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INTRODUCTION TO SUBSTATION AUTOMATION IEC 61850 OVERVIEW By Javed Ahmed

SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
Ultimate Goal of Substation Automation is to achieve Interchangeability between IEDs of different Manufacturers. Historically, for whatever reasons, Electric Utility Power Systems were divided on the basis of mainly the Power Supply frequency (major being 50Hz & 60Hz systems. The development of Higher Voltage levels of Electrical Power System was gradual and various design, material and Research & developments resulted in huge numbers of standardized Voltage levels. Due to this, one Global Standardization of Primary Utility Equipment is difficult for the time being. When it comes to Interchangeability of Electric Utility Equipment across the Globe, there is no second thought that Users, Manufacturers and Standardization bodies all agree unanimously on the benefits. However, Secondary Electric Equipment consisting of various Protection, Control & Monitoring when changed from Static technology to Digital technology opened up a possibility of Interoperability of Equipment from different Manufacturers. Traditionally, there was a hidden barrier between Protection & Control functions in Electric Utilities. Static components of Protection, Control & Monitoring devices became obsolete and digital technology took over. With this change the Protection, Control & Measuring device became enormously intelligent and can perform any function logically due to extreme miniaturization of cheap & high quality processors. The gap between Protection, Control & Monitoring devices is gradually becoming thin. We can call these devices as Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) of Electric Utility (derived from IED used in Industrial automation). With the Improvements in processing devices in terms of speed, amount of error free data transfer and miniaturization of hardware, enormous bandwidth of optical links, unification of Communication system Protocols globally is inevitable. It will not take much longer time now for an Engineers PC to change to an IED!!! An IED is any device with one or more processors and is capable of exchanging data or control to or from another IED. An IED can be a Metering device, a bay controller, Protection or an HMI.

If the issue of unauthorized actions, mal-operations, vandalism and interference is addressed properly by fail-proof design there shall be no panic. IEC 61850 is one great step towards achieving this ultimate goal of Interchangeability of IEDs. It is clear that without manufacturers active participation achieving this goal is difficult. This process has already started as more and more Manufacturers are manufacturing IEC 61850 compliant products, the IEDs.

To achieve IED Interchangeability, it is necessary to perform same functions by all IEDs. This is not a bad idea and will not make manufacturer Vulnerable as long as the functional algorithms are protected from being copied. Interchangeability will be achieved once IED functions as well as the data exchanged by all Logical Nodes are standardized by all manufacturers. This is an ultimate goal. IEC 61850 presently deals with Interoperability of IEDs only and limits to the Substation Automation. Finally, when Electrical system Protection, Control & Monitoring devices of Power Plant from Auxiliary voltage level to HV systems are made IEC 61850 compliant, it is easy to include at least Monitoring & Protection functions operable as extension to SAS system. When all IEDs use GPS clock signal for time reference and are synchronized with
each other, Automation is real-time & complete. Due to various reasons, allocations of functions to IEDs are not fixed under IEC 61850. Therefore, IEC 61850 supports any allocation of functions to IED. Present aim is interoperability rather than interchangeability. SAS system deals with four main functions with respect to Electric Power system namely Control, Protection, Monitoring & Supervision. These functions can be assigned in three levels Process level, Bay level & Station level.

COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS
High speed real-time communication between various computing devices with standardized Protocol is basic requirement for Automation. An IED is a physical device having a network address and has physical connection with the network. IEDs communicate in open protocol communication stacks. Since IEDs are manufactured by different Manufacturers a consensus must be reached between Manufacturers. IEC 61850 compliant IEDs meet this requirement.

Protection, Control & Monitoring functions are performed by various Logical Nodes. An IED may contain more than one Logical Node. In a SAS system, to perform a task (function) a Logical Node may need to communicate with other Logical Nodes either within same IED or in other IEDs. To meet SAS requirement, two Logical Nodes which are within the same IED or different IEDs they must communicate in Standard open Protocol. A Logical node communicates with other Logical Node over a Logical connection. PICOM (Piece of Communication) describes the information & contains data exchanged by Logical Nodes. IEDs have virtual interfaces called ACSI (Abstract Communication Services Interface) which provides all abstract communications. SCSM (Specific Communication services Mapping) provides the concrete mapping of ACSI services and objects onto a particular stack or communication profile. The data may be communicated over same sub-domain like a process bus to an IED for Control, Protection or a Measurement or may be communicated to a Station HMI or Monitoring system which is on another sub-domain like Substation bus. More mappings are involved when communication is required between more domains. For each specific protocol separate SCSM is required. An IED shall have information on its configuration accessible via communication to other IEDs. The Protocols used shall be open, support self descriptive devices with possibility to add new functionality. IEC 61850 identifies various interfaces which are required; 1. Interfaces between bay & Station level devices for Protection data exchange 2. Interfaces between Protections in different bays for Protection data exchange 3. Interfaces between Protections in bay level & remote Protection (out of IEC 61850 scope) for Prrotection data exchange 4. Interfaces between bay level devices for data exchange 5. Interfaces for Instrument Transformer instantaneous data exchange between Process & bay level (sampled data) 6. Interfaces between process & bay level for control data exchange 7. Interfaces between station & bay level for control data exchange 8. Interfaces between Station level & remote Engineers workstation for data exchange 9. Interfaces for direct data exchange between bays (e.g. Interlocks) 10.Interfaces within Station level for data exchange 11.Interfaces between Station level & remote Control Center for control, protection, measurement & supervision data exchange (out of IEC 61850 scope)

Various devices may be physically located on any level within SAS [e.g. Engineers Workstation may be located at Station level or bay level]. For exchange of data any network technology may be used such as WAN, LAN and process bus technology [as long as they meet open protocol] Process level devices are typically remote I/Os, Intelligent sensors & actuators. Bay level devices are Control, Measurement & Protection IEDs. Station level devices are Station Computer with Storage devices, Operators work station and interfaces for remote communication etc A function may be performed in a distributed form by use of different Logical Nodes located in different IEDs.

