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STAFF REPORT

PIER RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM

RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION ROADMAP

CALIFORNIA

ENERGY

COMMISSION

August 2007

CEC-500-2007-035

AND DEMO N STRATION ROADMAP CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION A ugust 2007 CEC-500-2007-03 5 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor

Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor

CALIFORNIA

ENERGY

COMMISSION

Elaine Sison-Lebrilla Golam Kibrya Valentino Tiangco Dora Yen Prab Sethi Michael Kane Principal Authors

Ken Koyama Supervisor Energy Generation Research Office

Elaine Sison-Lebrilla Manager Energy Generation Research Office

Martha Krebs Deputy Director Energy Research and Development Division

B.B. Blevins Executive Director

DISCLAIMER

This paper was prepared by California Energy Commission staff. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors, and subcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this paper; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This paper has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission, nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this paper.

ABSTRACT

This report is a roadmap for the Public Interest Energy Research program in renewable energy at the California Energy Commission. The objective of this roadmap is to identify key areas of focus (called milestones) for future research, development, and demonstration for PIER Renewable group that will help achieve the state renewable energy policy goals. The vision for the roadmap is to provide at least 33 percent of the electricity in the California energy system by 2020, providing consumers and energy providers with affordable, reliable, secure, and diverse clean energy services.

The roadmap was developed through extensive input from both internal and external stakeholders. It includes the following state renewable energy policy goals: the Renewable Portfolio Standard, the California Solar Initiative, and the Bioenergy Action Plan for California. In addition, the greenhouse gas reduction targets specified by Governor Schwarzenegger were considered to be an important element for renewable energy policies in future.

The roadmap includes the following renewable energy resources and technologies:

shared renewables, utility scale wind, geothermal, biopower, biofuels, solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, small hydro, ocean/wave/tidal, distributed generation wind, and natural gas displacement with renewable energy. PIER Renewable Group will use the detailed roadmaps to prioritize where PIER investments will produce maximum benefit for the state.

The Roadmap consists of five key elements: policy goals, vision, platforms, strategic objective, and milestones. Four platforms, each with strategic objectives, were defined to organize the research activities. These are: production resources and technology, grid integration, end use, and market transformation. production technology will support commercialization of renewable technologies, grid integration will enable integrating the renewable energy resources into the California electricity grid, end use will support adoption of renewable energy by end users, and market transformation will support appropriate market mechanisms and policies that enable sustainable growth of renewable energy.

Key words: Roadmap, renewables, platform, milestones, production technology, grid integration, end use, market transformation, wind, geothermal, biopower, biofuels, solar photovoltaic, CSP, hydro.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

2

PIER Renewable Energy Program Background

2

RD&D Roadmap Rationale

5

RD&D Roadmap Approach

6

Overview of Report

8

CHAPTER 2: CALIFORNIA RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY

9

Overview

9

Accelerated RPS and 33 percent Renewables Goals

11

California Solar Initiative

11

State Bioenergy Goals

12

Additional Policies that May Influence Roadmap

12

CHAPTER 3: ROADMAP KEY ELEMENTS

14

Introduction

14

Vision

14

Platforms

14

Strategic Objectives

16

Milestones

17

Roadmap Pulled Together

18

CHAPTER 4: DETAILED ROADMAPS BY RESOURCE/TECHNOLOGY

20

Introduction

20

Shared Renewables Issues

22

Utility Wind

23

Geothermal

24

Biopower

25

Biofuels

27

Solar CSP

28

Solar PV

29

DG Wind

31

Ocean/Wave/Tidal

32

Small Hydro

33

Natural Gas

34

CHAPTER 5: RENEWABLES ROADMAP AS ONGOING PLANNING TOOL

35

APPENDIX

37

List of Interviews

37

List of Participants in April 6 th Stakeholder Workshop

38

List of Figures

Figure 1: PIER Renewables Areas of Focus

3

Figure 2: Stages of Technology Development and PIER Renewables Role

4

Figure 3: Key Elements of Roadmap

6

Figure 4: Overview of Process Used to Develop Roadmap

7

Figure 5: Details of Process Used to Develop Roadmap

8

Figure 6: Policy Documents Reviewed by PIER Renewables

9

Figure 7: Key Renewable Energy Policy Impacting California

10

Figure 8: Renewables to Meet 20 percent Accelerated RPS (2010) and 33 percent Renewables Goal (2020) (GWh)

11

Figure 9: Platforms and Strategic Objectives

16

Figure 10: Example of Milestones

17

Figure 11: Renewable Energy RD&D Roadmap

19

Figure 12: List of Detailed Roadmaps

20

Figure 13: Shared Renewables Detailed Roadmap

22

Figure 14: Utility Wind Detailed Roadmap

23

Figure 15: Geothermal Detailed Roadmap

24

Figure 16: Biopower Detailed Roadmap (1 of 2)

25

Figure 17: Biopower Detailed Roadmap (2 of 2)

26

Figure 18: Biofuels Detailed Roadmap

27

Figure 19: Solar CSP Detailed Roadmap

28

Figure 20: Solar PV Detailed Roadmap (1 of 2)

29

Figure 21: Solar PV Detailed Roadmap (2 of 2)

30

Figure 22: DG Wind Detailed Roadmap

31

Figure 23: Ocean/Wave/Tidal Detailed Roadmap

32

Figure 24: Small Hydro Detailed Roadmap

33

Figure 25: Natural Gas Detailed Roadmap

34

Figure 26: Process to Develop Research Plans by Technology/Resource Area

35

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In December 2005, the Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program began an effort to develop a Renewable Energy research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) roadmap (Roadmap) to provide a planning mechanism and communication tool that establishes a clear link between the priorities of the Public Interest Energy Research program in renewable energy (PIER Renewables) and the key California state renewable energy policy goals.

The Roadmap relied on input from external stakeholders and other groups within PIER and the Energy Commission. The process included internal workshops for the PIER Renewables staff, meetings with other Energy Commission areas, and interviews and a one-day workshop with external stakeholders from government, utilities, industry companies, advocacy groups, and research organizations.

The Roadmap consists of five key elements: policy goals, vision, platforms, strategic objective, and milestones. Key state renewable energy policy goals identified include the Renewables Portfolio Standard goals of 20 percent by 2010 and 33 percent by 2020, the California Solar Initiative, and the Bioenergy Action Plan for California. In addition, PIER Renewables identified Governor Schwarzenegger’s greenhouse gas reduction targets as a potentially important policy for renewables in the future.

The vision developed by PIER Renewables staff for the Roadmap is: “Renewable energy resources will provide at least 33 percent of the electricity by 2020 for the California energy system, providing consumers and energy providers with affordable, reliable, secure, and diverse clean energy services.” While the Roadmap contains biofuels and natural gas issues, they are considered only in areas where they overlap with renewable energy as it pertains to electricity generation.

PIER Renewables defined four platforms to help organize and structure research activities and defined the strategic objectives for each platform. The production resources and technology platform will support commercialization of renewable energy options. The grid integration platform will enable renewable energy grid integration. The end-use platform will support end-user adoption of renewable energy. The market transformation platform will support appropriate market mechanisms and policies that enable sustainable renewable energy growth.

To define the research, development and demonstration milestones, PIER renewables staff developed detailed roadmaps for each energy resource/technology area. These areas are: Shared Renewable Issues, Utility Scale Wind, Geothermal, Biopower, Biofuels, Solar Photovoltaic, Concentrated Solar Power, Small Hydro, Ocean/Wave/Tidal, Distributed Generation Wind, and Natural Gas Displacement/Replacement. PIER Renewables will use the detailed roadmaps to prioritize where PIER investments will produce maximum benefit for the state.

1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background

The Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER), established in 1996 as part of Assembly Bill 1890 (Brulte), Chapter 854, Statutes of 1996, includes a requirement that at least $62.5 million be collected annually from investor-owned utility ratepayers for "public interest" energy research and development efforts that are not adequately provided by competitive and regulated markets.

PIER supports energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects that will help improve the quality of life in California by bringing environmentally safe, affordable, and reliable energy services and products to the marketplace.

The PIER Program annually awards up to $62 million to conduct the most promising public interest energy research by partnering with RD&D organizations including individuals, businesses, utilities, and public or private research institutions. PIER funding focuses on seven programmatic areas including renewable energy technologies.

PIER’s Renewable Energy Technologies Program (PIER Renewables) advances and accelerates market adoption of renewable energy technologies that are key to meeting state energy policy goals by:

Advancing market adoption of renewable energy resources and generating technologies through innovation, performance improvements, and cost reduction, as well as advancing the production of transportation fuels with renewable resources.

Enabling effective interconnection of renewable generation to the electrical transmission and distribution system.

Encouraging end-user adoption of distributed renewables by addressing technology and market issues.

Supporting development of appropriate market mechanisms and policies to enable sustainable renewable energy growth.

Traditionally, PIER Renewables has focused on RD&D activities in renewable energy resources and technologies for electricity generation. With PIER’s recent addition of the natural gas and transportation RD&D focus, PIER Renewables is now expanding RD&D considerations and investments into areas that clearly overlap these areas. Figure 1 shows the PIER Renewables primary focus area and overlaps with natural gas and transportation, which include:

1. Transportation issues as they pertain to biofuels production.

2. Natural gas issues as they pertain to replacing natural gas use with renewable energy applications.

2

Figure 1: PIER Renewables Areas of Focus

Transportation

Renewable Resources and Generation

Natural Gas

RD&D Issues

RD&D Issues

RD&D Issues

RD&D Issues RD&D Issues RD&D Issues B i o f u e l s Traditional focus

Biofuels

Traditional focus for PIER Renewables

Natural Gas

Replacement

Funding for renewables RD&D focuses on applied research through design, development and demonstration stages of technology development. In addition, PIER Renewables also funds research to help develop state energy policy and meet adopted energy goals. Figure 2 below describes the stages of technology development where PIER Renewables focuses its funding.

