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Separation of ammonia and water

TABLE OF CONTENT

Procedure ......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Process Flow Diagram ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.8 Theory .9 QUESTION12 DISCUSSION...17

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Separation of ammonia and water


PROCEDURE 1. New case was started by selecting the new case icon

2. Then, the components for this laboratory is added in the component list view which are ammonia and water

3. SRK equation of state was selected in the fluid package tab

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4. Enter simulation environment tab was clicked to begin the simulation

5. After clicking the enter simulation environment, the simulation window will come out as below

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6. First stream was inserted by clicked to the add operation in the flow sheet button. The stream condition is adjusted at pressure, P= 250psia, with 1 vapor fraction and mass flow rate at 10000lb/h

7. The composition option from the list is selected to display the window in figure 1.12. The ammonia section is completed by entering value of 0.8 to indicate 0.8 mole fraction of ammonia and value of 0.2 in the water section to indicate 0.2 mole fraction of water.

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8. A condenser was added to the process

9. The Parameters option is selected. At the Parameters page, the Duty section is completed by entering the value of 5.8 x 106 Btu/hr.

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10. Their condition was adjusted at outlet stream by setting its P=250psia and flow arte at 10000lb/h

11. Then, a valve was added to the system to reduce the pressure from 250psia to 150psia

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12. Separator is used in this process to separate

13. It was adjusted that the vapor product of this process produce at the top of the separator and liquid at the bottom of the separator

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

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THEORY A mixture of ammonia and water in the vapor phase, saturated at 250psia and containing 80wt% ammonia is passes through a condenser at a flow rate of 10000 lb/h, where heat is removed at the rate of 5.8x10^6 Btu/hr. its effluent is expanded to a pressure of 150psia and fed into a flash vessel. Neglecting the heat loss from the equipment to surrounding and the pressure drop in the condenser, it is desired to determine the composition of the liquid stream leaving the separator. Hints: 1. Use SRK Equation of State fluid package 2. Use FIELD unit 3. Add a valve in order to expand the effluent to a pressure of 150psia Unit operation separation between ammonia and water has its own function. The units used are for example condenser, valve, and separator. All o this equipments has it their own function in this process. The condenser used is defined as a cooler in HYSYS simulation. Condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant. The purpose of valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. . In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. In this process, we need to lower the pressure from 250psia to 150psia in order to expand the effluent. In HYSYS simulation, flash vessel is defined as a separator whereby the purpose of the equipment is to allow multiple feeds and produce one vapor and one liquid at the product stream. In steady state mode, this device divided the vessel content into constituent vapor and liquid phases. Besides that, this process required to calculate the partial pressure of mixture individual component. We used Antoine equation and energy balance to the system.

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Separation of ammonia and water


Antoine Equation

Where: = Partial pressure of a particular component A, B, C = coefficient value of Antoine equation constant T = temperature Raoults Law For liquid phase

For vapour phase

Where: = total pressure of mixture x = liquid fraction of component y = vapour fraction of component

General balance equation Input + generation output consumption = accumulation

There are assumptions made to this process to make the calculation easier. The assumptions are: 1. Steady state. So, accumulation equal to zero 2. Nonreactive species. So, generation and consumption equal to zero

Thus, the equation reduces to; Input = output

Error in calculation Error (%)


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x 100%
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Result

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Question 1. What is the temperature of the outlet stream from the condenser 58.13

2. What is the outlet pressure from the valve? 1034kPa

3. What are the mole fraction for ammonia and water in the vapor and liquid outlet of the separator? Vapor phase Ammonia= 0.9990 Water= 0.0010 Liquid phase Ammonia= 0.7146 Water= 0.2854

4. Determine the mass flow rate for each outlet stream of the separator Mass flow rate at vapor stream is 1487kg/h Mass flow rate at liquid stream is 3049kg/h

5. Use a manual calculation on mass and energy balance to determine the composition of the liquid stream leaving the separator.