LOGICAL NODES
IEC 61850 defines all known Logical Nodes as below: 1. Protection Logical Nodes: IEC 61850 Logical Nodes PTEF

Description or comments

The Transient Earth Fault (TEF) protections are used for detection of Earth Faults in Compensated or Isolated or Petersen coil Neutral Power Systems. Compensated or Isolated or Petersen coil Neutral systems are typical of some MV Networks. These systems are designed for continuing operation upon occurrence of a Single Earth Fault for longer duration. Conventional Earth Fault Relays which operate on Fundamental Frequency Steady State Earth Fault Currents are not suitable for such systems. High Peak, extremely short duration Transient Surge Currents & Transient Over Voltages occur due to resulting Unsymmetrical Phase to Earth system during Single Earth Faults in such systems. Amplitude & duration of Transient surge currents depends on the System design (Capacitance & Inductance) & resistance at the fault location. Surges self extinguish at zero crossing & reappear intermittently by charging & discharging stored energies. Transient Earth Fault Protections (TEF) operates when they detect 4

the residual surge current. Due to extremely short duration of the surge they indicate only Start of an Earth Fault. Further Protection/functions or sophistication may be necessary for detection of direction, location & Isolation of such faults.

Zero-Speed / Under-Speed (ZSU) device used for detecting the Motion of Equipment. The function of such a device may be such as to detect Loss of rotation/linear motion/reciprocating motion, Failure to start/stop of a Drive/Machine, Stalled machine, process/equipment Jam/Overload, Low-speed/over-speed of a machine etc. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 14. PDIS A Distance Protective Relay (DIS) is a non-unit Protection whose operation depends on local measured Voltage and Current at the Relay location. Distance Protection operates when the actual Impedance, admittance, reactance or combination of resistance & reactance falls within its setting boundary limit. Distance Protection setting boundary limits are indicated on R-X plane. Distance Protections are applied for detecting faults with or without earth. The Distance Protection is most commonly used as Main Protection for High Voltage Transmission systems, backup protection for Generator/Unit Transformer, Shunt Reactor bank etc in some systems it is reverse-set to provide backup protection for Bus bar faults. The Distance Protection function is used for various applications such as Tripping of Circuit Breakers, Controlling other Protections (like blocking, Starting), Monitoring disturbance in system, Faultdetection, Phase selection in Single-pole Auto-Reclosing schemes, Power swings detection, System Islanding, Power systems out of step detection, Distance to Fault location etc. With Numerical technology its applications are ever increasing. In most HV, EHV & UHV AC Transmission systems it provides additional communication-aided unit-type protection. Most common being Permissive (underreach or overreach, direct transfer trip, blocking, unblocking, zone acceleration/extention and some hybrid combinations) along with ancillary schemes for detecting zero-volt 5

PZSU

faults, weakends etc. Typical Transmission line Distance protection (DIS) tripping scheme is made of standard three-step zone protection (Zone-1, 2 & 3 for Phase-Ground faults and Zone-1, 2 & 3 for Phase-Phase faults). These Protection zones are set to provide time-coordinated tripping with upstream/downstream Equipment Protections. Numerical Distance Protections can have additional advantages like possibility of setting each Zone as Forward or Reverse, any zone can be set instantaneous or delayed, any zone can be deactivated, separate settings for phase faults & earth faults for each zone, characteristic matching with load/fault resistance, preventing trip during stable power swings as well as many logical configurations to perform additional application based schemes. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 21. PVPH Over Fluxing or Volts per Hertz Protection (VPH) is a Protection which operates when the ratio of Voltage to Frequency exceeds its setting. Over Fluxing of Magnetic Iron cores results in Magnetic Saturation which leads the stray flux which follow other paths like equipment enclosure etc which are not designed to limit eddy currents. These eddy currents may lead to Over-heating and subsequent loss of Insulation life of Equipment. Power Transformers, Generators, Unit Transformers, Reactors, Motors have limited Over Fluxing capabilities as they are optimally designed for operation close to saturation point. Volts per Hertz protection is intended to detect Over Fluxing and provide Alarm & or Trip or both in accordance with application for these equipment. The Volts per Hertz Protection functions may provide definite time delayed trip, inverse-time delayed trip (based on application) or provide an Alarm. Numerical Volts per Hertz Protection may include both trip & Alarm stage with its own time characteristics which can be selectable from standard curves or can be custom built based equipment withstand capability.

The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 24.

An Undervoltage relay (UV) operates when the measured System Voltage falls below its setting. Undervoltage Protection functions may be instantaneous, definite time delayed, inverse-time delayed. Undervoltage relay (TUV) function is used for various applications like Load shedding schemes, Tripping of Motors, Tripping of Shunt Reactors, tap changer application, Switching of VAR devices, Monitoring system disturbances, detecting dead Line/bus dead while interconnecting systems, Fault detection, Voltage control supervision of other protections etc as well as various ancillary functions. Numerical Undervoltage Protection may include both trip & Alarm stage with its own time characteristics with settable pickup & dropout delays. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 27. . A Directional Power Relay (DPR) operates when the measured real power flow in a particular set direction exceeds its setting. Directional Power relay (DPR) function is used for various applications like Protection of Generator & Prime mover on loss of mechanical input to its Prime mover, Preventing Co-Generation plants from feeding the Utility, sequential restoration of an interconnected systems, Low forward power of Generators, loss of load detection etc . Numerical Directional power Protection may include both trip & Alarm stage with its own time characteristics. This relay is also called Wattmetric type Power relay. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 32.

PTUV

PDPR

PWDE

A Wattmetric type Directional Earth Fault Relay (WDE) operates when the Earth fault power in the circuit flows in a specific direction exceeding its setting. It is used in Petersen coil grounded/ compensated Neutral networks. Compensated or Petersen coil Neutral systems are typical of some MV Networks. These systems are designed for continuing operation upon occurrence of a Single Earth Fault for quite long time. Conventional Earth Fault Relays which operate on Fundamental Frequency Steady State Earth Fault Currents are not suitable for such systems. Sensitive Wattmetric Directional Earth fault Relays are used for detection & location of an Earth fault in compensated network to provide selective tripping using residual Voltage & Currents and phase angle difference between them. Based on the quality of CT input and scheme design it may provide Alarm only or Trip. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 32N [Suffix N for Earth fault].