3

Figure 2: Stages of Technology Development and PIER Renewables Role

Stages of Technology Development

Commercialization Research Development Demonstration Market Market Entry Penetration •General assessment of
Commercialization
Research
Development
Demonstration
Market
Market
Entry
Penetration
•General assessment of
resources and market
needs
•Assess general magnitude
of economics
•Concept and bench testing
•Basic research and
sciences (e.g., materials
science)
•Research on component
technologies
•Development and initial of
product offering
•Pilot testing
•Integrate component
technologies
•Initial system prototype for
debugging
•Demonstrate basic
functionality
•Ongoing development to
reduce costs or for other
needed improvements
•“Technology” (systems)
demonstrations
•“Commercial”
demonstration
•Standards creation
•Testing and certification
•Initial orders
•Early movers
or niche
segments
•Product
reputation is
initially
established
•Business
concept
implemented
•Market support
usually needed
to address high
production cost
• Follow-up orders
based on need
and product
reputation
• Broad(er) market
penetration
• Infrastructure
developed
• Full-scale
manufacturing
PIER Renewables Technology Research
PIER Renewables co-funds research for renewable technologies
from applied research to the demonstration stage

PIER Renewables Policy and Adoption Support Research

PIER Renewables funds research to support policy development, adoption and integration for renewables energy technologies in all stages of development

From July 1, 2000 through June 30, 2005, PIER Renewables invested $53.6 million in renewables RD&D activities. PIER’s 2005 annual report describes the RD&D projects funded by PIER Renewables and is available on the California Energy Commission website. 1

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RD&D Roadmap Rationale

The challenge for PIER Renewables is determining how to invest limited RD&D dollars to help the state achieve aggressive renewable energy policy goals. Part of the challenge stems from the lack of clear directive for RD&D priorities between the renewable resources and technologies. For example, California’s RPS does not specify the mix of technologies to be used.

To support state policy goals, PIER Renewables will need to:

Make investment decisions based on broad policy direction.

Incorporate flexibility into its planning since renewable energy policy and technologies will evolve over time.

Identify partnership opportunities to leverage funding from other states, the federal government, universities, and private industry.

In December 2005, PIER Renewables began a project to develop a Renewable Energy RD&D Roadmap (Roadmap). The purpose for developing the Roadmap was to provide a planning mechanism and communication tool that clearly establishes a link between PIER Renewables RD&D priorities and key California state renewable energy policy goals.

The Roadmap identifies RD&D investments that will help the state meet ambitious renewable energy policy goals. In addition, PIER Renewables will use the Roadmap to prioritize the areas where investment by PIER will produce maximum benefit for the state. In addition, the Roadmap:

Provides a clear framework for focusing RD&D efforts toward meeting state policy goals.

Allows PIER Renewables to establish research priorities based on short-term and long-term goals.

Communicates to stakeholders what PIER Renewables is focused on and intends to achieve.

Contains different platforms to encompass a range of strategic RD&D areas.

Is designed to be used as an updateable planning and management tool.

Will evolve over time as policy, markets, and technologies evolve and priorities shift.

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The number of RD&D activities identified through the road mapping effort far exceeds what PIER Renewables can accomplish alone. The intent was to capture key RD&D priorities needed to achieve policy targets (such as the 2010 RPS, the California Solar Initiative, state bioenergy goals).To meet the milestones in the Roadmap, several organizations must implement RD&D projects, including PIER Renewables, the private sector, the federal government, other state governments, and universities. PIER Renewables will use the RD&D milestones detailed in the Roadmap to establish research and investment priorities. This report documents the PIER road mapping effort.

RD&D Roadmap Approach

The Roadmap comprises five key elements: policy goals, vision, platforms, strategic objective, and milestones. Figure 3 describes each element and explains its importance for the Roadmap.

Figure 3: Key Elements of Roadmap

Roadmap

Roadmap

Element

Element

Definition

Definition

Why it is important

Why it is important

Policy Goals

Policy Goals

The key renewable energy state policy

The key renewable energy state policy

goals

goals

Establishes the policy goals that RD&D

Establishes the policy goals that RD&D

investments should support

investments should support

Vision

Vision

Statement that briefly describes the end-

Statement that briefly describes the end-

point that the program is working toward

point that the program is working toward

Provides an overall target to achieve

Provides an overall target to achieve

 

Strategic areas of focus for investment

Strategic areas of focus for investment

 

Platforms

Platforms

and management attention that identify

and management attention that identify

where PIER Renewables hopes to make

where PIER Renewables hopes to make

an impact

an impact

Helps organize and structure the

Helps organize and structure the

research activities

research activities

Strategic

Strategic

Objectives

Objectives

The key goal PIER Renewables is

The key goal PIER Renewables is

working to accomplish for each Platform

working to accomplish for each Platform

Provides a point of focus for what is

Provides a point of focus for what is

strategically important by Platform

strategically important by Platform

Milestones

Milestones

A

A

series of specific goals with a target

series of specific goals with a target

date that will lead to the accomplishment

date that will lead to the accomplishment

of

of

the strategic objectives

the strategic objectives

Breaks down the strategic objectives into

Breaks down the strategic objectives into

a series of “bite-size” goals

a series of “bite-size” goals

6

The Roadmap was developed between December 2005 and April 2006. Starting with the state vision and policy goals for renewable energy, a number of research platforms and objectives were defined. Then specific milestones were defined to help achieve the objectives, as illustrated in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Overview of Process Used to Develop Roadmap

California Renewable Energy Vision and Policy Goals

2010-2020

Renewable Energy Vision and Policy Goals 2010-2020 Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives 2006-2020

Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives

2006-2020

Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives 2006-2020 Renewables Research Milestones 2006-2020 Broad Specific

Renewables Research Milestones

2006-2020

Broad

Specific

The Roadmap relied on input from external stakeholders and other groups within PIER and the Energy Commission. The process included internal workshops for the PIER Renewables staff, meetings with other groups within the Commission, interviews with stakeholders and a one-day workshop with stakeholders. Figure 5 summarizes the specific activities used to develop the Roadmap. The Appendix contains a list of the stakeholders interviewed for input to the Roadmap and a list of participants in the one-day stakeholder workshop.

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Figure 5: Details of Process Used to Develop Roadmap

California Renewable Energy Vision and Policy Goals

2010-2020

Renewable Energy Vision and Policy Goals 2010-2020 Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives 2006-2020

Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives

2006-2020

Renewables Research Platforms and Objectives 2006-2020 Renewables Research Milestones 2006-2020 Key activities

Renewables Research Milestones

2006-2020

Key activities

• Reviewed key renewables energy policy documents

• First internal PIER Renewables workshop

• Second internal PIER Renewables workshop

• Interviewed 20 key RD&D organizations and

• Ten key PIER stakeholder organizations for input on milestones*

• Third internal PIER Renewables workshop

• PIER Renewables area team leads held >15 small- team meetings to refine milestones

• All day workshop with >30 external and >20 internal Commission participants for additional input on milestones*

* Lists of interviewees and workshop participants are provided in the Appendix

Overview of Report

This report describes the Renewable Energy RD&D Roadmap process and the detailed roadmaps developed by PIER Renewables.

Chapter 2 outlines the main renewable energy policies in California that PIER Renewables supports.

Chapter 3 provides the vision, platforms, and strategic objectives derived from the policy goals described in Chapter 2 and provides the framework for the Roadmap.

Chapter 4 contains the detailed Roadmaps for 11 renewable energy resources and technology areas. These Roadmaps contain the RD&D milestones that PIER Renewables and stakeholders consider important to support the state in meeting key policy goals.

Chapter 5 describes how PIER Renewables will use the Roadmap as an ongoing planning tool to define short-term research funding priorities.

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CHAPTER 2: CALIFORNIA RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY

Overview

The primary role of PIER Renewables is to help the state meet aggressive renewable energy policy goals by investing in high priority RD&D projects. The guiding principle of the Roadmap is to clearly link the Energy Commission’s PIER RD&D in renewable energy to key state Renewable Energy goals. This chapter outlines the policy goals determined by PIER Renewables to be the most important for the state. This set of policy goals is fundamental to the Roadmap framework, and will guide PIER Renewables in its RD&D investments.

Figure 6 identifies the main policy documents reviewed in this effort.

Figure 6: Policy Documents Reviewed by PIER Renewables

Key California Renewable Energy Policy Documents

Key California Renewable Energy Policy Documents

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

Integrated Energy Policy Reports (IEPR) (2003, 2004 update, 2005)

Integrated Energy Policy Reports (IEPR) (2003, 2004 update, 2005)

Energy Action Plan (EAP) I and II (published 2003 and 2005 respectively)

Energy Action Plan (EAP) I and II (published 2003 and 2005 respectively)

Governor’s 2003 / 2004 IEPR response and Ten Point Plan

Governor’s 2003 / 2004 IEPR response and Ten Point Plan

California Solar Initiative (CPUC Proceeding R.06-03-004)

California Solar Initiative (CPUC Proceeding R.06-03-004)

State Bioenergy Goals (Governor’s Executive Order S-06-06) and Bioenergy Action Plan

State Bioenergy Goals (Governor’s Executive Order S-06-06) and Bioenergy Action Plan

Governor’s GHG Reduction Targets (Governor’s Executive Order S-3-05)

Governor’s GHG Reduction Targets (Governor’s Executive Order S-3-05)

U.S. 2005 Energy Policy Act

U.S. 2005 Energy Policy Act

Western Governor’s Association (Charter, 2005 Annual Report, 2003 Policy Roadmap)

Western Governor’s Association (Charter, 2005 Annual Report, 2003 Policy Roadmap)

Key state renewable energy policy goals identified include the:

20 percent Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) for 2010.

33 percent Renewables goal for 2020.

California Solar Initiative.

State Bioenergy Goals.

