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Protection to Transformer

Trans former, being the costlies t equipment in any sub-s tation, should be well protected. The trans form er is to be protected from external fault (through fault) and internal fault. The bes t protection technique now and for m ore than 50 years for fault with in the Power trans former is known as differential protection. The differential relays are triple pole high s peed bias ed designed to protect large three phas e power trans formers against internal faults (Below 40 m s ec). Bias ed differential relay is extremely s table during through faults and provides high speed operation on heavy internal fault. (Below 20 m s ec). The relays utilize harmonic res traint to prevent operation by m agnetizing in-rush current during the trans former is energized. In addition, the relays employ fifth harm onics res traint to avoid poss ible m alfunction under overexcited conditions . The minimum operating time of Buchholz relay is about 100 millisecond and an average time is 200 millis econd which is som ewhat slow. On the other hand, electrical relays (viz differential relays ) can be used for heavy faults where high s peed (20 40 m sec.) is necess ary. Differential relay des igns vary with different m anufacturers and are cons tantly changing, es pecially as m icroprocessor technology im pacts this area. However, protective relaying applications rem ain basically the s ame; relatively independent of des ign and their trends . In this booklet, the tes ting of individual differential relay, connecting in the protective circuit and tes ting of the entire differential s cheme are discuss ed. The various connections that lead to m alfunction, nonoperation, and s lu ggis h operation are als o brought-out for the tes ting engineers reference. I hope this booklet will be a supplem ent to the ones already brought out on this s ubject. 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.1 Differential Relay : A relay which, by its design, is intended to respond to differential current.

2.2 Biased (or Percentage) Differential Relay : A differential relay in which the des igned res pons e is modified by a res traint current. 2.3 Differential Current : In a differential relay, a current which is the phas or difference between specified incoming and outgoing currents. 2.4 Restraint Current : In a differential relay, the com bination of incoming and outgoing currents , which res traints operation of the relay. 2.5 Restraint Percentage : The ratio, expressed as a percentage, between the differential current and the restraint current (s ) up to which the relay does not operate. 2.6 Through Current : In a differential relay, that portion of the total incom ing current which is als o present in the outgoing current. 3. WORKING P RINCIPLE

Figure s hows an explanatory diagram illus trating the principle of the circulating current s ys tem . If the two current trans formers have the s am e ratio, and are properly connected, their secondary current will m erely circulate between the two C.Ts as shown by arrows and no current will flow through the differential relay for external faults .

For the internal faults , the operating current through the differential relay will be proportional to the vectorial difference between the currents entering and leaving the protected circuit, and if the differential current exceeds the relays pickup value, the relay will operate. 4. DIFFERENTIAL RELAY INP UT SOURCES :Input s ources are 1) Au xiliary DC s upply 2) C.Ts secondary currents 4.1. Auxiliary S upply Check the relays rated auxiliary voltage on the front panel and connect a suitable D.C. supply (or) s tation battery supply to relay terminal. The connection should be correct and tight. Tightness is very important to avoid non-tripping due to considerable voltage drop at this point of connection.

4.2. C.T. Secondary Currents The C.T. s econdary and relay have 1 Am pere rating as per the pres ent standard practice. The s econdary currents in the pilot wire from the two groups of current trans former m ay have the s am e m agnitude. The pilot wires are connected to relay as per s chem atic diagram s howing internal connection. Full Load Condition :

DYn 11

Differential Relay: Does not operate Before we discuss the bias s etting of the differential relay, the polarities and interconnection of Trans former winding & C.T. secondary associated with phas e displacem ent are to be unders tood. This has already been dis cuss ed in the booklet of PRACTICAL GUIDE TO DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIVE SCHEME TO POWER TR ANSFOR MER By Er. A.S. KAND ASWAMY, M.E., Rtd., CE/ TRANSMISSION. As per s tandardization the bus hing C.Ts of the power trans form ers can be used for differential protection without the need for any interposing auxiliary CTs . Where C.T.s are not available in the power trans form er bushings , external C.T.s may be provided (with s uitable auxiliary interpos ing CTs if required) for differential protection.

4.3. Typical calculations of C.T. requirements for differential protection : Trans former particulars Rating Voltage Ratio % impedance Vector Group 110 KV Side Bushing C.T. ratio 60 /1 A 3 10 x 10 = ----------110 x 3 = 52.5 -------60 10 MVA 110 KV / 11 KV 8.46 Dyn 11

110 KIV rated current C.T. s econdary pilot Current 11 KV Side

52.5 A

0.875 A

If there is no bushing C.T. L.V. breaker C.T. ratio = 600 / 1 A can be us ed. 3 10 x 10 Rated current = ----------= 525.5 A 11 x 3 CT Secondary Current = 525.5 -------600 = = 0.875A

If connected in delta, the pilot current in the relay circuit is

0.875 x 3 = 1.516 A

Since the current is more than the rated current of the relay by 50%, ratio matching (interposing) current trans formers are required. When interpos ing C.T.s are us ed, connect main C.Ts in s tar, interposing prim ary in s tar and secondary in delta. Ratio of interpos ing C.T.s Primary Secondary Actual Current on Secondary Pilot current in relay circuit = = 1A 1/3 (or) 0.577A

0.875/ 3 = 0.505 A 0.505 x 3 = 0.875A

The Pilot current in relay circuits both on H.V. and L.V. s ides are 0.875A 5

Differential Connection with ICT


DYn 11

ICT

Differential Operation during External Fault (Phase to Ground):


60/1 120 A 2A

Pr. Tr. 110/11kV


a

600/0.577A

120 A 120 A 2A

c
2A

2A

2A

2A

2A

2078 A

2A

2A

2A

Current in Pr. Tr. Current in CT Secondary 6

Differential Relay : Does not operate

During E xternal Fault (Phase to P hase) :

60/1A

Pr. Tr. 110/11kV 10MVA


a

600/0.577A

2A

120 A

120 A b

2078 A 2078 A

2A

2078 A

4A

240 A 120 A

120 A c

2A

2A

2A

2A 4A

2A

4A 2A

4A

2A

2A

Current in Pr. Tr. Current in CT Secondary Differential Relay : Does not operate

During Internal Fault (Phase to Ground) :

60/1A

120 A

Pr. Tr. 110/11kV 10MVA


a

600/0.577A

2A

120 A b

120 A 120 A 2A 2A 2A

2078 A

2A

2A 2A 2A

Current in Pr. Tr. Differential Relay : Operates Current in CT Secondary

During Internal Fault (Phase to Phase) :

60/1A

Pr. Tr. 110/11kV 10MVA


a

600/0.577A

2A

120 A

1 A 20 b

2078 A

240 A 4A 120 A 2A

120 A c

2078 A

2A 2A 4A

2A

2A

4A 2A 2A

Current in Pr. Tr. Differential Relay : Operates Current in CT Secondary

4.4. C.T. Requirement: Class PS C.T.s are us ed in differential protection and the C.Ts are usually provided in the transform er bus hing its elf with the required ratio based on the power trans former voltage and power rating. C.T.s associated with differential relay s hould be of low reactance type as per IS 2705 Part IV. In addition, C.T.s should develop knee point voltage as given below. Vk > 2 If (R CT + 2 R L) 2 If > ------- (R CT + 3 RL) 3 Where, If RCT RL (or) Vk I = for s tar connected CTs

for Delta connected CTs

= = = =

Ma xim um through fault current referred to secondary Winding of s tar connected C.T. with a 3 phase sys tem Fault. Secondary winding res is tance of C.T. One way lead res is tance between C.T. term inals and the relay terminals . 40 I (RCT + 2 RL) Relay rated current

At the knee point, the C.T becomes s aturated and the m agnetizing current is less than 0.03 x I at Vk / 4. The C.T. output being uns ymmetrical in the pos itive and negative half cycles generate s econd harm onic content. Unless extrem ely large C.T. cores are used this problem cannot be overcom e totally. The relay will be s lu ggis h during heavy internal faults with m oderately s ized C.T.s . Pleas e refer m anual on pre-comm issioning and periodical tes ting of electrical ins tallation TNEB and the The practical guid e to differential protective schem e to power trans former by Er. A.S. Kandas am y M.E., Rtd., Chief Engineer / Transmiss ion for testing of bus hing CTs in detail. 5. PERCENTAGE (OR) BIAS ED DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS In the differential protection for trans formers , there will be two groups of C.Ts each cons is ting of 3 Nos , one group connected in s tar with s econdary rating 1 A and other group connected in delta with s econdary rating 0.577A. The trans former differential relay compares the currents in the windings of the trans former through the m edium of C.Ts whos e ratios are s uch as to m ake their secondary currents norm all y equal except for the core magnetizing currents of the trans former which are relatively small. Even under normal operating conditions , small unbalance current in m illi amps (spill current) m ay appear.