Undercurrent or Underpower relay (UPC) operates when the current or Power falls below its setting. Some of their applications are Loss of load on Motors, Monitoring Open-Pole, Detect Pump running dry, Failure of drive belts, Conveyer systems, Fans, Loss in process load sequence etc. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 37.

PUPC

PUEX Loss-of-field relay or Under Excitation relay (UEX) operates when the there is low or failure of Synchronous Machine excitation. The Protection may be based on the DC Field Current or detecting Reactive Current in Armature flowing from system. It may have an Impedance type Characteristics using Armature current and Voltage as input or part of Excitation system either in AC or DC circuit. The failure of excitation or under excitation could be from AVR malfunction, Generator feeding capacitive loads, failure in 8

components of Excitation system etc. Loss of Synchronous Generator excitation results in its operation as an Induction Generator losing synchronism with system. The machine runs above its synchronous speed & draws Reactive power from the system through its armature. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 40.

Phase Balance or Reverse Phase Current Relay (PBR) operates when it detects the Phase Currents in Reverse Sequence or when there is Unbalanced Phase Currents or when there is Negative Sequence component Current exceeding its setting. Negative sequence currents are highly destructive to the Rotating Machines like Generators & Three-Phase Motors which are optimally designed for Positive sequence Voltage & Currents and direction of rotation. Excessive heating & loss of life or subsequent failure may occur based on the design temperature rise class, insulation class & cooling system. For Poly phase Motors the Negative Sequence Over Current Relay provides protection against phase open circuit operation leading to extensive damage to Rotor. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 46.

PPBR

Phase Balance or Phase Sequence Voltage Relay (PBV) operates when it detects the Unbalanced Phase Voltages or when there is Negative Sequence component Voltage exceeding its setting. Negative sequence Voltages are highly destructive to Poly Phase Motors due to double frequency induced currents in the rotor. Rotating Machines like Generators & Three-Phase Motors are optimally designed for Positive sequence Voltage & Currents and direction of rotation. Excessive heating & loss of life or subsequent failure may occur based on the design temperature rise class, insulation class & cooling system. The IEEE C37-2 device function number of such a device is 47.

PPBV

PMSU

Motor start-up protection (MSU) is combination of control, protection & monitoring functions which includes Overload, longer startup times, permissible cooling time before start, available heat within Motor and prevents thermal damage to the Motor. It may include such function as sequence of operation or failure to satisfy defined sequence or incomplete sequence. Such a supervision system may be made up of combination of functions as per IEEE C37-2 device function numbers 48, 49. 51 & 66.

Machine or Transformer Thermal Relay (TTR) operates when it detects the Machine or Transformer temperature exceeds the set level. Winding temperature of machine or Transformer is proportional to the square of the current. The protection may detect temperature rise above ambient or total temperature of the Winding and follows the cooling/heating time constants. It may be based on the Heat run test. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 49.

PTTR

Machine Rotor Thermal Overload Relay (ROL) operates when it detects the Machine Rotor winding temperature exceeds the set level. Winding temperature of Machine rotor winding is proportional to the square of the field current. Its application may be based on the Heat run test of actual machine or as agreed between User & manufacturer as well as based on machine size, design and applicable standards. Its working may be based on total temperature or ambient compensated temperature rise. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 49R [Suffix R for Rotor]. PSOL Machine Stator Thermal Overload Relay (SOL) operates when it detects the Machine Stator winding temperature exceeds the set level. 10

PROL

Winding temperature of Machine Stator winding is proportional to the square of the Armature current. Its application may be based on the Heat run test of actual machine or as agreed between User & manufacturer as well as based on machine size, design and applicable standards. Its working may be based on total temperature or ambient compensated temperature rise.

The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 49S [Suffix S for Stator].

Instantaneous overcurrent or rate-of-rise current relay (IOC) is a protective relay which operates instantaneously without additional time delay when the measured instantaneous current or measured rate of current rise exceeds its setting. Instantaneous Over current Relay provides fastest operation upon detecting a fault in the Protected object. Instantaneous Overcurrent relay may be based on RMS current or Phasor value. Numerical IOC can be given intentional time delay to ride through Transient currents or when it needs to coordinate with fuse or in reverse interlocking scheme to allow a blocking input from downstream device start. Similarly a dropout delay may be set based on the application. Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays are designed for Transient over reach of less than 5% typically. Additionally, some IOC relays can allow release by Direction sensing fast device making IOC as a Directional IOC. Rate of rise Current relay detects the steepness of the current rise and thereby indicative of high peak prospective current. It is particularly useful in high-speed tripping devices with limited interruption capability thereby clearing fault when there is less arc energy generated between its parting contacts establishing thermal & dielectric recovery. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 50.

PIOC

PTOC AC Time overcurrent relay (TOC) is a protective relay which operates when the measured current exceeds its setting current after an intentional set time delay. The intentional delay time 11

selection may be fixed (definite) time or Inverse function of the ratio of measured current to setting current. These relays are intended to coordinate with Time-Current characteristics of other Protections as well as to allow transients to die down like inrush currents. Historically, these relays followed time-current current curves to optimally protect equipment withstand capability curves by means of Electromechanical relays based on resultant torques due to operating & restraint forces. Accordingly various standards were followed to define the degree of steepness of Inverse current-time curves. Commonly called by names like Standard, Normal, Moderately, very, extremely inverse and so on and defined based on governing Standard. Traditional Electromechanical relays have a definite minimum time for each inverse time setting and were called IDMTL characteristics. Additionally, some TOC relays can allow release by Direction sensing fast device making TOC as a Directional TOC. Numerical TOC may provide large numbers of selectable Inverse time characteristics matching the need as per different standards and to coordinate with existing devices in the system. Additionally, they allow a characteristic to be custom built and used by the relay and to fix any required definite minimum time delay. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 51. PVOC Voltage-Controlled/dependent Over Current Relay (VOC) is a Time Overcurrent Relay with inverse current-time characteristics [refer to PTOC] with dependency on the Measured Voltage. Based on application, there are two types VOC Relays namely Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Relays and Voltage restraint Overcurrent Relays. Voltage Controlled Overcurrent relays will operate only when the measured voltage falls below a set value. Voltage Restraint Overcurrent relay pickup and time multiplier progressively gets reduced depending on the reduction in the measured voltage. Generator fault current decreases as time progresses due to Armature reaction. Current reduces based on increased reactance from Subtransient to Transient and finally steady state value. Final current will be less than rated current & hence conventional backup 12

Overcurrent relays set above Generator rated current will dropout in the event of fault leaving the fault uncleared. Depending on the connection of Generator whether direct on to bus or through Unit Transformer VOC type can be selected whether Voltage controlled or restraint type. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 51V [Suffix V is indicating Voltage dependency].