In addition, PIER Renewables identified Governor Schwarzenegger’s greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets as set in Assembly Bill 32 (shown in Figure 7) as a potentially important policy for renewables in the future. In Figure 7, the key state renewable energy policies that govern PIER Renewables investments are shown on a timeline. For reference, the figure also contains estimates of the results of each policy in terms of gigawatt-hours (GWh) produced annually by the year specified. 2

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Figure 7: Key Renewable Energy Policies Impacting California

Key Renewable Energy Policy Impacting California

Key Renewable Energy Policy Impacting California

2010 2010 2016 2016 2020 2020 Accelerated RPS Accelerated RPS Renewables Renewables Renewables Renewables (from
2010 2010
2016
2016
2020
2020
Accelerated RPS
Accelerated RPS
Renewables
Renewables
Renewables
Renewables
(from IEPR / EAP /
(from IEPR / EAP /
20% of generation
20% of generation
33% of generation
33% of generation
Governor’s Response)
Governor’s Response)
(~56,000 GWh/yr)
(~56,000 GWh/yr)
(~104,000 GWh/yr)
(~104,000 GWh/yr)
California Solar
California Solar
3,000 MW of new solar
3,000 MW of new solar
Initiative
Initiative
(~5,000 GWh/yr 1 ) )
(~5,000 GWh/yr
1
20% of RPS from biopower
20% of RPS from biopower
20% of RPS from biopower
20% of RPS from biopower
(~11,000
(~11,000
GWh/yr )
GWh/yr 1 )
1
(~20,000
(~20,000
GWh/yr )
GWh/yr 1 )
1
State Bioenergy Goal
State Bioenergy Goal
(Executive Order S-06-06)
(Executive Order S-06-06)
At least 20% of CA demand for
At least 20% of CA demand for
At least 40% of CA demand for
At least 40% of CA demand for
biofuels produced in-state
biofuels produced in-state
biofuels produced in-state
biofuels produced in-state

Governor’s GHG

Governor’s GHG

Reduction Targets

Reduction Targets

Specific GHG reduction targets allocated to RE will most likely be contained in the

Specific GHG reduction targets allocated to RE will most likely be contained in the

Climate Action Team Recommendations to the Governor, expected in 2006.

Climate Action Team Recommendations to the Governor, expected in 2006.

Team Recommendations to the Governor, expected in 2006. 1. 1. Note: The roadmap also considered detailed

1. 1.

Note: The roadmap also considered detailed policy guidance as stated in the IEPR.

Note: The roadmap also considered detailed policy guidance as stated in the IEPR.

Assumed average capacity factors are 20% for solar and 90% for biopower.

Assumed average capacity factors are 20% for solar and 90% for biopower.

Policy Update - Assembly Bill 32 (Global Warming Solutions Act Of 2006) and Executive Order S-3-05

On September 27, 2006, three months after this report was written, the Governor of California signed into law Assembly Bill 32 (Nunez), Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006. The bill calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020.

Before this official legislation, the Governor had set the following GHG reduction targets: by 2010, reduce GHG emissions to 2000 levels; by 2020, reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels; by 2050, reduce GHG emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels (Executive Order S-3-05).

Although no direction has been given on exactly how these targets shall be achieved, renewable generation is expected to play a critical role in reducing GHG emissions.

10

RPS and 33 percent Renewables Goals

The RPS (2010) and 33 percent Renewables Goals (2020) will have a tremendous impact on the amount of renewable generation in California. PIER Renewables helps industry and policy makers in the state achieve these goals by performing and supporting high priority RD&D to close the gap between the current renewable energy baseline in the state and the targeted amounts for 2010 and 2020. Figure 8 depicts the gap between baseline and RPS target needs.

Figure 8: Renewables to Meet 20 percent Accelerated RPS (2010) and 33 percent Renewables Goal (2020) (GWh)

Projected Renewables to Meet Accelerated RPS (2010) and 33% Renewables Goals (2020)

Projected Renewables to Meet Accelerated RPS (2010) and 33% Renewables Goals (2020)

Renewable Energy Generated

Renewable Energy Generated

Statewide ('000 GWh/yr)

Statewide ('000 GWh/yr)

100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

Total: 29,000 GWh/yr

Total: 29,000 GWh/yr

Target: 56,000 GWh/yr

Target: 56,000 GWh/yr

Target: 104,000 GWh/yr

Target: 104,000 GWh/yr

Gap Gap Small Hydro/Ocean Small Hydro/Ocean Solar PV Solar PV SolarCSP SolarCSP Gap Gap Biomass
Gap
Gap
Small Hydro/Ocean
Small Hydro/Ocean
Solar PV
Solar PV
SolarCSP
SolarCSP
Gap
Gap
Biomass
Biomass
Geo
Geo
Wind
Wind
Gap
Gap

2004 2004

2010

2010

2020

2020

Sources: 2004 data from California Energy Commission Electricity Report, includes all renewables in the state, including generation by non-IOUs; 2010 and 2020 data are PIER Renewables scenario projections.

California Solar Initiative

The California Solar Initiative (CSI) (CPUC Proceeding R.06-03-004) stimulates the development of 3,000 MW of new solar installations in the state by 2017. Solar installations that qualify for the CSI include both solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electric technologies, with a clear emphasis on distributed generation. With relatively low capacity factors for solar PV systems, CSI contributions toward RPS targets are not anticipated to be very large. However, developing a sustainable technology base of cost-effective distributed technology supports these objectives of promoting a sustainable solar industry, potentially lowering costs, fostering growth in this California-based sector, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

11

State Bioenergy Goals

The Governor’s Executive Order S-06-06 and the Bioenergy Action Plan outline state bioenergy goals. These documents cover both biopower, often referred to as biomass power, and biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel. This Executive Order sets a goal that 20 percent of the renewable energy used for generating electricity and meeting the state’s renewable energy goals in 2010 and 2020 should come from biopower.

Similarly, the Executive Order sets goals for increasing reliance on in-state production of biofuels. Currently, California imports more than 95 percent of the

biofuels used in-state 3 . The Executive Order states that California should produce at least 20 percent of the biofuels consumed in the state by 2010 and 40 percent by

2020.

The agencies of the Bioenergy Interagency Working Group are committed to seeing these goals are met. The Bioenergy Action Plan, developed by the Working Group, provides the specific actions and timelines that the agencies have agreed to take to implement the Executive Order. 4

Additional Policies that May Influence Roadmap

During the development of the Roadmap, PIER Renewables paid close attention to the strategic suggestions established by the Integrated Energy Policy Reports (IEPR) developed by the Energy Commission in 2003, 2004 (update only), and 2005. The IEPR documents provide guidance on implementation measures to meet RPS targets. In some instances the IEPR provides clear reference to RD&D. For example:

“The state needs to pursue additional research and development activities at the Energy Commission and the California Independent System Operator to address the impacts of integrating intermittent renewables, such as wind, into the state’s transmission system.”

In other instances, the IEPR provides a desired outcome that implies a research agenda. For example:

“Expand the use of biodiesel fuels.”

The IEPR documents were carefully reviewed to determine which renewables RD&D would support the desired outcomes as described in the IEPR.

In addition to the three main California renewable energy policy goals described above, additional policies in the future will influence the Roadmap. For example, the Governor’s GHG reduction targets may contain targets for renewables. As of June 2006, the Governor has not released these GHG reduction targets for renewables.

12

Since the Roadmap is a living document, PIER Renewables can integrate new renewables goals from the Governor’s GHG reduction targets as they emerge.

The Roadmap is designed as a living document to incorporate policy modifications as well as additions. Existing renewable energy policies in California will evolve with the market and technology and new policies will be developed. In addition, regional and federal policies may influence the Roadmap in the future. The flexibility of the Roadmap as a planning tool for PIER to incorporate policy changes will be discussed briefly in Chapter 5.

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CHAPTER 3: ROADMAP KEY ELEMENTS

Introduction

The key state renewables energy policy goals described in Chapter 2 form the foundation of this Roadmap. The framework of the Roadmap is composed of the vision, platforms, strategic objectives, and milestones. This chapter describes each of these elements and then pulls together all of the elements discussed so far into a graphical framework that will be used throughout the rest of the document.

Vision

The vision statement briefly describes the target that PIER Renewables hopes to help the state achieve. The vision developed by PIER Renewables for the Roadmap is:

Renewable energy resources will provide at least 33 percent of the electricity by 2020 for the California energy system, providing consumers and energy providers with affordable, reliable, secure, and diverse clean energy services.

The vision of PIER Renewables is closely tied to the 33 percent renewable energy goal (2020). PIER Renewables considers that this vision includes both the CSI, which calls for approximately 3,000 MW of solar by 2016, and the state bioenergy goals, which call for 20 percent of the 33 percent renewable energy goal to be provided with biopower.

The Roadmap addresses biofuels and natural gas issues only in areas where they overlap with renewable energy as it pertains to electricity generation.

Platforms

The platforms establish strategic areas of focus for investment and management attention and indicate areas where PIER Renewables hopes to make an impact. PIER Renewables developed four platforms to help organize and structure research activities. PIER Renewables will prioritize investments from the potential RD&D activities on the Roadmap, as described at a high level in Chapter 5.

Platform 1: Production Resources and Technology

This platform contains RD&D activities that deal with renewable resources and generating technologies. In addition, this platform includes RD&D activities that deal with the production of transportation fuels using renewable resources, such as biomass.

14

RD&D activities in this platform have traditionally formed the majority of investments made by PIER Renewables, concentrating on improving performance and reducing cost of renewable energy generating technologies and developing renewable energy resources. PIER Renewables now also includes RD&D activities aimed at developing biofuel production since biopower and biofuels overlap with regard to some biomass resources and technologies. As advancing science and technology is one of the PIER goals, this platform will continue to be important for PIER Renewables.

Platform 2: Grid Integration

This platform contains RD&D activities for effectively connecting renewable generation to the electrical transmission and distribution system.

PIER Renewables has funded some RD&D activities in this platform in the past. The RPS and other key state renewable energy policy goals will continue to require effective integration of renewable energy generating technologies into the existing electrical system, and significant RD&D investments will be required from this platform. The state will need to plan for effective integration of renewable energy generating technologies into the electrical system, including RD&D activities to develop technologies for storing, shaping, monitoring, and forecasting renewables.

Platform 3: End Use

This platform contains RD&D activities that encourage end-user adoption of distributed renewables by addressing technology and market issues.

Like Platform 2, PIER Renewables has funded RD&D activities in this platform in the past, and it will continue to be important given current state policy goals. For example, meeting CSI goals will require improved performance, ease of use, and economics of distributed generation (DG) PV systems. This platform includes other DG technologies located near the end user such as DG wind, small biogas systems, and even small geothermal applications. RD&D activities that develop end-use technologies and interconnection, such as improved metering, monitoring, storage and electricity conversion are critical for the growing PV market in California. PIER Renewables will also target projects such as building integrated PV (BIPV) technologies that incorporate these technologies more seamlessly into buildings.