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At high through fault current, the unbalance between C.Ts secondary increases with increase of through currents which is s ufficient to actuate the differential relay. Bias relay is us ed to overcome this problem for external faults . The spill current required to operate the relay is usually express ed as a percentage of the through currents in the res training coils and the ratio is generally termed as percentage s lope.

The purpos e of % slope characteris tics is to prevent undesired relay operation because of unbalance between C.T. s during external fault arising from an accum ulation of unbalances for the following reasons . 1) Tap changing in the power trans former 2) The difference between the errors of the C.Ts on either s ide of the power trans former. 3) Possible mism atch of ratio am ong different current trans form ers . 4) Phas e displacement between prim ary and secondary current. 5) The difference in the magnetizing characteris tic of H.V. & L.V. Side C.Ts These unbalances are in the same direction to get the total m axim um unbalance. The slope of this line is approximately the total percentage mismatch. Then add at leas t 5% to this value, and the new total is the m inim um percentage s lope that should be used. The bias s etting will be ensured to avoid unwanted operation due to spill current at through fault and yet maintain high sens itivity for internal fault.

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6. RELAY TEST S ETUP 6.1 Relay Test Setup: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) 500 V megger Supply extension box with RCCB DPST Switch Variable Voltage Trans former (Variac) Rheos tart (Non-inductive) 40, 5A A.C Amm eter range (0 5A) A.C Milli Am meter range (0 1000) Diode IN 4007 / 5 Amps A.C. Ammeter range (0 20 A) D.C. Amm eter range (0 1A) Tim e interval meter (Digital) Digital multim eter 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 2 Nos . 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No. 1 No.

6.2 Insulation Test: Before tes ting of individual relays , the following items are to be meas ured with a 500V megger. a) b) c) d) IR IR IR IR values values values values of D.C. Circuit to earth. of main current transform er s econdary circuit to earth. of main current transform er s econdary circuit to D.C. Circuit. between m ain current transformer secondary circuits .

The insulation resis tance value has relation to the type of wiring and it is to be considered for getting satis factory results . However, the values of insulation resis tances are to be noted in pre - comm issioning tes t report and meas ured from time to time to check deterioration of ins ulation during operation. 7. TESTING OF THE BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY The individual relay m ay be tested for the following characteristics in accordance with the m anufactures tes ting manual. Pickup test and operating time meas urem ent tes t Bias characteris tic tes t 2nd Harmonic Res traint tes t th 5 Harm onic Restraint tes t High s et tes t

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7.1 Pickup test and operating time measurement test: Circuit Diagram:
Bias Coil s

Operating Coil

Am m eter Range - 0 to 500 mA RCCB Rating - In 16 A, In 30 mA

HV - H V C.T. Current Input Term inal LV - LV C.T. Current Input Term inal Spill Unbalanced Current Terminal

The Pick up Value indicates the minim um current in terms of percentage of rated current of the relay at which the relay would operate. Relay Pick-up s et at Actual Relay Pick-up (Amps ) HV LV

Phase

A Phas e

B Phase

C Phas e

Testing Procedure Pickup Test: 1) Connect over current tes t s et to any one H.V. C.T. input and operating winding term inals . 2) Connect the 230V mains to over current tes t s et. 13

3) Switch on Auxiliary Supply 4) Keep pick-up setting at minim um pos ition (20%) if variable pickup is available (or) fixed pickup setting. E.g.: 15% for EE make 20% for ER make 5) Switch on over current test s et and s lowly increase current value till the relay operates. 6) Note down current value, it m us t be equal to pickup setting (or) within the manufacturers tolerance. 7) Switch off the over current tes t s et 8) Res et the relay 9) Repeat procedure for other HV and LV C.T. inputs . 10) Repeat procedure for different pickup setting if available. Operating Time Measurement Test: Connect over current tes t s et to any one HV C.T. input. Connect trip contact to s top term inal of timer Switch on Auxiliary Supply. Keep pickup setting on minimum pos ition Switch on over current tes t set and adjus t the current value as per manufacturer recommendation ie. 2.0 x In or 3.0 x In. where In - rated current. 6) Switch off the over current tes t s et and reset timer. 7) Switch on the over current tes t and measure relay tim ing. 8) Tim ing m us t be less than or equal to manufacturer specification. 7.2 Bias Characteristic Test: Circuit Diagram:
Bias Coil s

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Operating Coil

Ib Am meter Range Id Am meter Range

0 to 4 Am ps 0 to 2 Am ps

Ib Bias Current (Circulate Around the Balancing Loop) Id - Differential Current (Out of Balance Current flow through operating coil) 14

Testing Procedure 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Connect tes t set up as shown in circuit diagram . Switch on Auxiliary s upply. Keep bias set s witch on required percent position. Keep pickup s etting at minim um position. Adjus t bias current Ib = 1 Am p by adjus ting the res istance R b. Slowly increas e the differential current Id by decreas ing res istor R d until relay operate and note the value at which it operates . 7) Calculate bias by us ing form ula (or) com pare the Id current limits as s pecified by the manufacturer. 8) It mus t be equal or with in the tolerance as specified by the m anufacturer. 9) Repeat procedure for other bias setting and all other phases . 10) After completion of testing, the bias current Vs differential current curve m ay be plotted and recorded for future reference. Id = ----------------- x 100 Ib + (0.5 Id) Operating Current Meas ured Id (Am ps )

% BIAS

Setting

Phas e A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C

Calculated % Bias

Id Limits

Ib : % Bias : 20 % Ib :

Ib : % Bias : 30 % Ib :

Ib : % Bias 40 % Ib :

15

7.3 2

nd

Harmonic Restraint Test:

For conducting this tes t at site, the circuit with rectifier can be made use of as s hown circuit below. In this circuit, the relay is connected to receive both A.C and half-wave rectified D.C. current. The percentage of s econd harmonics current com ponent generated in this circuitry is given in the form ula.

0.212 I2 -------------------0.45 I1 + 0.5 I 2 < 20%

100

Circuit Diagram:
1

Bias Coil s Operating Coil

A - A.C. Amm eter Range 0 2 5 Am ps D.C. Ammeter Range 0 1 Am ps D - Diode IN 4007 / 5 Am ps . IDC Set I2 (Amps ) A Phas e HV LV B Phase HV LV C Phas e HV LV IAC m easured I1 (Amps )

Phas e

% Res traint calculated

Testing Procedure: 1) Connect tes t setup as s hown in Circuit Dia gram 2) Switch on Auxiliary Supply 3) Keep I2 (D.C. Current through the tes t rectifier) 0.467 or 0.8 am ps D.C. cons tant for 1 Am p and 2.335 Am p for 5 Am ps rated relay. 4) Obs erve, the relay s hould not operate. 16

5) Slowly increase the current I1 (Ac current fed onto differential circuit) by adjus ting the res is tor Rd until the relay operate. secord the value of current I1. 6) Calculate Harmonic bias by us ing form ula 7) It m us t be less than or equal to m anufacturers specification. 8) Repeat procedure for all the three phase and both H.V. and L.V. inputs . Calculate % res traint of 2 harm onics by Using form ula, for I2 = 0.467amps DC = 0.212 x I2 ----------------- x 100 = 0.45 I1 + 0.5 I 2 14 -18%
nd

Using form ula, for I2 = 0.8 am ps DC =


th

0.472 x I2 ----------------- x 100 < I1 + (1.11 I 2)