A Power factor Relay (PFR) is a Relay which monitors the Power factor of an AC circuit and operates when it rises above or falls below its setting. Asynchronous motors (Inductive loads) draw reactive Power (lagging VARs) in addition to real power thereby causing voltage to dip as well as increase in apparent power, losses & reduce efficiency. Most of the loads are predominantly inductive. Similarly, capacitive loads tend to increase Voltage by generating leading VARs. PFR are typically used to monitor PF based on the phase angle between the measured Voltage & Current and provide control & alarm which can be to switching Capacitor banks, Shunt Reactors, provide interlock to AVR, VAR control interlocks or to apply any other techno-commercial aspect. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 55. PTOV Time Over Voltage Relay (PTOV) is a Relay which operates when measured voltage exceeds its setting after a lapse of selected time delay. The Time delay selection may be definite time or inverse time as a function of Voltage. Steady state Over voltages are caused when there is loss of major load, energizing a long EHV Transmission line, Capacitor bank switched on light loads, OLTC malfunction, AVR malfunction etc. Dielectrics (Insulating media, capacitor) are susceptible to increased Electric field which is Volts per length and may cause permanent damages to Insulation strength and failures. Every Electrical Equipment is made up of insulation which has limited capability to withstand voltage beyond rated value. PTOV may be used to provide protection to insulation or as safety mean or as control/monitoring functions. 13

PPFR

The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 59

DC Overvoltage relays (DOV) are intended for protection against excessive DC voltage in DC systems. Operation of the DC overvoltage relays is carried out whenever the DC input voltage grows higher than its setting. The Time delay selection may be definite time or inverse time as a function of Voltage The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 59DC

PDOV

Voltage or Current balance Relay (VCB) operates when the difference between Voltage or Current input or output between two circuits exceeds setting. Typical application of Voltage balance Relay is as Fuse supervision comparing two voltage circuits to identify genuine loss of supply or fuse failure condition of truly energized system. This also finds critical application in Generator Excitation control systems. Current unbalance has typical application of detecting broken conductors, CT circuit supervision etc. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 60.

PVCB

Earth fault protection / Ground detector relay (HIZ) detects failure of insulation to ground. Ground fault detectors are used in AC as well as DC systems. Ground fault protection detects earth faults in applications like Generator/Motor fields, Battery systems, Telecommunication systems, High Impedance or ungrounded systems, MV Motors in High resistance grounded systems etc. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 64

PHIZ

14

Rotor Earth fault protection (REF) detects Earth faults in the Rotor field circuit of a Synchronous machine. Rotor field circuits are normally ungrounded. A single earth fault is not very dangerous and does not cause immediate damage. When a second earth fault occurs it may fully short circuit the field winding or when first fault involves some winding turns it may lead to interturn fault. Severe magnetic imbalance and heavy rotor vibrations leading soon to severe damage can occur The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 64R.

PREF

Stator Earth fault protection (SEF) detects Earth faults in the Stator armature Winding of a Synchronous Machine. Large Generator Neutral is usually grounded through some kind of High Impedance to limit the magnitude of Phase to ground faults and extensive core damage. Phase to phase faults are avoided by means of Isolated or segregated bus ducts. In Medium Voltage smaller Machines low resistance grounding is common to limit the current typically down to less than 150% rated but above conventional Earth fault Relay detection capabilities. LV and very small Generators are solidly grounded. In all cases stator Earth fault detection is provided, Two concepts are applied 95% and 100% Earth fault detection [latter one is for larger Machines]. Faults near the Neutral end are detected by 100% earth fault Protection. Damage to a large Generator is of great consequence in terms of financial loss. Various techniques are adapted for providing 100% Stator earth fault even involving last part of turn close to neutral in high impedance earthed neutral. Such technique may involve use of low frequency 20Hz injection, 3rd harmonic monitoring etc The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 64S. PITF Interturn Fault Detection Relay (ITF) is applied to detect a short circuit that occurs between turns of same phase in a Machine or Transformer.

PSEF

15

Machines with one turn per slot can have a turn to turn faults only from two separate earth faults one in each turn which can be detected by Earth fault Protection. An interturn fault without earth fault can occur when there is more than one turns in a slot. If interturn faults occur in the stator slots they quickly develop into faults to earth and are cleared by the stator earth fault protection. The possibility exists that the fault may occur at the winding ends and so can cause extensive damage to the generator before the fault evolves into one detectable by other protection. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 64W.

AC Directional Overcurrent Relay (DOC) is a Relay which operated when the measured phase current in a desired direction of flow exceeds its setting after a desired set time delay. The Delay may be zero (instantaneous), definite time or inverse time based on current. Directional Inverse time Relays are particularly useful in interconnected MV or HV system lines as well as in Co-Generation plants [Refer to PTOC for inverse time curves]. Depending on application, the Relay maximum characteristic angle/Maximum torque angle/Relay characteristics angle (MCA or MTA or RCA) is selected which also depends on the inputs used and type of fault. A quadrature (100% cross polarization) polarization is quite common for HV & MV Overhead Transmission system. Numerical Relays have wide range of selectable characteristic angles and time-current curves. Different characteristic angle and polarizing inputs are applicable based on the system. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 67. PDEF AC Directional Earth fault Protection (DEF) is a Relay which operated when the measured residual current in a desired direction of flow exceeds its setting after a desired set time delay. The Delay may be zero (instantaneous), definite time or inverse time based on current. Directional Inverse time Relays are particularly useful in interconnected system lines as well as in Co-Generation plants 16

PDOC

[Refer to PTOC for inverse time curves]. Depending on application, the Relay maximum characteristic angle/Maximum torque angle/Relay characteristics angle (MCA or MTA or RCA) is selected which also depends on the inputs used and type of fault. Relay Polarizing input may be Voltage (residual voltage) or current (Neutral current of Power Transformer or circulating in a Transformer Delta winding) or both voltage & current simultaneously. Directional earth fault protection is also used as communication assisted comparison scheme for Over Head Transmission lines to detect & clear high resistance earth faults. Numerical Relays have wide range of selectable characteristic angles and time-current curves. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 67N.