Platform 4: Market Transformation

This platform contains RD&D activities that encourage renewable adoption by addressing issues that hinder market growth including inadequate policy, outdated regulation, and lack of incentive structure as well as market acceptance of technology.

15

Meeting California’s renewable energy goals will require the development of policies, regulations, and incentives that support sustained renewable energy market growth. In addition, market acceptance of renewables will depend on confronting misconceptions and resistance to system siting. RD&D activities in this platform support the development of informed and solid formation of policy, regulation, and incentives, especially when tailored to the needs of policy makers to understand the issues, market hurdles, and options.

Strategic Objectives

Within each platform, PIER Renewables identified strategic objectives that will help establish priorities in RD&D funding. Figure 9 provides the strategic objective for each platform.

Figure 9: Platforms and Strategic Objectives

Platform

Platform

Strategic Objective

Strategic Objective

Production Resources and Technology

Production Resources and Technology

Support commercialization of renewable

Support commercialization of renewable

energy options.

energy options.

Grid Integration

Grid Integration

Enable renewable energy grid

Enable renewable energy grid

integration.

integration.

End Use

End Use

Support end-user adoption of renewable

Support end-user adoption of renewable

energy.

energy.

 

Support appropriate market mechanisms

Support appropriate market mechanisms

Market Transformation

Market Transformation

and policies that enable sustainable

and policies that enable sustainable

renewable energy growth.

renewable energy growth.

16

Milestones

Milestones are a series of measurable goals, each with a target date that together will help accomplish the strategic objectives. The milestones break the strategic objectives down into a series of “bite-size” goals. They also mark an endpoint to achieving a goal. Milestones should not be considered as one research activity, but instead are often the result of multiple activities, projects, investments, and players.

Figure 10 provides examples of milestones and non-milestones.

Figure 10: Example of Milestones

This is a Milestone…

This is a Milestone…

This is not a Milestone…

This is not a Milestone…

Transmission plan to access key solar

Transmission plan to access key solar

CSP resources is in place

CSP resources is in place

Widespread use of transformerless

Widespread use of transformerless

design for PV inverters

design for PV inverters

Assemble working group to determine

Assemble working group to determine

CSP transmission needs in state

CSP transmission needs in state

Test operating conditions and safety of

Test operating conditions and safety of

transformerless PV inverters

transformerless PV inverters

RD&D milestones were developed for 11 resource/technology areas and for an additional category called “Shared Renewables Issues”, which captures RD&D concerns that are shared by more than one resource/technology area. The RD&D milestones were developed to identify the critical areas for RD&D required to help support the successful implementation of California’s key renewable energy policy goals. As part of the process, PIER Renewables looked at specific barriers to each resource/technology area as one way to determine what RD&D is required.

The milestones were created over a series of months using the inputs and processes described previously in this report, including:

Review of key policy documents (Figure 6).

Input from RD&D organizations and key stakeholder organizations (see list in Appendix).

Input from PIER Renewables area leads and staff.

Input from public workshop with key stakeholders (>30 external and >20 internal to the Commission).

Because milestones mark the accomplishment of specific goals, in many cases they will require various projects and multiple years of investment. The detailed roadmaps in the following chapter only show the milestone goals and do not go into detail on the projects and investments required to achieve the milestones.

17

This level of detail will be developed once PIER prioritizes areas of investment and develops a project portfolio.

Actual milestones for each renewable resource/technology area are presented by resources/technology area in Chapter 4.

Roadmap Pulled Together

Figure 11 on the following page is a graphical representation of the integration of the five elements of the Roadmap: policy goals, vision, platforms, strategic objectives, and milestones.

18

Figure 11: Renewable Energy RD&D Roadmap

2010 2010 2020 2020 20% RPS 20% RPS 2016 2016 33% RPS 33% RPS 20%
2010 2010
2020 2020
20% RPS
20% RPS
2016 2016
33% RPS
33% RPS
20% RPS from biopower,
20% RPS from biopower,
20% RPS from biopower,
20% RPS from biopower,
3,000 MW
3,000 MW
20% biofuels produced in CA
20% biofuels produced in CA
40% biofuels produced in CA
40% biofuels produced in CA
Solar
Solar
Policy Goals
Policy Goals
Production
Production
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
Milestone A
Milestone A
Milestone B
Milestone B
Milestone C
Milestone C
Strategic Objective:
Strategic Objective:
Support commercialization of
Support commercialization of
renewable energy options
renewable energy options
VISIONVISION
VISIONVISION
RenewableRenewable energyenergy
RenewableRenewable energyenergy
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
resourcesresources willwill provideprovide atat
resourcesresources willwill provideprovide atat
leastleast 33%33% ofof thethe
leastleast 33%33% ofof thethe
electricityelectricity byby 20202020 forfor thethe
electricityelectricity byby 20202020 forfor thethe
Strategic Objective:
Strategic Objective:
CaliforniaCalifornia energyenergy system,system,
CaliforniaCalifornia energyenergy system,system,
Enable renewable energy
Enable renewable energy
providingproviding consumersconsumers andand
providingproviding consumersconsumers andand
grid integration
grid integration
energyenergy providersproviders withwith
energyenergy providersproviders withwith
affordable,affordable, reliable,reliable,
affordable,affordable, reliable,reliable,
secure,secure, andand diversediverse cleanclean
secure,secure, andand diversediverse cleanclean
End Use
End Use
energyenergy servicesservices
energyenergy servicesservices
Strategic Objective:
Strategic Objective:
Support end-user adoption of
Support end-user adoption of
renewable energy
renewable energy
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Strategic Objective:
Strategic Objective:
Support appropriate market
Support appropriate market
mechanisms and policies
mechanisms and policies
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

that enable sustainable

that enable sustainable

renewable energy growth

renewable energy growth

19

CHAPTER 4: DETAILED ROADMAPS BY RESOURCE/TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

The detailed roadmaps identify key areas where investment in RD&D can help California meet its key renewable energy policy goals. PIER Renewables developed detailed roadmaps for the renewable energy resource/technology areas and natural gas. Figure 12 shows the list of the renewable areas for which detailed roadmaps were prepared.

Figure 12: List of Detailed Roadmaps

Detailed Roadmaps

• Shared Renewable Issues

• Utility Scale Wind

• Geothermal

• Biopower

• Biofuels

• Solar CSP

• Solar PV

• Small Hydro

• Ocean/Wave/Tidal

• DG Wind

• Natural Gas Replacement

PIER initially identified five renewable resource/technology areas for which it has made or contemplated making investments: wind, geothermal, bioenergy, solar, and water. In some cases it made sense to consider more refined categories to more accurately capture the very different needs, timelines, and potential contributions of the resources or technologies considered. For this reason wind was divided into utility-scale wind and DG wind, solar was divided into solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), bioenergy was divided into biopower and biofuels, and water was divided into small hydro and ocean/wave/tidal. In addition, PIER realized that some RD&D concerns overlap resources/technology boundaries and therefore developed a roadmap for shared renewables issues. Finally, as discussed in Section 1 and shown in Figure 1 of this report, PIER Renewables is incorporating issues that overlap with natural gas replacement (for example, solar thermal hot

20

water heating and biogas production), and for this reason a natural gas displacement roadmap was added.

The Detailed Roadmaps are shown in the following pages.

Note: On the following Detailed Roadmaps any milestone marked with “*” indicates that the milestone is in alignment with strategic direction provided in one of the Integrated Energy Policy Reports developed by the Energy Commission (2004, 2005 update or 2005). The milestones articulate RD&D needs resulting from the strategic direction provided in the IEPR and do not correlate verbally with what is in the IEPRs.

21

Shared Renewables Issues

Figure 13: Shared Renewables Detailed Roadmap

Renewable energy technologies that also produce Renewable energy technologies that also produce Renewable energy
Renewable energy technologies that also produce
Renewable energy technologies that also produce
Renewable energy baseline
Renewable energy baseline
fuel (i.e. hybrid solutions) are identified (’07)
fuel (i.e. hybrid solutions) are identified (’07)
Demonstrate alternative use of
Demonstrate alternative use of
LCOE updated using common
LCOE updated using common
energy from renewable resources
energy from renewable resources
assumptions across all
assumptions across all
Optimal renewable energy resource mix to
Optimal renewable energy resource mix to
(e.g. hydrogen, electricity
(e.g. hydrogen, electricity
technologies (e.g. discount
technologies (e.g. discount
meet RPS identified under different
meet RPS identified under different
replacement)*
replacement)*
(’19)
(’19)
Production
Production
rate) (’06)
rate) (’06)
statewide energy scenarios (’08)
statewide energy scenarios (’08)
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
Integration of renewable energy production with
Integration of renewable energy production with
Preliminary assessment of climate
Preliminary assessment of climate
out-of-state resources (e.g. transmission and
out-of-state resources (e.g. transmission and
change impacts on variable
change impacts on variable
Data sets easily available for all renewable energy
Data sets easily available for all renewable energy
contracting from Cal / Baja)* (’10)
contracting from Cal / Baja)* (’10)
generation (e.g. wind, solar)* (’08)
generation (e.g. wind, solar)* (’08)
resources (e.g. easy to use portal to access all
resources (e.g. easy to use portal to access all
renewables with consistent presentation /
renewables with consistent presentation /
comparison)
comparison)
Shaped or firmed renewable products
Shaped or firmed renewable products
made
made
Tools developed to examine
Tools developed to examine
(’07)
(’07)
available to provide the necessary flexibility
available to provide the necessary flexibility
renewables in aggregated
renewables in aggregated
Improved tools available for
Improved tools available for
for
for
renewable generators to structure their
renewable generators to structure their
fashion (i.e. regional) (’08)
fashion (i.e. regional) (’08)
understanding transmission options for
understanding transmission options for
contracts* (’12)
contracts* (’12)
renewables
renewables
(’08)
(’08)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
Climate change impacts on renewable
Climate change impacts on renewable
Adaptation of
Adaptation of
Impact of large amounts of
Impact of large amounts of
resources and subsequent impacts on
resources and subsequent impacts on
existing storage
existing storage
intermittent and distributed
intermittent and distributed
transmission system understood and made
transmission system understood and made
Statewide plans to access renewable
Statewide plans to access renewable
technologies for
technologies for
resources on T&D understood
resources on T&D understood
VISION
VISION
available for use by planners(’13)
available for use by planners(’13)
energy are developed (including
energy are developed (including
use with RE
use with RE
and made available to utilities
and made available to utilities
location, resource availability,
location, resource availability,
systems
systems
and Cal ISO
and Cal ISO
(e.g., adding 3 GW
(e.g., adding 3 GW
Approaches for statewide planning,
Approaches for statewide planning,
technology issues)* (’07)
technology issues)* (’07)
demonstrated
demonstrated
of wind and
of wind and
solar) * (’08)
solar) * (’08)
monitoring, and integration of renewables in
monitoring, and integration of renewables in
(’08)
(’08)
grid are
grid are
developed to support future policy
developed to support future policy
Opportunity identified for plug-in hybrid vehicles to
Opportunity identified for plug-in hybrid vehicles to
goals and made available to utilities and Cal
goals and made available to utilities and Cal
mitigate minimum load condition and use biofuels for peak
mitigate minimum load condition and use biofuels for peak
ISO * (’10)
ISO * (’10)
reduction (’07)
reduction (’07)
End Use
End Use
Pilot to integrate technology and address contractual issues for
Pilot to integrate technology and address contractual issues for
plug-in hybrid vehicles using renewable electricity and biofuels
plug-in hybrid vehicles using renewable electricity and biofuels
(’09)
(’09)
Limited use of REC-
Limited use of REC-
Portal developed to display multiple
Portal developed to display multiple
market for in-state
market for in-state
year historical renewables
year historical renewables
renewables* (‘07)
renewables* (‘07)
performance data (‘08)
performance data (‘08)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Encourage cross-border supply of
Encourage cross-border supply of
Ability of California to leverage
Ability of California to leverage
renewables (e.g. Cal/Baja) * (’10)
renewables (e.g. Cal/Baja) * (’10)
federal Energy Policy Act of
federal Energy Policy Act of
2005 2005
assessed (’06)
assessed (’06)
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

