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htm ; ; ; American Crusade

I. Over There A. Causes of War Germany was made up of multiple provinces- not united 1700s: Prussia begins to gain power- conquer German neigh bors 1800s: Germany is very well developed in the Iindustrial Revolutionthey become united 1870-71: Franco- Prussian War Bismark von Chancellor-- 1860-1890: work for K aiser Wilhelm Once Wilhelm dies, Wilhelm II takes over and fires Bismarck The emergence of Germany brings together England and Fra nce The Isms 1. Imperialism- the world is open for conque ring 2. Militarism- The idea that war is good Dreadnought- big boats- whoever ha s the most are best England and U.S. lead this Fully automatic guns are standar d issue Airplanes are now used in war 3. Nationalism- patriotism gone bad Alliance system System between great powers- if one gets attacked than the others wi

ll defend it Entente- Britain, Fr ance, Russia Central Powers- Germ any, Austria-Hungary, Turks, Italy -Italy switches sides in 1915 -Russia left and U.S. joined in 1917 B. Courses The Powder Keg of Europe- The Baltics Baltics are controlled by Ottoman Turks Turks begin to lose power and Serbs come up to take control Both Austria and Russia want the Baltic Terr itory 1914- Arch Duke Ferdinand of Austria goes to the Baltics Terrorist group of Serbs called the Black Ha nd kill the Arch Duke Russia, being Slavic like the Serbs, defend them against AustriaHungary and the alliances take affectwar begins Battle of Marne- 1914 Germany was going to take France but they go t stopped in Marnethis becomes the Western Front Battle of Somme Britain gets slaughtered by Germans Battle of Verdun II. Neutrality Largest group of Americans are German-Americans 2nd largest group are Irish England was a Democracy

We spoke English England was the Mother country unrestricted submarine Warfare U-boat Germans are smoking any ship around England Unfortunately most ships were American Lusitania 1915passenger liner suspected of transporting w eaponsGermany sinks ship Made America go against Germany Zimmerman Telegram Telegram from Germany to Mexico to attack the U.S> in r eturn for food Really pissed the U.S. off towards Germany

The Perfect Panic I. Times A Changin A lot of stuff ___________ in 1800s are now becoming true in 1920s Cars Ford pays workers $5/ day and lowers the price of his pr oduct just to where he can make a profit Motels- Motor hatch Airplane Charles Lindenburg flew across the Atlantic- 1927 Bobby ______ came up with the idea to use planes in Navy Became aircraft carriers Radio- first radio feed was in 1920 for the 1920 electio n Movies- 1915 Birth of the Nation 1927- first movie w/ sound The Jazz Singer

II. Society Isolation after WWI Mindset in America/ Roaring 20ssorrow everywhere else, so lets have fun !! Sigmund Froyd- civilization and its discontents Everyone should have sex Result: Sexual Revolution in the 1920s Women start dressing like whores The Jazz AgeNegro Music Literature Hemingway Fitzgerald T.S. Eliot III. Politics 1920- the old G____ wanted to return to ______ March Man- Harding becomes pres. Harding presidency is very corrupt Tea Pot Dome scandal- Albert Fall- secretary of interior Harding dies in 1923 Calvin Coolidge becomes pres.- The business of government is business A time of dumb peace accords Kellogg B_____ a _____ to end all war IV. BOOM Economy goes nuts The earlier ____ inventions WWI Stock Market People were borrowing $ from banks to buy stocks V. BUST October 29, 1929Black Tuesday Everyone begins to sell their stock Faulkner E.E. Cunnings Robert Frost

The economy sinks, and banks begin to collect on their d ebts

The New Deal I. Shock and Awe A. In reference to the Depression1929- 1932 22% of U.S. banks failed- approx. 20% of pop. are screwe d 50,000 businesses failed Unemployment=33% Total wages down 41% GNP 1929 104 billion 1933 56 billion *Many changes made to government to prevent these B. Hoover presidency- He got screwedelected in 1928 Hoover was Laissez-Faire during his presidency Wanted to let the cycle take care of itself Eventually he did somethingHoover damn- gave people jobs He did other weak attempts to save economy a s well 1931- Japan invades Manchuria, China League of Nations in p.o.ed Japan says F-you in your home Bonus army- troops who went across seas to fight and wer e promised a home for their work. Once depression happened the tro ops wanted to collect their bonuses 14000 troops camp around the White House united governme nt/ Hoover sent out their troops to disperse them II. FDR

