venus breathing ambrosia, iEn.


She spoke and turn'd
:

402

her neck averted shed


:

A light that
The

glow'd

celestial rosy red

locks that loosen'd from her temples flew

Breathing heaven's odours, dropp'd ambrosial dew.

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

213

Though he

her noble

sire

by

violent strength
strife,

Had

slain,

amid those herds, the cause of


to sudden rage
:

Madden'd

his native soil

He left,

and thence

to the

Cadmean

state,
:

Shield-bearing tribe, came supplicant

and there

Dwelt with

his

modest spouse; yet from the joys


:

Of

love estranged

for

he might not ascend


feet,

The couch

of her, the beautiful of

Till for the slaughter of her brethren brave,

His arm had wreak'd revenge

and burn'd with

fire

The

guilty cities of those warlike

men

Taphians and Teloboans.

This the task

Assign'd: the gods on high that solemn

vow

Had

witness'd

of their anger visitant


;

In fear he stood

and speeded
feat,

in all haste

T' achieve the mighty

imposed by Heaven.

Him

the Boeotians, gorers of the steed,

Who coveting the war-shout and the shock


Those herds, the cause of
strife.']

The

story

commonly

runs,

that the Taphians, and Teloboans, a lawless and piratical people,

had made an inroad


Electryon's herds
:

into the territory of Argos,

and carried

off

that in the pursuit a battle took place, and the

robbers killed the brothers of

Alcmena
But

and Amphitryon himit

self accidentally killed Electryon.

should appear from


or

Hesiod that he
dispute.

killed

him by design on some provocation

: :

214

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
battle o'er the buckler breathe aloft
;

Of

Their open valour


Close-combating
;

him

the Locrian race


soul,

and of undaunted
:

The Phocians
Amphitryon
Gloried.

follow'd

towering in the van

gallant shone :

and

in his host

But other counsel

secret

wove

Within

his breast the sire of

gods and

men

That both

to gods

and

to th' inventive race

Of man

a great deliverer might arise


his loins, of plague-repelling fame.

Sprung from

Deep-framing in

his inmost soul deceit,

He
Of

through the nightly darkness took his way


with the love

From high Olympus, glowing

her, the fair-one of the graceful zone.

Swift to the Typhaonian

mount he

pass'd
:

Thence drew nigh Phycium's


There
sitting,

lofty ridge

sublime

the wise counsellor of heaven


divine.

Revolved a work

That

self-same night
stately treads

He

sought the couch of her,

who

With
Took

long-paced step
there his
fill

and melting in her arms

of love.

That

self-same night

The

host-arousing chief, the mighty deed

Perform'd, in glory to his

home

returned

Nor

to the vassals

and the shepherd hinds

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


His
footstep bent, before he climb'd the
his

215
couch

Of

Alcmena

such inflaming love

Seiz'd in the deep recesses of his heart

The

chief of thousands.

And

as he, that scarce

Escapes, and yet escapes, from grievous plague

Or

the hard-fettering chain,

flies

free

away
toil

Joyful,

so struggling through that arduous


homeward way.

With
The

pain accomplish'd, wishful, eager, traced

prince his

The

live-long night

He with

the modest
lay,

partner of his

bed

Embracing

and
bliss

revell'd in delight

The bounteous

of love's all-charming queen.


the
first

Thus by a god and by

of

men

Alike subdued to love, Alcmena gave

Twin-brethren birth, within the seven-fold gates

Of Thebes

yet brethren though they were, unlike


:

Their natures

this
;

of weaker strain

but that

Far more of man

valorous and stern and strong.

Him,

Hercules, conceived she from th' embrace


:

Of

the cloud-darkener

to th' Alcaean chief,


:

Shaker of
Distinct
:

spears, gave Iphiclus

a race

nor wonder

this

Of mortal man,
slew

That of imperial Jove.

The same who

The

lofty-minded Cygnus, child of Mars.

216

REMAINS OF

HfcSlOD.

For

in the grove of the far-darting


:

god

He
His

found him
father

and

insatiable of

war

Mars

beside.

Both bright in arms,

Bright as the sheen of burning flame, they stood

On

their

high chariot

and the horses

fleet
:

Trampled the ground with rending hoofs


In parted circle smoked the cloudy dust,

around

Up-dash'd beneath the trampling hoofs, and cars

Of
*

complicated frame.
:

The

well-framed cars
:

Rattled aloud

loud clash'd the wheels

while rapt

In their

full

speed the horses flew.


for the

Rejoiced
his,

The

noble Cygnus ;

hope was

Jove's warlike offspring and his charioteer

To

slay,

and

strip

them of

their gorgeous mail.

But

to his

vows the Prophet-god of day


:

Turn'd a deaf ear

for

he himself

set

on

Th' assault of Hercules.

Now

all

the grove,

And
Of
As

Phoebus'

altar,

flash'd with

glimmering arms

that tremendous

god

himself blazed light,

And
it

darted radiance from his eye-balls glared

were flame.
e'er

But who of mortal mould

Had
To

endured in daring opposite

rush before him, save but Hercules,


Iolaus,

And

an

illustrious

name ?

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

217

For mighty strength was theirs: and arms that stretch'd

From

their

broad shoulders unapproachable


force,

In valorous

above their nervous frames


:

He
"

therefore thus bespoke his charioteer

Oh

hero Iolaus
all

dearest far

To me
I

of
it

the race of mortal

men
Heaven
Thebes

deem

sure that 'gainst the blest of


sinn'd,

Amphitryon

when

to the fair-wall'd

He

came, forsaking Tirynth's well-built walls,


strife

Electryon midst the


Slain

of wide-brow'd herds

by

his

hand

to

Creon suppliant came,


:

And

her of flowing robe, Henioche


straight embraced,

Who
Lent

and

all

of needful aid

hospitable, as to suppliant
for this, e'en

due

And more

from the heart they gave

All honour and observance.

So he

lived,

Exulting in his graceful-ankled spouse

Alcmena.

When

the rapid year rolFd round,

We,

far unlike in stature

and
:

in soul,

Were

born, thy sire and I


;

him Jove bereaved

Of wisdom

who from
and to the

his parental
fell

home

Went

forth,

Eurystheus bore

His homage.

Wretch

for

he most sure bewaiPd


a deed

In after-time that grievous

fault,

218
Irrevocable.

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

On

myself has Fate


But, oh friend
!

Laid heavy labours.

oh now

Quick snatch the purple


ftapid of hoof: the

reins of these

my

steeds

manly courage rouse


strong unerring grasp

Within thee
Guide the

now with

swift chariot's whirl,

and wind the


yell

steeds

Rapid of hoof:

fear

nought the dismal

Of

mortal-slayer Mars, whilst to and fro


fierce Apollo's hallow'd
:

He ranges
With

grove

frenzying shout

for,

be he as he

may

War-mighty, he of war

shall take his fill."


:

Then answer 'd

Iolaus

"

Oh

revered

Doubtless the father of the gods and

men

Thy head

delights to

honour

and the god

Who keeps the wall of Thebes and guards her towers,


Bull-visaged Neptune
The wall of Thebes]
build Thiba, an ark
:

so be sure they give


directed in express terras to

Noah was
is

it

the very word

made use of by
as the

the

sacred writer.

Many

colonies that

went abroad styled them:

selves Thebeans, in reference to the ark

deluge was held very sacred.


the

Hence

there occur

memory of the many cities of


but in

name of Theba,

not in iEgypt only and Boeotia,

Cilicia, Ionia, Attica^

&c.