22

Utility Wind

Figure 14: Utility Wind Detailed Roadmap

Wind resource and Wind resource and generation generation 60% of CA aging wind fleet is
Wind resource and
Wind resource and
generation
generation
60% of CA aging wind fleet is repowered (e.g.
60% of CA aging wind fleet is repowered (e.g.
database
database
Altamont Pass)* (’10)
Altamont Pass)* (’10)
Key barriers for repowering and developing
Key barriers for repowering and developing
accessible to PIER
accessible to PIER
new wind sites identified and prioritized (’06)
new wind sites identified and prioritized (’06)
& &
industry (‘07)
industry (‘07)
Low wind speed technologies
Low wind speed technologies
mature and deployed (’12)
mature and deployed (’12)
Production
Production
Resources and
Resources and
Building integrated urban
Building integrated urban
Technology
Technology
wind technologies mature
wind technologies mature
Avian mortality reduced at
Avian mortality reduced at
Viability of off-shore wind
Viability of off-shore wind
Existing wind resource areas
Existing wind resource areas
and deployed (’20)
and deployed (’20)
key CA sites* (’12)
key CA sites* (’12)
opportunities in CA reassessed (’15)
opportunities in CA reassessed (’15)
are expanded in land area
are expanded in land area
and optimized for performance
and optimized for performance
Tools/techniques for mitigating
Tools/techniques for mitigating
Avian assessment tools
Avian assessment tools
(e.g. expanding the Tehachapi
(e.g. expanding the Tehachapi
avian mortality validated and used
avian mortality validated and used
and prescribed guidelines
and prescribed guidelines
wind resource area) (’08)
wind resource area) (’08)
by industry (’08)
by industry (’08)
developed (’07)
developed (’07)
Shaped or firmed renewable products available to
Shaped or firmed renewable products available to
provide the necessary flexibility for renewable
provide the necessary flexibility for renewable
Reliable forecasting tool developed and made
Reliable forecasting tool developed and made
generators to structure their contracts (’16)
generators to structure their contracts (’16)
available to Cal ISO and utilities for integration
available to Cal ISO and utilities for integration
Wind transmission access
Wind transmission access
Impact of variable
Impact of variable
into resource planning * (’08)
into resource planning * (’08)
plan integrated with other
plan integrated with other
resources
resources
renewables (’07)
renewables (’07)
understood (’07)
understood (’07)
Utilities recognize and manage various types of generation technologies with different
Utilities recognize and manage various types of generation technologies with different
capacity values (e.g. evaluate resource adequacy, on and off-peak generation) (’08)
capacity values (e.g. evaluate resource adequacy, on and off-peak generation) (’08)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
VISION
VISION
Utility scale
Utility scale
Cost effective storage technologies
Cost effective storage technologies
Intermittency management
Intermittency management
Tools to assess impact of
Tools to assess impact of
storage technology
storage technology
facilitate dispatchability of wind
facilitate dispatchability of wind
capabilities demonstrated
capabilities demonstrated
next increment of
next increment of
demonstrated and
demonstrated and
resource (’15)
resource (’15)
and T&D benefits quantified
and T&D benefits quantified
intermittent
intermittent
resources
resources
T&D benefits
T&D benefits
(’08)
(’08)
developed (’09)
developed (’09)
quantified* (’10)
quantified* (’10)
Shaped and firmed products (e.g. pumped
Shaped and firmed products (e.g. pumped
End Use
End Use
hydro and system power) identified and
hydro and system power) identified and
developed to help meet RPS (’08)
developed to help meet RPS (’08)
Electricity market structure
Electricity market structure
Periodic market assessment of
Periodic market assessment of
“accommodates” variability of
“accommodates” variability of
Assess favorable contract
Assess favorable contract
technology and grid integration needs
technology and grid integration needs
wind resources at high
wind resources at high
mechanisms available to encourage
mechanisms available to encourage
for meeting future policy goals (e.g.,
for meeting future policy goals (e.g.,
penetration (’15)
penetration (’15)
repowering and development of wind
repowering and development of wind
33% by 2020) (’10)
33% by 2020) (’10)
projects (’08)
projects (’08)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Significant progress on land-use and avian
Significant progress on land-use and avian
Periodic market assessment of
Periodic market assessment of
Public education / benefits of wind
Public education / benefits of wind
issues, among others, addressed to reduce
issues, among others, addressed to reduce
technology and grid integration
technology and grid integration
needs
needs
communicated
communicated
(e.g., stakeholder
(e.g., stakeholder
public opposition to siting new technology wind
public opposition to siting new technology wind
for meeting new policy goals (e.g.,
for meeting new policy goals (e.g.,
workshops, open-house tours,
workshops, open-house tours,
facilities
facilities
(e.g., low wind speed) (’14)
(e.g., low wind speed) (’14)
33% by 2020) (’15)
33% by 2020) (’15)
training sessions) (’07)
training sessions) (’07)
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

23

Geothermal

Figure 15: Geothermal Detailed Roadmap

Smart tools/techniques Smart tools/techniques Conversion efficiencies for Conversion efficiencies for Tool /
Smart tools/techniques
Smart tools/techniques
Conversion efficiencies for
Conversion efficiencies for
Tool / techniques available
Tool / techniques available
available to industry which
available to industry which
geothermal energy conversion
geothermal energy conversion
to industry which reduce
to industry which reduce
Baseline/metrics
Baseline/metrics
reduce discovery cost (’10)
reduce discovery cost (’10)
systems increased (’13)
systems increased (’13)
development costs (’17)
development costs (’17)
established to measure
established to measure
discovery cost (’06)
discovery cost (’06)
Updated resource
Updated resource
Low temperature energy conversion
Low temperature energy conversion
Engineered Geothermal
Engineered Geothermal
assessment 2 completed
assessment
2
completed
systems improved 1 (’15)
systems improved
1
(’15)
Production
Production
Systems economically feasible
Systems economically feasible
(’08)
(’08)
Resources and
Resources and
in CA (e.g. hot dry rocks) (’21)
in CA (e.g. hot dry rocks) (’21)
Technology
Technology
Smart tools / techniques available to
Smart tools / techniques available to
Enhanced existing
Enhanced existing
industry which
industry which
reduce well field
reduce well field
Engineered Geothermal
Engineered Geothermal
resources with fluid
resources with fluid
Oil and gas drilling technologies modified to be
Oil and gas drilling technologies modified to be
construction cost (’13)
construction cost (’13)
Systems as distributed
Systems as distributed
injection (’10)
injection (’10)
incorporated into geothermal industry to operate at
incorporated into geothermal industry to operate at
Tools Tools and and techniques techniques to to
generation accepted in the
generation accepted in the
higher temperatures typical of geothermal wells (’08)
higher temperatures typical of geothermal wells (’08)
reduce reduce O&M O&M costs costs
market place (e.g. 5 and 15
market place (e.g. 5 and 15
Technology /
Technology /
developed developed (’13) (’13)
MW systems near
MW systems near
techniques available
techniques available
Mammoth Lakes, CA) (’18)
Mammoth Lakes, CA) (’18)
to increase
to increase
lifetime/output
lifetime/output
(’10)
(’10)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
Information provided to
Information provided to
Information provided to stakeholders to
Information provided to stakeholders to
stakeholders to have initial
stakeholders to have initial
have updated transmission plan to
have updated transmission plan to
transmission plan in place to
transmission plan in place to
access key geothermal resources
access key geothermal resources
VISION
VISION
access geothermal resources
access geothermal resources
completed (including Imperial Valley)
completed (including Imperial Valley)
(including Imperial Valley) (’07)
(including Imperial Valley) (’07)
(’10)
(’10)
Approaches to
Approaches to
increase uptake of district
increase uptake of district
Demonstrate technical viability of
Demonstrate technical viability of
heating/direct use are identified and
heating/direct use are identified and
hybrid electricity generation with
hybrid electricity generation with
made available to key stakeholders (’08)
made available to key stakeholders (’08)
cascade use application(s) (’12)
cascade use application(s) (’12)
End Use
End Use
Assess cascaded use applications and technologies
Assess cascaded use applications and technologies
(i.e. sequential applications with geothermal fluid like
(i.e. sequential applications with geothermal fluid like
Information provided to key
Information provided to key
electricity generation, water and space heating,
electricity generation, water and space heating,
Notes:
Notes:
stakeholders
stakeholders
to address key
to address key
aquaculture, or agriculture) (’09)
aquaculture, or agriculture) (’09)
1. 1.
DOE funding critical (if reduced, some
DOE funding critical (if reduced, some
environmental and public
environmental and public
Credit for geothermal energy
Credit for geothermal energy
BLM and other (e.g. forest
BLM and other (e.g. forest
milestone
milestone
will move further out on timeline)
will move further out on timeline)
concerns (’08)
concerns (’08)
production that replaces electricity use
production that replaces electricity use
service) land lease and
service) land lease and
2. 2.
With USGS
With USGS
and direct use
and direct use
(e.g., efficiency) (’10)
(e.g., efficiency) (’10)
permits streamlined
permits streamlined 5 for
5
for
3. 3.
With PIER ESI & Transmission Group
With PIER ESI & Transmission Group
Market
Market
future
future
policy goals (’11)
policy goals (’11)
4. 4.
With BLM
With BLM
Transformation
Transformation
5. 5.
With CEC
With CEC
Quantified and evaluated
Quantified and evaluated
potential of geothermal heat for
potential of geothermal heat for
Direct use applications in the state doubled (’12)
Direct use applications in the state doubled (’12)
thermal / direct use applications
thermal / direct use applications
to displace fossil energy (’08)
to displace fossil energy (’08)
2006
2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