20%

7.4 5 Harmonic Restraint Test: The protection will res train when the 5 th harm onic is more than about 38% th of the fundamental. In practice the 5 harm onic res traint can only be tes ted if a fifth harm onic pure sinus oidal current s ource is available. This test is therefore not included here. Norm ally all relays em ploy fifth harm onic res traint, in som e th des ign the 5 harmonics is also filtered out and us ed for bias ing against relay operation, while certain other design employ the technique of by pass ing the th filtered out 5 harm onic from the operating circuit of the relay. In zero cross over technique, it detects duration of gap at Zero cross ing and gives signal to tripping logic to avoid mal operation under over excited condition. Power trans form er with grain oriented s teel cores usually has a high flux dens ity which is proportional to the applied voltage and invers ely proportional to the frequency. Thus with s light excurs ion in voltage (upward) or frequency (downward) the core is driven in to saturation resulting in a higher excitation current which could be s ufficient to cause relay mal-operation. At 125% rated voltage, the excitation current is 10% of the rated current. At 143% rated voltage, the excitation current is 100% of the rated current. Over voltage would norm ally occur only when the load on the trans form er is suddenly thrown off, and when a trans form er is connected to the bus at the end of a long transmission line. Bench m ark of harmonic content in the inrus h

17

current m ay be m eas ured by us ing power quality analyzer and recorded for each power trans former for future reference. 7.5 High Set Test: The differential relays are provided with a s et ins tantaneous element for high s peed protection agains t internal faults in the transform ers . Circuit Diagram:
Bias Coil s

Operating Coil

A.C. Ammeter Range 0 20 Am ps Relay Actual Relay Pick-up (Amps ) HV LV

Phase

Pick-up s et at

A Phas e

B Phase

C Phas e

Testing Procedure 1) Connect tes t set up as shown in circuit diagram 2) Switch on Auxiliary Supply. 3) Keep High s et at required position.

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4) Switch on over current s et and s lowly increas e current value till relay operates . 5) Note down current value it must be equal to within +/- 10% 6) Repeat procedure for all the three phases any one input.

Operating time measurement test: 1) Switch on over current tes t s et and adjus t the current value to 2 tim es of High s et value. 2) Switch off the over current tes t s et and reset tim er. 3) Switch on the over current tes t s et and m easure relay tim ing. 4) Timing m us t be less than 20 milli s econds .

8. CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS AND THEIR TECHNICAL DATA 8.1 Classification of Relays : Before we discuss the s alient features of relays , what are the relays available in board and their technical data are to be studied firs t. Static relays were mos tly us ed in TNEB. The advanced microprocess or based static relays are also nowadays util ized. The following m ake relays are available in board. Hindus tan brown boveri Easun Reyrolle As ea brown boveri As hida English Electric Duobias -M (ER-Make) All the above relays are classified in the categories of s tatic and microprocess ors based. Duobias -M relay is latest numerical version for trans former protection suitable for 2 & 3 winding.

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HINDUSTAN BROWN BOVERI


Relay Terminals (Back Side)
13 11 9 7 5 3 1

A
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

B
14 12 10 8 6 4 2

TESTING T ERMINALS

HVA : A1 HVB: A5 HVC : A9

LVA : A4 LVB : A8 LVC : A12

Spill A : A2 & A3 Spill B : A6 & A7 Spill C : A10&A11

Aux DC Ter minal

+ Ve : B7 - Ve : B 8

EASUN REYROLLE
Relay Terminals (Back Side) 9
9

10
9

6
9

5 4C21 7
9

15
9

14
9

TESTING T ERMINALS (For Single Element)

HVA : 9 HVB: 9 HVC : 9

LVA : 10 LVB : 10 LVC : 10

Spill A : 7 Spill B : 7 Spill C : 7

Loop 5 & 14 6 & 15

20

ASHIDA

ENGLISH ELECTRIC
Relay Terminals (Back Side)
20 18 16 14 12

19

17

15

13

11

10

TESTING T ERM INALS


FOR HIGH SET

HV A : 11
HVB: 15 HVC : 7

LV A : 14
LVB : 18 LVC : 10

Spill A : 12
Spill B : 16 Spill C : 8

Aux DC Terminal
+ Ve : 19 -Ve : 20

Short PCB Ter minal 5 & 6 of respective phase boards (ZG0395)

21

8.2 Comparison of Technical Data: S.No 1. Description Current Rating Bias Setting 2. EE 1 or 5A 15 45% HBB 1 or 5A ER 1,1.73, 5A ABB 1 or 5 A Ashida 1 or 5 Am p. Duobias-M 1 or 5 Am p.

Pickup Setting High Set Setting

15 % Fixed 10 In Fixed 45 m s ec. 0.39 VA 30, 110 205 V

10 70% 10 50% 20 -40% 20 - 50% 20 45% (in steps of 5%) 10 50% 20 % 20 50% 20 - 50% 20 -100% (in steps of Fixed 5%) 8,13,20 Optional 2 20 In 4 to 25 In In 30 60 m s ec. 0.3 VA 48, 110, 250 V 5 x In Continuo usly 80 x In 1 s ec 2 KV 50 Hz For 1 m in 5 KV 1.2/50 s - 20C to + 60 c LED Nil Yes 50 m sec. 1 VA 30 m s ec. 0.02 VA 24 55 V
110-250V

3. 4.

Operating Tim e Burden Au x. s upply D.C.

< 35 m s ec. < 0.2 VA

30 m s ec. < 0.05VA

5.

30 V

18 40V 24 to 135V 85 250V 88 to 280V 3 x In Conti nuously 250 x In 1 s ec 2.0 KV 50 Hz For 1 min 5.0 KV 1.2 / 50 s -10 to o + 55 C LED LED Nil
o

6.

Over loading capacity

2 In continuously 40 In 3 s ec 2 KV 50 Hz for 1 m in 5.0 KV / 1.2 / 50 s Flag Nil Yes

10 x In contino usly 2.5 KV 50 Hz For 1 m in 5.0 KV 1.2/50s - 25C to + 55C LED LED Yes

40 x In norm al current 2.0 KV 50 Hz For 1 m in 5.0 KV LED LED Yes

7.

Ins ulation Test Im pulse Voltage Tes t Tem perature Range Operational Indicator High Set Indication ICT requirem ent

2 KV 50 Hz For 1 min Flag Nil Yes

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

22

8.3 Typical Block Diagrams and Connections: English Electric

Ashida Relay

23

9. COMPARISION OF OLD AND NEW VERSION RELAYS 9.1 Principle and Operation of Old Make ER 4C21 Relay Schematic Diagram

C.T. Secondary currents circulate through the prim ary winding of the bias trans former, the rectified output of which is applied to the bias windings of the transductor via the shunt res is tor. Spill current (or) out-of-balance current flows from the centre top of the primary winding of the bias trans form er energizing the tranductor input winding and the harm onic bias unit. Normal Condition / Through Fault Condition As long as the power transform er is healthy, the transductor bias -winding is energized by full-wave rectified current which is proportional to the load (or) through fault current, this bias current s aturates the transductor. The sm all amount of out-of-balance currents in the transductor input winding i.e., operating m.m .f does not exceed the bias m.m .f., res ulting change in working flux dens ity is sm all and cons equently the output to the relay is negligible.

24

Internal Fault Condition If there is an internal fault, the operating m .m .f. produced by the secondary fault current in the transductor input winding exceeds the bias m .m .f. resulting in a large change in working flux density. This produces a corres pondingly large voltage across the relay winding; the resultant current operates the relay. Magnetizing in-rush conditions The harmonic bias unit is a s imple tuned circuit which responds to the second harm onic component of the magnetizing current. When magnetizing inrush current flows through the rela y operating circuit, the rectified output of the harm onic bias unit is injected into the trans ductor bias winding and res trains the relay. 9.2 New Version A.B.B. Make RADS B Type Principles and Operations Schematic Diagram

The output voltage from bias ed trans former T1 is rectified and obtained regulated Negative voltage U t after pass ing through non-linear circuit. The trans former T2 has two s econdary windin g with s uitable adapted load resis tors . One of the winding provides the voltage that initiates operation at internal fault.

