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Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Work

This chapter describes the conclusions drawn from the study carried out in this Master Thesis and suggests some guidelines for the future work.



The deployment of vehicular networks is a eld with about ten years of intense research activity and progress. Nowadays, the widely adopted approach is equipping vehicles with WLAN devices (IEEE 802.11 family). If vehicles can directly communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure, an entirely new paradigm for trac safety and transport eciency can be created. In such networks, vehicles communicate within a limited range. In turn, VANETs are composed with high mobility nodes. Thus, they exhibit a topology that may change quickly and in unpredictable ways complicating the communication tasks. Therefore, it is crucial to provide user with an ecient conguration of the communication protocols in order to oer the best quality of service (QoS) possible previously to its deployment. In this Master Thesis we have optimized the VDTP protocol used in peer-to-peer information transfer in VANETs. In order to do this we have dened the optimization OFTC (Optimal File Transfer Protocol Conguration) problem, which lies in searching ecient parameters setting of VDTP protocol that maximizes the amount of data being transferred and minimizes the transmission time as the number of lost packets.



The proposed problem has been solved by employing ve metaheuristic algorithms (SA, GA, ES, PSO, and DE) that use the VanetMobiSim/Ns-2 vehicular network simulator to evaluate the solutions generated during the execution. We have developed the VDTP protocol in order to simulate it on ns-2. In addition, we have modied ns-2 simulator adding the functionality of interacting with these metaheuristic algorithms. In turn, we have dened two dierent scenarios on which we have solved the problem (urban and highway instances) based on two real areas of Mlaga city. Finally, we have compared the performance of the obtained congurations with the dened ones by human experts of CARLINK consortium.

In order to compare the algorithms with each other we have used a nonparametric test, the Friedman test. The results reveal that PSO performs statistically better than the others in the urban scenario. Moreover, this algorithm obtains similar results that the best algorithms (GA and SA) in the highway scenario. The genetic algorithm also gets quite competitive results for both scenarios.

From the point of view of its real world utilization, PSO returned conguration can reduce 19.6% of the transmission time in urban scenario and 25.43% in highway areas with regards to human experts conguration, while transmitting the same amount of data (1,024 Kbytes). The highest eective data rates is obtained by using the same conguration (PSO), it is 2402,32 Kbps (300,39 Kbytes/s) and 332 Kbps (41,5 Kbytes/s) in urban and highway scenarios, respectively. Besides, all the metaheuristic algorithms have obtained higher bandwidth than that oered by CARLINK experts, except in one case (ES in highway instance.) Furthermore, all analyzed VDTP congurations have transferred correctly 1,024 Kbyte les with a non-signicant packet loss.

The execution time spent on solving the OFTC problem by the algorithms are between 80 and 150 minutes for the urban case and between 23 and 60 minutes in the highway. Although involving a large computational eort is acceptable for designers of VANETs.

The analysis of the results and the required computational eort lead us to advise the nal use of our automatic design algorithm for this kind of problems. 96



Future Work

The research area of vehicular networks is in full swing because of the possible real applications it oers that could change the lives of users of roadways. In turn, it faces several challenges that are not easy to solve: the search for wireless technology that best ts to this type of networks, the selection of network protocols and their congurations to obtain the best performance possible, and the realistic simulation of vehicles and their communications, among others. This Master Thesis work is the starting point of several research lines, the most notable ones are the following ones: The use of larger and more realistic VANET scenarios for evaluating in a more realistic way the tness function. Additionally, studying how the network sizes aect the performance of these optimization techniques. Optimizing other protocols used in VANETs (such as DSR, UDP, ...) through the use of the strategy used in the Master Thesis, i.e., coupling metaheuristic techniques and a realistic VANET simulator. Applying on real-world tests the results obtained in this work using real cars moving through roads, in order to compare the performance against the simulation results. Dening these problems as dynamic optimization problems (on-line), since the problems encountered in vehicular networks depend on the scenario and the moment they arise. In turn, these problems may be dened in a multi-objective way. Besides the future challenges presented above, the eld of vehicular networks opens up a large universe dicult to explore. However, the benets of reaching the goal motivate us to invest in this dicult adventure.