24

Biopower

Figure 16: Biopower Detailed Roadmap (1 of 2)

Assess viability of very large biomass plants (> 100 MW or > 2,000 tons/day) (’07)
Assess viability of very large biomass plants
(> 100 MW or > 2,000 tons/day) (’07)
Small mobile biopower (SMB) system for
dispersed forestry and other resources
demonstrated (’09)
Biomass resource economic
potential and access assessed
(including, forest, MSW,
residues, energy crops) (‘07)
Improved processing equipment and enhanced
separation of MSW demonstrated and economically
viable (’07)
Advanced biomass energy conversion
technologies with improved performance
and reduced cost are standard for new
plants (’15)
Production
Resources and
Technology
Co-production of value-added
products demonstrated in integrated
biorefinery (’09)
Widespread use of SMB in
economically feasible applications (’15)
Low emission conversion and gas
clean-up of LFG, biogas and
biomethane demonstrated (‘08)
Use of biodiesel fuels
expanded (non-
cellulosic) (e.g. to 10%
usage of B10)* (’10)
Economic viability of
integrated biorefinery using
lignocellulosic feedstock
demonstrated (‘12)
CA biomass plants
repowered or upgraded
with super clean and/or
advanced energy
conversion technologies
(>30% efficiency) (’15)
VISION
Cost
of harvesting, collecting,
processing, transporting and storing of
biomass resources reduced (‘08)
Major bio-refinery elements
demonstrated (’08)
Use of biodiesel fuels expanded to
20% (i.e. B20)* (’15)
Advanced biomass energy conversion technologies
demonstrated with improved performance and reduced
cost (including biorefineries, CCHP, DG) (’08)
Grid Integration
2006
2010
2015
2020

25

Figure 17: Biopower Detailed Roadmap (2 of 2)

Biodiesel fuel stability achieved w/ new fuel specification (’07) Effects of biodiesel on engine materials
Biodiesel
fuel stability
achieved w/ new fuel
specification (’07)
Effects of biodiesel on engine
materials tested
(’07)
End Use
Model developed to quantify the
impact of feedstock competition
(‘08)
Public awareness improved for
key biomass applications * (‘08)
Tool developed to assess LCA of different
biomass resources & energy conversion
pathways (provide initial results to
stakeholders) (‘09)
Strategies developed and tested
to streamline permitting and
interconnection (esp. for small
LFG and biogas) (‘07)
Sustainable fuel supply
cultivated through partnership
development (‘09)
Widespread market acceptance of
integrated biorefineries has
occurred (‘15)
Market
VISION
Transformation
Strategies developed and
tested to encourage key
changes for accelerating
deployment of RPS-eligible
MSW conversion
Standards developed for
measuring performance of
biogas energy conversion
Biomass plants are compensated
for LCA reductions relative to fossil
fuels (e.g. net GHG emissions) *
(’07)
Cost of growing dedicated crop
production assessed (‘08)
(‘11)
technologies
(’06)
Strategies developed for creating CA Biomass
Enterprise Zones for accelerating deployment of
biopower
from regionally located agriculture and
Strategies to encourage key changes for
accelerating deployment of super
clean/advanced conversion technologies
revisited and revised if necessary (’10)
forestry (’07)
2006
2010
2015
2020

26

Biofuels

Figure 18: Biofuels Detailed Roadmap

Cost of harvesting, collecting, processing,

Cost of harvesting, collecting, processing,

transporting, and storing of biomass transporting, and storing of biomass Use of biodiesel fuels expanded
transporting, and storing of biomass
transporting, and storing of biomass
Use of biodiesel fuels expanded
Use of biodiesel fuels expanded
Use of biodiesel fuels expanded
Use of biodiesel fuels expanded
resources reduced (‘08)
resources reduced (‘08)
(e.g. to 10% usage of B10) * (’10)
(e.g. to 10% usage of B10) * (’10)
(e.g. to 20% usage of B10) * (’15)
(e.g. to 20% usage of B10) * (’15)
Production
Production
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
Economic viability of integrated
Economic viability of integrated
Biomass to liquid
Biomass to liquid
biorefinery using lignocellulosic
biorefinery using lignocellulosic
demonstrated (e.g. Fischer-
demonstrated (e.g. Fischer-
Advance biomass
Advance biomass
energy conversion
energy conversion
feedstock demonstrated (‘12) **
feedstock demonstrated (‘12) **
Tropsch process) to help
Tropsch process) to help
technologies demonstrated with improved
technologies demonstrated with improved
increase production of
increase production of
performance and reduced cost (including
performance and reduced cost (including
ethanol and other gasoline
ethanol and other gasoline
biorefineries) (’08)
biorefineries) (’08)
substitutes (’10)
substitutes (’10)
Economically viable LNG, CNG
Economically viable LNG, CNG
and gas clean-up for
and gas clean-up for
transportation (‘13) **
transportation (‘13) **
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
VISIONVISION
VISIONVISION
Biodiesel fuel stability
Biodiesel fuel stability
Opportunity identified for plug-in
Opportunity identified for plug-in
achieved with new fuel
achieved with new fuel
hybrid vehicles to mitigate
hybrid vehicles to mitigate
specification (’07)
specification (’07)
minimum load condition and use
minimum load condition and use
biofuels for peak reduction (’07)
biofuels for peak reduction (’07)
End Use
End Use
Effects of biodiesel on engine
Effects of biodiesel on engine
materials tested (’07)
materials tested (’07)
Public awareness improved for
Public awareness improved for
Widespread market acceptance of
Widespread market acceptance of
Cost of growing dedicated crop
Cost of growing dedicated crop
key biomass applications * (‘08)
key biomass applications * (‘08)
integrated biorefineries has
integrated biorefineries has
production assessed (‘08)
production assessed (‘08)
**
**
occurred (‘15)
occurred (‘15)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Sustainable fuel supply
Sustainable fuel supply
cultivated through
cultivated through
Tool developed to assess LCA of different
Tool developed to assess LCA of different
partnership development (to provide stable
partnership development (to provide stable
biomass resources & energy conversion
biomass resources & energy conversion
supply of biofuels) (‘09)
supply of biofuels) (‘09)
pathways (provide initial results to
pathways (provide initial results to
stakeholders) (‘07)
stakeholders) (‘07)
2006
2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

27

Solar CSP

Figure 19: Solar CSP Detailed Roadmap

Commercial system reliability of Commercial system reliability of CSP economics demonstrated to be competitive with
Commercial system reliability of
Commercial system reliability of
CSP economics demonstrated to be competitive with
CSP economics demonstrated to be competitive with
Concentrating dish engine
Concentrating dish engine
concentrating dish engines confirmed
concentrating dish engines confirmed
wholesale power (e.g. demonstrate energy storage and
wholesale power (e.g. demonstrate energy storage and
alternatives are
alternatives are
(e.g. engine reliability, reflective
(e.g. engine reliability, reflective
system hybrids, improve heat transfer fluids, balance of
system hybrids, improve heat transfer fluids, balance of
demonstrated (‘10)
demonstrated (‘10)
surface improvements) (‘08)
surface improvements) (‘08)
plant cost reductions, optics) (‘12)
plant cost reductions, optics) (‘12)
Production
Production
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
Low emission turbine options for
Low emission turbine options for
Economic potential for CSP
Economic potential for CSP
parabolic trough hybrids identified
parabolic trough hybrids identified
in CA updated (‘07)
in CA updated (‘07)
and tested (‘09)
and tested (‘09)
Higher resolution CA
Higher resolution CA
resource maps and
resource maps and
data for Solar CSP
data for Solar CSP
developed (‘09)
developed (‘09)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
Best approach to transmission issues
Best approach to transmission issues
VISION
VISION
determined for Mojave area (e.g. like
determined for Mojave area (e.g. like
Transmission plan to
Transmission plan to
Tehachapi study group) (‘08)
Tehachapi study group) (‘08)
access key
access key
solar CSP
solar CSP
resources is in place
resources is in place
(e.g. Mojave area)
(e.g. Mojave area)
(‘08)
(‘08)
End Use
End Use
Key CSP issues for
Key CSP issues for
legislators, utilities,
legislators, utilities,
Energy Commission and
Energy Commission and
CPUC determined and
CPUC determined and
prioritized (‘07)
prioritized (‘07)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Barriers of on-site and distributed
Barriers of on-site and distributed
CSP
CSP
units evaluated (‘07)
units evaluated (‘07)
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

28

Solar PV

Figure 20: Solar PV Detailed Roadmap (1 of 2)

High-efficiency PV cells

High-efficiency PV cells

Breakthrough

Breakthrough

for space applications

for space applications

technology at lab scale

technology at lab scale

Economic viability of

Economic viability of

are tested and

are tested and

of Economic viability of are tested and are tested and drives efficiency drives efficiency Breakthrough technology

drives efficiency

drives efficiency

Breakthrough technology

Breakthrough technology

efficiency Breakthrough technology Breakthrough technology concentrating PV (DG) concentrating PV (DG) optimized for
efficiency Breakthrough technology Breakthrough technology concentrating PV (DG) concentrating PV (DG) optimized for

concentrating PV (DG)

concentrating PV (DG)

optimized for land-

optimized for land-

approaching 30% (’15)

approaching 30% (’15)

at lab scale drives

at lab scale drives

demonstrated (’09)

demonstrated (’09)