25

The voltage passes through a low-pass filter and then rectified in an ideal rectifier. Finally the pos itive voltage U d is obtained. Another winding provides the voltage to res traint the operatio n at inrus h. The voltage passes through two nd th band-pass filters tuned for 2 and 5 harm onics and provides after an ideal rectifier a negative voltage U h is obtained. The bias voltage Ut, harmonics Negative voltage U h and differential voltage U d are s umm ed and s upplied to level detector. The res ultant voltage U s is compared with reference voltage U r which is selectable in front of Relay panel. The output voltage U a is cons tant amplitude and the tim e is proportional to variation of voltage with reference voltage. The voltage puls es U a are integrated (U b) and compared perm anently set reference value Uz of the level detector. If U b e xceeds U z, relay drive output trips relay.

Magnetising in-rush Condition: The harm onic voltage Uh is oppos ite to the voltage U d and prevents operation. Internal Fault Condition: The voltage U h will be lower than voltage Ud, the differential relay will therefore operate. Normal Condition : The voltage U t opposite to U d, the res traint the relay operation sm all at small through currents and large at large through currents . 9.3 NUM ERICAL V ERS ION RELAY : Duo Bias M (ER Make):

Duo Bias - M is an integrated m ulti microprocessor relay capable of providing all the trans former protection and alarm function for a 2 or 3 winding power trans formers . The protection function provided are current differential 26

protection with load bias and s econd harm onic bias, differential high s et over current and res tricted earth fault for each trans form er winding. For a transform er differential protection it is necessary to correct the phase relations hip and magnitude of the C.T. s econdary currents res ulting from the arrangem ent of the prim ary and secondary power trans former winding. Previously this was accom plis hed us ing a complicated com bination of interposing C.T. s and s tar / delta arrangements to the current circuit. Duobias M elim inates this for alm os t all application. The relay includes internal vector group com pensation and current amplitude correction for each trans former winding. Duo Bias M includes a powerful s torage facility of HV and LV waveform s , indication and the s tatus of each d.c. plant input and each output relay. The LCD on the front of the relay shows values for operate and restraint currents , and those followin g amplitude and vector correction. This feature greatly s im plifies comm issioning and enables the rapid verification of data. The input I1 represents the current on the HV s ide of the protected trans former after any necessary phase s hifts and amplitude m odification has been applied, and I2 represents the equivalent current on the protected trans former LV s ide. The Algorithm calculates the functions I1, I2 and these two signals are processed to form the operate and res traint signals res pectively. Both s ig nals are digitally filtered to remove any unwanted DC and the filtered signals are converted to RMS value calculated over the previous cycle before comparison. Second harm onic quantities are calculated from the signal I1 I2 to provide an inhibit signal to prevent the protection operating for m agnetizing inrus h conditions . The high s et protection operates when the RMS value of the signal I1 I2 is greater than a Pre s et value which can be varied. All s ettings on the characteris tic are under software control and characteristic has been m ade flexible to cover the wide range of application encountered in transform er protection. Typical Connections Diagram :

27

9.4 COMP ARISION OF OLD AND NEW RELAYS S.No. 1. Old Version Static circuiting is employed 5 harm onic by pass circuit is 2. 3. 4. 5. employed. Fixed pickup only Bias range is lim ited Only one trip indication for all phas es No separate indication for High Set 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. trip. High set is fixed Lim ited Auxiliary s upply range Operating time is large Burden is high Mechanical checking is necessary to 11. flag indicator and output arm ature pickup relay for free from dus t.
th

New Version Microprocess ors based circuiting is employed. 5 harmonic res traint circuit is employed. Variable pick up is poss ible. Wide bias range is poss ible. Individual phase has separate indication for trip. There is separate indication for High Set. High s et is s electable Wide range is available. Operating tim e is lesser Burden is m inimum There is no need for mechanical checking becaus e of separate enclosure for dus t proof. Data Storage facility is available
th

12.

No Data Storage Facility

for pre-fault and pos t fault inform ation.

Self Monitoring Facility is not 13. 14. available ICT maybe required

Self Monitoring Facility is available ICT is not required

External auxiliary relays are required Au xiliary relays function is also 15. for other protection like Buchholz, oil and winding tem perature etc., provided in a single unit of Differential relay.

28

9.5 TYPICAL TEST RES ULTS - I Tamilnadu Electricity Board Gobi Electricity Distribution Circle, Gobi Sub Division: MRT Date: 19-01-05 : Chennam patty 110/22KVSS : ABB : RADSB : IN7454 3344 CE : 807062 : 1A : 110V Adopted: 0.35 In Adopted: 13 In

Nam e of the SS Relay Make Type Art No. Serial No. Current Rating Voltage Rating

(Isr ) Bias Setting Available : 0.2, 0.25, 0.35 & 0.5 I n (Isu) High Set Available : 8, 13 & 20 In Flag Operation : LED Connections Phas e A Injection Terminals RADSB H.V. 3 L.V. 6 Spill 12 H.V. 4 L.V. 7 Spill 13 H.V. 5 L.V. 8 Spill 14

Au x-s upply term inal

RXTUG2H T.B. Term inal +ve 116 -ve 118

IR Values:i) D.C. Circuit to Earth ii) C.T. Circuit to Earth iii) C.T. Circuit to D.C. Circuit iv) Main C.T. to ICT Circuit : : : : 40 M ohm 50 M ohm 40 M ohm 70 M ohm

29

Pick Up Test Relay Pick-up set Isr 0.35 0.35 0.35 Actual Relay Pickup (Amps ) HV LV 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 Manufacturer Lim it + 10% of s et Current

Phas e A Phase B Phase C Phase

Bias Characteristic: Operating Current Meas ured Id (Am ps) 0.78 0.75 0.74 1.78 1.78 1.73 Manufacturer Id Lim its (Am ps ) 0.65 to 0.95A

Setting

Phas e A B C A B C

Ib : 1.5A Isr s et at 0.35 In Ib : 3.0A


nd

1.6 to 2.2A

Harmonics Test : 0.472 I2 % Res traint = ---------------------- x 100 I1 + 1.11 I2

Keep I2 = 0.8 A DC Cons tant for 1 A relay


Phase HV LV B Phase HV LV C Phase HV LV IDC Set I2 (Amps) A Phase 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 IAC measured I1 (Amps) 1.52 1.59 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.68 % Restraint calculated 15.6 15.2 14.7 14.6 14.6 14.6 14% to 18% (1.2 to 1.8A) Manufacturer Limits of I1

30

High Set Test : Relay Pick-up set Isu 13A 13A 13A Actual Relay Pickup (Amps ) HV LV 12.7 12.7 12.3 12.3 12.6 12.6
Manufacturer Limits of set current

Phas e A Phase B Phase C Phase

+ 10%

Operating Time Measurement Manufacturer Data : 3 Isr Isr 3 Isr = approx 30 m sec. = 0.35A = 0.35 X 3 = 1.05 A

Operating tim e m easured for 3Isr = 27 m s ec. High Set Operating Data : 2 Isu Is u 2 Isu 2 Isu = 10 to 20 m sec. = 13 Amps = 13x2 = 26 Am ps = 12 m sec.

Operating tim e m easured for BIAS SLOP E CURVE

31

9.6 TYPICAL TES T RESULTS - II Tamilnadu Electricity Board Gobi Electricity Distribution Circle, Gobi Sub Division: MRT Date : 26.05.05 Nam e of the SS : Nam biyur 110 / 11 KVSS Relay Make : EE Type : DTH31 Art No. : DTH31FF8011A (m ) Serial No. : m432840 Current Rating : 1A Voltage Rating : 30V Pickup Setting Available : 15% Fixed % Bias setting Available : 15, 30 and 45 Adopted : 30% High s et Available : 10 Am ps Fixed Adopted : Flag Operation : Flag Connections Phas e A Injection Terminals DTH31 H.V. 11 L.V. 14 Spill 12 H.V. 15 L.V. 18 Spill 16 H.V. 7 L.V. 10 Spill 8 T.B. Term inal +ve 19 -ve 20 Au x-s upply term inal

IR Values:i) D.C. Circuit to Earth ii) C.T. Circuit to Earth iii) C.T. Circuit to D.C. Circuit iv) Main C.T. to ICT Circuit : : : : 30 M ohm 40 M ohm 30 M ohm -

