Sei sulla pagina 1di 186

Reference No.

83140 55625
PDMVersion D SOAC

ILS 420
Instrument Landing System Glide Path 422

Technical Manual Part 1 Equipment Description

As for details, the electrical and mechanical information given in the documentation supplied with each equipment prevails

All rights reserved E 2010 Thales ATM GmbH Stuttgart Printed in Germany

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids Documentation Structure

GP 422
The equipment documentation comprises: Part 1 2 3 Technical Manuals Equipment Description Operation and Maintenance Antenna Systems 83140 55626 Code No. 83140 55625

Volume A B

Drawing Set Set of Circuit Diagrams (1F) Set of Circuit Diagrams (2F active) Set of Circuit Diagrams (1F) Set of Circuit Diagrams (2F active)

Code No. 83051 48561 83051 48561 83051 48561 83051 48561

Ed. 01.10

SOAC

Info 1

NAVAIDS
GENERAL
As for details, the electrical and mechanical information given in the documentation supplied with each equipment prevails. Despite of careful editing work technical inaccuracies and printing faults cannot be excluded in this publication. Change of text remains reserved without notification. Thales reserves the right to make design changes, additions to improvements in its products without obligation to install such in products previously manufactured or installed.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND HANDLING REPLACEMENT PARTS


Subassemblies and components which are sent to the manufacturer for repair or returns must be packed in a way that no damage of the parts could arise. It is recommended to use the original packing, e.g. of the spare part, or a comparable packing in corresponding performance to ensure a safe shipping of defective subassemblies or components. For technical support and information on how to order or sent back replacement parts, contact your equipment provider listed below. Germany: Thales ATM GmbH Lilienthalstrasse 2 70825 KorntalMnchingen Tel: +49 711 86032151 Fax: +49 711 86032804 Thales Italia SPA Via E. Mattei, 1 20064 Gorgonzola (MI) Tel: +39 02 95095405 Fax: +39 02 95095331 Thales ATM Inc. 23501 West 84th Street Shawnee, Kansas 66227 Tel: +1 913 4222600 Fax: +1 913 4222962

Germany

Italy:

Italy

United States:

USA

LIMITATION OF USE
The use of this manual is limited to the operation and maintenance of the system stated in the title page. It shall not be used for purposes of product manufacture. The installation drawings in the manuals, e.g. foundations and site drawings are for information only. The asbuilt engineering drawings for the site are the only one to be used. The information in the technical manuals is thought to be used by skilled workers to install the antenna and perform the related electrical and mechanical adjustments. The leader of the installation team should be an engineer, technician or experienced master craftsman. Special training and initiation by Thales are urgently recommended. The fitters should be trained craftsman, for example mechanics, electricians or locksmiths.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
The safety regulations laid down by the local authorities (e.g. concerning accident prevention, work safety or operation of electronic equipment and navigation systems) must be observed at all times. The purpose of safety precautions is to protect persons and property, and they must always be heeded. Station shutdown due to repair and maintenance: The responsible authorities must be notified of any work which may require operation of the system to be interrupted, in accordance with national regulations. Further information due to system handling is contained in the correspondent sections.

COPYRIGHT
Reproduction of this manual is not permitted without written authorization of Thales ATM.

TRADEMARKS
Microsoft and MSDOS are registered trademarks, WINDOWS is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of the International Business Machines Corporation. Pentium is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. All other mentioned product names may be trademarks of the respective manufacturers and must be observed. Ed. 01.10

Info 2

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Preliminary Remarks

PRELIMINARY REMARKS
The equipment manuals for ILS Glide Path 422 (1F and 2F versions) comprise: PART 1 2 3 CONTENTS Equipment Description Operation and Maintenance Antenna System Description 83140 55626 CODE NO. 83140 55625

This Technical Manual Part 1 includes the Equipment Description with the chapters below: 1 2 3 4 5 General Information Technical Description GP1F Technical Description GP2F Emergency Power Supply Remote Maintenance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC)

Chapter 1 contains general descriptions both for GP1F and 2F. The GP1Fspecific descriptions are contained in Chapter 2, and the GP2Fspecific descriptions in Chapter 3. Due to the fact that subassembly descriptions are mostly identical, Chapter 2 comprises detailed descriptions only of different subassemblies or remarks to differences. With the crossreference system used it is easily to be fined where the information can be found. Since it is not possible to include modifications, such as those which may be made to circuitry details or dimensioning in the interests of technical progress, in the Technical Manual, we should point out that questions of detail should always be answered using the technical documentation supplied with the system. It is possible that drawing numbers used in this description are no longer contained in the set of drawings supplied (GP1F (2F) , Volume A to B (C), but rather than (to conform with the system) they have been replaced by new drawings with another number. Please carry out a onceonly check on the basis of delivery list supplied and exchange where appropriate. Description and use of the PC User Program will be found for use of ADRACS in the Tech. Manual, Code No. 83140 55324, the one for use of MCS in the Tech. Manual, Code No. 83140 55325.

MARK SYMBOLS
To get the best out of the navigation systems you should study the contents of this manual carefully. In particular you should familiarize yourself with the marks given in this manual which are highlighted for easy recognition:

CAUTION
Cautions call attention to methods and procedures which must be followed to avoid damage to equipment.

WARNING
Warnings call attention to methods, procedures or limits which must be followed precisely to avoid injury to persons.

NOTE or REMARK : For more information about operations.


Ed. 07.06 SOAC

GP 422
Preliminary Remarks

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Table of effective pages


Basic edition: 01.04 / Revised: 01.10

Pages Title Info 1 and 2 A B I to X AV1 to 16 11 12 13 to 9 110 to 15 116 to 18 119 120 to 21 122 123 to 30 131 132 to 34 135 136 137 to 38 139 to 44 145 146 to 52 21 22 23 24 25 to 7 28 29 210 to 12 213 214 215 216 to 18 219
Trademarks:

Ed. 01.10 01.10 07.06 01.10 07.06 07.06 01.04 07.06 01.04 01.10 01.04 07.06 01.04 07.06 01.04 10.04 01.04 07.06 07.08 01.04 01.10 07.06 01.04 06.05 07.08 06.05 01.04 06.05 01.04 01.10 01.04 01.10 06.05 07.06 06.05 07.06

Pages 220 221 to 24 225 to 26 31 32 33 to 34 35 to 7 38 to 9 310 311 312 to 14 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 to 23 324 to 26 327 to 31 332 333 334 to 37 338 to 40 341 to 44 345 346 to 48 349 to 50 351 to 52 353 to 54 355 to 63 364 365 to 66 41 to 2 51 to 6

Ed. 06.05 07.08 01.04 01.04 07.08 10.04 01.04 06.05 01.04 06.05 01.04 01.10 01.04 07.06 01.04 07.06 01.10 01.04 07.08 01.04 06.05 01.04 07.06 01.10 01.04 01.10 10.04 01.04 10.04 07.06 08.04 01.04 07.08 01.04 07.06 07.06

Remarks

Microsoft and MSDOS are registered trademarks, WINDOWS is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of the International Business Machines Corporation. Pentium is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. All other mentioned product names may be trademarks of the respective manufacturers and must be observed. Despite of careful editing work technical inaccuracies and printing faults cannot be excluded in this publication. Change of text remains reserved without notification.

Note

SOAC

Ed. 01.10

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.2.1 1.2.2.2 1.2.2.3 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.4.1 1.2.4.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.5.1 1.3.5.2 1.3.5.2.1 1.3.5.2.2 1.3.5.2.3 1.3.5.3 1.3.5.4 1.3.5.5 1.3.6 1.3.7 1.3.8 1.3.9 1.4 1.4.1
Ed. 07.06

Title

Page

GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ILSPRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Arrangement of Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigation Signal Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 15

Localizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Glide Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Approach Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Equipment Versions and Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 TECHNICAL DATA OF GLIDE PATH 1F/2F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Dimensions and Weight of the Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 111 111 111 112

CSB Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 CSB Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 GS1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 GS2F (active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 GS2F (standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SBO Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Built In Test (BIT) Measuring Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antenna System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes on "Standby" operational Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conformity and Licensing Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating at the Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOAC

114 114 115 115 117

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

GP 422
Table of Contents Section
1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.2.1 1.5.2.2 1.5.2.3 1.5.2.4 1.5.2.5 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.4.1 1.6.4.2 1.6.4.3 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.2.1 1.7.2.2 1.7.2.3 1.7.2.4 1.7.3 1.7.3.1 1.8

ILS 420
Equipment Description Page
117 118 118 118 118 118 119 120

Title
Handling Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling Lead Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Components with Beryllium Oxide Ceramic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Lithium Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observation of Safety Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brief Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Equipment Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Peripheral subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audio Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthesizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modulator/Power Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 122 125 125 126 127

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRANSMITTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

CSB Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SBO Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Linear Power Amplifiers for CSB and SBO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MONITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 130

Executive and Standby Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Alarm Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Monitor Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Fail Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Executive Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Fail Safe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION LRCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
SOAC Ed. 07.06

II

ILS 420
Equipment Description Section
1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.10 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.10.3 1.10.3.1 1.10.3.2 1.10.4 1.10.4.1 1.10.4.2 1.10.5 1.10.5.1 CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.2.1 2.1.2.2 2.1.2.3 2.1.2.4 2.1.2.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.3.1
Ed. 07.06

GP 422
Table of Contents Page
135 135 135 136 136 145 145 146

Title
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to the LCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Startup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PC User Program Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the ILS Transmitter Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

NAVAIDS 400 SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Description of Monitor Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Software Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Description of LRCI Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Short Description of the Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 22

Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Local/Remote Communication Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Generation of the Operating Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 MECHANICAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shelter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview Subassemblies GP1F Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitter Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 211 213 213 215

DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK . . . . . 213

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
SOAC

III

GP 422
Table of Contents Section
2.3.3.2 2.3.3.3 2.3.3.4 2.3.3.5 2.3.3.6 2.3.4 2.3.4.1 2.3.4.2 2.3.4.3 2.3.4.4 2.3.4.4.1 2.3.4.4.2 2.3.4.4.3 2.3.4.4.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.2.1 3.1.2.2 3.1.2.3 3.1.2.4 3.1.2.5 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2

ILS 420
Equipment Description Page Title

Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator LGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Synthesizer (SYN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Transfer Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 BType: Power Adder (PADS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Monitor Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Monitor Interface (INTFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Executive Control Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (Onair) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Standby Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 LRCI Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 225

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP2F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 32

Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Control and Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Local/Remote Communication Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Generation of the Operating Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 MECHANICAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 GP Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shelter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview Subassemblies GP2F Transmitter Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitter Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 313 315 315 317

DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK . . . . . 315

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator (LGA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318


SOAC Ed. 07.06

IV

ILS 420
Equipment Description Section
3.3.3.2.1 3.3.3.2.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 3.3.3.5 3.3.3.6 3.3.3.6.1 3.3.3.6.2 3.3.4 3.3.4.1 3.3.4.2 3.3.4.2.1 3.3.4.2.2 3.3.4.3 3.3.4.3.1 3.3.4.4 3.3.4.4.1 3.3.4.4.2 3.3.4.4.3 3.3.4.4.4 3.3.4.4.5 3.3.4.4.6 3.3.5 3.3.5.1 3.3.5.1.1 3.3.5.1.2 3.3.5.1.3 3.3.5.2 3.3.5.2.1 3.3.5.2.2 3.3.6 3.3.6.1 3.3.6.2 3.3.6.3
Ed. 07.06

GP 422
Table of Contents Page Title

LGA Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 LGA functional Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Synthesizer (SYN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 PINDiode Transfer Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Power Adder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Power Adder (PADA), GP2F (MType, active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Power Adder (PADS), GP2F (MType, standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Monitor Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Monitor Interface (INTFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 LGM Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 LGM functional Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Executive Control Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Executive Control Unit Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (Onair) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Standby Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 DC supply for PINDiode Transfer Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Additional Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 LRCI Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Local Control Panel (LCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Local Control CPU (LCCPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 CPU Board (DIMMPC/386I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Local Control Interface (LCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Dedicated Line Modem LGM1200MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Switched Line Modem LGM 28.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Overview DC/DC Converter and Power Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 DC Converter 5 V (DCC5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
SOAC

GP 422
Table of Contents Section
3.3.6.4 3.3.6.5 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.2.1 5.1.2.2 5.1.2.3 5.1.2.4 5.1.2.5

ILS 420
Equipment Description Page Title

DC Converter Multivolt (DCCMV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 AC/DC Converter (ACC54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 REMOTE MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING CONFIGURATION (RMMC) . 51 APPLICATION AND DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Hierarchy of RMMC Remote Control System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 53

Local Remote Control Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Remote Control and Status Equipment (RCSE 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Remote Control and Monitoring System (RCMS 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Local Communication Unit (LCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Remote Maintenance Center (RMC 443) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

VI

SOAC

Ed. 07.06

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.No.
Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 110 Fig. 111 Fig. 112 Fig. 113 Fig. 114 Fig. 115 Fig. 116 Fig. 117 Fig. 118 Fig. 119 Fig. 120 Fig. 121 Fig. 122 Fig. 123 Fig. 124 Fig. 125 Fig. 126 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26
Ed. 07.06

Title

Page

Measurement of DDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Arrangement of ILS subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 LLZ characteristic values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 GP characteristic values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Overall diagram of ILS data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Localizer configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Glide Path configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Basic structure of an ILS GP; example GP2F active, dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Cockpit indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Audio Generator principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Synthesizer principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Modulator Power Amplifier, principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 ILS 420 monitoring, simplified block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Monitored parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Detector Measurement Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Executive Control Unit, principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Monitor verification testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Power supply, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 ILS GP1F; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) . . . . . . . . 139 ILS GP2F active; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) . . . 141 ILS GP2F standard; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown) 143 System software, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Task definitions and priority assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 ADCS autocalibration measurement times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Maximum ECU status update periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Overview LCP SW structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 GP1F system overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Main components of a GP1F transmitter cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Power distribution, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Locations in the GP1F rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Assignment of subassemblies for GP dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 , Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
SOAC

VII

GP 422
Table of Contents Fig.No.
Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 210 Fig. 211 Fig. 212 Fig. 213 Fig. 214 Fig. 215 Fig. 216 Fig. 217 Fig. 218 Fig. 219 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 310 Fig. 311 Fig. 312 Fig. 313 Fig. 314 Fig. 315 Fig. 316 Fig. 317 Fig. 318 Fig. 319

ILS 420
Equipment Description Page Title

Transmitter rack GP1F, dual, front door open, rear door open . . . . . . . . . . 29 Navaids shelter, dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example) . . 212 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 GP1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 215 supply not shown) Transfer Assembly, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 GP1F, BType, overview and arrangement Power Adder PADS . . . . . . . 217 GP1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 219 supply not shown) Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 J19, example switch setting for GP1F Null reference and BType mode . 221 Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, 0Ref. configuration selected 222 Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, BType configuration selected 223 GP2F system overview (GP active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 GP2F system overview (GP standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Main components of a GP2F transmitter cabinet (GP active) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Main components of a GP2F transmitter cabinet (GP standard) . . . . . . . . . 34 Power distribution, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Locations in the GP2F rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Assignment of subassemblies for GP dual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 , Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Transmitter rack GP2F active, dual, front door open, rear door open . . . . 311 Navaids shelter, dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example) . . 314 Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 GP2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 317 supply not shown) Localizer/Glide Path Audio generator (LGA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Synthesizer (SYN), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 CSB and SBO, amplitude modulated signals (principle view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 MODPA CSB section, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 MODPA SBO Section Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Transfer Assembly, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
SOAC Ed. 07.06

VIII

ILS 420
Equipment Description Fig.No.
Fig. 320 Fig. 321 Fig. 322 Fig. 323 Fig. 324 Fig. 325 Fig. 326 Fig. 327 Fig. 328 Fig. 329 Fig. 330 Fig. 331 Fig. 332 Fig. 333 Fig. 334 Fig. 335 Fig. 336 Fig. 337 Fig. 338 Fig. 339 Fig. 340 Fig. 341 Fig. 342 Fig. 343 Fig. 344 Fig. 345 Fig. 346 Fig. 347 Fig. 348 Fig. 349
Ed. 07.06

GP 422
Table of Contents Page Title

Power Adder PADA, GP2F (MType, active), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . 328 Power Adder PADA, mechanical arrangement and cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Power Adder PADS, GP2F (MType, standard), block diagram . . . . . . . 330 Power Adder PADS, mechanical arrangement and cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 GP2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power . . . . . . . . 333 supply not shown) LLZ/GP Monitor Interface (INTFC), principle block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Monitor ADCS conceptual block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Acquisition and processing times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Monitor detector processing cycle and measurement cycle within . . . . . . . . 339 the "other" slot ECU to Monitor Status Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Executive Control Unit (ECU), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Stby and OnAir Combiner, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, active Marray configuration selected Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, standard Marray configuration selected 347

. . . . . . . . . 348

J19, example switch setting for GP2F active and standard MArray mode 349 GP phase detector application (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 LCP, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Local Control CPU (LCCPU), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 CPU board, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Local Control Interface (LCI), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Local Control Interface (LCI), visible front view (text example: . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 system status screen) LGM1200MD, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 LGM 28.8, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Overview power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 DC converter DCC5, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 DC converter DCCMV, block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 AC/DC converter (ACC54), block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
SOAC

IX

GP 422
Table of Contents Fig.No.
Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54

ILS 420
Equipment Description Page Title

RMMC, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Hierarchy of the RMMC system components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Example Configuration: RCMS 443 for two ILS and VOR/DME/TACAN . . . . 55 MCS system architecture and components (example) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

SOAC

Ed. 07.06

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids List of Abbreviations

ABKRZUNGSVERZEICHNIS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LISTE DABRVIATIONS LISTA DE ABREVIATURAS


A Antenne Antenna Antena Alternating Current Courant alternatif Corriente alterna Analogical Carrier Amplifier (BITE signal) Amplificateur pour porteurs analogiques (signal BITE) Amplificdor portador analogico (seal BITE) Alternating Current Converter AnalogDigital Converter Convertisseur analogique/numrique Convertidor analgico/digital Analogtodigital Converter Subsystem Soussystme convertisseur analogique/numrique Subsistema convertidor analgico/digital Analog Display Routine Routine affichage analogique Rutina de indicator analgico Automatic Data Recording And Control System Alternating Double Sideband Bande latrale double alternante Banda lateral doble alternante Antenna Distribution Unit AntennenVerteileinheit Ensemble de distribution dantenne Unidad de distribucin de antena Audio Frequency Basse frquence Audiofrequencia Automatic Frequency Control Commande automatique par frquence Control automtico de frecuencia Automatic Gain Control Commande automatique de gain Control automtico de ganancia Amplitude Modulation Modulation damplitude Modulacin de amplitud
SOAC

AC

ACA

ACC ADC

ADCS

ADR

ADRACS ADSB

ADU

AF

AFC

AGC

AM

Ed. 07.06

AV1

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
AMP AMPlifier Amplificateur Amplificador American National Standards Institute Alternating SideBand Bandes latrales alternantes Banda lateral alternante Antenna Switch Control Commutateur dantennes de commande Control de conmutador de antena American Standard Code for Information Interchange Code standard amricain pour lchange dinformations Cdigo stndard americano para el intercambio de informaciones Antenna Switch Module Module de commutateur dantennes Mdulo de conmutador de antena Antenna Switching Unit Ensemble de commutation dantennes Unidad de conmutacin de antena Air Traffic Control Contrle du trafic arien Control del trfico areo Air Traffic Information System Systme dinformations du trafic arien Sistema de informaciones del trfico areo Air Traffic Management Automatische Whleinrichtung fr Datenverbindungen Automatic dialling equipment for data connections Dispositif automatique de slection pour liaisons dacheminement de donnes Dispositivo automtico de seleccin para comunicaciones de datos BackAzimuth Binr Codiert Dezimal Binary Coded decimal Battery Charging Power Supply Chargeur de batterie et bloc dalimentation Chargador de bateria y equipo de alimentacin Baud Baud Baudio Basse Frquency Audio Frequency Baja frecuencia (audiofrecuencia) Builtin Test (Equipment) Dispositif de test intgr Dispositivo de test integrado
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

ANSI ASB

ASC

ASCII

ASM

ASU

ATC

ATIS

ATM AWD

BAZ BCD BCPS

BD

BF

BIT(E)

AV2

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
BKZ BefehlsKennZahl Command code number Numro indicatif de commande Nmero indicador de orden Bayonet Navy Connector Koaxialverbinder mit Bayonetkupplung Backplane Rckwandverdrahtung broches polig pin Betriebs und Schutzerde System and protective ground Prise de terre de systme et terre de protection Puesta a tierra del sistema y de proteccin Blending Signal Generator Gnrateur de signaux de transition Generador de seal de transicin Baustahl Structure steel Acier de construction Acero de construccin Bus Grant Autorisation de bus Autorizacin de bus Bus Request Demande de bus Solicitud de bus Carrier Amplifier Cabinet Armoire Armario Category Kategorie Category Categora Circuit Card Assembly Baugruppe Assemblage de la carte de circuit Commite Consultatif International Tlphonique et Tlgraphique International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee Control Coupler Coupleur de commande Acoplador de control
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

BNC BP bro.