It
in

was sometimes expressed Thiba


Pontus
:

a town of which name was


Pliny
;

it

is

called Thibis

by

and he mentions a notion which prevailed, that the people

of this place could not sink in water.


Bull-visaged Neptune.']

Bryant.

The

patriarch was esteemed the great

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Unto thy hand
That from the
this

219

mortal huge and strong,

conflict

thou mayst bear away

High

glory.

But now haste

in warlike mail

Dress now thy limbs,

that, rapidly as

thought

Mingling the shock of


In
battle.

cars,

we may be join'd

He

th'

undaunted son of Jove

Shall strike not with his terrors, nor yet


Iphiclides
:

me

but swiftly, as I deem,

Shall he to flight betake him, from the race

Of

brave Alcaeus

who now

pressing nigh
for the shout

Gain on

their foes

and languish
;

Of

closing

combat

to their eager ear

More

grateful than the banquet's revelry."


said
:

He

and Hercules smiled


:

stern his joy

Elate of thought

for

he had spoken words


with winged accents thus
e'en at hand,
:

Most welcome.
"

Then
!

Jove-foster'd hero
battle's

it is

The

rough encounter

thou, as erst,

deity of the sea

and at the same time was represented under


:

the semblance of a bull, or with the head of that animal


as
all rivers

and

were looked upon as the children of the ocean, they likewise were represented in the same manner. Bryant.
This seems to have been a double emblem
:

referring to the

bull Apis, the representative of the father of husbandry, Osiris,

and

to the roaring of waters.

22G

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
aleft,

In martial prudence firm, aright,

With

vantage of the fray, unerring guide

Arion huge, the sable-maned, and

me

Aid

in the doubtful contest, as thou mayst."


said,

Thus having

he sheathed

his legs in greaves


:

Of mountain Of Vulcan
The
:

brass, resplendent- white

famed

gift

o'er his breast

he

fitted close

corselet, variegated, beautiful,


;

Of

shining gold
first

this

Jove-born Pallas gave,

When
Of

he rush'd to meet the mingling groans

battle.

Then

the mighty

man

athwart
repels

His shoulder slung the sword, whose edge


Th' approach of mortal harms
:

and clasp'd around

His bosom, and reclining

o'er his back,

He

cast the hollow quiver.

Lurk'd therein

Full

many arrows

shuddering horror they

Inflicted,

and the agony of death

Sudden, that chokes the suffocated voice

The

points were barb'd with death,


:

and

bitter steep'd

In human tears

burnish'd the lengthening shafts

And
Of

they were feather'd

from the tawny plume


the solid spear
his

eagles.

Now he grasp'd
:

Sharpen'd with brass

and on

brows of strength

Placed the forged helm, high-wrought in adamant,

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

221

That cased the temples round, and fenced the head

Of

Hercules

the

man

of heavenly birth.

Then with
Diversified
:

his

hands he raised

The

Shield, of disk

might none with

missile

aim

Pierce, nor th' impenetrable substance rive

Shattering

a wondrous frame

since all throughout

Bright with enamel, and with ivory,

And
The

mingled metal

and with ruddy gold

Refulgent, and with azure plates inlaid.


scaly terror of a

dragon
;

coil'd

Full in the central field

unspeakable

With

eyes oblique retorted, that aslant


:

Shot gleaming flame

his hollow

jaw was

fill'd

Dispersedly with jagged fangs of white,

Grim, unapproachable.

And
fell,

next above

The

dragon's forehead

stern Strife in air

Hung
All

hovering, and array'd the war of


;

men

Haggard

whose aspect from


soul
;

all

mortals reft

mind and

whoe'er in brunt of arms

Should match their strength, and face the son of Jove.


Mingled
metal.]
m.EKTfov
is

not amber, but a mixed metal


gold,

which Pliny describes as consisting of three parts


fourth silver.

and the

Electrum
viii.

is

one of the materials in the Shield of

JEneas, iEn.

And mingled

metals damask/d o'er with gold.

Pitt.

::

222

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
this earth their spirits to th' abyss
:

Below

Descend

and through the

flesh that wastes

away

Beneath the parching sun,


Start forth,

their whitening bones

and moulder

in the sable dust.

Pursuit was there, and fiercely rallying Flight,

Tumult and Terror

burning Carnage glow'd


there,

Wild Discord madden'd


Ranged
to

and

frantic

Rout

and

fro.

A
:

deathful Destiny

There grasp'd a

living

man, that bled afresh

From

recent

wound
;

another, yet unharm'd,


third, already dead,

Dragg'd furious
TraiPd by the

and a

feet

amid the throng of war


was a garment thrown

And

o'er her shoulders

Pursuit was there.]

Homer,

II. vi.

She charged her shoulder with the dreadful

Shield,

The shaggy

iEgis, border'd thick around


:

With Terror

there

was Discord, Prowess

there,

There hot Pursuit. There Discord raged, there Tumult, and the force

Of

ruthless Destiny.

She now a chief

Seiz'd

newly wounded, and now captive held

Another yet unhurt, and now a third


Dragg'd breathless through the battle by
his feet

And
Like

all

her garb was dappled thick with blood.

living

men

they traversed and they strove,

And

dragg'd by turns the bodies of the slain.

Cowper, book

xviii.

Shield of Achilles.

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Dabbled
in

223

human blood
:

and

in her look

Was

horror

and a deep funereal cry


lips.

Broke from her

There indescribable
:

Twelve serpent heads rose dreadful


Froze
all,

and with

fear

who drew on

earth the breath of

life,

Whoe'er should match

their strength in
:

brunt of arms,

And

face the son of Jove


to the battle,

and

oft as

he

Moved

from their clashing fangs

sound was heard.

Such miracles

display'd

The

buckler's field, with living blazonry


:

Resplendent

and those

fearful snakes

were streak'd

O'er their caerulean backs with streaks of jet

And

their jaws blacken'd with a jetty dye.

Wild from

the forest, herds of boars were there,


;

And

lions,

mutual-glaring
;

and

in

wrath

Leap'd on each other

and by troops they drove


recoil'd,

Their onset

nor yet these nor those


in fear.
:

Nor quaked

Of

both the backs uprose

Bristling with anger

for a lion

huge

Lay

stretched amidst them,


:

and two boars beside

Lifeless

the sable blood down-dropping ooz'd

rible

Herds of boars.] That animal (the wild boar) was no less teron the opposite coast of Asia than in Greece as we learn from Herodotus, book i. c. 34. Gillies.
:

224?

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
So these with bowed backs
the terrible lions
:

Into the ground.

Lay dead beneath


For
this the

they,

more

incensed, both savage boars

And

tawny

lions,

chafing sprang to war.


battle of the Lapithae

There too the

Was wrought; the spear-arm'd warriors:


Hopleus, Phalerus, aud Pirithous,

Caeneusking,

And

Dryas, and Exadius


Titaressa,

Prolochus,
son,
:

Mopsus of

Ampyx'

A branch

of Mars, and Theseus like a god


:

Son of iEgeus

silver
:

were their limbs,

Their armour golden

and

to

them opposed
:

The Centaur band


Prophet of birds
;

stood thronging
Petrseus

Asbolus,

huge of height

Arctus, and Urius, and of raven locks

Mimas

the two Peucidse, Dryalus,


:

And

Perimedes

all

of silver frame,

And
They

grasping golden pine-trees in their hands.


onset

At once they
rush'd,

made

in very

life

and hand

to

hand tumultuous closed


There
fleet

With
The

pines and clashing spears.


battle

of hoof

of the Lapitha.']

This forms the subject of the

alto-relievo

on the entablature of the Parthenon, or the temple

of Minerva: ascribed to Phidias.


the Elgin marbles.

