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Fundamental understanding of the formation of cold laps with welding parameters and heat transfer in

Fundamental understanding of the formation of cold laps with welding

parameters and heat transfer in

Tandem-arc MIG/MAG welding

Peigang Li

Per Nylén

Ph.D student

Supervisor

parameters and heat transfer in Tandem-arc MIG/MAG welding Peigang Li Per Nylén Ph.D student Supervisor www.hv.se

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Tandem-arc MIG/MAG welding www.hv.se 3

Tandem-arc MIG/MAG welding

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α Base Metal α Base Metal Welding Direction Base Metal www.hv.se 4
α Base Metal α Base Metal Welding Direction Base Metal www.hv.se 4
α
α

Base

Metal

α Base Metal Welding
α
Base
Metal
Welding

Direction

α Base Metal α Base Metal Welding Direction Base Metal www.hv.se 4
α Base Metal α Base Metal Welding Direction Base Metal www.hv.se 4

Base

Metal

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www.hv.se Quality of weld 6

Quality of weld

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Quality of welds

Chemical Composition: P, S, Mn, Si, Al……;

Mechanical Property:

Tensile, Bend, Fatigue…;

Discontinuties:

Porosity;

Lack of fusion;

Lack of penetration;

Crack;

Undercut;

Cold lap;

STD 181- 0004

Fatigue

of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;

life

Geometry;

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of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;
of penetration; • Crack; • Undercut; • Cold lap; STD 181- 0004 Fatigue life • Geometry;

undercut

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Cold laps

www.hv.se Cold laps 8

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Definition of Cold laps Small lack of fusion at weld toe. (KOST/LOST)

Small (typically < 0,5 mm),

Difficult to be detected by common NDT methods.

Initiate fatigue failure and thus decrease severely the fatigue life of welds.

Recent study classify it into: Spatter cold lap, overlap.

severely the fatigue life of welds. • Recent study classify it into: Spatter cold lap ,
severely the fatigue life of welds. • Recent study classify it into: Spatter cold lap ,
severely the fatigue life of welds. • Recent study classify it into: Spatter cold lap ,
severely the fatigue life of welds. • Recent study classify it into: Spatter cold lap ,

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Hypothesis of formation of cold laps

Melted metal Wire (hot) Shield Gas Melted metal Arc (cold)
Melted metal
Wire
(hot)
Shield
Gas
Melted metal
Arc
(cold)

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(hot) Shield Gas Melted metal Arc (cold) www.hv.se Welding process Heat Transfer • Volatge; •

Welding

process

Heat

Transfer

(cold) www.hv.se Welding process Heat Transfer • Volatge; • Current (Wire feed speed); • Welding

Volatge;

Current

(Wire feed

speed);

Welding speed; Angle factor;

Etc.

Temperature;

Interface

substance;

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Experiment

Experiment Welding Direction TC2 150mm 30mm 30 mm TC3 TC1 12mm Thermal couple www.hv.se 1 1
Welding Direction TC2 150mm 30mm 30 mm TC3 TC1 12mm Thermal couple
Welding Direction
TC2
150mm
30mm
30
mm
TC3
TC1
12mm
Thermal couple

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Welding Parameters

Run

Welding

Master

Ratio

Slave

Wire

feed

Ord.

Speed

Voltage

of

voltage

speed*

(mm/s)

(V)

voltage

(V)

(m/min)

1

14

29.65

 

1 29.65

11.5

2

14

29.65

 

1 29.65

11.5

3

14

29.65

 

1 29.65

11.5

4

11

28.3

0.8

22.64

9

5

17

31

1.2

37.2

14

6

17

28.3

0.8

22.64

14

7

17

31

0.8

24.8

9

8

11

31

0.8

24.8

14

9

17

28.3

1.2

33.96

9

10

11

31

1.2

37.2

9

11

11

28.3

1.2

33.96

14

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9 11 11 28.3 1.2 33.96 14 www.hv.se level Parameters - + Ratio of voltage (

level

Parameters

-

+

Ratio of

voltage

(%)

0,8

1,2

Welding

Speed (mm/s)

11

17

Master

Voltage

(V)

28,3

31

Wire Feed Speed (m/min)

9

14

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Collected Data

Collected Data  Welding Voltage (V),  Welding Current (I),  Thermal Couple 1, 2, 3

Welding Voltage (V),

Welding Current (I),

Thermal Couple 1, 2, 3 (TC1, TC2,

TC3),

High speed Camera Video,

Infrared Camera

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I,V,TC1,TC2,TC3

I,V,TC1,TC2,TC3 www.hv.se 1 4
I,V,TC1,TC2,TC3 www.hv.se 1 4

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IR Camera

IR Camera www.hv.se • Line scanning at the Thermal couple (TC) position. • Peak Temperature in

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IR Camera www.hv.se • Line scanning at the Thermal couple (TC) position. • Peak Temperature in

Line scanning at

the Thermal couple

(TC) position.

Peak Temperature in weld pool.

Peak Temperature in of TC.

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Synchronization

Synchronization Synchronization is important to link the measurements with the other detector of the welding process,

Synchronization is important to link the measurements with the other detector of the welding process, e.g. High Speed Video(Locating the high speed video).

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with the other detector of the welding process, e.g. High Speed Video(Locating the high speed video).

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Next Step

Next Step  Detecting of cold laps;  Statistical analysis of the collected data and response;

Detecting of cold laps;

Statistical analysis of the collected data and response;

Metallography sample;

EDS (chemical composition test).

MT? RT? Destructive Test??

Future Works

Qualitative study about the empirical relationship between

welding parameters and cold laps;

Quantitative study for cold laps and parameters;

Controlling parameters.

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Tack

谢谢

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