DC Time overcurrent relay (DCO) operates when the DC load current exceeds its setting value with a time delay. PDCO It is useful in DC systems, Battery systems and Protection circuits of DC Motors, DC drives etc. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 76. PPAM Phase Angle Measuring (PAM) is a relay that operates at a preset phase angle between voltage and current or two voltages or two currents. This relay determines asymmetry in currents and voltages between phases. Phase angle relays find application in Co-Generation Plants to detect Vector jumps and in Automatic Motor bus transfer schemes Out of step relay detects two system of voltages are in stable operating mode. In HV & EHV systems Out of Step blocking and Tripping schemes are used based on whether power swings during disturbances are stable or system needs to be islanded. Out-of-step blocking Protections work on Impedance measurement principle similar to Distance relays and cover the Zone Characteristics which needs to be Blocked. Out-of-step Protections are applied to Generators. Also, in EHV & UHV lines when Electrical Center of 17

system lies on the Protected Transmission line it results in Islanding preventing in systems collapse. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 78.

Frequency Relay (FRQ) is a Relay which operates when measured System frequency falls below or rise above its setting or when rate of change of frequency exceeds it setting. In a Power system, Frequency is directly proportional to the real power. When the real power demand increases the system Frequency tends to reduce which under steady state is sensed by the Generator Governing system and Increased power is produced to maintain the system frequency (depending on the Generator droop setting & available capacity). When additional real Power is no longer available to support, system frequency reduces. Such actions like load shedding in stages are used to maintain system frequency to operating levels. Motors produce increased torque as the Frequency is reduced if its Voltage is maintained. Similarly, produce less torque when frequency rises. Machines are designed for optimum operation at rated Frequency. Operation above or below frequency needs corrective action or shutdown of Machines. Generators and large motors are protected against over-speeding and under-speeding by Over-Under Frequency Relays. Under Frequency and df/dt based load shedding schemes are frequently used when an Industrial Power Plant connects with Utility system to Island the systems and maintain process. Under Frequency & df/dt schemes are also applied to remove loads as well as to disconnect two systems when removal of a system part restores stability of one of the region. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 81.

PFRQ

18

Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, Motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through current or some adaptive values. Low Impedance & High Impedance are two main types of Current Differential Relays. High impedance Relay may be Voltage operated or Current operated with Stabilizing resistors. Voltage Differential protections are used in capacitor bank application where in voltages at Mid tap and bus are compared to detect failed capacitor units. Differential Protection is one of the main Protections for major Electrical equipment. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87 [Ground Differential as 87N, Transformer Differential as 87T, Motor Differential as 87M, Generator Differential as 87G, Reactor Differential as 87R, Bus Differential as 87B and Voltage Differential will have device number 87V].

PDIF

PPDF Phase Comparison Protection (PDF) compares the phase angle difference between two quantities and operates when it satisfy operation setting. For Transmission Lines, phase comparison protection compares phase angle of current entering the protected circuit and leaving it. Thus it obtains and compares phase angle of current from remote end and compares it with local current. For external faults the measured currents will be in antiphase. This is due to the current flowing in at one end of the protected line, and out at the remote end. For an internal fault currents will be in phase. Where one terminal is open then the internal fault may cause a current 19

flow in, without a corresponding flow out at the remote end. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87P [suffix P for phase comparison].

Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, Motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through current or some adaptive values. Transmission line Differential Relay may include Transformers within its zone. PLDF Line Differential Protections (LDF) are available for two terminal lines as well as multi-terminal lines. With High speed optical communication system Line Differential Protection is applied for long Transmission lines of few hundred kilometers (which was not possible with traditional metallic pilots with allowable maximum length of 10km or less) The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87L [Suffix L for line].

PNDF Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Restricted Earth fault Protection (NDF) is a form of Current Differential Protection which compares Residual current entering and leaving a Protected Object. Typically, Star windings of Transformers are Protected by Restricted 20

Earth fault Relays which compares winding Neutral current with Residual currents of phases. It is also applicable for Zigzag type Grounding Transformers. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87N [Suffix N for Neutral/Earth].

Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, Motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through current or some adaptive values. PTDF Transformer Differential Protections may be provided with 2nd and 5th harmonic restraints. There may be as many numbers of restraint inputs as numbers of CTs in case of Transformer Differential Protection and from each voltage side. Differential Protection is one of the main Protections for Transformers. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87T [suffix T for Transformer].

PBDF Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through 21

current or some adaptive values. Bus differential Protections (BDF) are two types namely Low Impedance & High impedance type. High impedance Relay may be Voltage operated or Current operated with Stabilizing resistors. Differential Protection is main Protection for Busbars. Numerical low impedance type are applicable for as many zones as numbers of Busbars in Centralized or decentralized configuration. CT switching problem associated with older generation Relays in case of double bus, two main & transfer bus schemes are eliminated. Different CT ratio can be used in Numerical Bus Differential schemes based on feeder rating. Other advantages like adaptive stabilization (to prevent over-stabilization problem), end zone protection, check- zone can be implemented. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87B [Suffix B is for Bus bar].

PMDF Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, Motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through current or some adaptive values. Low Impedance & High Impedance are two main types of Current Differential Relays. High impedance Relay may be Voltage operated or Current operated with Stabilizing resistors. Motor Differential protection (MDF) compares currents at both ends of each phase winding and provides trip output when it detects 22

fault within its zone inclusive of windings. Differential protection is applicable for Star connected & Delta connected Motors by means of CT connection. Also, scheme with CTs only at main side of winding is possible if the Motor neutral is formed at supply panel or close to it. Differential Protection is one of the main Protections for Large Motors. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87M [Suffix M for Motor].