Seethe "Memorandum" on

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

225

The

steeds
:

were standing of stern-visaged Mars


himself, tearer of spoils,
all

In gold

and he

Life-waster, purpled

with dropping blood,

As one who slew the

living

and

despoil'd,

'Loud-shouting to the warrior-infantry

There vaulted on

his chariot.
:

Him

beside

Stood Fear and Consternation


Panted,
all

high their hearts

eager for the war of men.


rose, leader of hosts,

There too Minerva

Resembling Pallas when she would array

The

marshall'd battle.

In her grasp the spear,


:

And on
Her
In

her brows a golden helm


aegis.

athwart

shoulders thrown her

Went

she forth

this

array to meet the dreadful shout

Of
Of

war.

And

there a tuneful choir appear'd


:

heaven's immortals

in the midst the son

Of

Jove and of Latona sweetly rang


his

Upon

golden harp.

Th' Olympian mount,


back the broken sound.

Dwelling of gods,

thrill'd

And And
The

there were seen th' assembly of the gods


:

Listening, encircled with their blaze of glory


in sweet contest with

Apollo there

virgins of Pieria raised the strain


;

Preluding

and they seem'd


Q

as

though they sang

226

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
clear sonorous voice.

With

And

there appear'd

sheltering haven

from the untamed rage


tin refined,
it

Of

ocean.

It

was wrought of
the chisel
:
:

And rounded by
many

and

seem'd

Like to the dashing wave


Full

and

in the midst
fry,

dolphins chased the

and show'd

As though they swam


Darting tumultuous.

the waters, to and fro

Two

of silver scale,
fishes

Panting above the wave, the

mute
fins

Gorged, that beneath them shook their quivering


In brass
:

but on the crag a fisher sate


:

Observant

in his grasp

he held a

net,

Like one

that, poising, rises to the throw.

There was the horseman,


Perseus
:

fair-hair 'd

Danae's son,
feet

nor yet the buckler with his


:

Touch'd, nor yet distant hover'd

strange to think
shield

For nowhere on the surface of the

He

rested

so the crippled artist-god

Illustrious

framed him with his hands in gold.

Bound

to his feet

were sandals wing'd

a sword

Of

brass with hilt of sable ebony

Hung

round him from the shoulders by

thong

Swift e'en as thought he flew.

The

visage grim

Of monstrous Gorgon

all his

back o'erspread

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

227

And wrought

in silver,

wondrous
it,

to behold,
in gold

A veil was drawn around


Hung
Of
glittering fringes
:

whence

and the dreadful helm

Pluto clasp'd the temples of the prince,

Shedding a night of darkness.


In
air,

Thus

outstretch'd
flight

he seem'd

like

one to trembling

Betaken.

Close behind the Gorgons twain

Of

nameless terror unapproachable


rushing
:

Came
To

eagerly they stretch'd their arms


pallid

seize

him

from the

adamant,

Audibly as they rush'd, the clattering shield


Clank'd with a sharp
shrill

sound.

Two

grisly snakes

Hung from
Their fangs

their girdles,

and with forking tongues


;

Lick'd their inflected jaws


fell

and violent gnash'd


their heads

glaring

from around

Those Gorgons grim a

flickering horror cast

Through

the wide

air.

Above them warrior men

Waged

battle,

grasping weapons in their hands.

Some from
Some from
Achilles

their city
their

and

their sires repell'd


II.

city.']

Homer,

book

xvii.

Shield

of

The

other city by two glittering hosts


:

Invested stood

and a dispute arose


whether
to

Between the

hosts,

burn the town

And

lay all waste, or to divide the spoil.


citizens, still

Meantime the

undismay'd,

8 2

223
Destruction
:

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
others hasten'd to destroy

And many

press'd the plain, but

more

still

held

The combat.

On

the strong-constructed towers


shrill,

Stood women, shrieking

and rent
craft.

their cheeks

In very

life,

by Vulcan's glorious

The

elders hoar with age assembled stood


gates,

Without the
Their hands

and

to the blessed gods

uplifted, for their fighting sons

Fear-stricken.

These again the combat

held.

Behind them stood the Fates, of aspect black,


Grim, slaughter-breathing,
stern, insatiable,
;

Gnashing

their white fangs


fell.

and

fierce conflict held

For those who

Each

eager-thirsting sought

To

quaff the sable blood.

Whom first they snatch'd


wound,
:

Prostrate, or staggering with the fresh-made

On him
Fled

they struck their talons huge


th' abyss,

the soul

down

the horror-freezing gulf

Of

Tartarus.

They, glutted to the heart


gore, behind

With human

them

cast the corse


to seek

And
The

back with hurrying rage they turn'd


throng of
battle.

And

hard by there stood

Clotho and Lachesis ; and Atropos,


Surrendered not the town, but taking arms

Prepared an ambush ; and the wives and boys,

With

all

the hoary elders, kept the walls.

Cowper,

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Somewhat
in years inferior:
:

229

nor was she

A mighty goddess
And
all

yet those other Fates


far.

Transcending, and in birth the elder

around one
:

man

in cruel strife

Were join'd
And

and on each other turn'd in wrath


:

Their glowing eyes


talons

and mingling desperate hands

mutual
:

strove.

And

near to them
:

Stood Misery

wan, ghastly, worn with woe

And
Stood Misery.

near

to

them
]

Warton observes,
"

History of English poetry,


Italian poets,

vol.

i.

p.

468

The French and


in

whom Chaucer
it

imitates,

abound

allegorical

personages

and

is

remarkable that the early poets of Greece


:

and
'

Rome
:

were fond of these creations


'

we have

in

Hesiod

Darkness

and many others


it

if

the Shield of Hercules be of


it is

his hand."
literal,

But

seems to have escaped the writer that


is

not

but figurative Daikness which


it

personified.

Guietus

ingeniously supposes that

is

meant

for the

dimness of death.
:

Homer, indeed,

applies to this the


xxii.

same term

in the death of

Eurymachus, Od.

88

Kar o<p3&\uuv &%??' AXATI.

A
Sorrow

darkening mist was pour'd upon his eyes.

Tanaquil Faber,

on Longnus, contends that


personified

%Xi/; is
:

here

Sorrow

is

n a fragment of Ennius
apparet imago

Omnibus endo
Tristitia.

locis ingens

Sorrow, a giant form, uprears the head

In every place.
This
is

adopted by Grsevius and Robinson.

In like manner

230

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
;

Arid, and swoln of knees


Faint-falling
:

with hunger's pains


nails
:

from her lean hands long the


nostrils flow'd
:

Out-grew

an ichor from her

Blood from her cheeks

distilPd to earth

with teeth

All wide disclosed in grinning agony

She stood

a cloud of dust her shoulders spread,


tears.

And

her eyes ran with

But next arose

A
$;

well-tower'd city, by seven golden gates

its

opposite, light,

is

often used for

xa ? a

>

J ov:

as appears in
to notice

the oriental style of scripture.


that this
horrible
is

But they have omitted


:

specific

sorrow

for

what connexion have these


?

symptoms with sorrow


with

in general

I conceive that the


:

prosopopoeia describes the misery attendant on war


cially in a city besieged,
its

and espe-

usual accompaniments of famine,

blood, and tears, and the dust or ashes of mourning.


selects the line

Longinus

" an ichor from her


;

nostrils flowed," as
it

an

in-

stance of the false sublime

and compares

with Homer's verse

on Discord,
Treading on earth, her forehead touches heaven.
This
is

to

compare two things

totally unlike:
to

why

should an
?

image of exhaustion and disease be thought

aim

at sublimity

The
ror,

objection of Longinus that


is

it

tends to excite disgust rather


did not intend to excite ter-

than terror

nugatory.
:

The poet

but horror

that kind of horror which arises from the con-

templation of physical suffering.

