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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL

6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), pp. 179-186 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2011): 1.2083 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

© I A E M E

by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, MODELING AND SIMULATION OF

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC FUEL CELL HYBRID RENEWABLE ELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR SMART GRID DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEM

K. Balachander 1 and Dr. P. Vijayakumar 2

ABSTRACT

The paper proposes cost benefit analysis of Hybrid Renewable Electric System, especially Fuel cell – Solar hybrid system with Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) for Smart Grid Distributed Generation System (DGS). HOMER is the micro power optimization software used in evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid connected power systems for a variety of applications. Smart grid is the use of sensors, communications, computational ability and control in some form to enhance the overall functionality of the electric power system. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of Fuel cell (FC), Photovoltaic (PV) array with Battery for a remote residential apartment load in Coimbatore, India.

Key words: Modeling, Hybrid System, HOMER, Cost of Energy

I. INTRODUCTION

DG system can provide many benefits to the power-distribution network. To maximize these benefits, reliable DG units have to be connected at proper locations and with proper sizes. However, such units will not generally be utility owned, which means that the adequate utilization of DG units is not guaranteed. Moreover, some DG units, such as solar and wind, are variable energy sources and depend on their operation on weather conditions. Therefore, it is not ensured whether DG will satisfy and meet all operation criteria in the power system. Distributed generation generally refers to small- scale (typically 1 kW – 50 MW) electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that are tied to an electric distribution system [1]. The application of renewable energy system has become an important alternative as power

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

provider. However the evaluation of the correct type of renewable system needs to be done so that the system is cost effective. The smart grid distributed energy system would provide the platform for the use of renewable energy sources and adequate emergency power for major load and preventing the complete blackout of the interconnected power system. One of the major requirements for any hybrid renewable electric system is to ensure continuous power flow by storing excess energy from renewable energy source. This paper explores the importance of reducing excess energy in minimizing the cost of energy for the renewable hybrid energy system. For this hybrid system, the meteorological data of solar radiation is taken for Coimbatore, India (Latitude 11°01'N and Longitude 76°95'E) and the pattern of load consumption of typical remote residential apartment are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. This model analyzes the options for providing power to a remote residential apartment load. The main source of power is photovoltaic and the storage backup system is a battery bank and a hydrogen storage fuel cell system.

II. METHODOLOGY The proposed hybrid renewable energy system consists of a fuel cell, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, battery and converter. Battery is a part of back-up and storage system. The proposed system shown in Figure 1. The proposed system life time is 20 years. The annual interest rate is 12%.

life time is 20 years. The annual interest rate is 12%. Figure 1 Hybrid Renewable Energy

Figure 1 Hybrid Renewable Energy System

III. SYSTEM COMPONENTS A. PHOTOVOLTAIC PV panels with total capacity of 1000 watts. The initial cost is Rs. 2000/- and its replacement cost is Rs.1500/-. Monthly clearness index and radiation is shown in table 1. Solar radiation data for this region was obtained from Synergy Environmental Engineers (India) Private Limited web site.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

Table I. Monthly Solar Radiation

 

Clearness

Radiation

Month

Index

(kWh/m2/d)

Jan

0.763

6.68

Feb

0.707

6.69

Mar

0.652

6.64

Apr

0.504

5.31

May

0.428

4.49

Jun

0.233

2.41

Jul

0.21

2.18

Aug

0.242

2.53

Sep

0.365

3.74

Oct

0.392

3.78

Nov

0.531

4.72

Dec

0.704

5.98

B. HYDROGEN STORAGE FUEL CELL

FC available in different configurations, different power ranges, different type of electrodes and different operating characteristics. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) FC has a good start up and shut down characteristics. The basic structure of PEM fuel cell is two electrodes (anode and cathode) separated by a solid membrane. In the hydrogen storage system, surplus renewable power goes to an electrolyzer which produces hydrogen. The hydrogen goes into a storage tank to be consumed when required by the fuel cell. Hydrogen fuel is fed continuously to the anode and air is fed to the cathode. The internal chemical reaction is as follows:

H 2 +

O 2

The internal chemical reaction is as follows: H 2 + O 2 H 2 O (1)

H 2 O

(1)

The Hydrogen consumption at rated power P fc kW of 1 h can be calculated by [2]

HY fc =[ (P fc x 3600) / (2V fc x F )]

Where

HY fc = The amount of hydrogen consumed by FC P fc = Output power of FC

(2)

V

fc = Output voltage of FC

F

= Faradays constant

Electrolyzer Hydrogen can be produced by the decomposition of water into its elementary components by passing the electric circuits. A water electrolyzer consists of several cells connected in series. Two electrodes of the electrolyzer are separated by electrolyte. Electrical current through the electrolyzer enables the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen by:

H

According to the Faradays law the amount of Hydrogen produced by rated power P fc kW electrolyzer in 1h can be calculated by

produced by rated power P f c kW electrolyzer in 1h can be calculated by 2

2 O + electricity

H 2 +

O 2

(3)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

HY ele = [(P ele x 3600) / (2 x V ele x F)] (mole/h -1 ) (4) HY ele = amount of hydrogen produced by electrolyzer P ele = rated power of electrolyzer V ele = working voltage of electrolyzer Hydrogen Tank Hydrogen energy produced by the electrolyzer provides solar energy storage in

excess demand. The method of transferring the capacity of hydrogen tanks to the unit kWh is given by E tank (kWh)=M tank (mol)x2x10 -3 (kg/mol)xLHV(kWh/kg) (5) Where Etank and M tank = size of hydrogen takn in kWh LHV = Low heat value of hydrogen in kWh/kg

C. BATTERY

Battery bank is a traditional approach to store electrical energy with high efficiency. Its discharging level cannot exceed a minimum limit defined as depth of discharge. Table 2. Battery parameters

Nominal

 

Capacity

225Ah

Nominal Voltage

6V

Round trip

85%

efficiency

Minimum state

 

of charge

30%

Maximum charge current

1A/Ah

IV. LOAD PROFILE

A. LOAD I

The stand alone load of 2kWh/day energy consumption and 388W peak has been considered for this analysis to operate for 10 hours from 8:00 to 18:00 for Load I as shown in Figure 2. and Figure 3. shows seasonal load profile.

in Figure 2. and Figure 3. shows seasonal load profile. Figure 2 Load I profile. Figure

Figure 2 Load I profile.