BSE

BSGD

BST

BUSGNT

BUSRQ

CA CAB

CAT

CCA

CCITT CCP

Ed. 07.06

AV3

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
CDI Course Deviation Indicator Indicateur de dviation (cap) Indicador de desviacin de rumbo Compact Disc Read Only Memory Disque compact Mmoire lecture Disco compacto Memoria permanente Conformit Europen oder/or/ou Communauts Europennes International Commmision on Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment Clearance signal Signal de Clearance Seal de Clearance Complementary Metaloxide Semiconductor Semiconducteur oxyde mtallique complmentaire Semiconductor complementario de xido metlico Phone Concentrator TelefonUmschalteinrichtung Installation de commutation tlphonique Centralilla telfonica Central Processing Unit Zentrale Prozessoreinheit Carriage Return Retour du chariot Retorno de carro Cyclic Redundancy Check Cathode Ray Tube Tube cathodique Tubo catdico Course signal Kurssignal Signal de directif Seal de rumbo Carrier signal with SideBands (HF) Signal de porteuse avec bandes latrales Seal de portadora con bandas laterales Control&Status Board (part of the LCSU) Control and Selector Logic Logique de commande et de slection Lgica de control y de seleccin Conventional Takeoff and Landing Dcollage et atterrissage classiques Despegue y aterrizaje convencionales Clear to Send Prt mettre Listo para transmitir
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

CDROM

CE CEE CLR; CL

CMOS

CONC

CPU CR

CRC CRT

CRS; CS

CSB (1)

CSB (2) CSL

CTOL

CTS

AV4

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
CW Continuous Wave Fortlaufende Welle Ondes continues Ondas continuos Digital/Analog Converter Convertisseur numrique/analogique Convertidor digital/analgico DMEbased Azimuth System Systme dazimut bas DME Sistema de acimut basado en DME Direct Current Courant continu Corriente continua DCConverter Convertisseur de courant continu (Convertisseur CC) Convertidor de corriente continua (convertidor CC) DCConverter Multivolt Convertisseur CCMultivolt Convertidor CCMultivolt DCConverter Multivolt Doppler Convertisseur CCMultivolt Doppler Convertidor CCMultivolt Doppler Difference in Depth of Modulation Differenz der Modulationsgrade Diffrence de taux de modulation Diferencia de grados de modulacin Direct Digital Synthesis Deutsche Flugsicherung Administration of air navigation services Bureau de la scurit arienne Instituto de proteccin de vuelo Diskrete Fourier Transformation Discrete Fourier Transformation Differenzsignal Difference signal Signal diffrentiel Seal diferencial Deutsche Industrie Norm German industrial standard Norme industrielle allemande Norma industrial alemana DualInLine Package Distance Measuring Equipment Equipement de mesure de la distance Equipo de medicin de la distancia
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

DAC

DAS

DC

DCC

DCCMV

DCCMVD

DDM

DDS DFS

DFT DIF

DIN

DIP DME

Ed. 07.06

AV5

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
DSB Double Sideband Bandes latrales doubles Banda lateral doble Digital Signal Processing Digitaler Signal Prozessor Data Set Ready Enregistrement des donnes prt Registro de datos listo Data Terminal Ready Terminal de donnes prt Terminal de datos listo Distribution Unit Verteilereinheit Ensemble de distribution Unidad de distribucin Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Radiophare omnidirectionnel VHF Doppler Radiofaro omnidireccional VHF Doppler European Community Executive Control Unit Ausfhrende Steuereinheit Ensemble de contrl excutif Unidad de control ejecucin Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Mmoire lecture seule, programmable et erasable lectrique Memoria permanente borrable elctricamente y programada Electromagnetic Compatibility Elektromagnetische Vertrglichkeit Enable Bus Transfer Validation transfert de bus Conexin transferencia de bus Electrically Programmable Logic Device Elektrisch programmierbare Schaltungseinheit Montage programmable lectrique Circuito programado elctricamente Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Mmoire lecture seule, programmable et erasable Memoria permanente borrable y programada European Organization for Civil Aviation Electronics Organisation europenne pour llectronique de laviation civile Organizacin europea para la electrnica de la aviacion civil Federal Aviation Administration Administration fdrale de laviation Administracin federal de aviacin
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

DSP DSR

DTR

DU

DVOR

EC ECU

EEPROM

EMC ENBT

EPLD

EPROM

EUROCAE

FAA

AV6

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
FET FFM (FF) FIFO Feldeffekttransistor Fieldeffect transistor Farfield Monitor Moniteur de champ lointain (zone Fraunhofer) Monitor campo lejano First In/First Out Premier entr/premier sortie Primera entrada/primera salida Frequency Modulation Modulation de frquence Modulacin de frecuencia Functional Protection Earth Betriebsschutzerde FrequencyShift Keying Frequenzumtastverfahren Manipulation par dplacement de frquence Mtodo de manipulacin de frecuencia Glide Slope, Glide Path Gleitweg Radiophare dalignement de descente Transmisor de trayectoria de descenso Hochfrequenz Radio frequency Haute frquence Alta frecuencia Integrated Circuit Integrierter Schaltkreis Circuit intgr Circuito integrado International Civil Aviation Organization Organisation de laviation civile internationale (OACI) Organizacin de aviacin civil international (OACI) Instrument Landing System Systme datterrissage aux instruments Sistema de aterrizaje por instrumentos Inner Marker Radiobalise intrieure Radiobaliza interior Indication and Control Anzeige und Steuerung Indicateur et contrle Panel de indicaciones y control Interface Unit Schnittstelleneinheit Unit dinterface Unidad de interfase
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

FM

FPE FSK

GP GS ,

HF

IC

ICAO

ILS

IM

INC

INT

Ed. 07.06

AV7

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
INTFC Interface Board for monitor Schnittstellenkarte fr Monitor Platine dinterface du moniteur Placa enchufable de la interfase de monitor Input/OutputPort Ein/Ausgabeport Porte dentre/sortie Puerto de entrada/salida International Organization for Standardization Internationale Organisation fr Normung Organisation Internationale de Normalisation In Phase/Quadraturphase Inphase/Quadraturphase Kabeladapter Cable adapter Adaptateur de cable Adaptador de cable Local Communication Control Liquid Crystal Display Ecran cristaux liquides Indicador de cristal liquido Local Control Interface Interface de commande locale Local Control Panel Panneau de commande locale Local Control and Status Unit Local Communication Unit Light Emitting Diode Diode lectroluminiscente Diodo electroluminiscente Line Feed Avancement de ligne Avance de lnea Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator LLZ/GP Gnrateur Audio Localizer/Glide Path Monitor Processor LLZ/GP Processeur du Moniteur Modembezeichnung (LOGEM) Modem assignation Localizer Radiophare dalignement de piste Localizador
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

I/OPort

ISO

I/Q KADP

LCC LCD

LCI LCP LCSU LCU LED

LF

LGA LGM LGM LLZ/LOC

AV8

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
LP Leiterplatte Printed circuit board Plaquette circuits imprim Placa de circuito impreso Low Pass Filter Filtre passebas Filtro de paso bajo Local/Remote Communication Interface Line Replaceable Unit Lower Sideband (HF DVOR) Bandes latrales infrieures Banda lateral inferior Least Significant Bit (digital) Modulationsgrad ModDepth Taux de modulation Profundidad (grado) de modulacin Monitoring and Control System Marker Extension Unit Unit de radiobalise dextension Fuente de alimentacin suplementaria de la radiobaliza Monitor Interface Adapter Adapteur dinterface du moniteur Adaptador de la interfase de monitor Monitor Interface Board Platine dinterface du moniteur Placa enchufable de la interfase de monitor Microwave Landing System Systme datterrissage aux microondes Sistema de aterrizaje por microondas Middle Marker Radiobalise mdiane Radiobaliza intermedia Modulation Modulation Modulacin Modulator/Power Amplifier Modulateur/Amplificadeur de puissance Modulador/AmplificadorAlimentacin Modulator Sideband Blending (DVOR) Modulateur de transition des bandes latrales Modulador de transicin de banda lateral Monitor Moniteur Monitor
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

LPF

LRCI LRU LSB (1)

LSB (2) m

MCS MEU

MIA

MIB

MLS

MM

MOD

MODPA

MODSBB

MON

Ed. 07.06

AV9

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
MOS Metallic Oxide Semiconductor Semiconducteur mtal oxyde Semiconductor de xido metlico Minimum Performance Specification Spcification de rendement minimum Especificacin de rendimiento mnimo Marker Processing Unit Unit de marqueur de traitement Procesador de radiobaliza Most Significant Bit Modulation Signal Generator Gnrateur de signaux de modulation Generador de seal de modulacin Monitor Signal Processor Processeur de signaux de moniteur Procesador de seal de monitor Monitor Service Routine Routine de service de moniteur Rutina de servicio de monitor Meantime between Failures Temps moyen entre dfauts Tiempo medio entre fallos Meantime to Repair Temps moyen de rparation Tiempo medio de reparacion Multiplexer Multiplexeur Multiplexor Multivolt Navigation Navigation Navigation Navegacin Navigational Aids Navigationsanlagen Aide de navigation Radioayudas a la navegacin Normally closed Normalement ferm Normalmente cerrado NonDirectional radio Beacon Radiophare omnidirectional Radiofaro omnidireccional
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

MPS

MPU

MSB MSG

MSP

MSR

MTBF

MTTR

MUX

MV NAV

NAVAIDS

NC

NDB

AV10

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
NF Niederfrequenz Audio frequency Basse frquence Baja frecuencia Niederfrequenzknoten (Sternverteiler) Star distributor (for audio frequency) Nearfield Monitor Moniteur de champ proche Monitor campo cercano Nautical Mile Mile nautique Milla nutica Normally open Normalement ouvert Normalmente abierto Optocoupler Adapter Board Platine dadaptateur doptcoupleur Placa enchufable del adaptador optoacoplador Organisation de laviation civile internationale (= ICAO) International Civil Aviation Organization Organizacin de aviacin civil international Opto Coupler Isolated Input/Output Outer Marker Radiobalise extrieure Radiobaliza exterior Personal Computer Printed Circuit Board Carte circuit imprim Tarjeta de circuito impreso Precision DME DME de prcision DME de precicin Protection Earth Peak Envelope Power Spitzenleistung Puissance de pointe Potencia punta Phase Locked Loop Boucle verrouillage de phase Bucle de bloqueo de fase Phase Modulation Pasenmodulation Modulation de phase Modulacin de fase
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

NFK NFM

NM

NO

OAB

OACI

OIO OM

PC PCB

PDME

PE PEP

PLL

PM

Ed. 07.06

AV11

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
PMC Phase Monitor and Control Moniteur de phase et commande Monitor de fase y control Power Management Module Power on Parallel Position Axe Posicin Programmable Read Only Memory Mmoire lecture seule et programmable Memoria permanente programada Protector Unit Marker Radiobalise dunit de protection Unidad de proteccin de la radiobaliza Protector Unit Tower Unit de protection Unidad de proteccin Power Supply Bloc dalimentation Equipo de alimentacin Power Supply Interface Interface du bloc dalimentation Interfase equipo de alimentacin Power Supply Switch Interrupteur de puissance Interruptor de alimentacin Position Position Axe Posicin Public Switched Telephone Network Post Telephone and Telecommunications (Authority) Polyvinylchlorid Polyvinyl chloride Chlorure de polyvinyl (C.P .V.) Chloruro de polivinilo Password Routine Routimne de mot de passe Rutina de contrasena Random Access Memory Mmoire accs alatoire Memoria de acceso aleatorio Remote Control Tlcommande Control remoto
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

PMM POP POSN./Pos.

PROM

PRUM

PRUT

PS

PSI

PSS PSW PSN

PSTN PTT PVC

PWR

RAM

RC

AV12

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
RCMS Remote Control Monitoring System Systme de tlcommande et de surveillance Sistema de control y monitoreo remotos Remote Control and Status Equipment Remote Control Service Routine Routine de service de tlcommande Rutina de servicio de control remoto Remote Control Status Unit Remote Electronic Unit Radio Frequency Haute frquence (HF) Radiofrecuencia Remote Interface Adapter Adaptateur dinterface de tlcommande Adaptador de interfase telemando Remote Interface Adapter extended Adaptateur dinterface de tlcommande tend Adaptador suplementario de interfase telemando Reduced Instruction Set Computing Rechner mit reduziertem Befehlssatz Radio link Richtfunkverbindung Liaison hetzienne Radioenlace dirigido Remote Monitoring and Maintenance Configuration Read Only Memory Mmoire lecture seule Memoria permanente Restart Remettre en marche Nueva puesta en marche Real Time Clock Echtzeituhr Rythme en temps rel Reloj en tiempo real Real Time Clock Routine Routine de rythme en temps rel Rutina de reloj en tiempo real Request to send Marche lmetteur Activacin del transmisor Runway Landebahn Piste daviation Pista de aterrizaje
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

RCSE RCSR

RCSU REU RF

RIA

RIAX

RISC RL

RMMC ROM

RST

RTC

RTCR

RTS

RWY

Ed. 07.06

AV13

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
RX Receiver Rcepteur Receptor Receiver Clock Rythme du rcepteur Reloj de receptor Receiver Data Donnes de rcepteur Datos de receptor Receiver Ready Rcepteur prt Receptor listo Switch Commutateur Conmutador Sideband Bandes latrales Banda lateral Sideband 1, Sideband 2 Bandes latrales 1, 2 Banda lateral 1, 2 Sideband A (used in VOR) Bandes latrales A (utiliz en VOR) Banda lateral A (utilizado para VOR) Sideband B (used in VOR) Bandes latrales B (utiliz en VOR) Banda lateral B (utilizado para VOR) Sideband Only Bandes latrales seulement Banda lateral solamente Subrack Sousbti Subrack (con junto) Serial Communication Controller Sum of Depths of Modulation Somme des taux de modulation Suma de grado de modulacin Subminiature connector type A Miniatur HFSteckverbinder fr Mikrowellenanwendungen Single Pole Double Throw Commutateur unipolaire Conmutador unipolar doble Single Pole 3 Throw Commutateur unipolaire triple Conmutador unipolar triple
SOAC Ed. 07.06

Conventional Navaids

RXC

RXD

RXRDY

SB

SB1, SB2

SBA

SBB

SBO

SBR

SCC SDM

SMA SPDT

SP3T

AV14

NAVAIDS 400
Conventional Navaids
STOL Short TakeOff and Landing Systme de dcollage et datterissage court Despegue y aterrizaje corto Summensignal Summation Signal Signal de la somme Seal de suma Software Synchronisation Synchronisation Sincronizacin Synthesizer Tactical Air Navigation Navigation arienne tactique Navigacin area tctica Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator Temperatur kompensierter Quarzoszillator Oscillateur quartz compens par tmperature Oscilador de cuarzo termo compensado Test Generator Gnrateur de test Generador de test Threshold Schwellwert Valeur de seuil Nivel determinado Threaded Navy Connector Koaxialverbinder mit Gewindekupplung Telephone Network Voltage Time Out Routine Routine de temps de suspension Rutina de tiempo de suspensin TransistorTransistor Logic Logique transistortransistor Lgica transistor transistor Transmitter Emetteur Transmisor Transmitter Clock Rythme dmetteur Reloj de transmisor Transmitter Data Donnes dmetteur Datos de transmisor
SOAC

List of Abbreviations

SUM

SW SYN (1)

SYN (2) TACAN

TCXO

TEG

THR

TNC TNV TOR

TTL

TX

TXC

TXD

Ed. 07.06

AV15

NAVAIDS 400
List of Abbreviations
TXRDY Transmitter Ready Emetteur prt Transmisor listo Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter Rcepteur/metteur universel synchrone/asynchrone Receptor/transmisor universal sncrono/asncrono Upper Sideband (HF DVOR) Bandes latrales suprieures Banda lateral superior Ultraviolet Ultraviolet Ultravioleta Voice Amplifier Amplificateur vocal Amplificador vocal Voltage Controlled Oscillator Video Graphic Adapter Very High Frequency Hyperfrquence Hiperfrecuencia Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Radiophare omnidirectionnel VHF Radiofaro omnidireccional VHF Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Taux dondulation Grado de ondulacin Vertical Takeoff and Landing Dcollage et atterrissage verticaux Despegue y aterrizaje vertical Width signal BreiteSignal Signal faisceau WechselstromTelegrafie Voicefrequency carrier telegraphy Tlgraphie harmonique ondes porteuses Telegrafa armnica Zeichenumsetzer Modem for data transfer Convertisseur de signaux Convertidor de seal