A. A complicated man From an aristocratic familydistant cousin of Teddy Roosev elt . Was a Naval man A conservative democrat Married Teddys niece 1921- confined to a wheelchair due to polio Only president to have such a physical disab ility The only man who ever has/ will serve more than two term s 1932election was severe butt-whooping Hoover- 59 electoral votes FDR- 472 III. Do Something Begins to help the economy We have nothing to fear but fear itself His first 100 days he began to create tons of laws to help the econo my Bank Reform FDR declares a bank Holiday- first week of March Gives banks a week to get things in order He cuts the Connection between gold and Amer ican dollar Emergency Banking Relief Act Creates Federal deposit incorporation: FDIC If a bank goes under, the federal govt will r eimburse the people S.E.C.- regulates both stock and exchange Employment ________ Conservation Corps Gives 3 million young men under 24 working i n the woods

An attempt to stop a rebellion Federal Emergency Relief Administration A premature form of welfare- if someone has no job the s tate will give them money- The D____ Not many people liked this Civilian works administration Like the CCC but in _______ among all ages Public Works Administration Works progress administration

Draft towards War I. Coda: FDR and New Deal A. Tennessee valley Authority -Government owned/ operated that built homes and hydro-e lectric power plants. -Puts people to work -Govt owns the electricity, the power, water, etc. -Somewhat socialist- Creeping Socialism B. Social Security Act 1935 -Govt funded retirement account -Every paycheck the govt takes a percentage C. Anti-New Deal forces -American Liberty league -Father Charlie Coughlin-traditionalist , widespread rad io personality D. 1936 Election -Roosevelt wins -Roosevelt brings together in voting power: blacks, labo r unions, big city political machines, urbanites, intellectuals -Through his New Deal he got the vote of blacks etc, and m aintained the vote of the south.

- Court Packing Scheme -Judiciary Act of 1937 -Any Supreme Court Justices over the age of 70 must retire -Is immediately dropped E. New Deal: Pros and Cons CONS -Changed govt fundamentally -Didnt get rid of the Depression -Deficit spending-42 billion dollars in 1939 -Somewhat socialist -Nanny State made everyone dependent upon the govt PROS -Safety Net -Economy didnt collapse -There wasnt a revolution -Made the Depression better than it was II. League of the Lame -America never joins -Many treaties are negotiated but none are enforceable -League has no power or military -League fouled because France and Britain were wimps -A movie came out- Things to Come III. Rogues Gallery Benito Mussolini- Il Duce-ITALY

-Fascist Party-Totalitarian Dictatorship o o Hirohito- God-like Japan Has pet dictator Jojer-pretty much leader of the country Hitler- GERMANY Becomes leader of Nazi party

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Starts revolution in 1923 While in jail he writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

-His plan for Germany -HIS GOALS FOR GERMANY -Reverse the Depression -Make a military -Get rid of the Jews -Reunite all German-speaking Europeans - In 1933 he becomes dictator of Germany


I. Appeasement and Neutrality o o Italian-Ethiopian War- 1934 Italy, under Mussolini, invades Ethiopia Shows once again that the League of Nations is useless Many people now think that Italy is powerful Hitler puts troops into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone- 1936 France did nothing even though they could have stopped him Hitler pulls out of Treaty of Versailles- 1937

Anschluss- To Annex- Hitler marches troops into Austria and Austria do esnt really care- 1938 o Sudetenland Czechoslovakia- Consists of about 3 million Geramns so Hitle r wants the Sudetenland back o o o France and Britain decide that Czech. Should surrender to Hitler as long as Hitler promises not to invade any more lands. Josef Stalin and Hitler issue the Non-Aggression Act-1939 Will not fight each other Sept. 1, 1939- Germany and Russia invade Poland France and England are fed up with Hitlers crap and war begins

o Blitzkrieg- Lightning War- 23 days until Poland is taken; uses tanks and d ive bombers

II. Onslaught -Blitzkrieg -8 months after both sides do nothing- re-arm -Finally Hitler begins to invade France France had the Maginot Line- Supreme French defense for WWI Germany just goes around the Maginot Line

Miracle of Dunkirk- Bunch of English boats cross the Channel and many troops were able to flee. In 6 weeks France was taken.