A
les
:

zcell-tozoer'd city.]

Homer,

II.

book

xviii.

Shield of Achil-

Two

splendid cities also there he form'd


:

Such as men build

in

one were to be seen

::

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Enclosed, that fitted to their
lintels

231

hung

There men

in

dances and in festive joys

Held

revelry.

Some on

the smooth-wheel'd car


:

virgin bride conducted

then burst forth

Aloud the marriage- song

and

far

and wide
a quivering torch
girls

Long
Borne

splendours flash'd from


in the

many

hands of

slaves.

Gay-blooming

Preceded, and the dancers follow'd blithe

These with

shrill

pipe indenting the soft

lip

Breathed melody, while broken echoes

thrill'd

Around them
Those

to the lyre with flying touch

led the love-enkindling dance.

group

Of

youths was elsewhere imaged to the


:

flute

Disporting

some

in dances

and

in song,

In laughter others.

To

the minstrel's flute


city

So

pass'd they
filPd

on

and the whole

seem'd
feasts.

As

with pomps, with dances, and with

Others again, without the city walls,

Rites matrimonial solemnized with

pomp

Of sumptuous

banquets.

Forth they led the brides

Each from her chamber, and along the streets With torches usher'd them and with the voice
:

Of hymeneal song
Here
striplings

heard

all

around.

danced
;

in circles to the

sound

Of pipe and harp Women, admiring

while in the portals stood


all

the gallant show.

Cowper.

232

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

Vaulted on steeds and madden'd for the goal.


Others as husbandmen appear'd, and broke

With

coulter the rich glebe,

and gather'd up

Their tunics neatly girded.

Next arose
:

field thick-set

with depth of corn

where some
heads

With

sickle reap'd the stalks, their speary

Bent, as weigh'd

down with pods of

swelling grain,

The

fruits

of Ceres.

Others into bands

Gather'd, and threw upon the threshing-floor

The

sheaves.

And some

again hard by were seen

Vaulted on

steeds.]
:

This circumstance has been thought to


it is

betray a later age

as

alleged, that the only instance of

riding on horseback mentioned

by Homer

is

that of

Diomed, who,

with Ulysses, rides the horses of Rhesus of which he has


prize.

made

But though chariot-horses only are found


an allusion
to

in the

Homeric

battles, there is
skill, in

horsemanship, as an exhibition of
v.

a simile of the 15th book of the Iliad,

679

where the

rider

is

described as riding four horses at once, and vaulting from

one to the other.


Others as husbandmen appear'd.]
Achilles
:

Homer
field

II. xviii.

Shield of

He

also graved

on

it

a fallow

Rich, spacious, and well-tilPd.

Plowers not few

There driving

to

and

fro their sturdy

teams

Laboured the ground.

There too he form'd the likeness of a

field
toil'd

Crowded with corn

in

which the reapers

Each with

a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand.


fell

Along the furrow here the harvest

In frequent handfuls: there they bound the sheaves. Cowper.

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Holding the
vine-sickle,
;

23$

who

clusters cut

From

the ripe vines

which from the vintagers


or bore away,

Others in

frails received,

In baskets thus up-piled, the cluster'd grapes,

Or

black or pearly-white, cut from deep ranks

Of
In

spreading vines, whose tendrils curling twined


silver,

heavy-foliaged
vines,

near them rose


craft

The ranks of

by Vulcan's curious

Figured in gold.

The

vines leaf-shaking curl'd

Round

silver props.

They

therefore

on

their

way

Pass'd jocund to one minstrel's flageolet,

Burthen'd with grapes that blacken'd in the sun.

Some

also trod the wine-press,

and some quaff'd


Shield of Achilles

In baskets thus up-piled.] Homer


There
also, laden
all
:

II. xviii.

with
:

its fruit,

he form'd

A vineyard
The

of gold

purple he

made

clusters

and the vines supported stood

By

poles of silver, set in even rows.


colour'd sable, and around
tin.

The trench he
Fenced
it

with

One

only path

it

show'd

By which
In
frails

the gatherers,

when they stnpp'd

the vines,
blithe

Pass'd and repass'd.

There youths and maidens

of wicker bore the luscious fruit

While

in the midst a
:

boy on

his shrill harp

Harmonious play'd

and ever as he struck


it

The

chord, sang to

with a slender voice.

They smote

the ground together, and with song

And

sprightly reed

came dancing on behind.

Cowper,

234

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
must.

The foaming

But

in another part

Were men who


Wielded the

wrestled, or in

gymnic

fight

csestus.

Elsewhere

men

of chase

Were

taking the
beside
like
:

fleet hares.

Two

keen-tooth'd dogs

Bounded

these ardent in pursuit,


flight.

Those with

ardour doubling on their

Next them were horsemen, who

sore effort
toil.

made

To

win the priz e of contestand hard


o'er the well-compacted chariots
:

High

hung

The

charioteers

the rapid horses loosed

Hung
The charioteers
]

This

may be com-

pared with the chariot-race at the funeral games of Patroclus, in


the Iliad, xxiii. 362, to which, however,
it is

very inferior.

All raised the lash together ; with the reins


All smote their steeds, and urged

them

to the strife

Vociferating

they with rapid pace


field

Scouring the

soon

left

the fleet afar.

Dark,

like a

stormy cloud, uprose the dust

Beneath them, and their undulating manes


Play'd in the breezes
:

now

the level field

With

gliding course, the rugged


:

now they pass'd

With bounding wheels aloft meantime erect The drivers stood with palpitating heart
:

Each sought
They,

the prize

each urged his steeds aloud


air.

flying, fill'd

with dust the daiken'd

Cowper.
the

This description apparently suggested to Virgil the chariot-race


in the Georgics
fire
iii.

402, which Dryden has rendered with

all

of the original.

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


At
their full stretch,

235

and shook the

floating reins.

Rebounding from the ground with many a shock


Flew
clattering the firm cars,

and creak'd aloud

The

naves of the round wheels.


:

They therefore

toil'd

Endless

nor conquest yet at any time


strife

Achiev'd they, but a doubtful

maintain'd.

In the mid-course the prize, a tripod huge,

Was

placed in open sight


:

and

it

was carved

In gold

the skilful Vulcan's glorious craft. the uttermost verge the ocean flow'd
:

Rounding

As

in full swell of waters

and the shield

All- variegated with whole circle bound.

Swans of high-hovering wing there clamour'd

shrill,

And many skimm'd

the breasted surge

and nigh

Fishes were tossing in tumultuous leaps.

Sight marvellous e'en to thundering Jove

whose

will

Bade Vulcan frame


This
fitting to his

the buckler; vast and strong.

grasp the strong-nerved son

Of

Jupiter

now shook

with ease

and

swift

As from

his father's aegis-wielding

arm

The

bolted lightning darts, he vaulted sheer

The ocean floied.]

Homer, U.

xviii.

Shield of Achilles

Last with the might of ocean's boundless flood

He

fill'd

the border of the wondrous shield.

Cowper.

236

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
the harness'd chariot at a
:

Above

bound

Into the seat

the hardy charioteer

Stood o'er the steeds from high, and guided strong

The crooked

car.

Now

near to them approach'd

Pallas, the blue- eyed goddess,

and address'd
:

These winged words

in animating voice
!

" Race of the far-famed Lyngeus

both

all-hail

Now

verily the ruler of the Blest,


spoil of life

E'en Jove, doth give you strength to

Cygnus your

foe,

and

strip his

gorgeous arms.