Conventional Navaids

USART

USB

UV

VAM

VCO VGA VHF

VOR

VSWR

VTOL

WI

WT

ZU

AV16

SOAC

Ed. 07.06

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
General

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INFORMATION


1.1 INTRODUCTION
See Fig. 11, 15. The ILS (Instrument Landing System) is a navigation aid used internationally to facilitate approach and landing. It is comprised of a localizer (LLZ or LOC), a glide path (GP or GS) and a series of marker beacons that includes an outer and middle marker and, in special cases, an inner marker. Each group generates radio signals independently and simultaneously. The localizer supplies leftright navigation information, the glide path supplies updown navigation information, and the marker beacons supplies distancetothreshold information. The system includes equipment in the control tower that can be used to remotely control, monitor, and maintain the localizer, glide slope and markers. The localizer and the glide path principle of operation is based on measurements of the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) between two signals with frequencies 90 Hz and 150 Hz. These are the navigation frequencies used to detect the correct approach course (DDM = 0) and the specified glide path angle (DDM = 0). The localizer operates in the frequency range of 108 to 112 MHz and generates a vertical guidance plane, which permits the aircraft pilot to select a left/right approach course from a distance of up to about 30 km. The antenna radiation pattern reveals exactly the same amplitude for the two modulation frequencies of 90 and 150 Hz in the guidance plane. If the pilot deviates to the left of the guidance plane, the 90 Hz modulation signal will predominate causing the cockpit indicator to show a fly right indication. If the pilot deviates to the right, the 150 Hz modulation signal will predominate causing the cockpit indicator to show a fly left indication (Fig. 11). The glide path operates in the frequency range between 328 and 336 MHz and generates the glide path plane, which is elevated above the runway by the glide angle. The antenna radiation pattern results from an interaction with the earths surface, and contains predominantly 150 Hz modulation below the glide path plane and predominantly 90 Hz modulation above the glide path plane. In the glide path plane itself the amplitudes of the two modulation signals are equal. The beam which shows the aircraft the correct landing approach path is formed by the intersection of the vertical course guidance plane and the horizontal glide path plane. In addition, the marker beacons provide marks that indicate the distance from the runway thresholds. The marker beacon transmitters radiate vertically upwards at the same carrier frequency, and are characterized by various continuously keyed Morse code signals and different modulation frequencies (see also Fig. 15).
LLZ

Fig. 11
Ed. 01.04

Measurement of DDM
SOAC


GP 90 Hz MM 150 Hz 150 Hz 90 Hz OM DDM = 0

11

GP 422
General

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The main features of the NAV 400 family in general and the ILS 420 in particular are as follows: High compatibility: The ILS 420s electronics are compatible with all of Thales ATMs many antenna types and configurations. They are also compatible with previous Thales ATM (SEL, Alcatel Air Navigation Systems, Face, ThomsonCSF, and Wilcox) antenna configurations. The flexibility facilitates costeffective update by allowing to combine the ILS 420 electronic subsystem with existing arrays. Highpower output: The robust output powers of the Glide Path (5 W) and the Localizer (25 W) provide excellent coverage for challenging sites and for many types of antenna arrays. High configuration flexibility: The ILS 420 has been designed to meet any sites needs. Its many configurations can be combined to suit your requirements, from the simplest CAT. I application to the most complex CAT. III application. A summary of the main ILS configuration options are: S S S S S S S S S S single or dual frequency single or dual transmitter/monitor equipment seven Localizer antenna subsystems four Glide Path antenna subsystems optional environmental sensor package DME compatibility (can replace markers) optional field monitors LLZ course and displacement sensitivity farfield monitoring (FFM) LLZ and GP nearfield monitoring (NFM) 10 ft shelters with preinstalled LLZ or GP equipment available

Easy setup and maintenance: All of the ILS 420 system parameters can be setup, adjusted, and monitored locally or remotely with the PC. Userfriendly: The maintenance software (ADRACS or MCS) is very userfriendly and facilitates troubleshooting to the modular level. Secure: ADRACS resp. MCS uses passwords to control operator access by level and proficiency. Simple and quick equipment firmware updates: The ILS 420 firmware incorporates "Flash Memory" technology that eliminates the need to replace EPROMs* during updates. Instead, updates are quickly and conveniently achieved in the field through software alone.
(* Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory)

Advanced equipment supervision: The advanced remote monitoring and control system is a powerful tool for centralizing technical expertise and support. Its versatility and scalability allow it to meet the spectrum of usage needs, from servicing one site or a nation wide matrix of navigational equipment. With it, support personnel can monitor many systems from one location and can respond to maintenance needs anywhere in the network much more quickly than in typical maintenance organizations. This strategy uses personnel and resources more efficiently and creates significant longterm savings. The monitoring system supports simultaneous NFM/FFM (LLZ) configurations and integral inputs. Its farfield monitor system meets the latest ICAO requirements and includes an executive control option.

12

SOAC

Ed. 07.06 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.2 1.2.1
See Fig. 12. The basic subsystems belonging to the ILS system, namely the Localizer (LLZ) the Glide Path (GP) and the Markers (MM, OM) and in addition a DME (optional) and a Far Field Monitor (FFM) for the localizer (optional)

GP 422
General ILSPRINCIPLE Arrangement of Subsystems

are arranged on the runway, as shown in Fig. 12. This arrangement is valid for the single and dual frequency (1F, 2F) installations described in further detail below. The LLZ antenna is located 200 to 360 m beyond the end of the runway on the extended centre line. The associated LLZ transmitter is in a shelter near the antenna. The GP antenna is located 120 to 180 m from the runway centre line. The reference height for the glide path has been fixed at 15 m above the runway threshold. The dimension "D" (286 to 344 m) between the GP antenna mast and the runway threshold is calculated from this height and the glide angle, the latter being determined on the basis of local circumstances. The associated GP transmitter is in a shelter in near the antenna. The inner marker (IM) is 75 to 450 m ahead of the runway threshold on the extended centre line, the middle marker (MM) is 1050 m ahead, and the outer marker (OM) is 7200 m ahead. In most cases only the middle and the outer marker are used. When a DME systems is used to supplement the marker beacons there are a number of installation alternatives, for example: DME antenna on the GP mast (DME transponder in the GP shelter), DME antenna on the roof of the LLZ shelter (DME transponder in the LLZ shelter), DME transponder in a separate shelter with the DME antenna on its roof, DME transponder in a separate shelter and DME antenna on a separate mast. The latter two configurations are preferable, since they permit the runway to be approached from both directions. The shelter is located next to the runway at its midpoint. Running time differences between touchdown and the DME installation are always included, so that touchdown is always at exactly 0 m.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

13

GP 422
General

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Control and monitoring of all ILS subsystems from the tower

RCMS
MODEM

6+2 2 OM MM FFM 2+2 GPantenna**

2
GPshelter +DME (optional) LLZ shelter FFM*

ca. 150 m q/2

Runway LLZ antenna

1050 m 7200 m

Runway threshold

Touchdown

ca. 250 m

* For opposite direction (optional) ** +DME antenna (optional) = FFMantenna (optional) q/2 = Half course width IM is not shown

Fig. 12

Arrangement of ILS subsystems


SOAC Ed. 01.04

14

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.2.2 1.2.2.1 Navigation Signal Parameters Localizer

GP 422
General

See Fig. 13. The LLZ generates an RFsignal in the frequency range of 108 to 112 MHz, which is modulated in amplitude with 90 and 150 Hz. This signal identifies the "course plane" and is produced by a transmitter and antenna system, which can be a 2F system with 25 W transmitter power or a 1F system with 30 W transmitter power. The localizer signal is obtainable up to a distance of up to 25 nautical miles (approx. 46 km) for a sector of 10, and it is obtainable up to a distance of  17 nautical miles (approx. 31 km) for a sector of 35 relative to the course line and the LLZantenna. The characteristic values for LLZ within certain sectors, and in relation to the runway centre line, are as follows: DDM = 0 DDM = 15.5 % (0.155) DDM  18 % (0.18) DDM 0 exists when the approach direction corresponds exactly to the runway centre line. DDM 15.5 % characterizes the course sector selected such that the boundary at the level of the runway threshold is 107 m to the left and right of the runway with respect to the centre line. These points are also known as WIDTH points. The DDM has a linear characteristic within these points and an elevation of 0.145 % per meter. This results in approx. 107 m for the half sector calculated for DDM=15.5 %. ICAO Annex10 (4th Ed., April 85, section 3.1.3.7.3, Note1) assumes a nominal sector width of 210 m (700 ft). DDM 18 % characterizes a sector of 10and DDM 15.5 % characterizes a sector of 10 to 35 where correct LLZ information is still ensured. In the LLZ1F, this sector is covered by a specifically formed antenna pattern, and, in the LLZ2F system, it is covered by an additional clearance signal (see also section 1.2.4). The course information consists of 90 and 150 Hz amplitudemodulated signals. When the aircraft is approaching the runway on the desired course, the airborne receiver receives the two modulation signals with equal amplitudes. This state corresponds to DDM 0. If there is a leftward deviation from the desired course, there will be a predominant 90 Hz amplitude, and if there is a rightward deviation there will be a predominant 150 Hz amplitude.

DDM >15,5 %
Off Course Clearance

DDM >18 %
Threshold

DDM = +15,5 %
m150Hz > m90 Hz

LLZ antenna

107 m

10

35 107 m

DDM = 0
m90 Hz = m150Hz

DDM >18 % DDM >15,5 %

DDM = 15,5 %
m90 Hz > m150Hz

Fig. 13
Ed. 01.04

LLZ characteristic values


SOAC

15

GP 422
General 1.2.2.2
See Fig. 14.

ILS 420
Equipment Description Glide Path

The GP generates an RFSignal in the frequency range of 328 to 336 MHz that is modulated in amplitude with 90 and 150 Hz. The signal to identify the "glide path plane" is achieved by a transmitter and antenna system. The transmitter can be a 2F system or 1F system, but both produce up to 5 W of power. The glide path signal is obtainable up to a distance of 10 nautical miles (approx. 18.5 km) within an azimuthal sector of8 relative to the localizer course line with the touch down point as reference and between the elevations 0.30 q to 1.75 q, where "q" is the nominal glide path angle. Below the glide path sector the DDM increases smoothly for decreasing angle until a value of 22 % is reached. From there to 0.45 to 0.3 q the DDM is not less than 22 % as it is required to safeguard the promulgated glide path intercept procedure (turning to the guide beam). The characteristic values for GP within certain sectors and in relation to the runway centre line are as follows: DDM = 0 DDM = 17.5 % (0.175) q= 2.5 to 3 (typical) The plane DDM 0 radiated by the glide path antenna is hyperbolic and does not touch the ground, as the dotted line shows. According to ICAO Annex 10, section 3.1.1, the reference height of this curve has been fixed at 15 m (ILS reference datum) at the runway threshold. Taken together with the specified glide angle of q= 2.5 to 3 this produces an offset of the glide path antenna mast with respect to the runway threshold of the distance D. This offset is 286 to 344 m depending upon the glide path angle selected (see Fig. 12). Due to this the optimal vertical glide path is not a straight line in azimuth direction of the centre line of the extended runway, it is a hyperbola. DDM=17.5 % is specified for glide angle deviations of 0.24 q from the nominal glide path q (q = DDM 0). These values correspond to the WIDTH. The DDM characteristic is linear within this sector (0.24 q). Like the localizer the glide paths angle information consists of signals amplitudemodulated with 90 Hz and 150 Hz. When the aircraft approaches the runway on the desired glide path, the airborne receiver receives both signals with equal amplitude (equivalent to DDM 0). Deviations above the nominal glide path will result in a predominant 90 Hz amplitude, and deviations below will result in a predominant 150 Hz amplitude (positive DDM).
1.75 q
DDM 17.5% m90 Hz > m150Hz

GP1F antenna
DDM 0


A2
actual DDM=0 curve
m90 Hz = m150Hz

0.24 q

DDM +17.5%

m150Hz > m90 Hz

A1

0.24 q

15 m

0.3 q

Runway threshold

Fig. 14

GP characteristic values
SOAC Ed. 01.04

16

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.2.2.3
See Fig. 15.

GP 422
General Approach Path

The nominal approach path to the runway is obtained from the intersection of the planes generated by LLZ and the GP Both planes contain the abovementioned 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulation signals. . These signals are interpreted by the airborne receiver and supplied to a crosspointer instrument, which displays control information to the pilot corresponding to deviations from the nominal course and glide path. The signals interpreted by the airborne receiver can also be supplied to the autopilot. In addition, the pilot receives distance information via two (three) marker beacons. The 2 (under normal conditions) or 3 (in special cases) marker beacons are set out at a distance of 75 m (inner marker in special cases) 1050 m (middle marker) 7200 m (outer marker) from the runway threshold. Each of these marker beacons transmits a particular pulse code vertically upwards at a carrier frequency of 75 MHz. The identity frequencies are: 3000 Hz (inner marker) 1300 Hz (middle marker) 400 Hz (outer marker) The aircraft flies through the transmission "cones" in the approach path, and the pilot receives an audible indication of the pulse code and the identity signal. The marker outputs are adjusted to ensure the following beam widths, measured along the Glide Path axis and Localizer axis: Inner marker: Middle marker: Outer marker: 150 50 m 300 100 m 600 200 m

A DME system (distance measuring equipment) is often installed instead of the marker beacons. This system provides continuous distance readout between the aircraft and the runway touchdown point. The DME principle is based on delay time measurements of highfrequency pulses, whereby the airborne system transmits a series of pulses, which are answered by a transponder on the ground after a defined time delay. The time between transmission of the interrogation pulses and receipt of the answering pulses is interpreted by the airborne system, and the distance is displayed in directly readable form.
Localizer
110 MHz 1300 Hz 330 MHz 400 Hz

Glide Path Localizer Course Plane Glide Path Plane


90 Hz 150 Hz 90 Hz approx. 1050 m (3500 ft) 150 Hz

Runway threshold

110 MHz

Middle Marker Beacon

75 MHz

330 MHz

Approach Path

Outer Marker Beacon


approx. 7200 m (3.9 NM)

75 MHz

Extended RWY Centre Line

Fig. 15
Ed. 01.04

Overall diagram of ILS data


SOAC

17

GP 422
General 1.2.3 Monitoring

ILS 420
Equipment Description

According to ICAO, Annex 10 all navigation systems must be permanently monitored for correct radiation by an independently operating monitoring system. The NAV 400/ILS 420 has 2 monitors that monitor signals for CAT. II/III operations. For CAT. I operations, a single monitor is applied. In both cases equipmentinternal sensors and antennainternal sensors provide signal components, along with the optional nearfield monitor dipole. These signals are transferred to the two monitors. The monitor 1 signal processing is driven by monitor signal processor 1, and the monitor 2 signal processing is driven by monitor signal processor 2. This assures that the the various signals are selected according to a specified control sequence. The processor compares the actual values of the signals with nominal values. Any deviations that exceed specified tolerance thresholds always leads to an alarm and to an automatic switch over to the standby transmitter or to a shut down of the system. This action is executed by the Executive Control Unit (ECU) and arrived at through hardware performed evaluation and decision on. For monitoring the localizer course signal and displacement sensitivity (standalone FFM only), we can provide an optional standalone and an integrated farfield monitor (FFM) facility. The integrated FFM facility measures the course line; it includes a specified monitor channel within the ILS 420 and an external antenna with VHF receiver that is connected through twisted pair of telephone lines to the localizer. The FFM signal evaluation uses one or more antennas placed in the farfield. This FFM facility will, however, only initiate an alarm output and will not trigger a changeover to the standby transmitter. The standalone farfield monitor operates independently, and has no connections to the localizer transmitter rack. Refer to Technical Manual FFM 414, part number 83140 55421 for information about the standalone FFM.

18

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.2.4 1.2.4.1 Equipment Versions Summary

GP 422
General

The topography of the terrain preceding the airfield, including any obstructions, strongly influences the quality of the navigation signals (especially the smooth course signal) interpreted by the airborne receiver during glide path descent. The ideal site has smooth terrain without obstructions. Since not every site is ideal, however, we have many configurations designed to eliminate the influences of terrain and obstructions. The electronic and antenna equipment versions selected for a site will be determined according the sites unique terrain and obstruction profile. The available equipment versions are: LOCALIZER 1F (single frequency version) This is for sites with most flat terrain and without reflective obstructions, near or in front of the runway, that might compromise the course signal. LOCALIZER 2F (dual frequency version) This is for sites that do not have flat terrain and have reflective obstructions like hills or buildings near or in front of the runway. Two antenna types can be applied in 2F systems. Which kind is used depends on the severity of the obstructions. The mediumaperture antenna is recommended for moderate obstructive situations, and the wideaperture antenna is recommended for cases of severe obstruction. Also, if necessary, off course clearance distortion can be eliminated on center line with specific clearance and course modulation phasing (Out of Phase Clearance). The medium aperture antenna offers maximum operational reliability (up to Cat. III) with minimal calibration and maintenance. The wideaperture antenna facilitates Cat. III use, including automatic landing. GLIDE PATH 1F, 0TYPE, null reference method (single frequency version) Used when the terrain in front of the GP antenna is smooth and level. GLIDE PATH 1F, BTYPE, sideband method (single frequency version) Advantageous for sites with moderate sloping and short terrain in front of the antenna. GLIDE PATH 2F, MTYPE, capture effect method (dual frequency version) Advantageous for sites with severe sloping and short terrain in front of the antenna. The tables shown in Figs. 16 and 17 list all configurations available for an ILS 420 and the equipment options. Usually the ILS subsystems are dualized. In the hot standby mode, the main transmitter operates on antenna, and the standby transmitter is on a dummy load. Remote monitoring and/or remote control from the tower is possible for the LLZ, GP and the marker beacons (or DME) via a Remote Maintenance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC). Besides its course information, The localizers RF signal includes an airport identity signal in Morse code. This code includes 3 or 4 characters with a frequency of 1020 Hz, and can be entered via a connected PC and the user program. It is also possible to use an auxiliary feature to externally modulate the LLZ RF signal with a voice signal (e.g. ATIS from tower). This feature provides a tone frequency range of 300 to 3000 Hz and a modulation depth of up to 40 % are provided.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

19

GP 422
General 1.2.4.2 Equipment Versions and Options
Model SESF DESF SEDF DEDF DEDF

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Equipment Electronic cabinet

Description Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency, monitored Hot Standby Single Frequency Dual Frequency Single Frequency Dual Frequency 8 element or 14 element 14 element or 20 element 14 element 13 element or 21 element

Antenna

LPD

Dipole/Refl.

