Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111

By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)



Spatial Sense
Spatial is spatial perception or spatial visualization,
helps students understand the relationship between
objects and their location in three dimensional
worlds. (Kennedy and Tipps, 2006)

Geometric Thinking
(a) Visual spatial thinking
Happened on the right hemisphere of the brain
that associate with literature
Occur unconsciously without being aware of it
Simultaneously processing.
(b) Verbal logical thinking
Lies on the left hemisphere of the brain that is of
Continuous processing and always aware of it
Operate sequentially and logically and to
language or symbol and numbers.

Van Hiele, five levels of geometric thought:
1. Visualization recognized figures by looking at
their appearance.
2. Analysis classify or group according depending
on the characteristics of shapes or figures but they
cannot visualize the interrelationship between them.
3. Informal Deduction established or sees
interrelationships between figures.
4. Deduction mental thinking and geometric thinking
developed significantly. They can understand the
significant of deduction, the role of postulates,
theorem and proofs. They are able to write proof
with understanding.
5. Rigor make abstract deduction and understand
how to work in axiomatic system even non-Euclidian
geometry can be understood at this level.

Geometric System
(a) Euclidean Geometry the geometry of shape and
objects in plane (2D) or in space (3D). Describe the
properties of objects in plane (2D) or in space (3D).

(b) Coordinate Geometry about location shapes on
coordinate or grid systems. Describe location of
object on planed coordinate of vertical and
horizontal axis for 2D shapes or positioning of
objects on grid systems for three dimensional

(c) Transformation Geometry about geometry in
motion. It describes the movement of shapes or
object in a plane or in space.

(d) Topological Geometry describes the location of
objects and their relation in space or recognition of
objects in the environment.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Geometry in Mathematics KBSR

Teaching Shapes and Space

Teaching 3D Shapes

Teaching in Pre School (Level 1 & 2):
Early geometric sense:
o Identify shapes (surface area) and the relevant
solids (explore)
o Match and label each shape and solids
o Identify similarities and differences between
shape and solids
o Use correct vocabulary and language

Teaching in Year 1 Primary (Level 1, 2 & 3):
Name, labelling and use correct vocabulary for each
solid 3D shape

Describe features or parts of solid shapes including
classify and grouping shapes according to
similarities and differences.

Able to assemble and explaining types of shapes
used to build models and relate models to solid
shapes in real life.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Teaching in Year 2
Understanding and using vocabulary to name and
label two dimensional shapes.
Describing and classifying two dimensional shapes
Building models using three dimensional and two
dimensional shapes
Understanding and using vocabulary to name and
label three dimensional shapes
Describing and classifying three dimensional shapes

Teaching in Year 3
Understanding and using vocabulary related to two
and three dimensional shapes
Describing and classifying two and three
dimensional shapes
Building two and three dimensional shapes
Understand and recognising lines of symmetry
Sketching lines of symmetry.

Teaching in Year 4
Identify two dimensional shapes
Drawing geometrical drawing of two dimensional
Identify perimeter
Calculation on perimeter of various two dimensional
shapes and combined two dimensional shapes.

Teaching 2D Shapes
Suggested teaching and learning activities:
o Contextual learning children looking around
and observing the environment and describe in
words what they have seen.
o Exploring and experimenting shapes (visual
images) in order to gain insight into properties
and its uses
o Analysing shape informally, observing size and
position in order to make inferences then to
refine and extended out knowledge that develop
from various learning activities
Introduction of three-dimensional shape must be
earlier or before the teaching of shapes.

Vocabulary and Classification of 2D Shapes

Equilateral triangle three equal
sides and three equal angle

Isosceles triangle 2 equal sides
and 2 equal angle

Scalene triangle no equal sides
and no equal angle

Right-Angle Triangle One angle
is 90

Acute angled triangle All three
angles are acute (< 90)

Obtuse angled triangle One
angles is obtuse (> 90)


Curved Shapes

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Key Issues in Teaching Shapes and Spaces
Young students can define shapes, but then not use
their definitions when asked to point out examples of
those shapes.
Young students discriminate some characteristics
of different shapes, often viewing these shapes
conceptually in terms of the paths and the motions
used to construct the shapes.
Student misconceptions in geometry lead to a
depressing picture of their geometric understanding
(Clements and Battista, 1992). Some examples are:
o A square is not a square if the base is not
o Every shape with four sides is a square.
o A figure can be a triangle only if it is equilateral.
o The angle sum of a quadrilateral is the same as
its area.
o The area of a quadrilateral can be obtained by
transforming it into a rectangle with the same
Students have a difficult time communicating visual
information, especially if the task is to communicate
a 3-D environment (e.g., a building made from small
blocks) via 2-D tools (e.g., paper and pencil) or the

Applications of Geometry in Technoogy
A computer environment can generate multiple
representations of a shape that help students
generalize their conceptual image of that shape in
any size or orientation (Shelton, 1985). E.g. :
Geometers Sketchpad


Basic Principle of Measurement
Comparison principle
o Comparing and ordering of objects by a specific
attribute with suitable vocabulary (short, shorter,
tall, taller, etc.)
Transitivity principle
o Comparing and ordering of three or more objects
using appropriate language (tallest, shortest,
lightest etc.)
Conservation principle
o States that the length of an object does not
change even when the position or the orientation
of the object is changed.
Measuring principle
o Measurement involves stating how many of a
given unit match the attribute (e.g. length,
volume, mass) of an object.