But

I will breathe a

word within thine ear

In counsel, oh most mighty midst the strong

Now
The

soon as

e'er

from Cygnus thou hast


there leave
:

reft

sweets of

life,

him

on that

spot,

Him

and

his

armour

but

th'

approach of Mars,

Slayer of mortals, watch with

w ary eye
T

And where
With

thy glance discerns a part exposed,


!

Defenceless of the well-wrought buckler, strike

thy sharp point there

wound him, and

recede:

For know, thou

art not fated to despoil

" The steeds and glorious armour of a god."

Race of

the far-famed Lyngeus.]

Lyngeus was the ancestor


:

of Perseus, the

son of Danae, and the father of Alcaeus


the son.

of

whom Amphitryon was

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Thus having
said, the

237

goddess all-divine,

Aye holding

in her everlasting

hands

Conquest and glory, rose into the car

Impetuous

to the war-steeds shouted fierce


:

The

noble Iolaus

from the shout

They

starting snatch'd the flying car,

and hid

With

dusty cloud the plain

for she herself,

The goddess
Wild

azure-eyed, sent into

them
:

courage, clashing on her brandish'd shield

Earth groan'd around.

That moment with

like

pace

E'en as a flame or tempest came they on,

Cygnus the tamer of the

steed,

and Mars

Unsated with the roar of war.

And now
face to face

The

coursers
shrill

mid-way met, and


:

Neigh'd

the broken echoes rang around.


stern Hercules bcspake.
!

Then him
"

the

first

Oh

soft

of nature

why

dost thou obstruct

The

rapid steeds of men,

who

toils

have proved

And

hardships ? Outward turn thy burnish'd car


:

Pass outward from the track and yield the way

For

I to

Trachys
:

ride,

of obstacle

Impatient

to the royal

Ceyx

he

O'er Trachys rules in venerable power,

As needs not

thee be told,

who

hast to wife

238

REMAINS OF HESIOD.

His blue-eyed daughter Themisthonbe


Soft-one
!

for not

from thee

shall

Mars himself

Inhibit death, if truly

hand

to

hand

We wage the battle


That

and

e'en this I say

elsewhere, heretofore, himself has proved


:

My
Of

mighty spear

when on

the sandy beach

Pylos ardour irrepressible


seized him,

Of combat

and

to

me

opposed

He
The

stood

but thrice, when stricken by


his fall,

my

lance,
cleft

Earth propp'd

and thrice

his targe

was

fourth time urging on

my

utmost force

His ample

shield I shattering rived, his thigh


fell

Transpierced, and headlong in the dust he

Beneath

my

rushing spear
fell

so there the weight

Of shame upon him

midst those of heaven,

" His gory trophies leaving to these hands."

So

said

he

but in no wise to obey


:

Enter'd the thought of Cygnus the spear-skill'd

Nor

rein'd he back the chariot-whirling steeds.


truly

Then

from their close-compacted cars


:

Instant as thought they leap'd to earth

the son

Of

kingly Mars, the son of mighty Jove.

Aside, though not remote, the charioteers

The

coursers drove of flowing

manes

but then

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Beneath the trampling sound of rushing
feet

239

The broad

earth sounded hollow

and

as rocks

From some high mountain-top


Leap with a bound, and
Shock
in the dizzying

precipitate

o'er each other


:

whiiTd

fall

and many an oak

Of Of

lofty

branch, pine-tree and poplar deep

root are crash'd beneath them, as their course


rolls,
till

Rapidly

now

they touch the plain

So met these

foes encountering,

and so burst

Their mighty clamour.

Echoing loud throughout

The

city of the

Myrmidons gave back


and Iolchos famed,
walls,

Their

lifted voices,

And
And

Arne, and Anthea's grass-girt


Helice.

Thus with amazing shout


in battle
:

They join'd

all-considering Jove
:

Then

greatly thunder'd

from the clouds of heaven


-As rocks

From some high


xiii.

mountain-top.

Homer,

II.

book

Then Hector
Right on
:

led himself
rolling rock

impetuous as a
:

Destructive

torn by torrent waters off

From

its

old lodgment on the mountain's brow,


it it

It bounds,

shoots
:

away

the crashing

wood

Falls under

impediment or check
till

None
At

stays

its fury,

the level found


it rolls

last, there

overcome

no more.

Cowper.

240

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
cast forth

He
Of

dews of blood, and signal thus

onset gave to his high-daring son.


in the

As Grim

mountain thickets the wild boar,

to behold,

and arm'd with jutting

fangs,

Now
The

with his hunters meditates in wrath


conflict,

whetting his white tusks aslant


;

Foam
Show

drops around his churning jaws


like to

his eyes

glimmering

fires,

and

o'er his

neck

And
The

roughen'd back he raises up erect


starting bristles,

from the chariot whirl'd

By

steeds of

war such leap'd the son of Jove.

'Twas in that season when, on some green bough


High-perch'd, the dusky-wing'd cicada
first

He

cast
:

forth dews of blood.]

Iliad,

xvi, 459.

Death of

Sarpedon

The
Dissented not
:

Sire of gods

and men
distill'd

but on the earth

A sanguine
Dear

shower, in honour of a son

to him.
thickets.

Cowper.
Homer,
Iliad
xiii.

As

in the

mountain

As in the mountains, conscious of his The wild boar waits a coming multitude Of boisterous hunters to his lone retreat
Arching
his bristly spine
:

force,

he stands

his eyes

Beam fire and whetting his bright tusks, he To drive not dogs alone, but men, to flight:
So stood the royal Cretan.

burns

Cowper.

::

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Shrill chants to

241

man

summer note dew

his drink,

His balmy

food, the vegetative

The
His

livelong day from early


voice,

dawn he pours

what time the


:

sun's exhaustive heat

Fierce dries the frame

'twas in that season

when

The

bristly ears of millet spring with grain

Which

they in

summer sow

when

the crude grape

Faint reddens on the vine, which Bacchus gave

The joy

or anguish of the race of


;

men

E'en in that season join'd the war

and

vast

The

battle's

tumult rose into the heaven.


lions for a

As two grim

roebuck

slain

Wroth

in contention rush,

and them betwixt

The sound
Ariseth
;

of roaring and of clashing teeth

or as vultures, curved of beak,


talon,
lions.,]

Crooked of
As two grim

on a steepy rock
Iliad xvi.

Then
Contending
New-slain
:

contest such
lions
for

Arose between them, as two


in the

wage

mountains

a a deer

both hunger-pinched, and haughty both.

Cowper.

As

vultures curved of beak.]

Iliad xvi.

As two

vultures fight
lofty rock

Bow-beak'd, crook-talon'd, on some

Clanging their plumes, so they together rush

With

dreadful cries.

Cowper.

Wl
Some

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
;

Contest loud-screaming

if

perchance below

mountain-pastur'd goat or forest-stag


;

Sleek press the plain

whom

far the

hunter youtli
shrill

Pierced with
Dismiss'd,

fleet

arrow from the bow-string

and elsewhere wander'd, of the spot


:

Unknowing
Mark, and

they with keenest heed the prize

in

swooping rage each other tear


:

With
The

bitterest conflict

so vociferous rush'd

warriors on each other.

Cygnus, then,

Aiming

to slay the son of Jupiter

Unmatch'd
His brazen
Broke not
;

in strength, against the buckler struck


lance, but through the metal plate

the present of a

god preserved.

On

th'

other side he of Amphitryon named,

Strong Hercules, between the helm and shield

Drove

his long spear

and underneath the chin


violent

Through the bare neck smote

and

swift.