Optional equipment

Nearfield monitor for localizer course position Integrated FarField Monitor course position (maximum 2 receivers, 1 antenna) Standalone FarField Monitor course position (maximum 3 antennas) and displacement sensitivity (maximum 1 antenna). Battery kit Environmental sensor package Voice Amplifier circuit card assembly

LPD= Logarithmic Periodic Dipole antenna system; Dipole/Refl.= Dipole/Reflector antenna system

Fig. 16

Localizer configurations

Equipment Electronic cabinet

Model SESF DESF SEDF DEDF DEDF

Description Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Single Frequency Single transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency* Dual transmitter/monitor Equipment, Dual Frequency, monitored hot standby* * active and conventional feed of antenna Null Reference (0Type) or Side Band Reference (BType) Capture effect method (MType), Nearfield monitor glide path position Battery kit Environmental sensor package

Antenna

SF DF

Optional equipment

Fig. 17

Glide Path configurations


SOAC Ed. 01.10 01.04

110

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.3 TECHNICAL DATA OF GLIDE PATH 1F/2F

GP 422
General

The system complies with ICAO Annex 10, Volume 1, Part 1, 6th Ed.July 96 including all amendments. All categories are available in single frequency or two frequency versions. CAT. I CAT. II CAT. III single or dual transmitter/single or dual monitor single or dual transmitter/dual monitor dual transmitter/dual monitor

The device fulfills the EMC requirements of EC Guideline 89/336/EEC. It bears the CE Designation and is licensed according to REG TP SSB FL 005 Licensing Test Regulations (see section 1.3.9).

1.3.1
Height Width Depth Weight

Dimensions and Weight of the Transmitter Rack


1736 mm 611 mm 661 mm approx. 205 kg

1.3.2

Power Supply
115 VAC to 230 VAC, min. 98/max. 264 VAC 48 to 64 Hz, three wire, single phase nom. 48 VDC, 14 A (max.) each 43 to 62 V, e.g. from BCPS 48 V battery, standby parallel operation approx. 285 W (GP2F 5/5 W, hot standby)

AC voltage input (with BCPS) DCvoltage output BCPS modules (ACC) DC voltage input (system) Emergency power supply Power consumption

1.3.3

Environmental Conditions
10 to +55 C 50 to +70 C 30 to +70 C max. 95 % (10 to +35 C); max. 60 % (>35 C) up to 100 % with condensation up to 10,000 ft (approx. 3000 m) up to 50,000 ft (approx. 15000 m)

Ambient temperature Operation indoor Operation outdoor equipment Transport Relative humidity Non operation and transport Atmospheric pressure Operation Transport

1.3.4

System Data
10 NM in the range of the front course line 8 azimuth 2 to 4 (variable) 0.24 q (variable) > 0.04 q; typically 0.02 q

In predominantly flat terrain Glide Path coverage Glide angle q Course width Precision and stability of glide angle setting
01.10 Ed. 01.04 SOAC

111

GP 422
General 1.3.5 1.3.5.1 Equipment Data CSB Transmitter

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Carrier frequency range Channel pattern Carrier frequency tolerance Frequency spacing course/clearance (2F) Course/clearance (2F) phase lock Course transmitter power Course transmitter power CSB1 CSB2* Clearance transmitter power Output power stability (1F) (2F) (2F) (2F)

328.6 to 335.4 MHz 150 kHz, defined by synthesizer 0.0005 % 8 kHz 0.5 %, course and clearance carriers 4 kHz to the nominal frequency f0 < 0.5 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps 0 to 1.5 W; set in 0.1 W steps 0 to 5 W; set in 0.1 W steps <3%

1.3.5.2 1.3.5.2.1

CSB Modulation GS1F


90 and 150 Hz 0.01 %, coherent 80 % 0 to 99 % in steps of 0.1 %  0.5 % 0% 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %  0.15 % Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase < 1 % for all modulation signals < 5 % with respect to the reference phase of the synthesizer 90 and 150 Hz 0.01 %, coherent 80 % 80 % 0 to 99.5 % in steps of 0.1 %  0.5 % 12 % 48 % 30 % (or 150 Hz only with DDM=60%, SDM=60 %) 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %  0.15 % Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase < 1 % for all modulation signals < 5 % with respect to the reference phase of the synthesizer
SOAC Ed. 01.10 01.04

Navigation frequencies SDM SDM for course SDM setting range SDM stability DDM DDM DDM setting range for test purposes DDM stability Carrier modulation Distortion factor Phase stability

1.3.5.2.2

GS2F (active)*

Navigation frequencies SDM SDM for course SDM for clearance SDM setting range SDM stability DDM DDM (CSB1) DDM (CSB2)* DDM (Clearance) DDM setting range for test purposes DDM stability Carrier modulation Distortion factor Phase stability

* active means a direct feeding method of RFOut to antenna A2 via a separate path of the Modulator/Amplifier

112

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Phase modulation (CAT III) 90 Hz peak 150 Hz peak deviation difference
 90 Hz / 1.0 radian  90 Hz / 0.6 radian  30 Hz

GP 422
General

1.3.5.2.3

GS2F (standard)
90 and 150 Hz 0.01 %, coherent 80 % 80 % 0 ... 99.5 % in steps of 0.1 %  0.5 % 0% 0 to SDM setting in steps of 0.1 %  0.15 % Control loop for envelope curve and RF phase < 1 % for all modulation signals < 5 % with respect to the reference phase of the synthesizer Nonmodulated carrier from the synthesizer SBO signal 90 Hz and 150 Hz above and below the carrier frequency 0 to 1.5 W, set in steps of 0.1 % Automatically regulated to < 5 % 0 to 359, set in steps of 1 < 3 > 30 dB 1 or 2 Hardware and software

Navigation frequencies SDM SDM for course SDM for clearance SDM setting range SDM stability DDM DDM setting range for test purposes DDM stability Carrier modulation Distortion factor Phase stability

1.3.5.3
Input signal Output signal

SBO Transmitter

Output power Output power instability RF phase setting range RF phase stability Carrier suppression

1.3.5.4

Monitoring

Number of monitor systems Dualization Executive monitor channels Field monitor channels Frequency measurement Standby monitor channels

CRS Position, CRS Width, CLR (2F), Nearfield course position dipole (NFM, optional) Difference frequency and channel frequency CRS Position, CRS Width, CLR (2F), stdby transmitter Parameters evaluated by each monitor channel DDM, SDM, RF level Channel evaluation Fast Fourier analysis Alarm threshold* settings DDM, SDM in steps of 0.1 %; (* thresholds programmable, depending on Category) RF level in steps of 1 % Prealarm nominal 75 % of alarm threshold, limits progr. Integrity channel evaluation every 1.5 s Alarm check 4 to 6 times/second, depending on configuration Decision procedure Continuous status exchange of both monitor sys tems and logically sequenced hardware decision procedure performed by the Executive Control Unit (ECU), three redundant decision paths
01.10 Ed. 01.04 SOAC

113

GP 422
General
Radiation of a false signal Switch over delay * Executive monitor channels Standby monitor channels Nearfield monitor channels
* setting depends on CAT of operation

ILS 420
Equipment Description
< 1 s for dual transmitter Set between 0.5 and 30 s typ. 0.5 s typ. 5 s typ. 20 s within 1 s

Switch over and shutdown

1.3.5.5

Built In Test (BIT) Measuring Functions


Analog test signals sampled periodically, then digitized. Measurement of battery voltage. Built in measurement of signal characteristics evaluated by DFT filtering. Evaluation of measurement of RF power characteristics (e.g. output power, VSWR). Presentation of data is achieved using the PC User Program menus. Performed via connected data terminal (PC) and User Program software down to line replaceable unit (LRUlevel), including BCPS modules.

Analog measurements

Fault location

1.3.6

Interfaces
Serial, SubD, 9 pin, male on top of cabinet 2wire, via SubD, 9 pin, male, on top of cabinet 2wire switched or dedicated line 2wire switched or dedicated line or configured as RS232 interface used as additional serial interface (RS232) (not used in GP) SubD, 25 pin each, male/female, on top of cabinet log 0= max. 1 mA / log 1= max. 10 mA max. 35 V/150 mA Analog signal max. 13.5 V; connected to connector SubD, 37 pin, female on top of cabinet
*** TNVcircuit ( Telephone Network Voltage)

PC connector*/** MODEM connectors*/*** LGM1 (opt.) LGM2/DME (opt.) LGM3/NDB (opt.) DMEInterface LCP (spare in/out) OIO IN/OIO OUT input optocoupler output optocoupler*/** Input environmental sensors (opt.)*/*** (smoke, intrusion, temperature)
* according IEC60950

** SELVcircuit (Safety Extra Low Voltage)

1.3.7

Antenna System

Technical characteristics of the antenna system will be found in Part 3, Antenna System Description.

114

SOAC

Ed. 01.10 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.3.8 Notes on "Standby" operational Mode

GP 422
General

The NAVAIDS Technical Manuals distinguish between the hot standby and cold standby operating states as follows:

" Hot Standby


Both transmitters are in operation i.e. one transmitter is connected by means of a command to the antenna (aerial), the second is connected to a dummy load (standby). In NORMAL operation mode, the Monitor Bypass is off. If the radiating transmitter fails, the system automatically switches the antenna to the standby transmitter. The switch over time is  20 ms. ILS installations are generally operated in the hot standby mode.

" Cold Standby


One transmitter (TX1 or TX2) is in operation (i.e. connected to antenna or to dummy load), the second is switched off by means of a command. If the radiating transmitter fails, the monitor and controller ensure connection and initialisation of the standby transmitter and antenna switchover. This process takes about 6 seconds.

1.3.9

Conformity and Licensing Approval

The ILS 420, Glide Path device (GP 422) of the Navaids 400 system family complies with the requirements of EC Guideline 89/336/EEC in its implementation. It also fulfills the requirements of the following EMC Guidelines: EN 55022 EN 500821 ETS 300 339 EN60950 (IEC950) Ed. 1998 Ed. 1997 Ed. 1998 Interference Transmittal, Class B Interference Resistance EMC for Radio Transmission Devices Device Safety

Furthermore, the device fulfills the requirements of the REG TP SSB FL 005 Licensing Test Regulations for the radio transmission interface.

01.10 Ed. 01.04

SOAC

115

GP 422
General

ILS 420
Equipment Description

116

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.4 1.4.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Operating at the Device

GP 422
General

To avoid injury to persons or subsequent damage to subassemblies, always disconnect the supply voltage before removing a subassembly or a plugin connection. Disconnect the supply voltage by actuating switch TX1 or TX2 or even mains switch on the AC/DC subassembly. For exceptions see Part 2, Operation and Maintenance, Chapter 6.

WARNING
Mains subunit ACC (BCPS): The device should be disconnected from the mains before commencing maintenance or installation operations. The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing this subassemblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while or take suitable measures (e.g. gloves). The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands or fingers. Use the handle to open or close the front or rear door.

1.4.2

Handling Subassemblies

To prevent damage to the components during replacement, take special precautionary measures when removing, transporting, and installing subassemblies and plugin cards containing electrostatically sensitive components. PCBs containing electrostatically sensitive components are marked with this symbol: Electrostatic damage may be caused when the person performing the subassembly replacement bears a static charge due to friction with an insulated floor covering or with synthetic articles of clothing (eg. soles) and the charge is transferred to the terminals of the MOS components. In order to avoid this, make positive contact between the system ground and your hand before and during removal or insertion of the subassembly. Any body charge is then discharged to the system ground. When the subassembly has been removed, the shortcircuit bar provided should be connected to the connector strip, and the subassembly should be placed in a special container or envelope. Use the following procedure and sequence to insert a subassembly: Discharge the body by touching the system ground with both hands. Remove the subassembly from the special container. Remove the shortcircuit bar from the subassembly. Touch the device ground. Insert the subassembly, if possible whilst retaining contact with the device ground. Further instructions on this type of safety measure can be found in the Technical Manual, Part 2.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

117

GP 422
General 1.4.3 Handling Lead Batteries WARNING

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Before starting up a battery, i.e. before filling an empty battery with acid, always refer to the relevant instructions in Part 2. Wear protective goggles for all maintenance operations that involve opening the acid screw caps. The acid is highly caustic, so remove any spattered acid immediately from the clothing by washing with water or any soda solution (100 g soda to 1 l water) on account of its highly caustic effect. Howecer, make sure to avoid allowing soda or soda solution to get into the cells. When the emergency battery is charged up during mains operation oxyhydrogen gas can result from the decomposition of the water. For this reason do not seal the ventilation holes on the outside of the battery box.

1.4.4

Components with Beryllium Oxide Ceramic

Some of the subassemblies are equipped with transistors containing beryllium oxide. These are state of the art transistors and are in use all over the world. They are absolutely harmless in a sealed, compact condition. If they are opened, however, beryllium oxide dust, which is detrimental to health, may escape. They should not be dismantled or shattered even when scrapped or disposed of. The following subassemblies contain power transistors with beryllium oxide: MODPA : Transistor types MRFC166

1.4.5

Using Lithium Batteries

Always read the label on the battery. Thales ATM recommends only those with lithium copper oxide. Other types of lithium battery, e.g. those with lithium sulphur dioxide, are not approved by Thales ATM for use in navigation systems (see also the instructions in Part 2, Operation and Maintenance, Chapter 6).

WARNING
Do not recharge, disassemble, heat above 100 C or incinerate any lithium cell. Do not shortcircuit the cell or solder directly on it. Disregard of the norms regarding the use of lithium batteries may cause the risk of fire, explosion and the leakage of toxic liquid and gas. Rundown batteries are objects that can pollute the environment and must be disposed of taking the proper precautions.

1.4.6

Miscellaneous

To avoid risks of lightning, do not work outside the shelter or on the antenna system during thunderstorms.

1.4.7

Observation of Safety Regulations

In addition to following the above instructions for avoiding damage and injury, always observe locally pertinent safety regulations.

118

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ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.5 1.5.1 FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW General

GP 422
Functional Description

The localizer and glide path subsystems of the ILS 420 are composed of four separate configuration items: Electronics subsystem Antenna subsystem Battery kit (optional) Environmental sensors (optional)

The electronic subsystem consists of hardware based on RF and AF subassemblies and of software which controls the hardware to a large extent. It is subdivided into the following units: Transmitter in dual or single version Monitor in dual or single version Equipment control and switching Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) Battery charger and power supply (BCPS)

The glide path electronics subsystem is nearly identical to the localizer electronics subsystem. Only the modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) assemblies are different, and their differences are due to the corresponding difference in RF operating frequencies and RF signals. Each transmitter path and monitor path is controlled by its own individual microprocessor. The monitor and audio generator are hardware identical units; their differences arise from their installed operating firmwares. Both communicate via the LRCI. The transmitter processor performs the following tasks: Digital signal generation Control/adjustment of amplitude (envelope), RF phase and phase polarity Calculation of the settings for the transmitter subassemblies Communication

The monitor processor performs the following tasks: Processing and evaluation of the signals of internal, integral sensors and nearfield dipoles Initiation of appropriate actions in case of fault detection (station changeover or shutdown) Ensuring of its own performance independent of environmental conditions and component aging The equipment control and switching assembly which may be considered as part of the overall monitoring function performs the following tasks: HW decision and execution of appropriate actions in case of fault detection (station changeover or shutdown) derived from monitor messages. The software packages (i.e. transmitter SW, monitor SW, LRCI SW and PC User Program SW) looks after and supports the most important tasks as follows: Startup (alignment and calibration of the antenna system and the navigation system) Modulation and transmitter control Signal generation Monitoring the navigation signal Support in system repair and maintenance Operation of the system (local/remote)
SOAC

07.06 Ed. 01.04

119

GP 422
Functional Description 1.5.2
See Fig. 18.

ILS 420
Equipment Description Brief Description

Fig. 18 shows the basic structure of a ILS 420 GP system. Transmitter and monitor are dualized, whereby each monitor monitors both transmitters. The remaining subassemblies in the signal path of the transmitter are single. These are mostly components which cannot be practically dualized, such as the transfer assembly, the antennas and cables and the main passive components which are inherently reliable.

1.5.2.1

Transmitter

The transmitters utilize digital control for initial alignment/setup purposes, but once in normal operation they are not dependent on microprocessors or softwarecontrolled servoloops to maintain accuracy. Only three circuit card assemblies are required to provide the transmitter function: The audio generator (LGA) is responsible for producing the composite carrierplussideband 1 (CSB1) and sidebandonly (SBO) modulation envelopes for the course MODPA and, if a dual frequency and "active" GP system, the modulation envelope for the second MODPA which is used in one path for the composite carrierplussideband 2 (CSB2) modulation envelope. The audio generator utilizes digital generation of the composite audio tone, essentially eliminating the audio signal as a source of error. The complete dynamic range of a 13bit digitaltoanalog (D/A) converter is used to form the waveform with a further 8 bit multiplying D/A converter controlling the output level. The configuration data is maintained within an electrically erasable programmable readonly memory (EEPROM). The audio generator also has some measurement capabilities that are used to gather system data useful for maintenance and faultfinding. The frequency synthesizer (SYN) generates the RF carrier for the course MODPA assembly and, if a dual frequency system, also generates RF for the clearance MODPA. The frequency synthesizer is based on a very stable temperaturecompensated crystal oscillator (TXCO) combined with direct digital synthesis (DDS) to provide very accurate low noise continuous wave (CW) signal. The same synthesizer board is used in the localizer and glide path. The frequency is set by BCD jumpers on the printed circuit board (PCB) which prevents the frequency from being inadvertently changed from the local or remote keyboard. The modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) provides two amplitude modulated signals, the CSB and the SBO. One MODPA unit is required for single frequency operation and, for twofrequency operation, a 2nd MODPA unit is required which generates the clearance signal. In addition for the "active" GP the remaining RF path of this modulator is fed by the SBO path of the other MODPA unit. The MODPA are broadband units with no field adjustments required either for frequency changes or unit replacement. The power amplifiers are conservatively designed, capable of operating at CW levels in excess of the required peak envelope power. The design and layout of LLZ and GP MODPA units are identical. Only components that are frequency specific are different. In addition the GP MODPA contains jumpers to adapt its function to the GP active or specific requirements. Feedback control loops are employed to control amplitude and phase while minimizing distortion. Feedback control loops also allow a full 360 setting of the SBO phase relative to the CSB.

1.5.2.2

Monitor

The monitor can be either a single or dual redundant monitor system. In the dual redundant mode the monitors can be configured in "OR" mode for high integrity or "AND" mode for high continuity. A single monitor system consists of the monitor board (LGM) and monitor interface board (INTFC). A dual monitor system adds a second monitor board. The input paths from the integral (onair) and internal (stdby) sensors are processed in the Stdby and OnAir Combiner unit (SOAC) and fed with other monitoring inputs to the monitor interface. The monitor interface board actually contains two identical circuit groups with each group dedicated to a monitor.