32

Pick Up Test Relay Pick-up Fixed 0.15 0.15 0.15 Actual Relay Pickup (Amps ) HV LV 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.17 Manufacturer Lim it 12% to 18% of rated current

Phas e A Phas e B Phase C Phas e

Bias Characteristic: % Bias = Id --------------- x 100 Ib + (0.5 I d) Operating Current Measured Id (Am ps ) 0.34 0.34 0.36 0.68 0.68 0.69

Setting

Phas e A B C A B C

Calculated % Manufacturer Bias Limits 29% 29% 30.5% 29% 29% 29.4%

% Bias : 30%

Ib : 1.0A Ib : 2.0A

+ 10% of Bias Setting (%)

2nd Harmonics Test: 0.212 I2 % Res traint = ---------------------- x 100 0.45 I1 + 0.5 I2 Keep I2 = 0.467A DC Cons tant for 1 A relay
Phase A Phase HV LV B Phase HV LV C Phase HV LV IDC Set I2 (Amps) 0.467 0.467 0.467 0.467 0.467 0.467 IAC measured I1 (Amps) 0.99 0.97 1.11 1.11 1.07 1.07 % Restraint calculated 14.5% 14.7% 13.5% 13.5% 13.8% 13.8% 12% to 20% Manufacturer Limits

33

High Set Test : Relay Pick-up Fixed 10A 10A 10A Actual Relay Pickup (Amps ) HV LV 9.2 9.2 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.5
Manufacturer Limits of set current

Phas e A Phase B Phase C Phase

+ 10%

Operating Time Measurement Manufacturer Data : 45 m s ec at 2 tim es Setting Current Set Current Id = 0.15 Am ps

Operating tim e m easured for 2 Id = 46 m s ec. Bias Slope Curve :

34

10. ANALYS IS OF DIFFERENTIAL PICKUP FEATURE A s eries of tes ts have been done with the object of confirming that the relay is capable of differentiating between the harm onic content of a m agnetizing surge and harm onics present in the output current of a heavily s aturated C.T. under internal fault conditions . The relay is extremely s table during through faults and provides high speed operation on internal faults . In addition, fifth harmonic res traint to avoid mal operation under overexcited condition. While conducting the tes t, the following problems are associated with the application of differential relay. 10.1 Pickup Test: An object of confirming that, the relay required minim um current in operating coil to cause operation. a) What is the setting of bias at pickup test? During the test, the current is passed through one half of the bias winding and the operating winding.

The pickup value of operating coil is independent of the bias setting. Therefore, keep the bias s etting at the lowes t value. b) How to select pickup setting? In old relays , the biased differential elem ent has a fixed s etting of the rated current. It indicates the minimum current in terms of percentage of the rated current of the relay at which it would operate. In practice there will always be some differential current flowing due to C.T. errors , ratio m ismatch and tap changing. Therefore, the differential current is required to be a certain percentage of the m ean through current before the relay will operate. To prevent the relay operating on the s teady s tate m agnetizing current of the trans form er, a fixed s etting is incorporated of 15% (or) 20% of the relay rated current. Initial pickup is continued with bias s lope characteris tic. 35

Setting Range ( 0.1-0.5 )

The following conditions s hould be cons idered in addition, while selecting a proper pickup s etting. a) The interconnecting leads of the main CTs are of the sam e length (or) different length on each side of the relay. b) Interpos e C.T.s are connected on one side of the differential rela y. c) The prior loading of the current trans former m eant for the differential relay is in s eries with breaker over current relays . d) Whether main current trans form ers are of different rating, their overcurrent factors and their accuracy class . Conclusion: Norm al s etting of pickup for Power Trans former Differential relay is 20% of rated current. At any tim e, the pickup setting s hould not exceed 50% of rated current.

11. ANALYSIS OF BIAS CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE An object of confirming that the relay is capable of differentiating between the faults is external or internal. The relay is extremely s table during through fault and high s peed operation on internal fault and yet m aintains high s ens itivity for internal faults when the differential current may be relatively s m all.

36

a) What is the setting of pickup at Bias characteristic test? Selected pickup as per previous dis cussion m ay be adopted. If the relay is tes ted for the firs t time, conduct bias slope characteris tic with minimum pickup and then conduct with selected pick up as per our requirement. The two s lope characteris tics m ay be plotted and recorded for Bench Marking. b) What is the effect of bias slope characteristic at higher pickup? If higher pickup is adopted inadvertently, the bias slope characteris tic of the relay not followed s et bias characteris tic initially. The through fault current exceeds the 200% of rated current then it followed s et bias characteris tic. Test Example: 1 Nam e of the SS Relay Make Type S.No. Date : : : : : Thalavaipettai 110/22KV SS As hida, 1 Am p, 110V ACDF31HA 2KBDF005 25-08-2005 Operating Current Meas ured Id (Am ps ) 0.20 0.34 0.52 0.69 0.87 1.06 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.67 0.86 1.04

Setting

Ib 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Phas e A A A A A A A A A A A A

Calculated % Bias 33.33 29.06 29.54 30.53 29.64 30.03 74.21 45.55 33.33 28.69 29.35 29.54

% Bias : 30 % Pickup : 20 %

% Bias : 30 % Pickup : 60 %

37

The fig. has shows that, the Relay operating bias characteristic if s elected higher pickup of 0.6 x In instead of 0.2 x In, it is clear that, the relay is s luggish at low incipient fault becaus e of non-operating region increases at low through fault. c) What is the exact bias slope? The differential current (Id) Vs through fault current (Ib) gi ves the bias s lope characteris tic. The relationship between % bias , differential current and the through fault current is , Id % Bias = ------------------------- x 100 I b + (0.5 Id) The operating current Id at various through fault current Ib is given below. Bias Current 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0.5 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.29 1 0.22 0.29 0.35 0.42 0.5 0.58 1.5 0.33 0.43 0.53 0.64 0.75 0.87 2 0.44 0.57 0.71 0.85 1.0 1.16 2.5 0.55 0.71 0.89 1.06 1.25 1.45 3 0.66 0.86 1.1 1.27 1.5 1.74

Id limit is + 10%

Therefore % bias limit is + 2%

38

Bias Slop Curve:

d) What is difference between bias feature in terms of percentage and in terms of rated current? The bias feature provided in the differential relay in terms of % s ele ction, while certain other des ign em ploy % bias feature in terms of rated current ie. 0.20 In, 0.25 In, 0.30 In etc., The relays EE, HBB and As hida em ploy bias feature in terms of % selection i.e. 20%, 30%, 40% .. Som e des ign like ABB and MBCH relays em ploy the technique bias feature in terms of rated current, which gives bias s lope various % s lope at various through fault current.

39

Bias Slope Curve For Exam ple,

% Bias Vs I b

Test Example : 2 Nam e of the SS Relay Make Type S.No. Date : : : : : Kolappalur 110/11KV SS ABB, 1 Am p, 110V RADSB 407093 27-08-2005 Operating Current Meas ured Id (Am ps ) 0.34 0.53 0.69 0.94 1.39 1.84 2.32 2.75 Calculated % Bias 50.74 41.89 37.39 38.05 43.50 46.93 49.78 51.16

Setting

Ib 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Phas e A A A A A A A A

0.35 In

It is clear that, the various bias at various through current (Ib). The % bias is high at Firs t and Las t. The % bias is low at Middle as com pared with other. ie. 0.35 x In gives 50% bias at Firs t and las t. 0.35 x In gives 40% bias at middle.

Hence the Protection Engineer has to s elect particular bias feature for particula r power transform er carefully.