The murderous ashen beam


Twain of the neck
Drop'd, and his

at

once the nerves


all

cut sheer ; for

the
:

man
fell

force went from him

down he

Headlong

as falls a thunder-blasted oak,

As falls a

thunder-blasted
Jove's

oak.']

Iliad xiv.

As when

arm omnipotent an oak


:

Prostrates uprooted on the plain

a fume

:; ;

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.

24-3

Or

sky-capt rock, riven by the lightning shaft


Jove, in smouldering
fell

Of
So

smoke

is

hurl'd from high,

he

and

his brass-emblazon'd mail

Clatter'd around him.

Jove's firm-hearted son


it

Then

left

the corse, abandon'd where

lay

But wary watch'd the mortal-slayer god


Approach, and view'd him o'er with
Stern-lowering.
terrible eyes
fall'n

As a

lion,

who has

Perchance on some stray


Intent, strips

beast, with griping claws


;

down

the lacerated hide


life,

Drains instantaneous the sweet


E'en to the
fill

and

gluts

his

gloomy heart with blood

Rises sulphureous from the riven trunk

So

fell

the might of Hector, to the earth

Smitten at once.

Down

dropp'd his idle spear,

And
Also

with his helmet and his shield, himself


:

loud thunder'd

all his

gorgeous arms.

Cowper.

As a
But

lion,

who hasfalVn
]

Perchance on some stray

beast.

Iliad xvii.

as the lion on the mountains bred

Glorious in strength,

when he hath

seiz'd the best

And

fairest

of the herd, with savage fangs

First breaks the neck, then laps the bloody paunch,

Torn wide

meantime around him, but remote,


and huntsmen shouting, yet by fear

Dogs

stand,

Repressed, annoy him not, nor dare approach

So these

all

wanted courage

to oppose

The

glorious Menelaus.

Cowpep..

R 2

VP

244

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
;

Green-eyed he glares in fierceness

with his
sides,
;

tail

Lashes his shoulders and his swelling

And

with his

feet tears

up the ground

not one

Might dare

to look

upon him, nor advance


:

Nigh, with desire of conflict

such in truth

The

war-insatiate Hercules to

Mars

Stood in array, and gather'd in his soul

Prompt courage.
Anguish'd at heart

But the other near approach'd,


;

and both encountering rush'd

With

cries of battle.

As when from high


tumbles a crag

ridge

Of some

hill-top abrupt,

Precipitous,

and

sheer, a

giddy space,

Bounds

in a whirl

and

rolls

impetuous down
till

Shrill rings the

vehement crash,
mass
:

some

steep

clift

Obstructs

to this the
it

is

borne along

This wedges

immoveable

e'en so

Destroyer Mars, bowing the chariot, rush'd,


Yelling vociferous with a shout
:

e'en so,

As

utterance prompt, met Hercules the shock

And

firm sustain'd.

But Jove-born Pallas came


and
to

With darkening

shield uplifted,

Mars

Stood interposed: and scowling with her eyes

Tremendous, thus address'd her winged words

" Mars

hold thy furious valour

stay those hands

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


In prowess inaccessible
It is
:

245

for

know

not lawful for thee to divest

Slain Hercules of these his gorgeous arms,

Bold-hearted son of Jove

but come

rest

thou

From
She

battle,

nor oppose thyself to me." nor yet persuaded aught the soul

said

Of Mars,

the mighty of heart.


his

With

a great shout,

He, brandishing

weapon

like a flame,

Sprang rapid upon Hercules, in haste

To

slay

and, for his slaughter'd son incensed,

With

violent effort hurl'd his brazen spear

'Gainst the capacious targe.

The

blue-eyed maid

Stoop'd from the chariot, and the javelin's force

Turn'd wide. Sore torment

seiz'd the breast

of Mars:

He bared his
The

keen-edged falchion, and at once


:

Rush'd on the dauntless Hercules


war-insatiate, as the

but he,

God

approach'd,

Beneath the well-wrought shield the thigh exposed

Wounded
The

with

all his

strength,

and thrusting rived


with his lance,

shield's large disk,

and

cleft it

Stoop'd from the chariot,,]

Iliad v.

When
Minerva caught
:

with determin'd fury Mars


:

O'er yoke and bridle hurl'd his glittering spear

and turning

it,

it

pass'd

The

hero's chariot-side, dismiss'd in vain.

Cowper.

246

REMAINS OF HESIOD.
in the

And

middle-way threw him to earth

Prostrate.

But Fear and Consternation


his well-wheePd chariot
:

swift

Urged nigh

from the face


the car

Of

broad-track'd earth they raised

him on

Variously framed: thence lash'd with scourge the steeds,

And
The

bounding up the vast Olympus


his

flew.

But now Alcmena's son and

compeer,

glorious Iolaus, having stripp'd

From Cygnus'

shoulders the fair armour's spoil,

Retraced their way direct, and instant reach'd

The

city

Trachys with their fleet-hoof d steeds

While

pass'd the goddess of the azure eyes

To

great Olympus, and her father's towers.


o'er the corse of

But Ceyx

Cygnus

raised

tomb.

Innumerable people graced


:

His obsequies

both they

who

dwelt hard by

The

city of the illustrious king,

and they

Of

Anthe, of Iolchos wide-renown'd,

Of

Arne, of the Myrmidonian towers,


Helice.

And

So gather'd there around


:

A numerous people

honouring duteous thus

Ceyx, beloved of the blessed gods.

But the huge mount and monumental stone


The huge mount and monumental
stone.~\

By

the words tomb

tm

THE SHIELD OF HERCULES.


Anaurus, foaming high with wintry
rains,
this

247

Swept from the

sight

away

Apollo

Commanded

for that

Cygnus ambush'd

spoil'd

In violence the Delphic hecatombs.


and monument, ra^og and and a
v.

<r/tt,

I understand a
it:

mount of earth

pillar

of stone on the top of

although

Homer II.

xxiv.

801, applies cmpa to the mount: which he seems to describe

as raised of stones:
Xsvavreg

to

c-tt,ua i

TraXiv mcv.

So casting up the tomb, they back returned.

gppentjtjc*

ft

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE.

George Chapman was born

in 1557.

Wood,
;

in

the Athena? Oxonienses, imagines that he was a sworn

servant either to James the First or his queen


says that
;

and

he was highly valued but not so much as Ben Jonson " a person of most reverend aspect,
:

religious

and temperate,

qualities rarely

meeting in a

poet."

After living to the age of 77 years he died

on the 12th day of

May

1634, in the parish of St.

and was buried there on the south side of the church-yard. His friend Inigo Jones erected a monument to his memory. Of his *
Giles's in the Fields,
* Granger,
slightingly of
in

his

biographical history

of England,

speaks
sin-

Chapman's Homer on Pope's authority.

Pope

gularly explains
tion,

what he considers as the defects of this translaby saying that " the nature of the man may account for
:

his

whole performance

as

he appears to have been of an arro-

gant turn, and an enthusiast in poetry."


tion!

strange disqualificato

He

confesses, also, that


is

" what very much contributed

cover his defects,


tion:

a daring fiery spirit that animates his transla-

which

is

something like what one might imagine

Homer

himself would have written before he arrived at years of discretion."

Mr. Godwin,

Preface to Homer. in his " Lives of Edward and John


and just

Philips, ne-

phews of Milton," has

illustrated the natural energy of style in


critical taste feeling.

Chapman's Homer with


p. 243.

Chap.

x.