120

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Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Functional Description

Both the monitor and monitor interface boards are identical for both the localizer and glide path equipment. The monitor is identical to the audio generator used in the transmitter except with different firmware. The monitor board is essentially a highprecision audiofrequency spectrum analyzer, utilizing a combination of dedicated hardware and an electrically programmable logic device (EPLD) in conjunction with an Intel 80C196 highperformance microcontroller. Each monitor has an onboard sampling analogtodigital converter subsystem (ADCS). The ADCS is continuously checked and calibrated against onboard precision external references, which are crossverified against the analogtodigital (A/Ds) internal precision reference, resulting in the elimination of factory or field hardware adjustment of monitor and detector paths. The monitor cycles through each input signal in turn, utilizing Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT). It computes the spectral component of each, and from these components calculates the desired parameter (difference in depth of modulation [DDM], sum of depth of modulation [SDM], etc.). These parameters are compared to operator programmed threshold values. If any parameter is beyond the tolerances, this results in the appropriate monitor field signaling an alarm. Separate alarm timers exist for Executive, Field, and Standby parameter groups.

1.5.2.3

Equipment Control and Switching

The control and switching section consists of the following modules: Executive control unit (ECU) and transfer switch assembly. The ECU is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station such as which equipment is routed to the antenna, which to the load, and the on/off status of each. The ECU turns off the transmitting equipment, whether from an alarm off condition or a user off selection, using two redundant circuit paths. One goes to the audio generator to terminate the modulation signal; the other goes to the frequency synthesizer to turn off the carrier. Alarm action depends on whether the ECU is configured for series (alarmAND, higher continuity of service) or parallel (alarmOR, higher station integrity). AlarmAND requires that both monitors indicate the same alarm before control action is initiated, while alarmOR initiates control action based on only one monitors status. An alarm status results in either a transfer to standby equipment (dual equipment) or cessation of transmission (single equipment or hot standby in alarm) by the ECU. The ECU employs multiple redundancies for the critical path circuits to achieve the highest level of safety while maintaining high reliability by minimizing the individual parts count. The ECU is a state machine built primarily from three EPLDs. Two of the three EPLDs provide dual semiredundancy for the critical station control functions, although each has some unique inputs and outputs. A Watchdog circuit monitors these semiredundant EPLDs to ensure they remain synchronized. The third EPLD, which is also of a different part type, implements a more basic and simplistic failsafe circuit using a few external devices. Its function is to echo the other two and cause a complete station shutdown should they fail to take the appropriate action when needed. A pollresponse alarm status protocol assures failsafe communications between the monitor and ECU. The ECU continuously requests a health status for one of three monitor normal signals (Executive, Field, or Standby) from each monitor CCA and expects a certain response within a certain time. Should a monitor signal fail to respond within a specific timing window or respond with more than one edge during that window, the ECU will declare the particular parameter bad and take the appropriate alarm action.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

121

GP 422
Functional Description

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The monitor system integrity of operation is verified by the ECU by periodically applying one of two analog test signals from the onantenna audio generator to each monitor. These are set to simulate two different valid operating points. The monitor must be able to discern between the two, and provide a toggling health indication on one of two ECU inputs corresponding to the particular signal type. The monitor must respond correctly within a fixed time period or it will be switched out of executive alarm actions, with the ECU relying solely on the alternate monitor. The transfer switch assembly is built up with PINDiode switches. It is used for dual transmitter configurations. The job of the transfer switch is to route the selected main transmitter to the antenna with the standby transmitter being connected to dummy loads. The localizer and glide path assemblies are identical designs differing only in frequency dependant components.

1.5.2.4

Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI)

The LRCI makes available the following interfaces: Communications of the individual functional groups Controls for the equipment Local display and local control of the equipment for the operator Remote control functions

All relevant data or parameters can be set locally or remotely via an intelligent terminal (PC/Laptop). A changeover or shut down is also possible. For integrity reasons data entry (input/change) is only possible in the maintenance mode (monitors bypassed). Access to the system is barred by a password procedure with different security levels. The software to be used is referred to as PC User Program (MCS or ADRACS).

1.5.2.5

Power Supply

The batterycharging power supply (BCPS) supplies the entire system with the DC supply voltage (nom. 48 VDC). The BCPS can be connected to a mains input voltage in the range from nominal 115 VAC to 230 VAC. The construction of the BCPS is modular, with a buildingblock concept allowing two 14 A (max.) modules. The power supply has sufficient capacity allowing collocated DME to share the power supply and batteries. The batteries are connected in parallel with the AC/DC converter outputs providing the functionality of an uninterruptible power supply. The BCPS applies the correct voltage required to keep the batteries fully charged. Each transmitter owns dedicated quad output DC/DC converters (+5V,+15V,15 V,+24V). Common modules (i.e. ECU) are fed with combined power from both converters. In addition the power supply subrack contains a low voltage sensing circuit (LVS) and an electronic relais which inhibits deep discharge of a connected battery set. It also contains a single DCConverter (+5 V) which supplies the LCP subassembly to provide operability.

1.5.3

Peripheral subassemblies

The DC power supply is switched on and off with separate DC switches for each transmitter.

1.5.4

General block diagram

Figs. 119, 120 and 121 provide an overview of the subassemblies and signal flow of the ILS GP1F and GP2F system.

122

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Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
A3

GP 422
Functional Description

ANTENNAS
A2

FIELD DIPOLE (opt.) NFM


A1 CSB2 A2* CSB1 A1*

SBO A3*

Power Adder*

PINdiode Transfer Assembly


CRS SBO CRS CSB2*

RF Stdby

RF Stdby

RF onair

NF analog inputs

Stby and OnAir Combiner


detected field and stby signals in CRS SBO CRS CSB2*

CRS CSB1

CRS CSB1

TRANSMITTER 1
CLR

TRANSMITTER 2
CLR

Monitor Interface

RF Signal Generation and Amplification

RF Signal Generation and Amplification

to TX1 to TX2 MONITOR 1

Executive Control Unit MONITOR 2

Modulation Signal Generator

Modulation Signal Generator

Monitor Signal Processor

Monitor Signal Processor

Local Remote Communication Interface

DC/DC converter

DC/DC converter

Local Display

DC/DC converter

I Main DC switch I

* GP2F standard: A1: CSB+SBO+Clear. A2: CSB+SBO A3: SBO+Clear CSB2 A2 not used, A2 fed by Power adder

BCPS AC/DC converter


Battery fuse switch I PTT line RC Local PC

Transmitter Cabinet
Emergency Battery (Pb) 48 V (53.5 V)

Mains 230 VAC

Fig. 18
Ed. 01.04

Basic structure of an ILS GP; example GP2F active, dual


SOAC

123

GP 422
Functional Description

ILS 420
Equipment Description

124

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.6 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRANSMITTER

GP 422
Functional Description

This functional description of the transmitter provides a introduction to the signal generation and conditioning. It will be of use in understanding the subsequent chapters, since certain relationships are discussed in advance.

1.6.1

Overview

The ILS 420 transmitter generates and radiates radio frequency (RF) signals to provide final approach glide path navigation information to landing aircraft. The aircraft interprets the signals and displays them on the cockpit indicator, guiding the pilot until the runway is in sight. The deflection of the cockpit indicator needle is directly proportional to the aircrafts angular displacement from the centerline, within a 0.155 (LLZ) or 0.175 (GP) difference in depth of modulation (DDM) limit (150 mA). Consequently, the needles position reflects very accurately the aircrafts distance from the glide path and the pilots subsequent adjustments. Thales ATMs ILS transmitters use its patented sidebandonly (SBO) generation process to digitally generate signals and high gain feedback loops that assure accurate and stable output signals. The 90 and 150Hz navigation tones are precise, as are the high gain RF envelopes that follow these tones. The transmitters meet all of the signal generation, control, accuracy, fidelity, and stability requirements of ICAO Annex 10.
LEFT BESIDE ON RIGHT BESIDE Approach path (LLZ) ON BELOW ABOVE Approach path (GP)

150 uA

150 uA

15.5 % (90)

0.0 %

15.5 % (150)

17.5 % (90) 150 uA 0.0 % 150 uA 17.5 % (150)

Cockpit Indication

Cockpit Indication

Fig. 19

Cockpit indication

The Transmitter requires only 3 circuit cards to develop a complete ILS signal: Audio generator Modulator/Power Amplifier (2 in a dual system) Synthesizer

1.6.2

Audio Generator

The Audio Generator and the monitor processor use the same hardware but different firmware.The audio generator generates all of the navigation and identification information used to modulate the ILS RF carrier, and it provides the means to control the radiated signal. The audio generator digitally creates the systems navigation signals, which essentially eliminates it as a source of error. The audio generator provides four channels of digital synthesized navigation information, one each for course carrierplussideband (CSB), course sideband only (SBO), clearance CSB (Clear. in the GP2F), and clearance SBO (used in the "active" GP2F for CSB2). Each of these synthesizers use a 12bit digitaltoanalog (D/A) converter that outputs 512 separate data points for each ILS cycle (1/30th of a second), assuring very accurate and precise navigation audio that allow a DDM control resolution of 0.0005. The audio generator is completely independent of the monitor. The Executive Control Unit (ECU) and the Local Control Panel (LCP) control the ability of the audio generator to accept commands by gating the monitor write pulse with an active low enable signal. This enable signal is active only during the initialization period immediately following a system reset or when the system is accessed through the Local PC or LCP interface.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

125

GP 422
Functional Description

ILS 420
Equipment Description

This write control approach allows audio generator programming and calibration flexibility while maintaining audio generator/monitor independence for failsafe objectives. The interface electrically programmable logic device (EPLD) receives data and control inputs from the monitor through an 8bit data bus. During station startup, the monitor board reads all the station requirements from nonvolatile memory, including these data inquiries: Is the station a localizer or glide slope? Is there single or dual transmitters? Is there a distancemeasuring equipment (DME) station to be keyed? (not used in GP) What are the station DDM and RF levels and % of modulation for each CSB and SBO output?

When all the pattern calculations are completed, the monitor then loads the information to the randomaccess memory (RAM). The RAM information is in the form of complete navigation waveform in digital format. This exact information is converted to analog signal by very accurate 12bit D/A converters, filtered, and amplified through operational amplifiers and output to the modulator/power amplifier. Once loaded, the monitor and the audio generator remain independent until a change in station parameters is input by an operator. The complete navigation waveform always uses the full 12 bits of the D/A converter for best possible accuracy. The amplitude (RF level and modulation) is set using an 8bit multiplying D/A converter that functions as an accurate 256step level control.
auto boot sequencer Board personality serial communication External signals (10) UART digital input Processor External signals (8) frequency measure MUX EEPROM station config. memory used for audio generator only CSB/SBO CRS CLR/CSB2 (GP active) analog wave generator Ident (not GP) Integrity Flash program memory used for monitor only digital output RS 422 output

External signals (20) External signals (3) Internal signals

analog measure MUX

RAM data memory

Fig. 110

Audio Generator principle

1.6.3

Synthesizer

The synthesizer uses high frequency, phase stable temperaturecompensated crystal oscillators (TCXO) and stateoftheart direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology to produce its lownoise signal. The use of DDS allows a phase detector to operate at a frequency more than 350 times the 25 kHz of conventional phaselocked loop (PLL) designs. The advantage of this technique over conventional designs is that it gives a potential of 48 dB more phase correction gain at 150 Hz. The heart of the synthesizers design is its DDS integrated circuit. The synthesizers DDS and 10bit D/A converter are combined into one package that is specified for clock speeds up to 125 MHz and for output frequencies of up to 40 MHz. The synthesizers frequency decoding is on the board, which makes it very easy to use. The operator needs only to know the desired frequency, which he or she can then set with the synthesizers BCD jumpers. No charts or tables required, and no additional jumpers required. By setting the frequency, the operator selects whether the SYN functions as a localizer or glide path synthesizer.

126

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Functional Description

The frequency accuracy is achieved by the use of a stable TCXO and small frequency steps allowed by the DDS design. The TCXO has a specified frequency tolerance of 10 parts per million (ppm) from 40 to 85 C. The carrier frequencies are phase locked to this frequency. The station frequency and frequency offset for the capture effect is set by the program in the programmable erasable readonly memory (EPROM). The 8 kHz course/clearance frequency difference will be set to less than 2 Hz error and phase locked to the same TCXO so that there is always less than 2 Hz error. The 8 kHz frequency difference is either counted down to 125 Hz to be compatible with existing systems or selected by direct 8 kHz (jumper) for use in a more accurate difference detector.
VCO LLZ DDS PLL VCO GP EPLD EPROM TCXO VCO LLZ DDS PLL VCO GP ampl. RF out LLZ or GP (2) CLR ampl.

BCD jumper frequency select

RF out LLZ or GP (1) CRS

Fig. 111

Synthesizer principle

1.6.4

Modulator/Power Amplifier

The ILS 420 Modulator Power Amplifiers (MODPA) modulate and amplify the CSB and SBO signals and they monitor and measure output power and reflected power. The MOPA includes three main circuits: the CSB modulator, the SBO modulator, and the linear power amplifier.

1.6.4.1

CSB Modulator

The forward power RF sample is used in two feedback loops, the AM loop and the CSB phase control loop. The AM loop modulates the transmitter and corrects any AM modulation distortion. The audio generator creates the CSB Audio waveform, which consist of a DC level, the 90 and 150 Hz audio tones, and the Ident tone. It is input into one side of the AM loop error amplifier. Also, an audio signal from a highly linear AM detector which is driven from the RF Output sample obtained from the directional coupler is input to the loop error amplifier. The input DC level sets the desired RF carrier power and the detected DC level is proportional to the actual RF carrier power. Similarly, the levels of the 90 and 150 Hz tones, relative to the DC level, at the input of the error amplifier set the desired modulation percentage for each tone. The detected level of these tones represents the actual modulation percentage, including the effects of modulator and linear amplifier nonlinearity. The signals are applied to the differential inputs of the AM error amplifier where the difference between them is amplified and output as a control voltage which is applied to the AM modulator. The result is a closed loop feedback control system which continuously detects, and compensates for, any deviation in RF power, or modulation percentage. It also removes any distortion introduced by the AM modulator or the linear RF power amplifier. Thus the output power and modulation percentage are accurately determined by the digitally generated input CSB signal from the audio generator. The CSB phase control loop operates like the AM loop and has two main functions. The first is to set and maintain the phase relationship between the input RF carrier signal (from the Synthesizer) and the modulated output carrier. This maintains the desired phase relationship between the CSB and SBO signals (in conjunction with similar loops in the SBO section which are also referenced to the input carrier). The second function of the CSB phase control loop is to compensate for any undesired phase modulation of the RF carrier occurring in the linear RF power amplifier. This form of phase modulation, often referred to as AM to PM conversion, commonly occurs in highly efficient linear RF power amplifiers, and may result in undesired PM sidebands on the transmitter output.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

127

GP 422
Functional Description
Phase modulator RF carrier input from SYN power divider power divider
CW RF to SBO

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Pin Diode AM modulator Power amplifier modulator AM control loop Carrier
reference phase

coupler CSB out

phase detector

CSB section

CSB audio waveform from audio generator


RF OUT

GP2F active jumper select: SBO RF out ext. RF SBO in

I and Q modulator

in phase power combiner

Power amplifier modulator

coupler SBO out

RF IN CW RF from CSB

power divider Carrier I detector Q detector

SBO section
reference phase

SBO audio waveform I and Q from audio generator

Fig. 112

Modulator Power Amplifier, principle

1.6.4.2

SBO Modulator

The SBO section controls the SBO Power, suppresses the RF carrier, and adjusts the SBO phase relative to the CSB phase over the full range of 0 to 360 degrees. Full 360 degree phase adjustment saves installation time by eliminating the need to trim RF cables to correct phase lengths. The IQ modulator use two balanced modulators. One modulates the 0 degree (I) signal from the power divider, and the other modulates the 90 degree (Q) signal. The two modulated signals are then summed in the inphase power combiner to obtain the vector summation of the 0 and 90 degree components. For example, equal level control signals applied to both modulators will produce a vector sum of 45 degrees. Thus any output phase may be obtained by adjusting the relative proportion, and the polarity, of I and Q control signals. The power output obtained is proportional to the magnitude of the two signals. The output phase will be constant as the power is varied with the control voltages, provided the relative amplitude ratio is held constant between the I and Q voltages. The balanced modulators also suppress the RF carrier. Ideally, with 0 Volts on the control port, the output from each modulator is 0. If an AC signal, symmetrical about 0 Volts, is applied, the output from each modulator is a double sideband, suppressed carrier, or SBO signal. By adjusting the relative magnitude, and polarity, of the AC signals applied to the I and Q modulation ports, an operator can obtain an SBO signal of any desired phase from 0 to 360 degrees.

1.6.4.3

Linear Power Amplifiers for CSB and SBO

The ILS 420 power stages uses RF Power FETs. For added protection, the amplifiers incorporate a reverse power sensor and fold back circuit which reduces the power output until the load mismatch is corrected. Each amplifier includes forward and reverse power sensors and detectors providing power measurement outputs to the system monitor and portable maintenance data terminal. The power amplifiers are conservatively designed and fully capable of continuous CW power outputs in excess of the peak envelope power required for full modulation as indicated in the following: Amplifier Localizer CSB Rated Carrier Power 25 W Required Peak Envelope Power (@ 80 % modulation) 80 W CW Power Output Capability >100 W Glide Path CSB 5W 18 W >25 W
SOAC Ed. 01.04

128

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.7 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MONITOR

GP 422
Functional Description

This functional description of the monitor provides an introduction to the monitoring concept. Its purpose is to help you understand how the ILS 420 works and how its subsystems interrelate.