40

4) How to decide the healthiness of relay if slightly beyond the limits of test results? If the tes t results are beyond the limit as per m anufacture prescribed settings and ins tructio n, the relay may not be declared as defective imm ediately. The Protection Engineer has to analyze what are the options available in the relay for re-use effectively and to avoid procurement of new relay at a heavy cos t and revenue loss due to interruption. Hence the following steps should be carrie d out and des ired. 1) Conduct the bias test at various bias current. Ie. Ib = 0.5 ,1 , 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 Am ps. 2) Bias curve plotted from the tes t reading. 3) The drawn curve is to be compared with the s lope curve mentioned in company m anufacturer. 4) In cas e of m ajor deviation during com paris on, the particular relay should not be allowed for commissioning. 5) If there is a sm all deviation from manufacturer bias slope, the deviation region is to be cons idered as , 1 region, Ib = 0 to 1 A, I d required to operate relay is 0.5 In. nd 2 region, Ib = 1 to 2.5 A, I d required to operate relay is 1 In. 3 rd region, I b = 2.5 A and above, Id required to operate relay is above 1.5
st

Permissible Limits I Region : The rela y is sens itive up to differential current 0.5 In at 100% through fault current. Hence, deviation may be allowed differential current up to 0.5 In. 2
nd st

Region : The

This region is very im portant due to presence of incipient fault. deviation in that region m ay be allowed + 2% only. 3 Region :
rd

The through fault s tability is des ired in that region at 250% and above through fault current. The slope of bias may be deviated up to 80% is perm issible. (or) If you select either lower (or) higher bias s ettings to achieve the required bias s lope for particular power trans form er. 41

12. ANALYS IS OF 2

ND

HARMONICS RESTRAINT FEATURES :

Tes t has been m ade to verify that the relay will rem ain inoperative under magnetizing in rus h current up to 30 times the C.T. rating when the transform er is energized. In addition, confirming that the relay is capable of differentiating between the inrush current and fault currents . 1) What is inrush? How will affect the differential relay? During power transform er charging, an ins tantaneous change in flux linkage in a power transform er will caus e abnormally large m agnetizing nd (2 harmonics) current to flow and has no counterpart on the s econdary winding side. Cons equently there is a spill current in the differential circuit which can caus e the differential relay to m al operate. 2) What is the purpose of diode in the 2
nd

harmonics restraint test circuit?

The second harmonic res traint is effective to block the relay operation when the s econd harmonic current content of the differential current exceeds about 20% of the fundamental. For tes ting this circuit at s ite, whenever arrangem ents to generate second harm onic current is not available, an alternate circuit with test rectifier can be m ade use of in this circuit the relay is connected to receive both AC and half-wave rectified D.C. current.

42

The percentage of second harm onic current com ponent generated in this circuitry is given in the formula. 0.2 1 2 I2 ------------------------------ x 100 < 20% 0.45 I 1 + 0.5 I2 I1 = A.C. Current I 2 = D.C. Current at cons tant value of 0.467 A
nd

Another method to derive the % 2 harm onics res traint particularly ABB relay recommends the following s etting and the form ula is given below. Set I2 D.C. Current at cons tant value of 0.8A nd Therefore, 2 Harm onic restraint calculated from the formula, 0.472 x I2 ------------------ x 100 = 14 to 18% I 1 + (1.11 x I2) The comparison of I2 settings (0.467 and 0.8 A) : Test Example : 3 Nam e of the SS Relay Make Type S.No. Date : : : : : Kolappalur 110/11KV SS ABB, 1 Am p, 110V RADSB 407093 27-08-2005 Operating Current Meas ured I1 (Am ps ) 1.53 1.54 1.59 1.0 1.0 0.98 Calculated % Res traint 15.61 15.55 15.23 14.48 14.48 14.47

Setting Isr Setting 0.35 In % Isr Setting 0.35 In %

I2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.467 0.467 0.467

Phas e A B C A B C

The variation of the percentage restraint of the above two DC cons tants are very s mall for the s am e relay at the s am e s ettings . 3) What is the Bias setting at harmonic restraint test? The harm onic res traint values are independent of bias and pickup setting. Hence the bias and pickup settings are kept at selected rating. 43

Test Example: Nam e of the SS Relay Make Type S.No. Date : : : : : Thalavaipettai 110/22KV SS As hida, 1 Am p, 110V ACDF31HA 2KBDF005 25-08-2005

Bias Pickup Setting Setting 20% 45% 20% 45% 20% 20% 60% 60%

I2 0.467 0.467 0.467 0.467

Phas e A A A A

Operating Current Meas ured I1 (Am ps) 0.49 0.49 0.5 0.5
nd

Calculated % Res traint 21.8 21.8 21.59 21.59

4) How to decide the healthiness of relay, if the 2 exceeds slightly more than 20 %?

harmonics % restraint

Before we decide the healthiness of relay, we should unders tand the inrus h phenomena when the transform er is energized. If the trans form er is re-energized at the ins tant the voltage wave form corres ponds to the res idual m agnetic density within the core, there would be a sm ooth dens ity within the core, there would be smooth continuation of the previous operation with no magnetic transient.

44

In practice, however, the ins tant when s witching takes place in rush current cannot be controlled and a magnetizing trans ient is practically unavoidable. If however, it is assumed that the circuit is re-energized at the ins tant when the flux would norm ally be at its negative m axim um value (- m ax) the residual flux would have a positive value. Since m agnetic flux can neither be created nor des troyed instantly, the flu x wa ve, will s tart with the residual ( R ) and trace the curve ( 1).

Since power trans form ers operate near the knee of the s aturation curve, a flux dem and of 2 m drives the trans form er core deep into s aturation, causing it to draw a very large magnetizing current with a peaky non-sinusoidal waveform . Such non-sinusoidal or dis torted waveform is known as harmonics . The magnetizing current is , therefore, very high, of the order of 8 to 30 times the fulllode current. This current is known as inrush current. The inrush current decays rapidly for the firs t few cycles and then very s lowly. Som etimes they take 4 to 6 seconds to subs ide. The inrus h wave form is predominantly 2 Harm onic content, whereas , the internal fault current cons is ts of only of the fundam ental. Thus , we can develop additional res traint bas ed on harmonic content of the inrus h current. 45
nd

The Percentage s econd harm onic res traint value should be less than 20%. Even if the Percentage res traint exceeds slightly m ore than 20%, the relay is considered to be healthy if the differential relay does not actuate for inrus h current for ten operations of power trans form er without load. In recent years improvem ents in core s teel and des ign has resulted in less inrus h current harm onics with possibilities of the s econd harmonics being as low as 7%. Now a days power quality analyzer ins truments are available to s tudy actual harm onic present in the current wave while trans former energized without load. Record the values for benchmark with future comparis on.

5) What is the working principle of zero crossing detection method nd th and how it will effectively utilize 2 harmonic & 5 harmonic restraint in new differential relays? This method, does not involve harm onic filter circuit and their ass ociated delay. A different approach, working on the direction of zero crossing in the current wave form , was therefore evolved to dis tinguis h between genuine fault conditions and conditions of inrus h and over fluxing. An exam ination of the wave form reveals there is a subs tantial period of the half cycle when the current rem ains zero (or) near zero, unlike in a fault current wave form passes through zero current quickly. It can be seen that the gap detecting m ethod as s hown can dis tinguish between fault condition and other by lookin g at the duration of the gap produced. This basically compris es two timers . Their operation in conjunction with the differential comparator (the heart of the relay).
Bias Differential Threshold

Differential Com parator

Inhibit

Tim er 1

Inhibit

Tim er 2

Trip

In sim ple terms , the arrangem ent is such that timer 2 is set to trip after a certain tim e while timer 1 is s et to inhibit timer 2 after its operating tim e, unless it its elf is prevented from doing s o by the com parator. The latter does not inhibit tim er 1 unless the current m agnitude is above the s et threshold. The thres hold level is varied by the current setting on the front of the relay.