252
translation of

Homer, Dryden

tells
it

us that Waller

used to say he never could read


transport.

without incredible

Besides other translations and poems, he


pieces.

was the author of 17 dramatic


Collections

See Dodsley's

of Old Plays, vol. iv. His version of " The Georgicks of Hesiod " is inscribed in an Epistle Dedicatorie to " The most noble

Combiner of Learning and Honour


con, Knight;

Sir Francis

Ba-

and prefixed
Jonson.

Lord High Chancellor of England, &c." are two copies of commendatory verses

with the signatures of Michael Drayton, and

Ben

This version

is

generally faithful both to the sense

and

spirit

of the author.

Amidst much quaintness

of style and ruggedness of numbers,

we meet with

gleams of a rich expression and with a grasp of language, which, however extravagantly bold, bears the

stamp of a genuine poet.


of the errours into wliich he

Cooke had probably not

seen this translation, or he must have avoided


fell.

many

SPECIMENS
OF

CHAPMAN'S HESIOD.
WITH GLOSSARIAL AND CRITICAL EXPLANATIONS.

I.

-Thus to him began

The Cloud-Assembler
That
ioy'st to steale

Thou most
fire,

crafty

Man,

my

deceiuing

Me,

Shalte feele that Ioy the greater griefe to thee;

And

therein plague thy vniuersall

Race

To whom He

giue a pleasing
fire
:

ill,

in place

Of
To

that good

And

all shall

be so vaine

place their pleasure in embracing paine.


laught, of

Thus spake, and

Gods and Men the

Sire

And
To

straight enioyn'd the

famous

God

of

fire

mingle instantly, with Water, Earth


voyce, and vigor, of a
it
;

The

humane Birth

Imposing in

And

so faire a face,
:

As matcht

th'

Immortall Goddesses in grace


:

Her forme presenting a most louely Maid

Then on Minerua

his

Command

he

laid,

To make

her worke, and wield the wittie loome

And

(for her

Beauty) such as might become

254

APPENDIX.

The Golden Venus, He commanded Her

Vpon

her Browes and Countenance to conferre


:

Her own Bewitchings

stuffing all

her Breast

With wilde

Desires, incapable of Rest


1

And
Ail

Cares,

that feed to

all satiety

human Lineaments.

The Crafty

spy,

And Messenger

of Godheads,

Mercury

He

charg'd

t'

informe her with a dogged Minde,


All as he design'd

And

theeuish Manners.

Was

put in

act.

A Creature straight had frame


;

Like to a Virgine

Milde and

full

of
2

Shame

Which
Forme

Ioue's Suggestion

made
all

the

both-foot lame

so deceitfully

And

of Earth

To

forge the liuing

Matter of her Birth.

Gray-ey'd Minerua Put her Girdle on;

And
The

show'd

how

loose parts, wel-composed, shone.

deified Graces,

And

the

Dame

that sets

Sweet words

in chiefe forme,

Golden *Carquenets
faire-haird

Embrac'd her Neck withall ; the

Howers

Her
But

gracious Temples crown'd, with fresh spring-flowers


all

of these, imploy'd in seuerall place,


;

Pallas gaue Order

the impulsiue grace.

Feed upon or emaciate the features by dissipated


Vulcan.

excess.

3 Persuasion.

* Necklaces;

from Carquan, Fr. or Carcan. Diet, de VAc. Fr.


Threading a carkanet of pure round pearl.
Sir

W,

Davenant.

The Wits, a comedy.

APPENDIX.

255
of spies,
lies
;

Her bosome, Hermes, the


With
subtle fashions
still.

great
;

God

fill'd

faire
all

words and

Ioue prompting

But

the voyce she vs'd


infus'd

The

vocall Herald of the

Gods

And

calPd her

name Pandora ;

Since on

Her

The Gods

did all their seuerall gifts confer

Who made
To

her such, in euery moouing straine,

be the Bane of curious Minded Men.

II.

When

therefore

first fit

plow time doth disclose

Put on with

spirit; All, as one, dispose


:

Thy

Servants and thy selfe


first

plow wet and drie

And when Aurora

affords her eye

In Spring-time turn the earth vp; which


Againe, past
all faile,

see done

by the Summers Sunne.


fields

Hasten thy labours, that thy crowned

May
The

load themselues to thee, and


Tilth-field sowe,

rack their yeelds.


light foundations 3

on Earth's most

The Tilth-field, banisher of

execrations,
:

Pleaser of Sonnes and Daughters

which

t'

improve

With

all

wisht profits, pray to earthly Ioue,


;

And

vertuous Ceres
gift

that on

all

such suits
fruits.

Her sacred

bestowes, in blessing

When

first

thou enterst foot to plow thy land,


;

And on
1

thy plow-staife's top hast laid thy hand

To rack here meaus

to give

what

is

exacted; yeelds iayieWi/ig*, jjroduce.

256

APPENDIX.
that next thee by a Chaine

Thy Oxens backs

Thy Oken
Thy Goad
That with

draught-Tree drawe, put to the paine


imposes.
his Iron

And

thy

Boy behinde,

Rake thou hast design'd,

To

hide thy seed, Let from his labour drive


Birds, that offer on thy sweat to Hue.
thing, that in
;

The

The best

humane Needs doth


all.

fall,

Is Industry

and Sloath the worst of

With one thy Corne

ears shall with fruit abound;


;

And bow
With

their thankfull forheads to the ground

th' other, scarce thy seed again

redound.

III.

But
In
all

if

thou shouldst sow

late, this well


:

may be

thy Slacknesse an excuse for thee


in the Oakes greene amis the
delights

When,

Cuckoe

sings,

And
If

first

Men

in the louely springs;

much

raine

fall,

'tis fit

then to defer

Thy sowing worke.

But how much raine to beare,

And

let

no labour, to that
let

Much

give eare

Past intermission

Ioue steepe the grasse

Three daies together, so he do not passe

An
To

Oxes hoofe

in depth
:

and neuer

stay

strowe thy seed in

(but if deeper
;

way
field ;)

Ioue with his raine makes

then forbeare the

For late sowne then


1

will

past the formost yield.


3

Under.

2 Hesitate.

Beyond that which was sown

first

APPENDIX.

257

Minde

well all this, nor let


fits

it fly

thy powrs

To knowe what
Nor when
In winter
Sit
r

r the white spring s early flowrs

raines timely

fall

Nor when sharp

colde,

wrath, doth men from worke withholde,


forges,

by Smiths

nor

warme

tauernes hant

Nor let Thy

the bitterest of the season dant


2

thrift-arm'd paines,
is

like idle Pouertie;


3

For then the time


Vpholdes, with

when

th' industrious

Thie

all increase,

his Familie

With whose

rich hardness spirited, do thou


flie
;

'Poor Delicacie
6

lest frost
^

and snowe
both them out,

Fled for her loue, Hunger

sit

And make

thee, with the beggar's lazie gout


still

Sit stooping to the paine,

pointing too't,
8

And with

a leane hand stroke a

foggie foot.

IV.

When

aire's chill

North
all

his

noisome

frosts shall

blowe

All ouer earth, and

the wide sea throwe

At Heauen
The beaten

in hills,

from colde horse-breeding Thrace ;


all

earth,

and

her Syluane race

Roring and bellowing with his bitter strokes


1

Exertions.

go much

as.

The Man

of Thrift.

Thie in the old Saxon

is thrift.

Animated with whose hardihood

in braving the season for the sake of wealth.

5 Slothful averseness to
is

meet the rigour of the season, of which the consequence

poverty.
6

Avoided through love of delicacy; or slothful indulgence.

Remain unemployed ;

sit

starving in idleness as long as the frost


8 Thick, swollen.

and snow

ndure.