Production

Production

Resources and

Resources and

Technology

Technology

based conditions (’09)

based conditions (’09)

Technology based conditions (’09) based conditions (’09) efficiency efficiency approaching approaching 50% (‘20)

efficiency

efficiency

approaching

approaching

(’09) efficiency efficiency approaching approaching 50% (‘20) 50% (‘20) based based 25.5% (’15) 25.5%

50% (‘20)

50% (‘20)

based

based

25.5% (’15)

25.5% (’15)

Nano and/or

Nano and/or

organic PV

organic PV

economically

economically

feasible for grid-

feasible for grid-

connected

connected

applications (’15)

applications (’15)

connected applications (’15) applications (’15) VISION VISION Alternatives to silicon- Alternatives to
VISION VISION
VISION
VISION

Alternatives to silicon-

Alternatives to silicon-

Highest silicon cell

Highest silicon cell

Highest silicon cell

Highest silicon cell

Highest silicon cell

Highest silicon cell

PV prioritized for

PV prioritized for

efficiency in market

efficiency in market

efficiency in market

efficiency in market

22% (’10)

22% (’10)

efficiency in market

efficiency in market

PIER (e.g. CIS, CdTe,

PIER (e.g. CIS, CdTe,

28%

28%

(’20)

(’20)

nano, organic, etc.) (’07)

nano, organic, etc.) (’07)

Higher resolution CA

Higher resolution CA

resource maps and

resource maps and

data for

data for

solar PV developed

solar PV developed

(‘09)

(‘09)

Impact and T&D benefits of

Impact and T&D benefits of

3,000MW DG capacity on the

3,000MW DG capacity on the

Grid Integration

Grid Integration

grid understood (’08)

grid understood (’08)

Integration grid understood (’08) grid understood (’08) Technical and policy analysis Technical and policy analysis
Integration grid understood (’08) grid understood (’08) Technical and policy analysis Technical and policy analysis

Technical and policy analysis

Technical and policy analysis

complete to support successful

complete to support successful

expansion of Rule 21 to cover

expansion of Rule 21 to cover

network interconnect (’09)

network interconnect (’09)

Note: PIER ESI performs research to address grid integration issues of DG, including PV

Note: PIER ESI performs research to address grid integration issues of DG, including PV

2006

2006

2010

2010

2015

2015

2020

2020

29

Figure 21: Solar PV Detailed Roadmap (2 of 2)

Solar PV risk to home and electrical

Solar PV risk to home and electrical

system quantified and results made

system quantified and results made

available to financial / insurance available to financial / insurance PV systems with storage or
available to financial / insurance
available to financial / insurance
PV systems with storage or
PV systems with storage or
industries (’08)
industries (’08)
High priority barriers to
High priority barriers to
other technologies
other technologies
demonstrate better
demonstrate better
Demonstrate economic
Demonstrate economic
accelerate consumer adoption
accelerate consumer adoption
coincidence with utility
coincidence with utility
viability of new
viability of new
are assessed for PV (’07)
are assessed for PV (’07)
Demonstrate improved economics with
Demonstrate improved economics with
system peak load (’08)
system peak load (’08)
technologies for PV
technologies for PV
advanced metering, price responsive tariffs
advanced metering, price responsive tariffs
system storage (’10)
system storage (’10)
(e.g. TOU, TR) and storage* (’12)
(e.g. TOU, TR) and storage* (’12)
End Use
End Use
BIPV products
BIPV products
are commonly
are commonly
PV inverter cost reduced 30% with
PV inverter cost reduced 30% with
Use of transformerless
Use of transformerless
used in new buildings (residential,
used in new buildings (residential,
Primary / technical risks
Primary / technical risks
improvements and enhancements
improvements and enhancements
inverter design is
inverter design is
commercial, industrial)(’17)
commercial, industrial)(’17)
and disputed PV benefits
and disputed PV benefits
to performance ('12)
to performance ('12)
widespread* (’08)
widespread* (’08)
identified (’07)
identified (’07)
Field tests done to quantify
Field tests done to quantify
Lower-cost PV residential control,
Lower-cost PV residential control,
operational risks and benefits
operational risks and benefits
Drivers that encourage consumers
Drivers that encourage consumers
metering, monitoring system
metering, monitoring system
Building integral
Building integral
(working heavily with utilities) (’10)
(working heavily with utilities) (’10)
to buy PV are identified (i.e. as an
to buy PV are identified (i.e. as an
(utility grade) (’13)
(utility grade) (’13)
PV products
PV products
alternative to un-tested rules of
alternative to un-tested rules of
competitive with
competitive with
thumb used widely in industry) (’08)
thumb used widely in industry) (’08)
other PV
other PV
VISION
VISION
products (’08)
products (’08)
Low-cost, utility grade monitoring system for
Low-cost, utility grade monitoring system for
residential PV available (production data is
residential PV available (production data is
key / consumption data is optional) (’08)
key / consumption data is optional) (’08)
Options
Options
for including PV and solar hot water
for including PV and solar hot water
Match or beat DOE cost targets
Match or beat DOE cost targets
as part
as part
of CA residential building efficiency
of CA residential building efficiency
without incentives (Residential 8-
without incentives (Residential 8-
Standards for performance and
Standards for performance and
standards are developed and vetted with
standards are developed and vetted with
10 ¢/kWh, Commercial: 6-8
10 ¢/kWh, Commercial: 6-8
safety testing of concentrating PV
safety testing of concentrating PV
industry
industry
and policy makers* (‘12)
and policy makers* (‘12)
¢/kWh, Utility: 5-7 ¢/kWh) (‘15)
¢/kWh, Utility: 5-7 ¢/kWh) (‘15)
(DG) developed (’08)
(DG) developed (’08)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Updated training
Updated training
for CA installers and building
for CA installers and building
New/modified business models
New/modified business models
create
create
code officials developed and vetted with
code officials developed and vetted with
sustained market growth (’08)
sustained market growth (’08)
industry and policy makers (’07)
industry and policy makers (’07)
2006
2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

30

DG Wind

Figure 22: DG Wind Detailed Roadmap

Standard design and performance testing for DG wind systems (that match target area design requirements)
Standard design and performance testing for DG
wind systems (that match target area design
requirements) (’12)
Production
Resources and
Technology
Customer usage behavior understood (’09)
[Overlap with ESI work]
Grid Integration
Benefit of DG wind on distribution grid
determined (’12)
[Overlap with ESI]
VISION
ID target areas of DG wind (’08)
See DR/DG
End Use
milestones
Economic assessment of
wind resources for DG (’10)
Updated economic assessment of wind
resources for DG (’17)
Friendly zoning regulations
for small-wind widely adopted
in target areas (’10)
Market
Transformation
UL equipment equivalent for small turbine
certification (’12)
2006
2010
2015
2020

31

Ocean/Wave/Tidal

Figure 23: Ocean/Wave/Tidal Detailed Roadmap

Tidal resource assessment completed (‘06) Production Resources and PIER Technology Ocean/wave/tidal plan for PIER
Tidal resource assessment
completed (‘06)
Production
Resources and
PIER
Technology
Ocean/wave/tidal plan for PIER (includes
speaking to stakeholders, assessing technology,
identification of key RD&D needs, prioritization of
barriers) (‘07)
If no, don’t move forward with
investments 2006-12
Wave/ocean/tidal technology
options reassessed (’12)
If yes, move
forward
Economically feasible wave/ocean/tidal
systems for CA demonstrated (‘18)
Grid Integration
VISION
End Use
Market
Transformation
2006
2010
2015
2020

32

Small Hydro

Figure 24: Small Hydro Detailed Roadmap

Low-head in-conduit turbine

Low-head in-conduit turbine

Life cycle cost of in-conduit

Life cycle cost of in-conduit

demonstrated (‘09) demonstrated (‘09) systems reduced (‘12) systems reduced (‘12) Production Production
demonstrated (‘09)
demonstrated (‘09)
systems reduced (‘12)
systems reduced (‘12)
Production
Production
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
R&D opportunities for small
R&D opportunities for small
Low environmental impact, economically
Low environmental impact, economically
hydro are prioritized (non-dam
hydro are prioritized (non-dam
feasible turbines for existing
feasible turbines for existing
dams and run-of-
dams and run-of-
sources) (‘09)
sources) (‘09)
river applications demonstrated (‘12)*
river applications demonstrated (‘12)*
* *
This milestone is dependent on the outcome of the
This milestone is dependent on the outcome of the
work on defining “diversion” in the RPS (see Market
work on defining “diversion” in the RPS (see Market
Transformation)
Transformation)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
VISIONVISION
VISIONVISION
End Use
End Use
“Diversion” within the
“Diversion” within the
Ability for small hydro to contribute
Ability for small hydro to contribute
RPS is clearly defined
RPS is clearly defined
to RPS is clearly defined (e.g.
to RPS is clearly defined (e.g.
(‘07)
(‘07)
diversion) (‘07)
diversion) (‘07)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Role of small hydro is expanded in
Role of small hydro is expanded in
Opportunities for PIER to support
Opportunities for PIER to support
RPS (’10)
RPS (’10)
small hydro relicensing identified
small hydro relicensing identified
(‘07)
(‘07)
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