46

47

Circuit Diagram

D=Diode (IN4007 / 5 Amps)

Phas es HV LV HV LV C Phase HV LV

S1 Clos ed Clos ed Clos ed Clos ed Clos ed Clos ed

Relay Operation S2 Clos ed S2 Open

A Phase

B Phase

Testing Procedure: 1) Connect tes t setup as s hown in circuit diagram . 2) Switch on Auxiliary s upply. 3) Clos e Switch S1 and S2 and s et the current equal to rated current of relay, check that the relay operates . 4) Open Switch S2, Close Switch S1 and check that relay does not operate. In this tes t, % 2 harmonics res traint could not be meas ured. The manufacturer has recommended energizing trans former 10 tim es without load and checking that the relay does not mal - operating. If the % 2nd harmonics nd res traint value is required, the routine 2 harmonic bias test will be conducted and record the % value for future comparison.
nd

48

13. ANALYSIS OF HIGH SET FEATURE The differential relays are provided with a s et ins tantaneous elem ent for high s peed protection agains t internal faults in the trans formers . Such fault involves very high fault currents and this causes the C.Ts to go into partial saturation and the resulting harmonics s lo w down relay operation. To take care of such a contingency, the differential rela y is provided with an unres trained high set element. A s etting of at leas t ten times rated current is usual to prevent operation of this element during trans former inrus h. High s et is determ ined by the m agnitude of the inrush current to the power trans former and thus affected by the rating and the connection of the power trans former. High set s hould be set as low as possible but not less than the maxim um 3 phas es through current and not less than m aximum m agnetizing current. If the power trans former connection is Dy and the rating between 10 to 100 MVA, the recomm end high s et value is around 13 In. If below 10 MVA, the

high set value will be around 20 In. The operatin g tim e of high s et will be always less than 20 m illi seconds. When the differential relay is als o to provide bus protection, the s etting (20 In) s hould be chos en to ens ure s tability for through bus bar faults . To ens ure s till better through fault stability this element has als o an auto ranging setting feature whereby it is caused to increas e in the through current. Hence optimum perform ance is ensured at all times .

49

Under heavy internal fault condition, inadequate rated C.Ts can go into partial s aturation due to s hort circuit current is offset. Unless extremely large C.T. cores are us ed the problem of s econd harmonic content in C.T. output being uns ymmetrical cannot be overcom e totally. The relay to be s luggish during heavy internal faults with moderately s ized C.Ts . C.T. requirem ent has been made possible to improve stability. 14. CHECKING THE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIV E SCHEME AS WHOLE 14.1 Relay Installation : The rela y s uitable for indoor mounting and s hould be ins talled in a place free from damp, jerk, dus t, corrosive vapors and the li ke. Ensure that the earth connection to a local earth bar. Check that the auxiliary power s upply rating and connections are in order. It is very im portant to avoid non-tripping of differential relay due to auxiliary supply cons iderable voltage dip during operation. All the relay fi xing and terminals connections m us t be tight. 14.2 Wiring check : Check whether terminal number indicated in the s chem atic diagram and connections to the relay are as per the wiring diagram. The power circuit ratings and the trip circuit connections are als o to be carefully checked. The connections should make good contacts and connecting lead s izes s hould be sufficient to keep circuit impedance as low as possible. Cable Size and Requirement C.T. Circuit 4 s q. mm copper cable, armoured D.C. Circuit 4 s q. mm copper cable, arm oured To ensure that the above minim um s tandard is adopted with out fail, the cables laid by the G.C.C. wing at erecting s tage itself may be checked and proper s tandards ensured ins tead of leaving it to the stage of commissioning. It mus t als o be checked and ensured that the cable armour is given earth connectivity at one end only, to a void electromagnetic interference and owing to flow of large ground fault current due to parallel with the ground mat. The drop in the D.C. control and protection circuits , particularly the trip circuit mus t be well with in 5% of rated D.C. Voltage. The total loop burdens of C.T. cable are to be preferably around 1 ohm ref. 9 (a). 50

Voltage drop e = 2 x R x I (or) e = 2 x L x I / (K x q) Where, e R = = = = = = Voltage drop in volts Res is tance in ohm (Lead One Way) Line current in Am ps Length in meter (Lead One Way) Conductor cross section in sq.mm. Conductivity (for Cu = 56, Al = 35)

I
L q K

14.3 Secondary Current Injection: Open intentionally two pilot wire term inals at the C.Ts secondary term inals and inject current just above the pickup value and ensure D relay picks up and tripping command is s ent from the D relay to the mas ter relay. This can be done on either s ides H.V. as well as L.V. and on all three phases . After the above tes t, ens ure that all the pilot wires are properly connected to the terminals with adequate tightness , and tes t the connectio ns by prim ary current injection. Do not open circuit the secondary circuit of a current trans form er under load conditions s ince the high voltage produced may be lethal and could dam age ins ulation. 14.4 Testing the Protective Scheme by Injecting Three Phase Primary Current: This method is m ainly applied to check the differential protections to ens ure that the current trans former connections have been made according to the vector group. Poss ible errors on the diagram or in the actual secondary wiring are, a) C.T. s s tarred on wrong side. b) Wrong delta connection used on C.T. c) Pilots between C.T.s crossed over. d) C.T. polarities are in terchanged.

51

Figure shows the tes t circuit s et up for checking a differential protection schem e of a power trans former. The trans former is s olidly s horted on the low voltage s ide by m eans of a s et of tem porary tes t s hort circuit conductors and three phase supply from 400V tes t m ain is applied to high voltage winding. The through currents m easured at relay terminals both H.V. and L.V. s ide will be in m illi amps . The operating current meas ured s hould be negligible if the relay is connected correctly to the current transform ers and if the C.T. polarities are correct. 14.5. The possibilities of secondary wrong connections :

The possibilities of secondary wrong connections of power transformer bushing C.Ts and the corresponding spill currents at differential relay end were taken at

THALAVAIPETTAI 110/22 KV Sub-Station Power transformer ANDREW YULE make 10 MVA Tested date : 10-06-2004

52

1. Correct Connection:

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : : : : : : : : : 42.6 42.2 42.7 42.3 41.8 41.7 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.1 ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I)

2. Wrong Connection: B and C phase pilot wire trans pos ed on H.V. Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.8 41.9 43.0 42.5 41.9 41.8 0.3 72.7 70.4 0.1

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) ( 3I) ( 3I)

53

3. Wrong Connection: C phas e C.T. revers ed on H.V. Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.8 ma 42.3 ma 42.6 ma 42.6 ma 42.6 ma 42.0 ma 0.4 ma 0.6 ma 84.1 ma 84.7 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (2I) (2I)

4. Wrong Connection : B & C Phas e C.T. Revers ed on H.V. Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.7 ma 42.3 ma 42.3 ma 42.5 ma 41.9 ma 41.5 ma 0.5 ma 84.5 ma 83.4 ma 85.5 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (2I) (2I) (2I)

54

5. Wrong Connection: S1 Star on H.V. Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.3 42.0 42.0 42.6 41.5 41.6 84.4 84.0 83.4 0.6

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (2I) (2I) (2I)

6. Wrong Connection: B & C Phas e transpos ed and A Phase C.T. Revers ed on H.V. Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.3 39.3 43.0 42.0 41.5 41.7 84.2 72.5 72.4 84.5

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (2I) ( 3I) ( 3I) (2I)

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7. Wrong Connection: S1 - out on LV Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

43.0 ma 42.5 ma 42.9 ma 41.6 ma 41.3 ma 42.6 ma 72.6 ma 72.6 ma 73.0 ma 0.4 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) ( 3I) ( 3I) ( 3I)

8. Wrong Connection: Reverse Delta, S2 - out on LV Side

Current measured at the Differential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.1 ma 41.8 ma 42.8 ma 42.0 ma 41.8 ma 43.2 ma 40.8 ma 42.5 ma 41.6 ma 0.4 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I)

56

9. Wrong Connection: Reverse Delta, S1 - out on LV Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.5 42.9 42.6 42.2 41.6 41.6 83.8 84.6 83.6 0.5

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (2I) (2I) (2I)

10. Wrong Connection: a & c Phas e Pilot Wire trans posed on LV Side

Current measured at the Differential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.0 ma 42.3 ma 42.8 ma 41.2 ma 41.7 ma 42.4 ma 71.3 ma 0.6 ma 72.5 ma 0.4 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) ( 3I) ( 3I)

57

11. Wrong Connection: c Phase CT Reversed on LV Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

41.5 ma 42.4 ma 42.3 ma 23.8 ma 41.5 ma 24.0 ma 47.7 ma 0.4 ma 48.0 ma 0.2 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I) (I/ 3) (2I/ 3) (2I/ 3)

12. Wrong Connection: b &c phas e CT revers ed on LV Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.0 42.3 42.4 24.0 23.7 41.5 47.7 47.8 83.2 0.7

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I) (2I/ 3) (2I/ 3) (2I)

58

13. Wrong Connection: a & c phas e Pilot Wire Transposed and c phase CT reversed on LV Side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.2 ma 42.4 ma 42.6 ma 24.6 ma 41.9 ma 24.2 ma 23.7 ma 0.5 ma 23.8 ma 0.1 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I/ 3)