Teaching of Length
The length of an object refers to the number of
standard unit which can be laid in a straight line
along or beside the object.

Teaching Length in Primary School:

Use vocabulary related to length
Compare length of object by direct
Measure and compare length using uniform
non-standard units
Measure and compare length using standard
Measure, writing and estimate length
Conversion of units of length
Operation of units of length
Daily life problem

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Standard and non-standard units
Standard Non-Standard
- any fixed length that has
been accepted as a
standard internationally
- any arbitrary length
used as a unit
- E.g.:
yards, miles, feet,
metres and
kilometres, etc.
- E.g.:
body parts such
as span, foot,
pace and arm
objects such as
pen, paper clip,
- Measure using specific
apparatus (with scale)
such ruler, tape, etc.
E.g.: using ruler to
measure the length of

- Measure using other
non-specific object
(without scale)
E.g.: using eraser to
measure the length
of pencil

Conversion of units
Involve metric unit of length:

Conversion of unit:

Area and Perimeter
o Amount of surface enclosed in a plane.
o Distance all the way round its edges.

Teaching of Volume
Volume is a measure of the amount of space inside
a three-dimensional region, or the amount of space
occupied by a three-dimensional object.

Measured in:
o SI unit - cubic centimetres (cm) or cubic metres
o The Imperial system - cubic feet (ft).
One cubic centimetre (cm3) is the measure of a
cube having an edge with a length of 1 cm.

Liquid capacity / Volume of Liquid
Quantity of liquid that fills up a container.

Standard and non-standard units
Standard Non-Standard
- any fixed volume that
has been accepted as
a standard
internationally (SI)
- any arbitrary volume
used as a unit
- E.g.:
Millilitre, litre

- E.g.:
A cup, jug, bottle
Other containers
- Measure using
specific apparatus
(with scale) such ruler,
tape, etc.
E.g.: using beaker to
measure water

- Measure using other
non-specific object
(without scale)
E.g.: using a jug to
measure water

Half of jug

Volume Displacement
Displacement occurs when an object is immersed in
a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place.
An object that sinks displaces an amount of fluid
equal to the object's volume (Archimedes principle)

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Can be used to measure the volume of a solid
object, even if its form is not regular.

Teaching of Mass and Weight
The measure of the amount of matter in an object
whereas weight is the gravitational force acting on
that mass.
It is normal to refer weighing of an object as a
process to find its mass.

Standard and non-standard units
Standard Non-Standard
- any fixed mass /
weight that has been
accepted as a
internationally (SI)
- any arbitrary mass /
weight used as a unit
- E.g.:
Kilogram, gram

- E.g.:
Marbles, battery
- Measure using
specific apparatus
(with scale) such
weighing scale.
E.g.: using weighing
scale to measure the
mass of watermelon

The mass of
watermelon is 3 kg.
- Measure using other
non-specific object
(without scale)
E.g.: using a marbles
to measure the mass
of bottle

The mass of bottle is 7
marbles mass.

Teaching of Time
Major skills in measurement of time:

Development of measurement of time:
o Time of the Day start learning about time by
telling time of the day, i.e. day time and night. It
uses phrase that common into their everyday life.
o Telling Time
Introduce to clock face clockwise direction
Introduce the concept of minute hand and
hour hand.
Relate to time of the day

o Time duration difficult to teach
Elapsed time for:
eating (fried rice, pizza, donut)
running around the field (and other
Longer times:
a baby to be born
o Days of the Week
o Months of the Year
o Relationship between Units of Time
60 seconds = 1 minutes
60 minutes = 1 hour
24 hours = 1 day
7 days = 1 week
30 / 31 days = 1 month
12 months = 1 year
10 years = 1 decade
10 decades = 1 century
o Operation involving Units of Time
o Problem solving

to tell the time and events of the
to name the days of the week
to name the months of the year
to read and write the time

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)

Hour system

Teaching of Money
Skill development:

Mental Computation of Money
Estimation and mental computations on money can
help pupils:
o Save time doing long calculations
o Judge the reasonableness of prices of items on
o Solve problems when exact answers are not

Integrated Learning in Teaching Money
Family values and attitudes
Setting goals and priorities
Managing money outside the home.