Figure 2. and Figure 3. shows seasonal load profile. Figure 2 Load I profile. Figure 3

Figure 3 Seasonal Load profile of Load I

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

B. LOAD II

The stand alone load of 2kWh/day energy consumption and 297W peak has been considered for this analysis to operate for throughout a day (24 Hours) as shown in

Figure 4. and Figure 5. shows seasonal load profile.

in Figure 4. and Figure 5. shows seasonal load profile. Figure 4 Load II profile Figure

Figure 4 Load II profile

5. shows seasonal load profile. Figure 4 Load II profile Figure 5 Seasonal Load profile of

Figure 5 Seasonal Load profile of Load II

V. OPTIMIZATION AND SIMULATION RESULTS

A. For Load I

A Photovoltaic power system having Battery as a storage and Hydrogen storage fuel cell as an additional source. The optimization results of the renewable hybrid system for Load 1 shown in Figure 6. It shows the optimal unit size and number of units of each component in the proposed system. Figure 7.shows the monthly average electric production simulation result for load I.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME Figure 6 Optimization Results for Load 1

Figure 6 Optimization Results for Load 1

(2012), © IAEME Figure 6 Optimization Results for Load 1 Figure 7 Simulation Results for Load

Figure 7 Simulation Results for Load 1

From the optimized result the least cost component configuration leads to 89% of total electrical energy production by photovoltaic and remaining 11% by fuel cell. B. For Load II The optimization results of the renewable hybrid system for Load II shown in Figure 8. Figure 9.shows the monthly average electric production simulation result for load II.

the monthly average electric production simulation result for load II. Figure 8 Optimization Results for Load

Figure 8 Optimization Results for Load 1I

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME

Volume 3, Issue 1, January- April (2012), © IAEME Figure 9 Simulation Results for Load 1I

Figure 9 Simulation Results for Load 1I

VI. CONCLUSION Renewable hybrid photovoltaic power systems using two different energy storage technologies like hydrogen storage fuel cell and battery for two different load profiles have been modeled. The optimization results shows hydrogen storage fuel system is economically less compared with battery storage system and HOMER recommends the hydrogen storage system unaccompanied by a battery bank.

REFERENCES [1] Kaushik Rajashekara, “Hybrid fuel cell strategies for clean power generation,” IEEE Transactions on industry Applications vol. 4(3), pp. 25-32, May/June 2005. [2] Larmine. J, and Dicks, A. Fuel cell systems explained, 2nd ed,England: 2003. Wiley:

2003.

[3] Chun-Hua Li, Xin-Jian zhu, Guang-yi cao, Sheng Sui, and Ming-Ruohu, “Dynamic

modeling and sizing optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems using hybrid energy storage technology, “ Renewable energy vol. 39, pp. 815-826, 2009.

[4] Iqbal. M.T, “Modeling and control of a fuel cell hybrid energy system,” Renewable Energy, vol.28, pp.223-237, 2007. [5] Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies, the Energy and Resources Institute, 2007 [6] Khan M.J., M.T Iqbal, Modelling and Analysis of Electrochemical, Thermal, and Reactant Flow Dynamics for a PEM Fuel Cell System, FUEL CELLS 05, 2005, No. 4, 463-475. [7] Campanari S., E. Macchi, G. Manzolini, Innovative membrane reformer for hydrogen production applied to PEM micro-cogeneration : Simulation model and thermodynamic analysis, International journal of hydrogen energy 33 (2008) 1361 –

1373

[8] De Oliveira F. Potential and costs of electrolytical hydrogen production by secondary energy in Brazil. In: Proceedings of 12th world congress hydrogen energy; 1998. [9] http://www.hydrogenics.com. [10] Chiemeka I. U and Chineke T. C (2009). Evaluating the global solar energy potential at Uturu, Nigeria, International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 4 (3), pp.

115-119

[11] Freppaz, D.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R.; Taramasso, A. Optimizing forest biomass exploitation for energy supply at a regional level. Biomass Bioenergy 2004, 26, 15–25.

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AUTHORS PROFILE

K. Balachander 1 received the B.E. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Barathiyar University, Coimbatore, in 2001, the M.E. degree in VLSI Design from Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, in 2009 and he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Electrical and electronics from the Karpagam University, Coimbatore. His research interests include Renewable Energy, Smart Grid and Micro Grid. He is having 10 years of Industrial Experience in Erection and Commissioning of Textile machineries.

Dr. Vijayakumar Ponnusamy 2 obtained his Masters Degree ME (Applied Electronics) from PSG College of Technology in 2002. He is currently with Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India as Professor and Head of the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department. He had totally around 11 years of teaching experience. He was working in industry for about 7 years between 1992 and 1999. He has published around 10 National and International Journal papers besides 20 papers in Conference proceedings. His areas of interests are Low Power VLSI and Virtual Instrumentation.

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