Differential Protection (DIF) operates when it measures difference between Currents or Voltages or any other electrical quantities exceeding its setting. It may measure difference in percentage, phase angle or any other electrical quantity. Current Differential Relays are typically used for protecting Generators, Transformers, Reactors, Busbars, Transmission lines, Motors etc. Where in the relays compares currents entering and leaving the Protected object. To allow for CT mismatch and DC time constants, restraints are added which are functions of through current or some adaptive values. Low Impedance & High Impedance are two main types of Current Differential Relays. High impedance Relay may be Voltage operated or Current operated with Stabilizing resistors. Generator Differential protection (GDF) compares currents at both ends of each phase winding and provides trip output when it detects fault within its zone inclusive of windings. Generator-Unit transformer Overall Differential protection is applicable for Covering both Generator & Step-up Unit Transformer. Differential Protection is one of the main Protections for Generator. The IEEE C37-2 device function numbers of such a device is 87G [Suffix G for Generator].

PGDF

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2. Control Logical nodes :


The definition and handling of alarms is an engineering issue. Individual alarms are generated in the corresponding logical nodes. Alarm handling allows the creation of group warnings and alarms. The related logical nodes can be used to calculate new data out of individual data from different logical nodes. For the communication purposes if a time tag is added to any data there is no difference between alarms and events. Remote acknowledgement with different priority and authority can be possible. The switch control logical node is used to control all switchgear condition above the process level. This logical node represents the status and control of the switching device. The CSWI has a data object Pos with the attribute ctlVal (control value) that can be addressed by a substation computer. The substation computer sends a control message to the device with the Logical Node CSWI it addresses the attribute CSWI CSWI.ctlVal and sets it to Open or Close. The operation to close a circuit breaker will not be allowed if the configured conditions for blocking the open or close are fulfilled. For example, if an adjacent earthing switch is in the closed position, closing a circuit breaker would cause a short circuit and would probably damage the primary equipment. The function which checks whether the conditions are met is modeled in IEC 61850 with the Logical Node CILO (control interlocking condition). This interlocking function is well known in substations. The CSWI has to communicate with the CILO to figure out what is allowed. CPOW The point-on-wave breaker controller logical node should be used if the circuit breaker is able to perform point-on-wave switching. This logical node always closes a circuit breaker with reference to a defined phase angle of the system voltage or current. Based on the circuit breaker operating times the tripping pulse is controlled so that the arcing contacts touch at a defined voltage (or current) phase angle (voltage zero or maximum system voltage). These logical nodes continuously measure the phase angle of the system via the reference voltage and control the breaker tripping coils accordingly. It is started by a request either from CSWI or from RREC. The developed algorithm determines the zeros of the system voltage and detects deviation from the standard sinusoidal curve. The close command is sent to the control logical node and then transmitted to the circuit breaker after a delay based on a fixed relation to the phase angle. The instant of tripping pulses

CALH

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release are controlled by the circuit breaker operating time, as stored in the logical node. Controlled point-on-wave switching is a very effective way of reducing switching transients and enhancing circuit breaker performance, it reduces transient overvoltages and currents associated with switching operations of shunt capacitor banks, shunt reactors, transformers and transmission lines, It allows for optimization of the circuit breaker arcing time. This interlocking function logical node is used to enable a switching operation if the interlocking conditions are fulfilled. In the case of CILO, the required input data (status information from a few switches) are communicated through IEC 61850. They are modeled as data objects of other Logical Nodes, e.g. XCBRs. The standard defines two data objects that represent the outputs of the interlocking logic: EnaOpn Enable Open and EnaCls Enable Close. Interlocking of switchgear can be done at the bay level and at the station level. CILO 1. Interlocking of switchgear at bay level All interlocking rules referring to a bay are included in this logical node. Releases or blocking of requested commands are issued. 2. Interlocking of switchgear at station level All interlocking rules referring to a station are included in this logical node. Releases or blocking of requested commands are issued. Information with the LN bay interlocking is exchanged.

3. Interface, logging and archiving logical Nodes:


The IHMI is an operator interface logical node. This logical node represents the operator interface at bay level and at station level. IHMI Front-panel operator interface at bay level is used for configuration and local control. Local operator interface at station level is used as a workplace for the station operator.

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ITCI

Telecontrol interface or remote control interface, logical node ITCI, allows users to manage a network from a remote control point and provides the necessary interface between control stations and the higher control level. The role of the different interfaces is not fixed for most of the functions and is defined in the engineering phase. This logical node is used for remote monitoring and maintenance using a subset of all information available in the substation, but it is not meant to do any control. The role of the different interfaces is not fixed for most of the functions and is defined in the engineering phase. This logical node is to be used as sink and source for long-term historical data used for complete substation on station level.

ITMI

IARC

4. Automatic process control Logical Nodes:


The automatic tap changer controller controls automatically the transformer on load tap changer, so that the power supply voltage is practically constant. The controller is used to maintain a constant voltage level at feeders busbar. The controller gives commands to increase and decrease the transformer OLTC. As these differences

ATCC

in the tap position are usually discrete, the controller allows the user to set the percentage of change between taps. The automatic tap changer controller can receive a command for automatic or manual operation. Manual operation, by the operator, has priority over automatic, in order to avoid performance failures in the case of manual operations. Automatic voltage control strengthens system efficiency and power quality by automatically monitoring and controlling voltage on busbars, transformers, and tertiary reactors within a specific range. On a power distribution system experiencing varying loading conditions, this automatic function can effectively maintain a steady transformer secondary voltage (LV) within predetermined limits. Implementing automatic voltage control also decreases system losses by minimizing voltage fluctuation and out-of-limit operation and extends life of older primary equipment by optimizing functionality.