33

Natural Gas

Figure 25: Natural Gas Detailed Roadmap

Improved thermal gasification Improved thermal gasification Application of advanced Application of advanced conversion
Improved thermal gasification
Improved thermal gasification
Application of advanced
Application of advanced
conversion methods demonstrated
conversion methods demonstrated
Use residues at ethanol plants
Use residues at ethanol plants
solar, biomass, and storage
solar, biomass, and storage
(including improved environmental
(including improved environmental
to offset on-site natural gas
to offset on-site natural gas
Natural gas/renewable hybrid system
Natural gas/renewable hybrid system
conversion technologies to
conversion technologies to
performance, cost reduction,
performance, cost reduction,
demand (‘09)
demand (‘09)
demonstrations (e.g. solar/natural gas or
demonstrations (e.g. solar/natural gas or
Production
Production
replace natural gas (’15)
replace natural gas (’15)
efficiency) (‘08)
efficiency) (‘08)
wind/natural gas) (’12)
wind/natural gas) (’12)
Resources and
Resources and
Technology
Technology
Co-firing of gasified biomass at
Co-firing of gasified biomass at
Demonstrate optimal energy storage
Demonstrate optimal energy storage
natural gas plants or
natural gas plants or
systems for solar/wind to defer natural
systems for solar/wind to defer natural
Feasibility of available renewables
Feasibility of available renewables
commercial/industrial sites (‘10)
commercial/industrial sites (‘10)
gas use at peak times (‘14)
gas use at peak times (‘14)
to economically replace or reduce
to economically replace or reduce
natural gas assessed (e.g.
natural gas assessed (e.g.
Economically viable biogas developed to meet
Economically viable biogas developed to meet
biomass, biogas, solar thermal,
biomass, biogas, solar thermal,
CARB standards for key biogas sources (e.g.
CARB standards for key biogas sources (e.g.
storage with renewables to offset
storage with renewables to offset
cleaning processes in place, gas quality /
cleaning processes in place, gas quality /
peaks) (‘07)
peaks) (‘07)
heating values addressed)
heating values addressed)
(‘09)
(‘09)
Grid Integration
Grid Integration
VISIONVISION
VISIONVISION
Market potential for biogas to
Market potential for biogas to
replace natural gas assessed
replace natural gas assessed
(e.g. location of production,
(e.g. location of production,
Demonstrate replacement of
Demonstrate replacement of
demand and existing
demand and existing
LNG by bio-methane, such
LNG by bio-methane, such
as
as
infrastructure, meeting
infrastructure, meeting
Demonstrate solar thermal
Demonstrate solar thermal
dairy waste, landfill gas (‘11)
dairy waste, landfill gas (‘11)
emissions standards) (‘07)
emissions standards) (‘07)
drying processes (‘08)
drying processes (‘08)
End Use
End Use
Demonstrate solar thermal
Demonstrate solar thermal
Lifecycle economic viability of solar PV/thermal
Lifecycle economic viability of solar PV/thermal
steam heat or hot water for
steam heat or hot water for
combinations (e.g. CHP, hybrid systems)
combinations (e.g. CHP, hybrid systems)
commercial/industrial
commercial/industrial
demonstrated for residential/commercial (‘10)
demonstrated for residential/commercial (‘10)
applications (‘09)
applications (‘09)
Key market penetration issues for residential
Key market penetration issues for residential
applications of
applications of
solar thermal (e.g. aesthetics,
solar thermal (e.g. aesthetics,
reputation) identified and prioritized (‘06)
reputation) identified and prioritized (‘06)
Market
Market
Transformation
Transformation
Policy
Policy
recommendations made for
recommendations made for
accelerating solar thermal with
accelerating solar thermal with
incentives (‘07)
incentives (‘07)
2006 2006
2010
2010
2015
2015
2020
2020

34

CHAPTER 5: RENEWABLES ROADMAP AS ONGOING PLANNING TOOL

While the Renewables Roadmap provides a comprehensive view of RD&D milestones needed for the state to meet its ambitious renewable energy policy goals, PIER Renewables has limited funds and, as a result, must develop research plans by technology/resource area to prioritize the RD&D milestones identified in the Roadmap. In general, PIER Renewable will concentrate on areas that can have the highest impact on meeting state policy goals and where there are research gaps due to lack of funding by other RD&D organizations. A steering committee, formed by key renewable energy decision makers across the Energy Commission, will guide the development of the research plans. Moreover, the research plans will rely on input from key stakeholders to prioritize RD&D needs, including government, utilities, industry companies, advocacy groups, and research organizations.

As illustrated by Figure 26, the Solar PV Research Plan will be the first of a series of research plans to be developed for each renewable energy resource/technology area identified in the Renewables Roadmap. Each research plan will define priority RD&D investments over the short term (2006-2010) for PIER that will help the state meet its aggressive policy goals. The Solar PV Research Plan will also serve as a model approach that PIER Renewables can use to prioritize research needs for the remaining resource/technology areas identified in the Renewables Roadmap.

Figure 26: Process to Develop Research Plans by Technology/Resource Area

CA Renewable Energy Policy Goals
CA Renewable
Energy Policy
Goals

Renewables RD&D Roadmap

(2006-2020)

Etc.

PIER Wind Research Plan

(2006-2010)

CA Renewable Energy Policy Goals Renewables RD&D Roadmap (2006-2020) Etc. PIER Wind Research Plan (2006-2010) 35

35

To complement PIER investments, PIER Renewables will coordinate with RD&D efforts at a variety of institutions, both public and private, including the Federal government, other state governments, universities, companies, and even other groups within PIER and the Energy Commission.

As a living document, the Roadmap is expected to evolve over time to reflect changes in RD&D needs due to technology developments and shifts in state policy priorities. As it currently stands, the Roadmap is a solid starting point for PIER Renewables to prioritize RD&D needs and develop focused short- to medium-term research plans and project portfolios that will most effectively use its limited funding to help support successful implementation of key California state policy goals.

36

APPENDIX

List of Interviews

Technical

Organization

Name

Focus

Wind

Electric Power Research Institute

McGowin, Chuck

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Thresher, Bob

Geothermal

Geothermal Energy Association

Gawell, Karl

Oregon Institute of Technology

Lund, John

Ormat

Schochet, Dan

Biomass

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Pacheco, Michael

U.S. Department of Energy

Grabowski, Paul

Solar CSP

APS Solar Partners

Hayden, Herb

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Mancini, Tom

Mehos, Mark

Solar PV

Miasole

Pearce, David

Wenzel, Martin

SunPower

Mulligan, Bill

U.S. Department of Energy

King, Richard

Ocean / Tidal

Electric Power Research Institute

Bedard, Roger

Natural Gas

Gas Turbine Institute

Bush, Vann

Replacement

 

California Clean Energy Fund

Adler, Dan

Bicker, Lisa

California ISO

Hawkins, Dave

California Public Utilities Commission

Ryan, Nancy (advisor to Commissioner Peevey)

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.

La Flash, Hal Treleven, Kathleen

Cross-Technology

Southern California Edison

Chacon, Jorge

San Diego Gas & Electric/Sempra

Reed, Jeffery

Sharma, Arun

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

DeAngelis, Mike

37

List of Participants in April 6 th Stakeholder Workshop

Name

Company

Title

Adler, Dan

CA Clean Energy Fund

Director, Technology and Policy Development

Alvarez, Manuel

Southern California Edison

Manager for Regulatory Affairs

Batham, Mike

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

Senior Project Manager

Berton, Fernando

CIWMB

 

Bruton, Carol

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Geothermal Program Leader

Cornelius, Craig

U.S. Department of Energy

Technology Manager

DeAngelis, Mike

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

Manager, AR&DGT

Eckard, Bob

Energy Commission

 

Glass, Bob

Energy Commission

 

Goncalves, Tony

Energy Commission

Supervisor

Gottlieb, Adam

Energy Commission

 

Hawkins, Dave

Cal ISO

Manager, Special Projects

Hill, Roger

Sandia National Laboratories

Technical Director GPW

Hughes, Evan

Consultant

Biomass and Geothermal Consultant

Jenkins, Bryan

UC Davis

Professor & Director of the Biomass Collaborative

Kennedy, Mack

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

 

Kimbis, Tom

U.S. Department of Energy

Technology Acceptance Manager

LaFlash, Hal

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.

Director, Integrated Resource Planning

MacDougall, Ruth

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

Project Manager

Mancini, Thomas Dr.

Sandia National Laboratory

Director CSP Program Manager

Margolis, Robert

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Senior Analyst

Mazanec, Frank

Waste Management

Managing Director

Morris, Gregory

Future Resources Associates

Principal

Peterson, Terry

Electric Power Research Institute

Solar Power Consultant

38

Peurach, Jack

PowerLight

VP Production

Development

Pigott, Jack

Calpine Corp.

Director, Renewable Affairs

Ross, JP

Vote Solar

Director of Programs

Rotman, Doug

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Program Leader

Sharma, Arun

Sempra

Technical Strategy Manager

Shears, John

CEERT

Visiting Research Fellow

Summers, Matt

California Dept. of Food and Agriculture

 

Swanson, Richard Dr.

SunPower

President and CTO

van Dam, Case

UC Davis

Professor & Director of the Wind Collaborative (CWEC)

White, Chuck

Waste Management

Government Affairs

Wickizer, Doug

California Dept. of Forestry & Fire Protection

Chief, Environmental Protection and Regulations

Williams, Rob

UC Davis

Research Engineer

Allen, Jennifer

Energy Commission PIER

 

Beyer, John

Energy Commission PIER

 

Glassley, Bill

Energy Commission PIER

Technical Manager - Geothermal

Gutierrez, Pablo

Energy Commission PIER

 

Kane, Mike

Energy Commission PIER

 

Kibrya, Golam

Energy Commission PIER

Solar Team Lead

Koyama, Ken

Energy Commission PIER

Supervisor PIER Renewables

Mohammed, Hassan

Energy Commission PIER

Mechanical Engineer

Sethi, Prab

Energy Commission PIER

Project Manager

Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine

Energy Commission PIER

Mgr. Generation Research

Spaulding, Pete

Energy Commission PIER

Environmental Specialist II

Wiggett, Gail

Energy Commission PIER

Associate Geologist

Tiangco, Valentino

Energy Commission PIER

Biomass Team Lead

Yen Nakafuji, Dora

Energy Commission PIER

Wind Team Lead

Zhang, Jessica

Energy Commission PIER

 

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Endnotes:

1 2005 Annual Project Updates for the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER): http://www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-500-2006-037/CEC-500-

2 The use of gigawatt-hour estimate of policy impact provides a common quantifier to allow easy comparison between policies.

3 Navigant Consulting, Inc., March 2006, Recommendations for a Bioenergy Action Plan for California, Prepared for the Bioenergy Interagency Working Group, Sacramento, CA, Publication number CEC-700-2006-003-D, pg 10.

4 Bioenergy Action Plan for California:

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