1.7.1

Overview

Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe landings. The Thales ATM highintegrity Monitor continually measures and analyzes these signals, comparing their current values to stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the Monitor signals an alarm condition. Fig. 113 shows the information flow and Fig. 114 lists the monitored parameters for the onantenna (Executive and Field groups) and the "hot" Standby group.
Monitoring and Control Transmitter 1
Synthesizer 1 Monitor Interface (INTFC) Monitor path 1 Audio Demodulator Monitor path 2 Audio Demodulator Synthesizer 2

Transmitter 2

MODPA 1 RF power amplifiers

LGA 1 Audio Generator

LGM 1 Monitor Audio 1 enable

ECU Executive Control Unit

LGM 2 Monitor Audio 2 enable

LGA 2 Audio Generator

MODPA 2 RF power amplifiers

Side1 Tx enable RF out 1

Antenna select

Side2 Tx enable RF out 2 4 PINdiode switches (LLZ2F, GP2F active) stby

Antennas onair Antenna Distribution Unit

Stby and OnAir Combiner

Fig. 113
LLZ

ILS 420 monitoring, simplified block diagram


GP GP Executive Monitor RF level of course position DDM of course position SDM of course position RF level of course width DDM of course width SDM of course width RF level of clearance width DDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width CRS/CLR RF frequency difference Monitor autocalibration Executive Monitor BITE Forced Alarm ECU status poll rate Synthesizer lock RF channel LLZ LLZ Near Field Monitor RF level of course position nearfield DDM of course position nearfield SDM of course position nearfield LLZ Standby Monitor RF level of course position DDM of course position SDM of course position RF level of course width DDM of course width SDM of course width RF level of clearance width DDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width CRS/CLR RF frequency difference Synthesizer lock RF channel GP GP Near Field Monitor RF level of course position nearfield DDM of course position nearfield SDM of course position nearfield GP Standby Monitor RF level of course position DDM of course position SDM of course position RF level of course width DDM of course width SDM of course width RF level of clearance width DDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width CRS/CLR RF frequency difference Synthesizer lock RF channel

LLZ Executive Monitor RF level of course position DDM of course position SDM of course position Ident modulation RF level of course width DDM of course width SDM of course width RF level of clearance width DDM of clearance width SDM of clearance width CRS/CLR RF frequency difference Antenna cable fauIt (opt.) Monitor autocalibration Executive Monitor BITE Continuous Ident Lack of Ident Forced Alarm ECU status poll rate Synthesizer lock RF channel

Fig. 114
Ed. 01.04

Monitored parameters
SOAC

129

GP 422
Functional Description 1.7.2 Monitor Operation

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The monitor processor uses the same hardware as the audio generator, but it uses different firmware. Refer for the hardware description part to in section 1.6.2. Onboard automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of monitor and detector paths. The monitor provides the capability to fully characterize its analog signal processing through programcontrolled adjustments using a precision 5Volt (0.05%) reference. Once its A/D subsystem is characterized, the monitors are then capable of calibrating the detector path (audio generator) which provides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware adjustments. The precision external reference is continuously crossverified using the A/Ds internal precision reference. The Monitors basic "monitoring" function consists of measuring configured detector signals, plus measuring the RF carrier and carrierdifference frequencies. Localizer Monitors measure the Morse Code Ident level and may also optionally measure a cable fault signal. Once a station is operational, detector measurements are continuously cycled as shown in Fig. 115. The measurements performed in the "OTHER" slot is variable, based on configuration. These may alternate between Integrity (one signal), ADCS calibration (one of the 16 ADCS calibration measurements), Field (one signal), and/or hot Standby (two or three signals). The "miscellaneous overhead" is time due to various other processing (e.g. alarm timer processing, alarm history processing, and data file write operation, interrupts due to I/O servicing, higher priority tasks), that adds to the total cycle times.
Capture Effect Localizer Capture Effect Glideslope

Exec Course Position

Exec Path Position

Exec Course Width

Exec Path Width

Exec Clearance Width

Exec Clearance Signal

[ Exec Near Field ]

OTHER

OTHER

misc. overhead *

misc. overhead *

Fig. 115

Detector Measurement Cycles


SOAC Ed. 01.04

130

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Functional Description

There are two modes for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12bit A/D may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conversions of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardwareassisted data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128sample increments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and 30.72 kHz. Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontrollers data memory (SRAM) using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling mode is used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the analysis to be performed on the result. The Monitor has a serial input/output communication link with the Local Control Panel (LCP) for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and system status identifiers: alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation oncommand calibration of audio generator and detectors calibration results of monitor, audio generator, or detectors current executive, field, and/or hot standby parameter readings

1.7.2.1

Executive and Standby Monitoring

The RF signals for monitoring the aerial transmitter are derived from sensors in the antenna system. For LLZ, these RF signals are first processed in the Integral Network in the ADU and fed to the Stby and Onair Combiner (SOAC). The SOAC converts down the received signals (CRS Posn., CRS Width, CLR Width and Nearfield) to an Intermediate Frequency carrier (IF of 8 kHz). The resulting signal is fed to the monitor interface board (INTFC). For GP (and LLZ with LPDantenna),, the Integral Network is part of the SOAC assembly and the incoming RF signals are processed here to CRS Posn., CRS Width and CLR. The RF signals for monitoring of the standby transmitter are derived from the PINdiode transfer switch assembly and fed to the Stby and Onair Combiner, where these signals are down converted to an Intermediate Frequency carrier of (IF of 8 kHz) and following added in phase and amplitude in an appropriate manner to achieve the output signals CRS Posn., CRS Width and CLR Width (CLR for GP). The resulting signal is fed to the monitor interface board (INTFC).

1.7.2.2

Alarm Identification

Digital signal processing techniques provide system status with minimal time delay. To fully characterize the valid operation of an ILS 420 station, a predefined set of signal must be measured and validated. The monitor extracts the value of these parameters from the detected analog signals using Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) for the timetofrequency domain conversion of the critical 90 and 150 Hz navigation signal components. Additionally, frequency (e.g. carrier frequency) and/or period (e.g. carrier frequency difference) measurements are performed on selected digital signals.

1.7.2.3

Monitor Interface

Transformer coupling provides isolation of electronics subsystem from incoming monitoring signals. The monitor interface (INTFC) provides signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide path facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and the systems integral and field detectors.

1.7.2.4

Fail Safe

The ILS 420 monitor includes many failsafe checks. A failsafe trigger could potentially impact continuityofservice or at least levelofservice; for instance the system could switch from CAT. III to CAT. II or CAT. I, at least momentarily. But the ILS 420 monitor minimizes this possibility with its high availability mode. This mode uses two monitors which must agree on alarm status (i.e. alarmAND) before any control action is taken.
Ed. 10.04 01.04 SOAC

131

GP 422
Functional Description

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Therefore, a momentary "glitch" on one Monitor, even resulting in a Monitor reset, should not result a transfer or shutdown, since concurrent failures on both Monitors are very improbable.

1.7.3

Executive Control Unit

The Executive Control Unit (ECU) ensures that safe guidance signals are generated by the ILS station. This unit controls where each of the redundant transmitting equipment is routed; to antenna or standby load, whether on or off, and, by periodically checking with both monitors, keeps a good signal in space by automatically changing equipment when a failure is detected. Due to the criticality of ensuring a good signal in space, the ECU employs multiple redundant control, alarm detection, and shutdown circuits to achieve the highest level of safety. Fig. 116 shows the ECUs principle diagram. Station control and status is communicated by the ECU to the Local Control Panel (LCP) using a single serial interface. This interface conveys such information as turning a particular equipment on/ off, bypass, changing mains, and interlock status. Replies provide status from each redundant control path to permit maximum flexibility for built in test capabilities. Unique customer applications can be accommodated by configuration switches on the ECU. These switches allow the user to define: Which equipment is the default main Enable station interlock or standalone Require both LGM to show alarm before alarm action or only one LGM (and/or) Define standby equipment to be default hot/cold Enable field monitoring Enable executive alarm action with field monitoring Define station to shutdown if communication to LCP lost, or remain in last operational state Define whether DME to be interlocked with ILS or to be enabled whenever ILS is on (not GP)
UART 3
Bypass to 1 to 3 Mon 1 pres TX1 pres Mon 2 pres TX2 pres Bypass 1 System configuration Status

serial communication to/from LCP

Configuration switch Station Control 1st

Antenna Select

Integ. detector
Field Field Standby Standby Alarm 1 Alarm 2 Alarm 1 Alarm 2 Bypass 2 Integrity A1 Integrity B1 Integrity A2 Integrity B2 Bypass 3 Executive Alarm 1 Executive Alarm 2 Shutdown 1A

Station Control 2nd Integ. detector

Redundant Shutdown

Shutdown 1B Shutdown 2A Shutdown 2B

Off Tx1/Tx2 Integrity status

3rd safety shutdown clck fail detect.

3
Executive on

Status poll combiner Buffer


Status poll 1 Status poll 2

from LGA

Integr. test signal

to LGM

Fig. 116

Executive Control Unit, principle


SOAC Ed. 01.04

132

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Functional Description

In order to maintain a failsafe design on a single circuit card assembly, redundancy is applied to the station stepping control and shutdown logic. Two programmable logic devices (PLD) process the user commands received from the serial interface to select primary control of the station: setting which equipment is on antenna, or to bypass alarm processing for station setup and test. At all times, these PLD maintain a constant vigil on the station monitors, checking for any alarm condition, and if not otherwise bypassed by the Local Control Panel (LCP), will cause station equipment change in the event of an executive alarm. A third, failsafe, path echoes these two PLD, capable of an entire station shutdown should the other two paths fail. This third path uses a different architecture, consisting of a different PLD type and a resistor/capacitor (RC) timed one shot to validate the health of the LGM executive alarms. This third path not only checks for the alarm status, but, by using the RC one shot, also detects clock failures of the ECU. Redundant logic is used also to disable both equipment transmitter chains to prevent unwanted transmissions. Two stacks (or totem poles) of three transistors each are combined so that any one transistor being turned off will disable the transmitter of the offending equipment. One totem pole turns off the audio modulation, the other the Synthesizer. The three redundant detection logic circuits described above each drive one of these three transistors. The redundant logic is further augmented by monitoring integrity validation circuitry (see Fig. 117). The integrity tests assure that the monitors are capable of differentiating between two test signals. The test signals are generated by the LGA. The ECU multiplexes these two test signals from the onair LGA to both LGM, and then verifies that the LGM responds with an alarm condition on the appropriate integrity status line. If an LGM fails to respond appropriately, the ECU removes that particular monitor from alarm action consideration; relying solely on the alternate LGM. Should the offending LGM later respond correctly, it is again returned into alarm action consideration.

Audio Generator 1

Raw integrity B #1 Raw integrity A #1 Alarm status poll Integrity A alarm #1 Integrity B alarm #1 Integrity measure #1 Integrity fail #1

Monitor 1

Executive Control Unit ECU

Integrity test signal

Antenna select

Integrity A/B select

Monitor 2

Alarm status poll Integrity A alarm #2 Integrity B alarm #2 Integrity measure #2 Integrity fail #2

Audio Generator 2

Raw integrity A #2 Raw integrity B #2

Fig. 117

Monitor verification testing

By implementing all local control logic functions on a single CCA, the Thales ATM ECU requires no special grounding, mounting, or enclosure requirements because it is mounted directly into the localizer or glide slope electronics card cage. Since the design is implemented using lowspeed digital logic, there are no shielding requirements for electromagnetic interference.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

133

GP 422
Functional Description 1.7.3.1 Fail Safe

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The ECU plays a critical role in the FailSafe design, and the complete hardware implementation increases design testability and failsafe analysis. The primary responsibility of the ECU is to ensure that an alarm indication from the monitor subsystem results in a station transfer or shutdown. This implies that any failure in the control unit must manifest itself in one of two ways: a control unit failure must directly result in a station shutdown, or the failure must not prevent the control unit from recognizing a monitor alarm and taking appropriate action. Given these constraints, the control units function must be implemented with some level of redundancy. Any single, nonredundant control function possesses an inherent single point failure which can impede required operation. In addition, any redundant implementation must be fully testable in order to eliminate any common mode failures between similar components within the design. The shutdown detection logic is validated by means of independent bypass controls. By applying a bypass to the two opposing control paths and causing an alarm, each control path can be independently confirmed to be capable of detecting an alarm and equipment shutdown. The Thales ATM approach to the ILS 420 control unit provides a tripleredundant hardware solution which is fully testable using straightforward logical analysis. In addition, each of the redundant control sections are individually testable during system integrity diagnostics to ensure proper operation and to prevent failure latency.

134

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.8 1.8.1 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION LRCI Overview

GP 422
Functional Description

The Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) facilitates all interfaces between the equipment groups. The LRCIs task is to communicate with the different functions, including equipment controls, local display, local controls, and remote control functions. The LRCI includes the Local Control Panel (LCP), individual optional Modem units, and the optional voice amplifier (VAM) module (LLZ only). The Modem units enable remote communication. Modems used for dedicated or switched line applications are available.

1.8.2

Introduction to the LCP

Each equipment (ILSLLZ, ILSGP) includes an LCP The LCP consists of a microprocessor 80386 . SX, which is called the Local Control CPU board (LCCPU) and a station status display which is called the Local Control Interface (LCI). The LCI is controlled by the LCCPU. The LCP enables the control of the LRCIs functions and local control. It provides main status indication, equipment status, and measurement data. The Local Control Interface (LCI) has indication lamps for the main status and a menu driven liquid crystal display (LCD) for indication of status and measurement data, and it includes manual controls for simple commands like TX on/off or change TX. Besides serial data interfaces to the monitor and transmitter processors, there is an RS 232C interface so that an operator can use the PC User Program to locally and/or remotely (through the Modem) control the equipment from a PC. The LCP main features are: Communication to subsystems Interface to collocated stations (DME, NDB) BuiltIn Test equipment (BIT) BCPS Control Programming station parameters

The LCP is the interface of the NAVStation to the outside world, e.g. Remote Control. The LCP controls up to ten serial control channels. A NAVStation normally consists of two transmitters, two monitors (which are called subsystems) and the LCP It is also possible to collocat stations like NDB or DME . and have their data accessible through the LCP .

1.8.3

Data Transmission

When the station is switched on, the LCP reads the configuration files in the RAMFloppy, initializes the Station, and brings it into a normal operational state. The communication between LCP and the subsystems works on the masterslave principle. The LCP automatically sends queries (which are called INTERNAL) with a configured frequency between 0.04 Hz and 10 Hz (in steps of 100 ms) to the subsystems (monitors, transmitters). From the subsystems answers, the LCP gets the necessary information to determine the Main Status of the station and to check if all subsystems are available and working correctly. If the remote control is connected, it is possible to get directly data from transmitters, monitors, or the LCP itself to have detailed status information or to program station parameters. Every time data are requested from a PC, the LCP sends also the INTERNAL telegrams to compose the Main Status. For reliability reasons, the telegrams are checked with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) after ANSI X3.991979 with the CCIT V.41 generator polynomial.
07.06 Ed. 01.04 SOAC

135

GP 422
Functional Description 1.9 1.9.1 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY Overview

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 118. The power supply used for the ILS system is normally the 230 VAC mains. An emergency power supply must be provided by a battery to ensure that operation is not interrupted if the mains power fails. The 230 V mains supplies the BatteryCharging Power Supply (BCPS), which in turn supplies a DC voltage to the navigation system and keeps the parallel floating battery charged. An uninterruptible power supply is thus available for a transitional period if the mains power fails. One of the two power modules (ACC) acts as a standby in case of failures, making the system extremely reliable. The output voltage is normally 54 V DC (max. 14 A per module), corresponding to the maximum charge of a lead battery with 24 cells. The number of modules which are connected in parallel is sufficient not only to operate the navigation system, but also to permit the floating battery to be recharged within a reasonable time. If one of the modules fails, the other continue working normally. The BCPS provides the supply voltage to the main DCswitches TX1 and TX2, which are used to switch on or off the DC supply voltage for the two transmitters, either individually or together. The switches also provide an overcurrent protection. In addition, a low voltage sensing circuit (LVS) is implemented which senses the 48 V supply voltage to cut off the supply line to the emergency battery if the operating voltage drops below 43 V; this prevents the battery from being exhausted and damaged. Downstream of switches TX1 and TX2 are the quad output DC converters (DCCMV), which supply the voltages for the transmitters, monitors and the LRCI. They generate the component voltages 5 V, 15 V and 24 V exactly from the nom. 48 V (43...62 V). The DC converters take the form of switching regulators. They incorporate circuits for current limiting, overvoltage cutoff, and internal monitoring. To supply common functions in the ILS equipment the supply voltages +5/15 V are ored by diodes. The converters can also be switched on or off electronically (e.g. command from LCP). Besides the common voltages for ECU and Interface a separate DCconverter (5 V) is used to supply the LCP and Modem equipment, which remain operable if the quad converter are shut down. The transmitter and monitor assemblies are supplied by separate power supply modules. The LRCI, ECU and Interface CCA are operational as soon as at least one TX switch is switched on. A transmitter system (e.g. TX1) is electronically switched on or off either by the LRCI or the monitors via the ECU with control lines which enable or disable the Synthesizer board.

1.9.2

Startup Procedure

When the system is switched on first time with the TX1 and/or TX2 switches, all the power supply modules will be connected to the 54 V voltage. The system is initialized and is ready to start operation. The control of the station is performed via the connected PC and running User Program. The request ENTER PASSWORD appears on the PC. If an input is not made, or if an incorrect password is entered, further action will not be possible. If the password is entered correctly, the system is ready to accept commands. Transmitter TX1 or TX2 can then be switched on via the LRCI or the connected PC with the appropriate command. If the station is completely aligned and setup normal operation starts if the power is switched on.

136

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Functional Description

Transmitter 1
SYN

Monitor 1
PINDiode Transfer Switch 5V +15 V 15 V

Monitor 2

Transmitter 2
SYN

24 V

5V +15 V 15 V

SOAC INTFC ECU

5V +15 V 15 V

5V +15 V 15 V

24 V

LRCI
Shutdown 1 Shutdown 2

LGA 1/2 DCCMV DCCMV

DCC5
F4

Transmitter 1
TX1 TX2

Transmitter 2

Sense

Under voltage sense

relay

ACC (BCPSModule)

54 VDC
F5

Emergency Battery

Mains 230 VAC

collocated equipment

Control line

Fig. 118
Ed. 01.04

Power supply, block diagram


SOAC

137

GP 422
Functional Description

ILS 420
Equipment Description

138

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
from Transmitter 2
not used CRS SBO CRS CSB
load

GP 422
Functional Description
BType with PADS

TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1


RFcw CSB SBO Q

ANTENNA SYSTEM
80 cable

PADS*
Power Adder

MODPA 1/1
CRS CSB Carrier modulator CRS CSB Power Amplifier Sideband modulator CRS SBO Power Amplifier not used Stdby RF

load phase shifter

Course (CRSCSB) Course (CRSSBO)

BType: CSB+SBO, LSB PIN Diode Transfer switch RF aerial BType: SBO, USB SBO* Posn. NF CSB* lower

CRS SBO

A1 A2

Outputs to the antenna arrays A1, A2 with 0Reference (BType)*

SYN
Synthesizer

SBO I

upper

Nearfield Dipole (opt.)