AVCO

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ARCO

Automatic reactive power control is a function to keep the reactive power flow in a substation within a preset range using and/or capacitors. The grounding of a transformer star point can influence the short circuit in a network. This grounding is dynamically determined by a Petersen coil. In medium- and high voltage networks, the earth fault neutralizer controller (controller of Petersen coil) is used for the automatic control of Petersencoils, which are continuously adjustable on load. The controller can control either to a percentage or absolute detuning-current or a given zerosequence-voltage. During a ground-fault, the Petersen-coil can be corrected by the detuning and adjusted to the resonance point. This logical node operates when a line connected to a substation is without voltage longer than a predetermined time. This logical node is a binary function only (voltage/no voltage). Logical node type Generic Automatic Process Control comprises of functions that are sequences. These sequences may be implemented with standard PLC languages. This is a generic node for all undefined functions. Examples for generic automatic process node are: 1. Load shedding Removal, in a very selective way, of pre-selected customer demand from a power system, as a result of the occurrence of an abnormal condition, to avoid the collapse of the network. This load-shedding function include actual power balance, frequency criteria etc.

ANCR

AZVT

GAPC

2. In-feed transfer switching detects the weak in-feed. If one power infeed becomes unavailable or is detected as weak then the in-feed transfer switch seamlessly switches to the remaining power in-feed to keep power flowing to the attached devices. 3. Transformer change In case of transformer overload, the logical node switches to another transformer or distributes the load more evenly to all related transformers on the busbar.

4. Busbar change To start by one single operator command a sequence of switching operation resulting in a busbar change of a dedicated line or transformer, if applicable.

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5.

Automatic clearing and voltage restoration After detecting zero-voltage condition to trip all circuits connected to a busbar and to close the same breakers following some pre-defined rules.

6. Metering and measurements logical nodes:


MMXU logical node has a measuring function and is used to acquire values from CTs and VTs and to calculate phasor or RMS values of currents and voltages, frequency, power or any other system parameter, out of the acquired sampled values. These calculated values are used for operational purposes such as screen displays, can be recorded with user defined sampling rates as a disturbance record, for power flow supervision and management etc. Note: The measuring procedure in the protection devices are represented by the logical nodes Pxyz and are part of the dedicated protection algorithm. Therefore measuring and metering logical nodes (Mxyz) shall not be used as input for protection logical nodes (Pxyz).

MMXU

This logical node acquires values of current and voltage from CTs and VTs and calculates different energy values MMTR Advanced metering and power quality monitoring devices, as well as specialized energy metering devices calculate the energy that is then used for billing or other purposes.

MSQI

This logical node acquires current and voltage values from CTs and VTs and calculates the sequence and imbalances in a multi-phase power system. Relays and power quality monitoring devices measure different system parameters that are used to determine unbalanced system conditions. Such measurements are modeled in the logical node MSQI (Sequence and imbalance). The sequence components of the currents and voltages are modeled as attribute type SEQ (Sequence).

MHAI

Power quality monitoring devices calculate hundreds of different system parameters, such as harmonics or interharmonics. Their modeling is based on a measurements logical node MHAI (Harmonics and interharmonics), dedicated to these measurements. This logical node acquires current and voltage values from CTs and VTs and calculates harmonics, interharmonics and other related values in the power system.

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7. Common identification and behavior Logical Nodes:


LLN0 contains common data/functions for all LNs of a logical device. The logical device (LD) allows via its logical node LLN0 common management functions for all included LNs. The logical node zero (LLN0) represents common data of the logical device, while the logical node physical device (LPHD) represents common data of the physical device hosting the logical device. LLN0 and LPHD are defined in any logical device. To represent the information about the proxy/gateway itself, the logical device LD0 shall be implemented in each device that acts as a proxy or gateway. The logical nodes LLN0 and LPHD of LD0 shall represent information about the proxy or gateway device itself. This logical node does not restrict the dedicated access to any single logical node by definition. Possible restrictions are a matter of engineering and implementation.

LLN0

8. System and device security Logical:


This logical node GSAL is referred to as generic security application entirely dedicated to monitoring of violations regarding authorization (handled via the AuthFail attribute), access control (handled via the AcsCtlFail attribute), service privileges (handled via the SvcViol attribute) and inactive associations (handled via the Ina attribute).

GSAL

9. Switching devices and substation parts Logical Nodes: XCBR


The circuit breaker logical node XCBR covers all kind of circuit breakers, with or without point-on-wave switching capability. An AC circuit breaker is a switch that automatically interrupts the flow of electric current if the current exceeds a preset limit, as that caused by a short circuit. Circuit breakers are used most often as a safety precaution where excessive current through a circuit could be hazardous.

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In case of a single-phase circuit breaker, XCBR has one instance per phase. These three instances may be allocated to three physical devices mounted in the switchgear.

This logical node XSWI covers all kinds of switching devices which are unable to switch short circuits, such as: load breakers, earthing switches, disconnectors, high-speed earthing switches. XSWI logical node is a switch used as a load-interrupter, disconnector or an isolating switch on a power circuit (AC or DC). In case of a single-phase switch, XSWI has an instance per phase. These three instances may be allocated to three physical devices mounted in the switchgear.

XSWI

10.Logical Nodes for monitoring by sensors:


SIMS is a logical node used to supervise the insulation medium, such as the volumes of gas of Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) concerning gas pressure, density, temperature etc.

SIMS

SARC

SARC is a monitoring logical node used to supervise the gas volume of gas insulated switchgear in case of arcs switching or fault arcs.

SPDC

SPDC is a monitoring and diagnostic logical node used to supervise the gas volume of the gas insulated switchgear in connection with the effects of partial discharges.

11.Instrument transformer logical Nodes: TCTR


TCTR is a current transformer logical node which uses one instance per phase. These three or four instances of TCTRs may be allocated to different physical devices mounted in the instrument transformer per phase. The currents from TCTR are delivered as sampled values. The sampled values are transmitted as engineering values, i.e. as true (corrected) primary current values. This means that some configuration date stored in the memory of the IED will be used to calculate these primary values from the outputs of the A/D converter. The sampled values are sent to the substation LAN using one of the communication modes.

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TVTR is a voltage transformer logical node which uses one instance per phase. These three or four instances of TVTRs may be allocated to different physical devices mounted in the instrument transformer per phase.

TVTR

The voltages from TVTR are delivered as sampled values. The sampled values are transmitted as engineering values, i.e. as true (corrected) primary values. This means that some configuration date stored in the memory of the IED will be used to calculate these primary values from the outputs of the A/D converter. The sampled values are sent to the substation LAN using one of the communication modes.