Hitler now has conquered just about all of Europe except for Russia an d England He didnt want to attack England because he knew that they had the best fleets- similar to Napoleon -1939- Battle of Britain o o Bombardment of Britain mainly to destroy London Churchill sends some bombers to Belgium Really pisses off Hitler American Politics at this time FDR runs against Welman Walkey Walkey accuses FDR of being a war monger

HELLS BATTLEFIELD I. Home Front A. Stats ns U.S. Military- 16 million Tax Returns: 1939-4 million; 1945-50 million people file for tax retur Natl Debt: 1941-49 billion; 1945-259 billion

B. Isolation -America is still in full force -Sept. 7, 1941- PEARL HARBOR- United the Country -O.W.M.- Govts response to the war

-W.P.M.- War Production Board- factories began to shift from civilian products t o war products - Certain foodstuffs were saved for soldiers -1942-1945- Hardly any cars manufactured -Science becomes more involved- the atom bomb -Southern blacks flee north -Race riots common -West coast becomes heavily industrialized for war -Southwest somewhat replaces the Northwest -Japanese-American Internment -Japanese-Americans were rounded up-mainly on West Coast- and sent t o internment camps in Mojave desert -Almost 110,000 Japanese in the camps II. European Theatre of War ussia o o o o Even though Japan bombed U.S., America saw Germany as major threat Atlantic Charter/Treaty-Between USA and BRITAIN- Basis for U.N. America was mainly fighting Germany but fought Japan left-handed 1941-Hitler broke his pact with the Soviet Union and tries to invade R Spring of 1941- Hitler invades Russia and gets pretty far 1942- 3 Main Events We take Control of the Atlantic- take out Germanys U-Boats In N. Africa- El Alamein- Rommel Desert Fox vs. Montgomery Monty wins-last battle won by Brits w/o American help Stalingrad- Russia vs. Germany- lasts for 9 months Soviet Union lost about 3 million men Germanys supply lines are cut-left with nothing; they surrender After 1942 the war turns and the Allies regain control 1943- Montgomery and Patton invade Italy itself 1944, June 6- D-Day- About 6,000 Americans dead 1944-1945- Battle of the Bulge- pretty much the end of the war 1945- May 8; VE DAY

II. Pacific Theatre Island Hopping Leap from island to island cutting their supply lines -1942- Midway- 4 Japanese aircraft carriers destroyed; big victory - Iwo Jima and Guadalcanal- 2 major battles -1944- Okinawa- Japan used Kamikaze pilots -America fears the loyalty and fierceness of Japan -August 6, 1945- Atom Bomb dropped by USA on Hiroshima; about 80,000 die -August 9, 1945- Atom Bomb dropped by USA on Nagasaki; about 60,000 die - August 14, 1945- VJ DAY

THE 50S I. McCarthyism -Communism Soviets wanted to take over the world w/communism -Smith Act 1940? Made it illegal to attempt to overthrow the govt or join a group to attempt to overthrow govt -Unconstitutional -Jailed American communists -HUAC House of Un-American Activities Committee 1947 -Alger Hiss state department official accused by Richard Nixon of be ing a communist spy -Spends 5 yrs in jail for perjury -Made Nixon of big deal person -Period of hysteria -People had to take loyalty pledges teachers, govt officials, etc -Couldnt own socialist books (govt officials) -Couldnt see foreign films (govt officials)

-McCarthy comes up w/a list of Commies in America -He held a lot of hearings accusing (falsely) many people of being c ommunist -Accuses the U.S. Army of being full of communists oversteps his lim it he gets shut down in 70 to question vote by congress -The red scare mellows out, but is not gone -Things that keep the Red Scare alive -The Rosenbergs give atomic bomb technology to Soviets -Sputnik first satellite in space II. Truman Presidency -Democrat FDR Vice President -The Fair Deal -Put in concrete all the things that Roosevelt did w/the new deal -Keeps the parts that are good -1948 The democratic party splits -1948 election - Three democrats: -Wallace (progressive democrats) -Truman (real democrat) - Thurmond (democrats) -Republicans run Dewey -Everyone thought that Dewey would win due to the democr atic split

III. Eisenhower Era -Baby Boom 45-61.5 million babies born -U.S. became 41% wealthy, 6% population -Europe was destroyed & we werent (we rebuild Europe & get rich) -The G.I. bill: government program that pays college tuition for veterans -Almost all were white -When white soldiers returned they moved to suburbs -Many new communities are created around the automobile -So much more to buy (T.V.)

-There is a shift in political power: southern politicians become pr esidents (South sunbelt; north sunbelt) - Brown vs. Board of Ed. (1954) -Black girls are not allowed in elementary school-argued by Marshall - Blacks win, separate & not equal