Identiying and recognizing the values
represented by the coins and notes.
Using different denomionations to represent the
values of money
Converting between ringgit and sen
Performing basic arithmetic operations involving
Applying their knowledge to solve daily
problems involving money.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Using Coins to Model Decimal (Sen)
Recording amounts in Ringgit and sen does involve
decimal fractions, but care must be taken on how
the children see the connection between the sen
and the fractional part of a decimal number.

E.g.: children do not readily relate RM 75.25 to RM
75 and 25 hundredths of a Ringgit or 10 sen to one-
tenth of a Ringgit.
If money is used as a model for decimals, children
need to think of 10 sen and 1 sen as fractional parts
of a Ringgit.
RM 1.00 = 100 sen
RM 0.75 = 75 sen

Key issues in teaching measurement
Young children lack a basic understanding of the
unit of measure concept.
When trying to understand initial measurement
concepts, students need extensive experiences with
several fundamental ideas prior to introduction to the
use of rulers and measurement formulas.
Number assignment: Students need to understand
that the measurement process is the assignment of a
number to an attribute of an object (e.g., the length of
an object is a number of inches).
Comparison: Students need to compare objects on
the basis of a designated attribute without using
numbers (e.g., given two pencils, which is longer?).
Use of a unit and iteration: Students need to
understand and use the designation of a special unit
which is assigned the number one, then used in an
iterative process to assign numbers to other objects
(e.g., if length of a pencil is five paper clips, then the
unit is a paper clip and five paper clips can be laid
end-to end to cover the pencil).
Additivity property: Students need to understand
that the measurement of the join of two objects is
mirrored by the sum of the two numbers assigned
to each object (e.g., two pencils of length 3 inches
and 4 inches, respectively, laid end to end will have a
length of 3+4=7 inches)
The manipulative tools used to help teach number
concepts and operations are inexorably intertwined
with the ideas of measurement.
The improved understanding of measurement
concepts is positively correlated with improvement
in computational skills
Students are fluent with some of the simple
measurement concepts and skills they will
encounter outside of the class, but have great
difficulty with other measurement concepts and skills
(e.g., perimeter, area, and volume)

Students initially develop and then depend on
physical techniques for determining volumes of
objects that can lead to errors in other situations.
o E.g.: students often calculate the volume of a box by
counting the number of cubes involved. When this
approach is used on a picture of a box, students tend
to count only the cubes that are visible.
The vocabulary associated with measurement
activities is difficult because the terms are either
entirely new (e.g., perimeter, area, inch) or may have
totally different meanings in an everyday context
(e.g., volume, yard).

Measurement of Time
Some aspects of time measurement which make it
difficult to learn among your children. Its because:
o Time is an abstract concept
o Time is measured using a mixture of base 12 and
base 60 systems, and when extended to days,
months and years, it uses base 4, 7, 365 and 28,
29, 30 and 31 systems
o Time is measured indirectly - the movement of
the sun, hands on a clock face, digits changing in
a display, changing seasons, etc.
o Clocks come in all sorts of styles and designs -
some with all 12 numerals, (some Roman
numerals), others with only 12, 3, 6 and 9
numerals, and still others with no numerals at all.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)

Data handling deals with the processes involved in
selection, collecting, organising, recording,
summarising, describing and representing data for
ease of interpretation and communication.
Data that we get and use may be discrete or
continuous depending on whether we are
quantifying by counting or measurement.

Teaching of Data Handling

Collecting and organizing data
Appropriate methods for primary pupils is
interpreting and constructing simple tables, charts
and diagrams that are commonly used in everyday
life to display information.
Two main process in collecting:
o combinatorial counting (to determine all the
possible outcomes)
o tallying (to organise the data under the

Data collected can be organise using:
1. Table
o Simple table

o Regular table the matrix style table where
there are more than two columns (more than
column of data).

2. Charts less regular in terms of rows and
columns. They attempt to display information
more visually, to relate the display to what
actually occurs.
o The strip map

o Branch map - combination of strip maps,
involving branching as in a tree.

3. Diagrams visual ways to represent membership
in different sets and subsets.
o Venn diagram

o Carroll diagram

Displaying Data
Types of Graph:
o Bar Graph facilitate comparisons of quantities.
Bar graphs can be vertical as well as horizontal.
They can also be the forms of blocks, or bar

understanding what data is
collecting data from printed
classify, sort and analyse data
organising data in a table, chart or
carrying out simple surveys to
collect data

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)

o Picture Graph
Can also facilitate comparisons of quantities
just like bar graphs.
Can easily be updated.
Also called pictographs and isotypes.

o Line Graph
Can be used for comparisons and for
expressing allocations of resources.
It seems particularly useful for communicating

o Circle Graph
Also known as pie charts.
Can be used to picture the totality of a
To indicate how portions of the totality are

o Scatter Graph
It similar to line graphs which show the
relationship between two different sets of
The scatter graph is made for data which is
not in sequence (in terms of the horizontal
axis) and is unsuitable for a line graph.