12.Power transformer Logical Nodes:


A power transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding.

YPTR

It connects the voltage levels of the power system in different configurations (for example: , Y ...) Power transformers come in two basic configurations, single-phase and three-phase. A three-phase transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings, each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. In essence, it resembles three single-phase transformers sharing a joined core. A tap changer is a device allocated in power transformer to change the tap setting on a transformer coil, allowing voltage control.

YLTC

The voltage is adjusted by changing the turns ratio of the primary and secondary coils. That, in turn, is accomplished by bringing out connections (taps) at several points on the coil. Changing from one tap to another either adds or subtracts turns from the coil and raises or lowers the voltage, respectively. Earth fault neutralizer (Petersen coil) whose variable inductance allows grounding of the transformer star point to minimize the ground fault current. The Petersen coil is tuned to the system distributed capacitance; the tuned circuit comes into play when there is a ground fault, minimizing the current in the fault. The reactive current flowing in the coil balances the capacitive

YEFN

31

charging current in the two healthy phases - if properly adjusted, transient faults are self-extinguishing. The coil works to clear transient faults. If a permanent ground fault occurs, there is a need to close a switch or a breaker across the coil to solidly ground the system - this allows regular ground relaying to operate & selectively clear the faulted circuit. A power shunt, logical node YPSH, is used to bypass the resistor of a resistive grounded transformer star point for fault handling. An electrical shunt is a device used to transfer currents away from certain parts of a circuit. The logical node class power shunt also includes the switch for closing and opening the shunt.

YPSH

13.Further power system equipment Logical Nodes:


This is a generic logical node. One auxiliary circuit each is monitored using ZAXN logical node. Several auxiliary circuits in a bay are thus monitored by using this LN multiple times. A ZBAT logical node covers the battery system characteristics including those required for remote monitoring and control of critical auxiliary battery system functions and states. These may vary significantly based on the type of battery It provides data regarding the battery status and controls the charging/decharging cycles. ZBSH is a logical node which provides properties and supervision of bushings as used for power transformers or Gas insulated switchgear connections.

ZAXN

ZBAT

ZBSH

ZCAB

This logical node represents a supervised power system element - power cable.

ZCAP

This is a capacitor bank logical node which controls reactive power flow.

ZCON

ZCON is a logical node for frequency conversion, including AC/DC conversion.

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ZGEN

ZGEN is a generic logical node for information exchange with generators.

ZGIL

ZGIL is a gas isolated line logical node.

ZLIN

ZLIN is a logical node for supervision of overhead line.

ZMOT

ZMOT is a motor generic logical node for information exchange with motors.

ZREA

ZREA is a reactor logical node for control of reactive power flow.

ZRRC

ZRRC is a rotating reactive component logical node for control of reactive power flow.

ZSAR

ZSAR is a surge arrester logical node for information exchange with surge arresters.

ZTCF

ZTCF is a thyristor controlled frequency converter for frequency conversion including AC/DC conversion.

ZTCR

ZTCR is a thyristor controlled reactive component logical node that controls reactive power flow.

14.Generic process I/O Logical Nodes:

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GGIO is generic logical node (Generic Input / Output Data). This logical node is used to model in a generic way device processes that are not predefined by the groups S, T, X, Y, or Z, such as analog outputs, auxiliary relays, etc, additional I/Os representing devices not predefined such as horn, bell, target value etc., as well as input and outputs from non-defined auxiliary devices.

GGIO

The new functions that users have developed, which are not currently covered by the IEC 61850 standard are implemented using dedicated new GGIO logical nodes. Having these new logical nodes contributes in reducing the MTTR and increasing the dependability of the system whilst maintaining the high level of interoperability.

15.Logical Nodes related to system services:


STIM is a time master logical node with the dedicated function to provide the time from some external source to the system (setting and synchronization).

STIM

SSYS

SSYS is a system supervision logical node intended to start, control and process all data for system supervision. GTES is a test generator logical node to start tests using process signals without blocking of process outputs. The test generator logical node depends on the function to be tested and because of that is declared as a generic logical node.

GTES

PICOMS
Different message types are assigned to PICOMs as below: TY PE 1a 1b 2 3 4 Message name Fast-Trip Fast-Others Medium speed Low speed Raw data Example Trips Commands simple messages Measurements Parameters Output data from Transducers & 34

5 6a 6b 7

File Transfer functions Time synchronization messagesa Time synchronization messagesb Command messages with access Control

Instrument XFMRs Large Files Time sync of Station bus Time sync of Process bus Commands from Station HMI

MAPPING OF INTERFACES
Mapping of Logical interfaces to Physical interfaces may be performed in many ways. It is possible to map all Logical interfaces to just one physical bus (if performance requirement is satisfied) or more than one physical bus.

FUTURE PROOF
In view of rapid and ever changing communication protocols, IEC 61850 specifies a set of Abstract services and objects which may allow the applications to be written independent of protocols. Application model specified in the standard allows: A vendor or user written application to invoke or respond to a set of ACSI services Standardized set of Abstract services to be used between applications & application objects allowing for compatible info exchange between SAS components

Data objects assigned to the Logical Nodes are standardized. Application Data & services can be modeled in three levels: Level-1 : ACSI (specifies models & services used to access the elements of the domain). ACSI provides mechanisms to reading & writing of object values as well of controlling primary equipment. Level-2: Common data classes (CDC). CDC defines structured info containing attributes. Attribute data may be foundation type. Level-3: Compatible Logical Node classes and data classes.

SAS CONFIGURATION LANGUAGE

35

Even though modern IED can perform lots of tasks it may not be running all the tasks in parallel. Each device is self descriptive. Device capability and project specific configurations have to be defined. The language used is XML. Substation subsection: Defines SLD identified all Logical nodes & IEDs as well as binding Logical Nodes to IEDs and binding IEDs to S/S parts and S/S Communication section: Describes communication connections between IEDs in terms of links IED section: Defines IED capabilities (configuration) and associated Logical Nodes LN type section: Defines data object actually contained within logical Node instances defined for IEDs

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