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F4 YNH3 YH2O

F1= 10000lb/h Condenser 0.8wt/wtNH3 0.2wt/wt H2O

F2 Valve

F3

F5 XNH3 XH2O

ANTOINE CONSTANT NH3 H2O A 7.55466 8.10765 B 1002.711 1750.286 C 247.855 235

From Antoine equation Log10 Pi = A For NH3 Log10 PNH3 = 7.55466 = 12001.6mmHg x = 1600kPa For NH3 Log10 PH2O = 8.10765 = 57.31 mmHg x = 7.64kPa
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For both stream, the total pressure is 1034kPa By applying Raoults law for both liquid and vapor phase Composition at outlet vapor stream = = [ = + + + ] x [1600] x [7.64] where YH2O = 1 YNH3

11.822 = 7.64YNH3 + (1 - YNH3)(1600) 11.822 = 7.64 YNH3 + 1600 - 1600 YNH3 1592.36 YNH3 = 1588.178 YNH3 = 0.9974 = = 0.16% YH2O = 1 0.9974 YH2O = 0.0026 Error (%) = = 61.5% x 100% x 100%

Error (%)

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Composition at outlet liquid stream PT 1034 1034 = XNH3PNH3 + XH2OPH2O = 1600XNH3 + 7.64 (1- XNH3) = 1600XNH3 + 7.64 7.64XNH3 where XH2O = 1- XNH3

1592.36 XNH3 = 1026.36 XNH3 = 0.6446 = = 10.9% x 100%

Error (%)

XH2O = 1 0.6446 XNH3 = 0.3554 Error (%) = = 19.7% x 100%

Overall balance F1 = F4 + F5 F4 = 10000 F5 Component balance NH3 balance 0.8(10000) = 0.9974F4 + 0.6446F5

8000 = (10000 F5)(0.9974) + 0.6446F5 8000 = 9974 -0.9974F5 + 0.6446F5 0.3528F5 = 1974 F5 = 5595.24 x

= 2357.96kg/h
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Error (%) = = 29.3% x 100%

F4= 10000 5595.24 F4 = 4404.76 x

= 1997.97kg/h Error (%) = = 25.6% x 100%

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DISCUSSION There are significant different in the value from the HYSYS simulation and the value that have been calculated manually. This is due to the validity range of Antoine equation. From manual calculation, we use Antoine equation to calculate the partial pressure of ammonia and water. By using these values, we can calculate the composition at each outlet stream by using Raoults Law and mass balance. Based on the HYSYS simulation, the mole fraction of ammonia and water at the outlet vapor stream are 0.999 and 0.0010 respectively. However, from manual calculation, the mole fraction for ammonia and water at the outlet vapor phase is 0.9974 and 0.0026 respectively. It shows different value between HYSYS simulation and the manual calculation. There is 0.16% error for ammonia and 61.5% error for water. The mass flow rate at vapor stream from HYSYS simulation is 1487kg/h and 1997.97kg/h by 25.6% error between two methods. At the outlet liquid stream, the mole fraction by HYSYS simulation for ammonia and water is 0.7146 and 0.2854 respectively. Not same as the manual calculation, the mole fraction for ammonia and water 0.6446 and 0.3554 respectively. It shows that the error produce from these two different methods is 10.9% and 19.7% respectively. The mass flow rate of the liquid outlet stream by HYSYS is 3049kg/h and from manual calculation, the mass flow rate of the outlet stream is 2357.96kg/h. it shows that the error for the mass flow rate from manual calculation is 25.6%. By referring the result from HYSYS simulation and manual calculation, the value of mole fraction of ammonia and water and mass flow rate at the liquid and vapor stream are slightly different. This is because in manual calculation, in order to calculate the composition of the ammonia and water, coefficient of a, b and c are used in Antoine equation. This coefficient may affect the value of composition and mass flow rate of the stream. Thus, there are different in value for HYSYS simulation and manual calculation. It can be conclude that the HYSYS simulation is more accurate than manual calculation as suitable equipments and Fluid Package is applied in this simulation.

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