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Structural Steel Design Tension Members

Dr. Seshu Adluri

Tension in Nature
Tension members are the most efficient and economical of all structural elements

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Tension Members Used From Primitive Times


If you want your grand kids to play Tarzan and the Tension Member, save the forests!

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

(Wo)Man-made Tension Structures

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Typical tension members

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Steel and Tension


Steel in Tension
Excellent in Tension (and compression) Very ductile (highly desirable structural property for stress redistribution and safety) Connections induce loss of effective area
Bolt holes, etc. Shear lag in outstanding parts (of both bolted and welded connections)

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Typical crosssections

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Material behaviour

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Material behaviour

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Stresses in tension members (gross-section)

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Stresses in net-section

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Basic Failure modes


Yielding of gross c/s
Limiting the capacity to yield prevents very large deformations (before strain hardening kicks in)

Rupture (fracture) of net c/s


Localized yielding and strain hardening is permitted Ultimate stress is the limit for the local c/s in the connection zone

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Plate in Tension with Bolts

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Plate in Tension with Bolts


Gusset plate b b 7/8 in. diameter hole Section b-b

a 8 x in. bar Section a-a

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Angle in Tension with Bolts


a

L 4 x 4 x 3/ 8 d b = 5/8 in.

a
Gusset plate

Section a-a

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Rupture of net section

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Typical Truss Connection

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Typical Frame Connection

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Shear lag
Out-standing parts of rolled sections
Legs of angles, flanges, etc.

Connected parts due to insufficient load transfer in the connection zone


Single side welds Two side welds of insufficient lengths

Cl.12 (effective net areas)


Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Shear lag

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Shear lag

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Shear lag effect

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Length of connection (for shear lag)

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Eccentricity of elements

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Staggered bolts
Tear out paths can be inclined
s2/4g rule (Cl. 12)

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Gauge Length

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Block Shear Tear-out


(a)

Cl. 13.11 Paths parallel to load

(b)

Shear failure (c) Tension failure


Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Block Shear Tear-out


Cl. 13.11 Paths parallel & perpendicular to load

Stell Tension -Dr. Seshu Adluri