CW RF f0 CW RF f0 offset
to SOAC Transfer Control Antenna Select

IN A1 IN A2

A1 A2
CW RFoffset (from SYN TX2)

Inputs from the integral coupling probes of A1, A2

CW RFoffset (from SYN TX1)

Stby and OnAir Combiner


internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

SOAC

* BType signal characteristics set by DDM preadjustment (DDM not 0) or alternatively with Power Adder PADS

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. Analog/Digital data (bus) Syn data Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity A#1 Monitor Bypassed

INTFC
Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus) Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#2 Raw Integrity A#2 Monitor Bypassed to SYN

to MODPA 1/2

LGA /1
Audio Generator

LGM /1
Monitor Processor

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Integrity test signal 1 ECU Poll

ECU
Executive Control Unit

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#2 Raw Integrity B alarm#2 Integrity test signal 2 ECU Poll

LGM /2
Monitor Processor

LGA /2
Audio Generator

DC supply BITE

V.24 / RS232

TRANSMITTER 2 MONITOR 2
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232

DC supply BITE

to transmitter 1 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

to transmitter 2 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232


Smoke det. Alarm Smoke det. reset Intrusion Alarm

DCCMV

F4

DCCMV

to LGA /2 Analog Inputs (spare) DC supply +5 V V.24 / RS232

TX1 (48 VDC nom.)

TX2 53,5 VDC

MODEM
LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8

LCCPU
Local Control CPU 2

LCI
Local Control Indicator

Local Control Panel

LCP

ACC ACC
F5

LVS

DCC5
+5 V Analog Inputs (spare) 2

RS232/TTL (opt.)

RS232/TTL

V.24 / RS232

16

16

Local/Remote Communication Interface

LRCI

Smoke Det. Intrusion Temp. outside etc.

LGM1
Remote Site

LGM2/DME
2nd modem (opt.)

LGM3/NDB
digital I/O (spare)

Local PC
(ADRACS)

Inputs
(spare)

Outputs
(spare)

Environmental sensors

Mains
115 to 230 VAC

DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system (if available)

to emergency battery (if available)

Fig. 119
Ed. 01.10 SOAC

ILS GP1F; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

139

ILS 420
Equipment Description
CLR CRS CSB2 CRS SBO CRS CSB1

GP 422
Functional Description

TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1


RFcw CSB1 SBO Q

CW RF CRS to SOAC

from Transmitter 2

ANTENNA SYSTEM
phase shifter*

MODPA 1/1
CRS CSB1 Carrier modulator CRS CSB Power Amplifier Sideband modulator CRS SBO Power Amplifier RF SBO out (RFcw) CW RF CLR to SOAC

Course (CRSCSB1) Course (CRSSBO)

DDM=12 % CRS SBO CRS CSB2 CLR Stdby RF PIN Diode Transfer switch

CSB1 SBO
6 dB opt.

PADA
Power Adder

phase shifter*

CSB1A1/clear. SBOA3/Clear.

lower upper middle

A1 A3 A2

Outputs to the antenna arrays A1, A2, A3

SYN
Synthesizer

SBO I

CSB2 CLR
6 dB opt.

CSB2A2

CW RF f0 + 4 kHz CW RF f0 4 kHz
RFcw (CL)

Nearfield Dipole (opt.)


IN A1 IN A2 IN A3

Posn. NF

MODPA 2/1
RF SBO in (RFcw for CSB2) Carrier modulator CRS CSB2 Power Amplifier Clearance modulator CLR Power Amplifier

Transfer Control Antenna Select

CSB2 SBO Q SBO I

A1 A2 A3

Inputs from the integral coupling probes of A1, A2, A3

Course (CRSCSB2) Clearance (CLR)

DDM=48 % DDM=30% CW RF CRS CW RF CLR (from SYN TX1 via MODPA)

Stby and OnAir Combiner


internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

SOAC

CW RF CRS CW RF CLR (from SYN TX2 via MODPA)

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. Analog/Digital data (bus) Syn data Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity A#1 Monitor Bypassed

INTFC
Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus) Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc.

Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#2 Raw Integrity A#2 Monitor Bypassed

to SYN

to MODPA 1/2

LGA /1
Audio Generator

LGM /1
Monitor Processor

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Integrity test signal 1 ECU Poll

ECU
Executive Control Unit

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#2 Raw Integrity B alarm#2 Integrity test signal 2 ECU Poll

LGM /2
Monitor Processor

LGA /2
Audio Generator

DC supply BITE

V.24 / RS232

TRANSMITTER 2 MONITOR 2
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232

DC supply BITE

to transmitter 1 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

to transmitter 2 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232


Smoke det. Alarm Smoke det. reset Intrusion Alarm

DCCMV

F4

DCCMV

to LGA /2 Analog Inputs (spare) DC supply +5 V V.24 / RS232

TX1 (48 VDC nom.)

TX2 53,5 VDC

MODEM
LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8

Local Control CPU 2

LCCPU

Local Control Indicator

LCI

Local Control Panel

LCP

ACC ACC
F5

LVS

DCC5
+5 V Analog Inputs (spare) 2

RS232/TTL (opt.)

RS232/TTL

V.24 / RS232

16

16

Local/Remote Communication Interface

LRCI

Smoke Det. Intrusion Temp. outside etc.

LGM1
Remote Site

LGM2/DME
2nd modem (opt.)

LGM3/NDB
digital I/O (spare)

Local PC
(ADRACS)

Inputs
(spare)

Outputs
(spare)

Environmental sensors

Mains
115 to 230 VAC

DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system (if available)

to emergency battery (if available)

* optional

Fig. 120
Ed. 01.10 SOAC

ILS GP2F active; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

141

ILS 420
Equipment Description
CLR

GP 422
Functional Description

TRANSMITTER 1 and MONITOR 1


RFcw CSB SBO Q

CW RF CRS to SOAC

CRS SBO CRS CSB

from Transmitter 2

ANTENNA SYSTEM
phase shifter

MODPA 1/1
CRS CSB Carrier modulator CRS CSB Power Amplifier Sideband modulator CRS SBO Power Amplifier not used CLR CW RF CLR to SOAC RFcw (CL) Stdby RF Posn. NF

Course (CRSCSB) Course (CRSSBO)

CSB CRS SBO PIN Diode Transfer switch SBO

PADS
6 dB opt.

CSB+SBO+Clear. CSB+SBO
phase shifter

lower middle upper

A1 A2 A3

Power Adder

Outputs to the antenna arrays A1, A2, A3

SYN
Synthesizer

SBO I

CLR

SBO+Clear.

CW RF f0 + 4 kHz CW RF f0 4 kHz

Nearfield Dipole (opt.)

MODPA 2/1
not used not used Clearance modulator CLR Power Amplifier

Transfer Control Antenna Select

IN A1 IN A2 IN A3

SBO Q SBO I

A1 A2 A3

Inputs from the integral coupling probes of A1, A2, A3

Clearance (CLR)

CW RF CRS CW RF CLR (from SYN TX1 via MODPA)

Stby and OnAir Combiner


internal sensor signals integral sensor signals

SOAC

CW RF CRS CW RF CLR (from SYN TX2 via MODPA)

Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc. Analog/Digital data (bus) Syn data Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#1 Raw Integrity A#1 Monitor Bypassed

INTFC
Monitor Interface board Analog/Digital data (bus) Environmental inputs: Temp., obstruction light, etc.

Shutdown A (Synthesizer) Shutdown B (Modulation) DME Key (ident) Raw Integrity B#2 Raw Integrity A#2 Monitor Bypassed

to SYN

to MODPA 1/2

LGA /1
Audio Generator

LGM /1
Monitor Processor

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#1 Raw Integrity B alarm#1 Integrity test signal 1 ECU Poll

ECU
Executive Control Unit

Ant. select Alarms Exec./Field/Stby Raw Integrity A alarm#2 Raw Integrity B alarm#2 Integrity test signal 2 ECU Poll

LGM /2
Monitor Processor

LGA /2
Audio Generator

DC supply BITE

V.24 / RS232

TRANSMITTER 2 MONITOR 2
V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232

DC supply BITE

to transmitter 1 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

to transmitter 2 DC supply +5 V +15 V 15 V +24 V

V.24 / RS232 V.24 / RS232


Smoke det. Alarm Smoke det. reset Intrusion Alarm

DCCMV

F4

DCCMV

to LGA /2 Analog Inputs (spare) DC supply +5 V V.24 / RS232

TX1 (48 VDC nom.)

TX2 53,5 VDC

MODEM
LGM1200MD o. LGM 28.8

Local Control CPU 2

LCCPU

Local Control Indicator

LCI

Local Control Panel

LCP

ACC ACC
F5

LVS

DCC5
+5 V Analog Inputs (spare) 2

RS232/TTL (opt.)

RS232/TTL

V.24 / RS232

16

16

Local/Remote Communication Interface

LRCI

Smoke Det. Intrusion Temp. outside etc.

LGM1
Remote Site

LGM2/DME
2nd modem (opt.)

LGM3/NDB
digital I/O (spare)

Local PC
(ADRACS)

Inputs
(spare)

Outputs
(spare)

Environmental sensors

Mains
115 to 230 VAC

DC 48 V to colloc. NAV system (if available)

to emergency battery (if available)

Fig. 121
Ed. 01.10 SOAC

ILS GP2F standard; simplified block diagram (transmitter 2 partly shown)

143

ILS 420
Equipment Description 1.10 1.10.1 NAVAIDS 400 SOFTWARE Overview

GP 422
Software Description

The Navaids 400 software is modular. Its modules are the TRANSMITTER SW, MONITOR SW, LRCI SW and the user software for PC. The equipment SW is stored in the flash program memory of the microprocessor for transmitter (LGA), monitor (LGM) and LCP The valid system version can be . called up via PC.

Navaids 400
Software packages Transmitter software LGA
Signal generation RF amplification, RF radiation

Monitor software LGM


Transmitter/signal monitoring

LRCI software LCP


Communication Local Control

PC User Program software (e.g. ADRACS or MCS)


Operation, maintenance

Fig. 122

System software, overview

1.10.2

PC User Program Software

Much of the software that controls the ILS 420 is transparent to the user. The user controls, assesses, and maintains the system through the PC User Program software, which in turn relates with software that is embedded in the circuit card assemblies (CCAs) in the system itself. The embedded programs control the transmitter and monitor and provide the user information to the PC User Program for status checking and maintenance. The PC User Program ADRACS or MCS is an easytouse interface for remotely monitoring and controlling the ILS 420. It limits access and control by password level and only allows full control to high level operators in the maintenance mode. The maintenance mode includes fault isolation, parameter save and restore, data recording(for trend analysis), history evaluation, and a highly configurable and menu driven technical data display. More details about the PC User Program and its use can be found in the Technical Manual ADRACS, Code No. 83140 55324, or in the Technical Manual MCS, Code No. 83140 55325.

07.06 Ed. 01.04

SOAC

145

GP 422
Software Description 1.10.3 Description of the ILS Transmitter Software

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The ILS 420 transmitter software has two discreet subprograms: Generation and Diagnostics.

1.10.3.1

Generation

The generation subprogram manages two sets of waveforms: the transmitter waveforms and the integrity setup wave forms. TRANSMITTER WAVEFORMS These include the waveforms that setup, configure, and control the transmitter, including the various ontheair calibration functions. AUTO CALIBRATION DATA This file contains data collected by the audio generators A/D subsystem (ADCS) calibration process. This process is immediately performed by the LGA at powerup and continuously thereafter. CONFIGURATION The configuration function is primarily used by the waveform generation function to configure the audio generator for the outputs and functions appropriate to the system it is in. For instance, the configuration function tells the audio generator (LGA) and MODPA what to produce, depending on what system the audio generator is in. It then adapts the audio generator and MODPA outputs to meet the systems needs. INTEGRITY TEST WAVEFORMS This file is a simplified version of the other waveform files, containing the specification for the two Integrity Test Waveforms used during LGM Integrity Test measurements. Each signal has only the basic ILS signal specification for RF Level (i.e. the DC level) SDM and DDM. These files are nonvolatile and readwrite. An Integrity Test Waveform resembles the CSB portion of a normal waveform file. INTEGRITY TEST CALIBRATION DATA This file contains data collected as the result of an audio generators integrity test calibration process performed by the LGA under operator command. The data represents the voltage gain and DC voltage source error components of the audio CCAs programming model and are only accurate for the LGA that performed the calibration. The operator must perform a "calibrate audio" command whenever the LGA is replaced and is recommended only for scheduled periodic maintenance thereafter, so that any component drifts may be compensated and parametric failures may be detected

1.10.3.2

Diagnostics

AUDIO GENERATOR CALIBRATION DATA This file contains data collected as the result of an audio generator calibration process performed by the LGA under operator command. AUDIO GENERATOR DATA This file contains ILS signal data measured from the LGA diagnostic outputs. RF POWER AMPLIFIER (PA) DATA This file contains ILS signal data measured from the LGA and MODPA diagnostic outputs. BIRD WATTMETER DATA (optional) This file contains power measurement data derived from amplified outputs which are connected to optional Bird Wattmeter sensors.

146

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Software Description

MAINTENANCE ALERT DATA NOMINALS This file contains nominal values (i.e. midpoints) used for processing spare A/D input maintenance alerts (exclusive of environmental sensors). The power supply nominals are fixed internally to their respective supply levels. MAINTENANCE ALERT ALARM LIMITS This file contains alarm limit definitions for the continuously collected power supply data. Parameters that do not exist for a configuration are ignored and should be set to the respective nominal for compatibility. NOTE: Setting a limit to its corresponding nominal value disables that limit. Two sets of limits are available to distinguish primary and secondary alert levels, where needed

CURRENT MAINTENANCE ALERT DATA This file contains data collected as the result of the LGAs maintenance monitoring function, plus LGA BIT status bits.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

147

GP 422
Software Description 1.10.4 1.10.4.1 Description of Monitor Software Operating System

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The Monitor uses a Thales ATM developed minimal, preemptive, multitasking kernel, OS196. The entire kernel occupies less than 500 bytes of assembly code (the average 80C196 assembly instruction is about 3 bytes in length). The operating system (OS) allows the Monitor to be efficiently partitioned into independent tasks, simplifying the overall design and minimizing coupling between functions.

1.10.4.2

Software Tasks

Each OS196 task has a statically assigned (i.e. compile time) private stack and priority. All priorities are fixed (i.e. no dynamic priority assignments) and unique to each task (i.e. no roundrobin scheduling). The following table in Fig. 123 lists the eight (8) Monitor tasks along with the tasks name used, a brief description, and each tasks assigned priority. Task name idle rmm_comm file_mgr autocal exec data id_data fp_data Fig. 123 Description OS196 Idle task (always lowest priority) LCP communications task file initialization and EEPROM file write task ADCS (periodic) automatic calibration task ECU interface and status reporting task main data monitoring task (LOC) Ident monitoring task frequency/period monitoring task Priority 8 4 3 7 1 6 2 5

Task definitions and priority assignments

Task priority assignments follow "rate monotonic" guidelines, modified to favor the operational structure of the Monitor code when it is in "normal" monitoring mode. OS196 always checks the stack of each task for overflow before allowing it to transition from the ready to the running state. If a stack overflow is detected, program flow is redirected to OS_reset. Only I/O drivers service interrupts. In general, I/O drivers are dedicated to the specific task which uses its services, since exclusive use of a resource eliminates priority inversion problems. The sole exception is the combination A/D and frequency/period measurement I/O driver (OS_GPIO). Since A/D services are needed by three distinct operational areas: autocal, audio card calibration, and data monitoring, OS_GPIO has a queue manager that is both firstcomefirstserve and firstfit (i.e. the first requester that fits the available resources is granted access). However, access to this driver for A/D measurements is regulated by an access protocol that gives the data task priority when the Monitor is in its normal monitor state.

148

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Software Description

There is no dynamic buffer allocation. All buffers are either static or local (i.e. stack). All control files use a CRC (CCITT16), whose error detection capability is much more extensive than that of simple 2s complement or exclusiveor checksums. All control files are read into a buffer private to each task which uses them (i.e. tasks do not access the common file store). Only one task may write to a file, while any number of tasks may read a file. When a critical setup file is updated, the "file manager" subroutines set a flag for those tasks that need to be informed of the new version. Tasks which write to files, do so by first updating a temporary, private copy. File writes are only performed when the file update is complete. This is true regardless of whether or not a file is volatile. File movement into and outof the file store is via the 80C196s uninterruptible block move instruction. Since all file sizes are relatively small (less than 256 bytes) and the 80C196s blockmove is similar in speed to a DMA operation, the length of time that interrupts are disabled does not impact critical interrupt response times. Nonvolatile files are stored in E2PROM. The architecture of the Monitors memory map overlays the E2PROM with SRAM. Switching between E2PROM and SRAM banks is controlled by a special I/O mapped instruction (via an EPLD) which is used by only one task (the E2PROM task). When E2PROM data is read or write accessed, interrupts are disabled during the access. Access is limited to 8 byte pages to avoid any impact on critical interrupt response times. To ensure the maximum durability of the E2PROM, all write operations are readmodifywrites to avoid unnecessarily (re)programming a location with a value that it already has, thus avoiding premature memory write failure. All tasks requiring Monitor system level files are forced to wait until the entire file system has been verified and copied to its working RAM image. The autocal task continuously monitors the Monitors A/D converter subsystem (ADCS) and the Interface card demodulator (I/FD). Should autocal fail (either a hard or parametric failure), the data task is not allowed to perform any of its detector measurements, which forces the data task to report an alarm status for all detector data groups (i.e. EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity) with all A/D derived data reported as zeroes. This can be seen as the AUTOCAL status bit being in alarm on any of the monitoring data screens. A minimal set of key measurements are made and compared against hardcoded limits derived from design data including the manufacturers data sheets. The basic ADCS calibration measurements correct for net ADCS DC offset error (i.e. corrects to "true" analog ground), net ADCS gain error (i.e. the number of A/D steps per Volt), nominal gainDAC gain error, and DC offsetDAC error. The I/F reference detector signal and its DC offset error measurements compensate for variations in both DC and AC gain plus demodulator DC offset error due to aging and temperature effects in all detector measurements (done by the data task). The autocalibration sequence begins immediately on autocal task activation (i.e. after Monitor reset). There are a total of 16 ADC block conversions, where each block consists of 1024 equally time spaced samples within 1/30 second (or 33.3 ms): 5 for the basic ADCS, 10 for DC offset DAC, and 2 for the Interface CCA. The following table (Fig. 124) shows the raw processor timing for these 16 autocal measurements.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

149

GP 422
Software Description
Signal 5 Volt reference 5 Volt reference analog ground +5 V reference I/F analog ground I/F reference detector DC offset DAC Do= 0 Do=255 Do=1 Do=2 Do=4 Do=8 Do=16 Do=32 Do=64 Do=128 settling [ms] 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 10.0 10.0 processing [ms] 6.1 6.1 16.0 6.1 6.1 42.0 total [ms] 39.6 39.6 49.6 39.6 49.4 85.3

ILS 420
Equipment Description

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 grand total

39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6 699.0

Fig. 124

ADCS autocalibration measurement times

The "DC offset DAC" measurements are for the ADCSs programmable 8bit 0 to +10 Volt DC offset DAC which is used to remove a signals DC portion prior to maximizing the gain for the remaining AC portion. The gains are the nominal values achieved by the ADCSs 8bit gain DAC. The processing time is essentially the raw CPU time required and includes the I/O driver CPU overhead, plus the calculation times associated with each specific signal. The total time is the sum of the processing time plus both the settling and measurement times (recall, measurement time is fixed at 1/30 second). Within the OS196 multitasking environment, other task(s) may run during the time periods due to either the settling or measurement times. Simply adding the processing times gives a grand total of 699.0 ms, which assumes no other task blocks the autocal task during the times that it needs the CPU. This is close to the measured first autocal cycle after powerup, since as mentioned earlier, when the autocal status is bad, the autocal task does not need permission from the data task to access the ADCS. Therefore, when autocal is the only user of the "other" measurements and data task cycles are normal, a full autocal task cycle is about 16 times the LLZs (average) data task measurement cycle time. As noted earlier, the ADCS shares the "other" measurement slot with other configured measurements. The worst case occurs for a LLZ2F (Capture Effect) with Executive Near Field, Far Field, and hot Standby configured. Since the data task cycle time under these conditions is 242 ms and it requires six of these cycles for one ADCS measurement, the total time is: 6 * 16 * 242 ms = 23.23 seconds For all other configurations, this time is shorter. Once all data have been measured and is OK, then the autocal task follows the normal data task cycle access protocol. For a functional Monitor, the autocal task primarily compensates for drift effects, but due to the tight limits of the autocal checks, a hard failure will be detected within one data cycle, while a parametric (i.e. soft) failure may take up 23.23 s as indicated above. Each task performing A/D conversions has a private Direct Memory Access (DMA) block of SRAM statically allocated (i.e. separate autocal and data task SRAM blocks). While A/D measurements within a task may use the same block of SRAM, they alternate between different types of signals. Thus, a failure to perform one measurement is typically detected by the limits applied to the next signal processed.