258
*

APPENDIX.
thick firre-trees and high crested-Okes
vallies
;
3

Plumps of

Tome up in

all

Aire

's

floud let
all

flie

In him, at Earth;

sad nurse of
;

that die.

Wilde beasts abhor him

and run clapping close


;

Their sterns betwixt their thighs

and euen

all

those
;

Whose

hides their fleeces line with highest proofe


also

Euen Oxe-hides

want expulsive

stuffe,
:

And bristled

goates, against his bitter gale

He

blowes so colde, he beates quite through them


silly

all.

Onely with

sheep

it
4

fares not so
5

For they each summer


6

fleec't, their

fells

so growe,

They

shield all winter crusht into his winde.

He makes

the olde

Man

trudge for

life,

to finde

Shelter against him ; but he cannot

blast

The

tender and the delicately grac't


;

Flesh of the virgin

she

is

kept within,
:

Close by her mother, careful of her skin


7

Since yet she neuer


force of

knew how
8

to enfolde
all in golde.

The
1

Venus

swimming

Clusters.

The whole deluge of

air being let loose in

him, the (north-wind) on the surface

of earth.
3 In the original,

many-nourishing.

Chapman has elsewhere more

faithfully

the same epithet " many-a-creature-nourishing earth."


4 Being sheared. 6
5 Skins.

They keep out the whole

force of the winter, which

is

concentrated in his (the

winter's) wind.

7 She 8

was of
:

too tender an age to sustain the bridal embrace.

Grecism

swimming

in beauty

in the

Greek, many-golden Venus

abounding with charms.

APPENDIX.

259

Whose Snowie bosome


With wealthy
oiles,
;

choicely washt and balm'd

she keepes the house becalm'd,

All winter's spight

when
still

in his fire-lesse

shed

And
The

miserable roofe

hiding head,

bonelesse fish doth eat his feet for colde:


the Sunne doth neuer food vnfolde;
towrs,

To whom

But turnes aboue the blacke Mens populous

On whom
That on

he more bestowes his radiant howres


Hellenians
:

th'

then

all

Beasts of home,

And smooth-brow 'd,


About the Oken
Gnashing

that in beds of

wood

are borne,

dales that North-winde

flie,

their teeth with restlesse miserie

And euerywhere
That
2

that

'

Care

solicits all,
fall,

out of shelter) to their Couerts


eaten into Rocks
;

And Cauerns

and then

Those wilde Beasts

shrink, like

tame three-footed Men,


and forheads driu'n

Whose backs

are broke with age,

To

stoope to Earth, though borne to looke on Heav'n.


like to these,

Euen

Those tough-bred rude ones

goe,

Flying the white drifts of the Northerne Snowe.

V.

But then betake thee


In shield of Rocks
;

to the shade that lies

drinke Biblian wine, and eate

The creamy wafer


Giues newly
free,

Gotes milke, that the Teate


:

and nurses Kids no more

The

care of seeking shelter.

Being

In

need of

shelter,

s 2

; ; ;

:;

260

APPENDIX.

Flesh of Bow-broilsirig Beeues, that neuer bore,

And
The
Still

tender kids.

And

to these, taste black wine,

third part water, of the Crystaline

flowing fount, that feeds a streame beneath


sit in

And

shades, where temperate gales

may

breath

On thy

oppos'd cheeks.

When

Orion's raies

His influence,

in first ascent, assaies,

Then
1

to thy labouring Seruants giue

command,

To

dight the sacred gift of Ceres hand,


2

In some place windie, on a

well-planed floore
;

Which,

all

by measure, into Vessels poure

Make

then thy Man-swaine, one that hath no house


one, that hath nor child nor spouse
;

Thy handmaid

Handmaids, that children have, are rauenous.

Mastiffe likewise, nourish

still

at

home

Whose

teeth are sharp, and close as any


well, to

Combe

And meat him

keep with stronger guard


forth thy yard

The Day-sleep-wake-Night Man from


That
slnne
else thy

Goods

into his

Caues

will beare

Hay and

Chaffe enough for

all

the yeare,

To

serve thy
:

Oxen and thy Mules

and then

Loose them

and ease 4 the dear knees of thy Men.

To dress,

or prepare by thrashing.

Well-smooth'd or leveled.

3 Stow in.

*A

Grecism: Dear
an

in

Greek being synonymous with his, herg, their: and

in

this instance

expletisre..

; ;: :

APPENDIX.

261

VI.
If of a Chance-complaining

Man

at seas

The humor take


Hide head, and

thee
flie

when the Pleiades

the fierce Orion's chace,

And
Then

the darke-deep Oceanus embrace;


diuerse Gusts of violent winds arise

And

then attempt no Nauall enterprize.


affaires,

But ply thy Land

and draw ashore

Thy Ship
To

and fence her round with stonage store


'

shield her Ribs against the

humorous Gales
falls

Her Pump

exhausted, lest Ioue's rainie


All tooles
fit

Breed putrefaction.

for her,

And

all

her tacklings, to thy House confer


all

Contracting orderly

needfull things

That imp a water-treading Vessel's wings

Her well-wrought
Attending time,

Sterne hang in the smoke at home,

till fit

Sea Seasons come.


try,

When
1

thy vaine

Minde then would Sea-ventures


fly,

In loue the Land-Rocks of loath'd Debt to

And
He Of

Hunger's euer-harsh-to-hear-of cry

set before thee all the

Trim and Dresse

those still-roaring-noise-resounding Seas


neither skild in either Ship or Saile
;

Though

Nor

euer was at Sea

Or,

lest I faile,

Humid.

With

the wish or desire.

p
always adapted even to epic poetry, its armour is rather too heavy and cumbrous it has a woeful tendency to lag behind, and neither
:

follows the conceptions or expressions of Homer, through all his sudden ebullitions of sentiment, and daring flights of poesy. It is still less suited to the Doric simplicity and flowing measure of Theocritus, and is very unhappily used by our author in his version of that poet's " Infant Hercules." " All that could have been done by Bion's most ardent admirer has been done by Mr. Elton in the Elegy on Adonis, which we have read with the greatest pleasure. Every turn of fancy, and every sentiment of the wildest tenderness, is happily preserved and beautifully expressed." " His Moschus' Epitaph on Bion is equally feeling and tender." " The Dream of Tibullus is one of Mr. E's best specimens, and we recommend it as a very beautiful and feeling production, and the least cramped by the irons of a too galling fidelity among the works before us." " Propertius excells in his various love-songs to Cynthia; our English Propertius is not without much of the original spirit. We could have wished that Mr. Elton had given us a specimen of that beautiful and singular elegy, addressed by Cornelia to Paulus, soon after her sudden death." " Lucan, whom our author so much admires, is translated with much care and spirit. There is every symptom of corresponding The calm sublimity of blank verse is well adapted to sensations. The moral conceptions, and the chastised but powerful this poet. eloquence of this last and truly Roman epic poem, are described with much effect. Were not our antipathy great to any translations whatsoever, we should say that Mr, Elton is the very person quaHe has imbibed the same lified to translate the whole of Lucan. spirit of philosophical and dignified argument, with a glow of description and indignant feeling which would carry him successfully to the end of his labors."

Messrs,

Longman and

Co. are about to Publish,

COMPOSITIONS IN OUTLINE,
FROM

THE WORKS OF HESIOD,


JOHN FLAXMAN,
Engraved by J. Blake,
R. A.

PROFESSOR OF SCULPTURE TO THE ROYAL ACADEMY,


in folio, to correspond with the Outlines from Homer.

ubrar

^^b

SRHI