14. Wrong Connection: a & c phas e Pilot wire Trans pos ed and b & c phase CT revers ed on LV s ide

LV

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.9 ma 42.9 ma 42.7 ma 41.3 ma 23.7 ma 24.1 ma 40.5 ma 47.9 ma 24.0 ma 0.2 ma

(I) (I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I) (2I/ 3) (I/ 3I)

59

15. Wrong Connection: C phase CT reversed on HV Side and a phas e CT reversed on LV side

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.1 41.7 42.4 23.4 23.9 41.6 47.7 48.8 83.2 85.2

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I) (2I/3) (2I/3) (2I) (2I)

16. Wrong Connection: C phase CT reversed on HV s ide, a & b phase CT revers ed on LV s ide

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.4 42.8 42.6 23.5 41.3 24.2 47.9 84.0 48.3 84.6

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I) (I/ 3) (2I/3) (2I) (2I/3) (2I)

60

17. Wrong Connection B & C phase CT revers ed on HV side and a phase CT reversed on LV s ide

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.3 42.1 42.7 23.6 23.8 41.7 47.7 48.3 84.4 86.9

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I) (2I/ 3) (2I/ 3) (2I) (2I)

18. Wrong Connection A & B phas e CT reversed on HV side and b & c phase CT revers ed on LV s ide

Current measured at the Di fferential Relay T erminals:HVA HVB HVc LVa LVb LVc Spill A Spill B Spill C HVN : : :
: :

: : : : :

42.7 42.4 42.6 23.7 24.1 41.5 48.1 48.8 83.6 84.8

ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma ma

(I) (I) (I) (I/ 3) (I/ 3) (I) (2I/3) (2I/3) (2I) (2I)

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CONCLUS ION: H.V. Side C.T. re verse reflects in common neutral (H.V.N) and Spill. H.V. Side Pilot trans posed reflects in s pill. L.V. Pilot transpos ed reflects in spill. L.V. Side Pilot taping at positive junction (S1 out) reflects in s pill. L.V. Side C.T. DELTA B connection (revers e delta) reflects in s pill. L.V. Side C.T. re verse reflects in spill and L.V. pilots . H.V. and L.V. s ide C.T. revers e reflects in common neutral (H.V.N), L.V. Pilots and s pill.

NOTE: Any trans position in pilot wires of HV & LV s ide of differential relays is found out by injecting current at C.T. terminals of power transformer. 14.6. Tripping and Inter Tripping Tests : Connect the auxiliary s upplies to relay. Operate relay by hand (tes t provis ion) and s ee that circuit breakers operate only when the appropriate links are ins erted and that the indicators operate correctly. 14.7. Before Putting In To Service : a) See that trip s upply is connected. b) See that all relays are res et. c) Restore alarm link and trip link normal pos ition. 14.8. Magnetising S urge Tests : Perform ten switching operations of the power trans form er with out load, the relay s hould not operate. 14.9. Tests When Power Transformer Is Energized and In Load Service : a) Current m easurement s hould be m ade at relay term inals with the help of digital clip on millimeter of suitable range. b) This spill current when express ed as a percentage of the load current used in the tes t, indicates the m inim um amount of bias necess ary on the relay to m aintain s tability on through faults . It is advisable to meas ure the s pill current through the relay operating coil during load tes t with tap changer set on its maxim um and minimum tap. The trans ient condition caus e unequal C.T. s aturation and s pill which can play with the differential relay s tability. C.T. requirement has been made poss ible to im prove s tability. 62

Under through fault conditions , the protection is s table with fault current equivalent to 25 tim es rated current with up to 30% mism atch of the line current trans former and the content of the third harm onics can be up to approximately 60% of the fundamental.
M ax. Through fault current beyond which scheme (mal) operates Stability ratio = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M in. Internal fault current required for tripping

The higher the s tability ratio, the better is the ability of the s ys tem to dis criminate between external and internal faults. Ensure whether the adopted % bias s etting is adequate. (This can be ens ured during through fault condition, if necessary raise the % bias ). 14.10. Maintenance : The following tes t should be perform ed yearly and recorded. a) b) c) d) General check of connections Relay calibration IR value measurem ent Tests us ing load current

14.11. Relay requirement : The bias ed (%) differential relay meet requirem ent as per IEC 255-13.

15. TROUBLE SHOOTING AND REM EDIES It is not very uncommon to have certain unexplainable operation of relays in s pite of very careful s election of relay s ettings . In m any s uch cas es definite faults were found to exist outside the s phere norm ally s crutinized by the protection engineer. It is therefore, necess ary that engineer should proceed with an open mind to inves tigate such apparent m al operations . The following occurrence is an example. 15.1 Bushing C.T. terminal loose connection : At one s ub s tation, the trans former was tripped by differential relay. The tes t on trans former and relay were found norm al. Repeated tes ts on transform er and rela ys were in vain. Finally the wiring and connections were checked from relay to power trans former and found that bus hing C.T. terminal connection was loos e. After tightness , the power transformer was put back into s ervice and found normal.

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In another sub s tation, the differential relay was comm issioned after enhancem ent of power trans form er from 10 MVA to 16 MVA. During commiss ioning, the Differential relay B Phas e on HV s ide did not pickup while secondary injections to confirm the pilot wire co-ordination. After through exam ination, it was confirmed that there was a loose contact at relay panel T.B. After tightening the term inal, the relay was found correct. 15.2. 110 KV Line Fault: At one s ub s tation, the trans former was tripped by differential relay. The tes t on trans form er and relays were found also normal. The tripping time was analyzed and found that there was 110 KV line fault and it tripped at s ending end. The new differential relays were capable of sensing 110 KV line fault up to some extent. The s ingle line earth fault caus es the current flow to earth in healthy phas es through trans former winding when the fault is near to sub-station. 15.3. 110 KV LAS failure: The s ingle line to earth fault at 110 KV LAS failure create spill current in differential more due to current flow to earth through healthy phases of trans former winding. The relays operate for external fault at som e occasions . 15.4. Poor earthing of P ower Transformer Neutral : The power trans form er neutral and EHV LAS individual earth pit resis tance s hould be minimum otherwise the fault current flow through s hortes t path of earth m at reaches trans former neutral. During large fault current flow in the earth m at, the differentia l relay either dam age or caus e mal-operation due to rais e in touch potentia l. 15.5. Poor earthing of Relay Chassis: The s tatic relay will mis behave if its chass is is not earthed properly. The relay us es com ponents which could be affected by electro s tatic dis charges . When handling the withdrawn m odule care should be taken to avoid contact with components and connections . When removed from the cas e for s torage or tes ting, the m odule should be placed in an electrically conducting anti-s tatic bag. 15.6. Grounding of secondary of differential connected C.Ts : The neutral of C.Ts secondary especially in differential relay circuit m us t be grounded at only one location, preferably at the relay panel. This philos ophy of grounding the C.T. Secondary neutral at a single point applies to all types of protections that m ay involve a single s et of C.Ts or different circuits as in differential protection. However, where there is galvanic s eparation between the 64

C.Ts and relay as when ICTs are introduced the circuit connection to the prim ary and s econdary s ides of the ICTs will be considered as different dom ains for grounding the neutral circuit. The intent is to emphas ize that all neutral circuits in the protection have an earth reference but one and only a s ingle earth reference. The reas on why the ground s hould be made at only one point is to avoid improper relay operation and caus e dam age to the C.T. interconnections . If grounds are made at two or more locations circulating current m ay be caused to flow in the differential circuit because of difference of potential between the grounding points owing to the flow of large ground fault current. A ground in the yard and another in the s witch house put the secondary wiring in parallel with the ground mat s o that part of the heavy fault current can flow in the s econdary winding directly to either damage or caus e mal-operation. Only one ground in the circuit is sufficient to minim ize any electros tatic potential ref. 9 (b). 15.7. Effect of Ambient Temperature: The relay is suitable for indoor m ounting and s hould be ins talled in a place free from damp, dust, corrosive vapors and the like. There m us t also be a free circulation of air around the relay. The operation of relay m ay be nuisance if ambient tem perature lim its is exceeded.

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65