Constructing Graph
1. Draw a horizontal or a vertical line as a baseline.
2. Write the names of the items that you have.
3. Put a symbol to represent the number of items
you have in each category.
4. Put in the key to represent the quantity of items.
(Means: 1 symbol = ? items).
5. Then finally, give a title to the graph.

Vertical Bar Graph:
1. Draw vertical and horizontal axes. Give them
2. Determine the correct interval to be marked on
the vertical axis.
3. Write the name of the items below the
horizontal axis.
4. Draw the bars vertically according to the
quantity given for each item. Then colour the
5. Lastly, give a proper title to for the graph.

Horizontal bar graph:
1. Draw vertical and horizontal axes. Give them
2. Determine the correct interval to be marked on
the horizontal axis.
3. Write the names of items on the left of the
vertical axis.
4. Draw the bars horizontally according to the
quantity given for each item. Then colour the
5. Lastly, give a proper title to for the graph.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Interpreting data
Data analysis and interpretation is the process of
assigning meaning to the collected information and
determining the conclusions, significance, and
implications of the findings.

Interpretation of Pictograph

The questions above will lead your students to
understand that pictograph :
o What is the title of the pictograph?
o What picture is being used here?
o What does the key mean?
o How many people are involved in the data?
o Who has the most basketballs?
o Who has the least basketballs?
o If one basketball represents 2 balls, how many
balls are there altogether?
The data in that pictograph shows the number of
basketballs each person has. It tells us that Sally
has 3 balls, Ken has 2 balls, Kamal has 1 ball and
lastly, Ben has 4 balls.
This means that one picture can represent one or
more quantities.

Interpretation of Bar Graph

Let us check in detail the information on it.
o Title of bar graph: Curry Puffs Sold
o Vertical axis on the left: Shows the number of
curry puffs sold.
o Markings on the vertical axis: Shows the scales
in a specific range. The interval is 5 in this case.
o Horizontal axis: Shows the days Monday,
Tuesday, Wednesday
o The bars: Show the number of curry puffs sold on
Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday.

Teaching Average
As the middle point of a set of numbers.
Finding the average helps do calculations and also
makes it possible to compare sets of numbers.
Averages supply a framework with which to describe
what happens.

Understand the Concept and Deriving Formulae of
An understanding of average can be developed
through using concrete materials and visual
manipulation (Rubenstein, 1989).

E.g.: Interlocking cubes,

Describe the meaning of average.
State the average of two or three
Determine the formula for average.
Calculate the average using formula.
Calculate the average of up to five
Solve problem in real life situation
involving average.

Compilation of Notes of MTE3111
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Steps on building pupils understanding:
1. Build a tower with seven cubes and another
with five cubes.

2. Discuss on how to make both towers the same
height, using only the cubes they have used to
construct the towers.
3. Guide pupil to find the total number of
interlocking cubes used in building both towers.
7 + 5 = 12
4. Next, the pupils will have to divide the total
number of cubes by two.
12 2 = 6

5. By doing the calculation, the pupils will
understand the concept of average and also
the method of calculating averages.
6. Use same strategy in determining the average
heights of three and four towers.
7. The formulae of average than derived as:

8. Once the pupils understand the concept,
provide them with more activities that reinforce
their understanding of averages.

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean (Average)
o The average can be useful for comparing things.
o The most common item in a set of data.
o It's the number or thing that appears most often.
o The middle number in a set of numbers.
o It is the mid-point when the numbers are written
out in order.

Key issues in teaching graphs and average
Students can calculate the average of a data set
correctly, either by hand or with a calculator, and still
not understand when the average (or other statistical
tools) is a reasonable way to summarize the data.
Introducing students prematurely to the algorithm
for averaging data can have a negative impact on
their understanding of averaging as a concept. It is
very difficult to pull students back from the
simplistic add-then-divide algorithm to view an
average as a representative measure for describing
and comparing data sets. Key developmental steps
toward understanding an average conceptually are
seeing an average as reasonable, an average as a
midpoint, and an average as a balance point.

Prepared by:
Cg M ohd Ri dzuan al -K i ndy
Mohd Ridzuan bin Mohd Taib
(Facebook - Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy)
PISMP Mathematics Semester 6
IPG Kampus Dato Razali Ismail.

Copyright 2010

Mode Median

Auerage =
Tuta| u data
Numher u data