150

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Software Description

While the use of common signalprocessing hardware has the disadvantage of serial access to signals ((e.g. slower throughput), the advantages are greater: centralized calibration of the "heart" of the Monitor fewer components means a larger MTBF a failure is both is more quickly and more likely detected, since all signal processing goes through a common path The use of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques (when coupled with automatic ADCS calibration) provides driftfree processing of the 90 and 150 Hz navigation components. Almost all drift can be attributed to analog sources external to the I/F detector and Monitor ADCS (e.g. RF cable phase and impedance drift with temperature). When the data (monitoring) task begins (i.e. powerup), all monitoring control files (limits, nominals, detector calibration and normalization) are read and processed into a static control table. The entire control table is checksummed prior to actual monitoring. After every "Monitor data cycle", the control tables checksum is verified to detect memory corruption. If the memory is corrupt, the entire initialization procedure is repeated before monitoring resumes. This reinitialization typically requires less than 2 ms of CPU time and therefore is transparent to normal monitoring (see "ECU status watchdog"). All ECU status I/O is polled (i.e. not interrupt driven) by the Monitors exec task. Thus, if the Monitor software has a stuck interrupt or somehow hangs (i.e. prevents an alarm status report cycle), the ECU will interpret this as an alarm condition and respond appropriately. This Monitor/ECU "handshake" cycles every 26.67 ms (i.e. the ECU detects a dead Monitor within 26.67 ms). Monitors ECU status watchdog: The exec task (highest priority) reports Monitor alarm status to the ECU, and it verifies the update rate of the Monitors EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity data measurements. The maximum ECU status update periods are listed in the following table (Fig. 125). If these periods are not met, then the exec task forces the corresponding groups status into alarm on subsequent ECU status polls, regardless of the data tasks last reported value.
Signal Group EXEC FIELD STANDBY INTEGRITY Must be updated no less than every.. 0.5 seconds 1.0 seconds 6.0 seconds 2.0 seconds

Fig. 125

Maximum ECU status update periods

The purpose of the Integrity test is to verify the Monitor ability to measure signals and perform alarm processing. The ILS 420 does this in an innovative way that is more comprehensive then prior methods employed by any other ILS equipment. Each Audio CCA produces two special Integrity signals (A and B). These signals are routed to the ECU. The Integrity signals from the onantenna equipment are then toggled between signals A and B and fed as one signal into the Monitors Integrity input. While the Monitor measures only one Integrity signal input, it must apply two distinct sets of limits to this single measurement. The signals and limits are designed so that, when the limits are applied to the current Integrity signal input, only one set of limits has no parameters in alarm. The ECU times the responses of the Integrity signal changes sent to the Monitors, and if the Monitors do not issue the correct response within the ECUs hardcoded time limit, then the Monitor is declared to be in Integrity alarm. An Integrity alarm may cause the ECU to initiate executive control action, depending on whether the ECU is configured for alarmAND or alarmOR operation.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

151

GP 422
Software Description 1.10.5 1.10.5.1 Description of LRCI Software Short Description of the Modules

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 126. The LCP Software is a customer of the RMMC Software package, e.g. the LCP Software get the orders from the RMMC part with the DEPOSIT_ORDER command and returns the result with the DEPOSIT_RESULT command. The RMMC part controls the communication to the remote control and the LCP part the communication to the subsystems inside the station. The modules of the LCP Software are: REU_CUSTOMER_MANAGEMENT Receives Order and perform queueing with DEPOSIT_ORDER command. After queueing the PERFORM entry of the task is called and performs a rendezvous with the four subsystem tasks by calling REQUEST_STATI. After completion of data acquisition the SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER reports ALL_READY and terminate the rendezvous. The command SPLIT_RESULT splits the telegram information into data records. The command PUZZLE_Result prepares of these records the RESULT telegrams. The DEPOSIT_Result command finally returns the RESULT telegrams to the RMMC part of the SWPackage. SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER The SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER contains the five tasks depending to each Subsystem (TX1, TX2, MON1, MON2, ECU). It performs the communication between the subsystems and the LCP The . station management provides system data (e.g. Main Status), dependent on the configuration (e.g. TX/MON, DME/INDEP Hot/Cold Stdby) , PS_MANAGER The PS_MANAGER consists of one task: T_BCPS. It is responsible for status of the power supply and the calculation of the battery capacity. LCD_MANAGER of the Station. It consists of two tasks: The T_BUTTON_OBSERVER controls the pushbuttons of the LCIpanel for the LCPmenu, and the T_LCI_CONTROL controls the display of LCItext, and the read/write operation of I/Osignals (e.g. BITsignals from power supply, external shelter signals).
External Communication (e.g. RMMC)
RS232/RS422/T TL RS232/RS422/T TL 2. DIAL COM3 NDB DME COM4 not used TTL LGM1 COM6 RS232 LOCAL PC COM8 RS232 not used COM7 PC

Communication to external units


DEPOSIT RESULT PS_MANAGER DEPOSIT ORDER

T_CONTROL

LCP
T_BCPS SUBSYSTEM_MANAGER T.BUTTON:OBSERVER

Internal Communication
T.LCI CONTROL T_SUB T_SUB T_SUB I_AM READY COM9 COM10 COM1 COM2 COM5 T_SUB T_SUB PERFORM_EXTERNAL_ACTION PERFORM_INTERNAL_ACTION

RS232

Mon1

Mon2

TX1

TX2

ECU

Fig. 126

Overview LCP SW structure


SOAC Ed. 01.04

152


LCD_MANAGER

Terminal (opt.)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP1F

CHAPTER 2 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP1F


2.1 GENERAL
This chapter describes the GP1F system, 0reference and sideband reference (BType). For the subassemblies, only the description of subassemblies which are different to the GP2F are contained in this chapter. References to chapter 3 are made for the other which are identical to GP2F.

2.1.1

System Overview

See Fig. 21, 22. The ILS GP1F installation comprises the following main components and accessories: Transmitter rack housing the transmitter, monitor and power supply/battery charging (BCPS), single or dual Emergency power supply (48 V lead battery) These components are housed in a building or shelter. Since there is possibility of generated oxyhydrogen, the battery is separately housed. Antenna system (refer to Part 3, Antenna System Description) The GP antenna is installed approximately 286 to 344 m beyond the runway threshold and 120 to 180 m from the runway centre line (see Fig. 12). The GP transmitter building (shelter) is installed in the vicinity of the GS antenna. Cable set Grounding The antenna system (including optional nearfield dipole) and the transmitter rack are connected via 5 coaxial cables. The cables are fed via connectors on top of the transmitter rack on the one hand to the PIN diode transfer switch (2x RF out) and on the other hand to the Stby and OnAir Combiner unit (3x RF in) which combines the signal components, which are obtained via the coupling probes integrated in each antenna array. With BType, alternatively a power adder may be additionally inserted in the RFout path which conditions passively the RF output signal required for the BType. The Stby and OnAir Combiner supplies the resulting signals and the signal of the optional nearfield monitor at the antenna site to the monitors: Course position Course width (POSN.) (WIDTH)

A grounding network must be installed around the transmitter building (shelter) which does not afford special symmetrical requirements. The grounding networks of shelter and antenna system must be connected by low resistance. The GP transmitter can be controlled, monitored and maintained from the tower with a respective remote control and monitoring system (e.g. RMMC).

06.05 Ed. 01.04

SOAC

21

GP 422
Description GP1F 2.1.2

ILS 420
Equipment Description Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack

The main components of a GP transmitter rack are as follows (see Fig. 22): Transmitter Monitoring system (monitor) Control and Switching Local/remote communication interface (LRCI) Operating voltage supply

2.1.2.1

Transmitter

The dualized transmitter generates the required RF signals for this type of installation. These signals are fed to and radiated from the antenna system. Signal generation and transmitter control are microprocessor controlled. A single transmitter configuration is also available.

2.1.2.2

Monitor

The dualized monitor is supplied with signals from the internal and integral sensors and with informations obtained from the radiated RF field via an optional nearfield and/or farfield monitor dipole. The RF signals obtained are down converted by the Stby and OnAir Combiner to an Intermediate Frequency carrier and fed via an interface to the monitor signal processor for processing. A single monitor configuration is also available.

2.1.2.3

Control and Switching

The results of the monitor process are supplied to the control and switching function. This function will switchover (in a dual system) or shutdown transmitters if the hardware based decision paths find an appropriate result. Also the other control functions are performed here.

2.1.2.4

Local/Remote Communication Interface

The LRCI is the focal point for internal/external communication between the transmitter and the monitor, the local or remote operator and the system, including any connected subsystems. All communication with the system takes place via a local or remote intelligent terminal (PC or laptop), which is used for all settings, commissioning and maintenance. The MAIN STATUS indication, basic settings (on/off, change over, Mon. Bypass) and call up of certain transmitter or monitor measurement data are performed with the Local Control Interface (LCI) of the Local Control Panel (LCP).

2.1.2.5

Generation of the Operating Voltage

The transmitter rack requires a nominal supply voltage of 48 V. The mains module (ACC) of the BCPS supplies an output DC voltage of 54 V and 14 A max. Two of the modules are connected in parallel depending on the power requirement of the navigation system. The value of 54 V is derived from the trickle charge voltage for a 48 V lead battery. The DC/DC converters housed in the BCPS subrack act as switchedmode regulators, which supply the necessary supply voltages with a high efficiency, namely : DC/DC converter DCCMV +5 V/3 A; +15 V/2.5 A; 15 V/1.5 A; +24 V/11 A DC/DC converter DCC5 (on Backpanel) +5 V/3 A, used to supply separately LCP Modems ,

22

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP1F

A2

A1

7 6

CSB

1)

POSN.

POSN.

Tower 1 10 3
4 5 6 7

GPshelter 2

SBO (USB)

1)

CSB/SBO (LSB)

1 1a 2 3

Stby and OnAir Combiner BType alt.: Power Adder Emergency power supply battery ILS/GP transmitter rack

Reflecting area Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) Inductive coupling probe A1 Dipole antenna array A1

Fig. 21

GP1F system overview


Antenna A1 Nearfield dipole (opt.) A2
SBO (Btype: SBO, USB)

CSB (Btype: + SBO,LSB)

BType, alternative: Power Adder CSB SBO Aerial/Stdby 2 A1 A2 POSN.

Course Transmitter RS 232

Control and Switching

RMMC Supply voltage

LRCI Modem Operating voltages DCConverter

Mains

ACC (BCPS)

NOTE:

Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 22
Ed. 06.05 01.04

Main components of a GP1F transmitter cabinet


SOAC


9 8 A2 5 A1 7 6 4 Tower 10
8 9 10
Stby and OnAir Combiner
Interface


a) GP1F, 0Reference 9 8

b) GP1F, Sideband Reference (BType)

1)

Distance dependent on glide path angle and local conditions

SBO

GPShelter 1 1a 3 2

Inductive coupling probe A2 Dipole antenna array A2 Remote Control and Monitoring System

Monitor RS 232

RS 232 Terminal (PC/Laptop) Transmitter rack

23

GP 422
Description GP1F
PINdiode transfer switch 24 V

ILS 420
Equipment Description

SOAC

XMTR 1
24 V 5 V/15 V

MON1

LRCI/INTFC/ECU
5 V/15 V

MON 2**
5 V/15 V

XMTR 2**
24 V

LCP/Modem L/GA
48 V 5V

+24 V

+5 V +15 V

15 V

15 V +15 V

+5 V

+24 V

+5 V

DCCMV /1

DCCMV /2 **

DCC5

F4

TX1

TX2**
53,5 VDC

Low Voltage Sense sense relay

F5

(48 VDC nom.)

Mains module 1

Mains module 2

Battery

shunt

BCPS subrack

collocated equipment

Mains (115 VAC to 230 VAC)

** dual Version

Fig. 23

Power distribution, block diagram

24

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.2 2.2.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN GP Transmitter Rack

GP 422
Description GP1F

See Fig. 24 to 27. The cabinet is made of sheet steel. It accommodates three standard 19" subassembly carriers (subrack). The subracks are assembled with plugin units which are designed as double or single Euroform printed circuit boards (PCB) with dimensions of 233.4 x 200 [mm] or 100 x160 or 100 x 220 [mm]. The printed circuit boards are interconnected in each subrack on a motherboard back panel. The subracks themselves are connected together via flat ribbon cables with plugin connectors or via plug in or screwon coaxial cables (used for RF connections) at the rear. The front of the cabinet is hidden by a front door which can be key locked and swung open by a door handle. The local control and indication panel (LCP) is flushmounted in the front door. The cabinet rear is closed by a rear door which can also be swung open by a door handle. The installed equipment should have enough room between the cabinet and the shelter wall to allow the rear door to be opened and to allow space for measuring equipment. The RF outputs to the antenna and the monitor sensor inputs from the antenna are located on top of the cabinet. The AF or interface connections (e.g. detector signals, local PC, modem, etc.) are located on top of the cabinet and those for the power supply are located on the back panel of the BCPS subrack or on a terminal bar in the lower part on the rear side of the cabinet. The cabinet, which has a perforated metal plate at the top and bottom, is selfventilated (no forced ventilation necessary). The components of the PINdiode transfer switch are located on a heat sink mounted inside the cabinet at the rear side. The Stby and OnAir Combiner unit (SOAC) is mounted inside the cabinet at the front side. The SOAC can be hinged down for easier access to the backside located RF connections. The alternatively used Power Adder (PADS) in the Btype version is mounted to the rear side, upper part, of the rear door.

CAUTION
Do not block or seal the holes for the cooling air supply at the bottom of the rack or the cooling air outlet at the top of the rack (transmitter)!

WARNING
The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing these subassemblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while before touching them or take suitable measures (e.g. gloves). The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands or fingers. Use the door handles for opening or closing the doors.

Ed. 06.05 01.04

SOAC

25

GP 422
Description GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Power Adder mounted to the rear door (PADS) alternatively with BType version

CRS

CRS

BP MODPA
J1
XMTR1

MOD/PA 1/1

MOD/PA 1/2

J2
XMTR2

LCP

TX2

SBO CRS CSB

TX1

Phone1

Modem*

J5
Modem2

Interface INTFC

J8 J6 J11

Phone2

J3

J7 J10

J13

J12

J16 Jumper1 J19 1 J18 +15V 5V 2 GND 15V


XA12 15V +15V 5V 1 15V +15V 5V CABI/O +24V2 +48V +24V1

BP Digital

J1 J4
MODDIG2

J17 J14
LCP/COM7 MODIG3

SYN 1

SYN 2

Modem*

ECU

J2

Modem1

5V3

MODDIG1

J9

J15

BP Digital
J10
IN1

J12

OUT

J7
IN1

J9

OUT

J4
IN1

J6

OUT

J1
IN1

J3

OUT

J11 J28
IN2 stby SBO

J8 J27
IN2 stby CSB stby SBO

J5 J26
IN2 stby CSB

J2 J25
IN2

not used
J31 CRSSBO CRSCSB

J20

J21

Stby and Onair Combiner

PIN diode Transfer Switch assembly


CLR CSB and CLR SBO path not used

(includes combining network for GP not used in LLZ) ,

BPPS

TX1 TX2

LVS
DCC 5V

F4 F5 Relay

BPPS

Mains connection and mains filter

Front View

Rear View

* optional NOTE: The diagram shows the locations of the plugin and screwon subassemblies (printed circuit boards). The module assignment for GP1F is shown in greater detail in Fig. 25.

Fig. 24

Locations in the GP1F rack


SOAC Ed. 06.05 01.04

26

LGM 1

LGM 2

LGA 1

LGA 2

BP MODPA

LCP/CT6

LCP/CT5

DCCMV /1

ACC 54

DCCMV /2

ACC 54

MAINPWR

LCP/CT1

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP1F

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP1F dual SUBRACK View from left to right Front door Backplane MODPA, left TX1 Subassembly used Cabinet, preassembled LCP assign. to

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP2F, dual SUBRACK Subassembly used Cabinet, preassembled LCP MODPA 2/1 CLR CSB2** CSB1 SBO CSB1 SBO CLR CSB2** MON1/2 TX1 TX1 TX1 TX1/2 TX2 TX2 TX2 LGM2 LGM1 TX1/2 assign. to

MODPA 1/1 Backplane MODPA, right TX2 MODPA 1/2

CRSCSB CRSSBO CRSCSB CRSSBO

MODPA 1/1 MODPA 1/2

Backplane Digital INTFC SYN 1 LGA 1 LGM 1 ECU LGM 2 LGA 2 SYN 2 Modem* Modem* Cabinet, rear PINdiode transfer switch
SBO,CSB

MODPA 2/2 INTFC SYN 1 LGA 1 LGM 1 ECU LGM 2 LGA 2 SYN 2 Modem* Modem* PINdiode transfer switch
SBO,CSB1; CLR ; CSB2

MON1/2 TX1 TX1 TX1 TX1/2 TX2 TX2 TX2 LGM2 LGM1 TX1/2

incl. Attenuator/Load (1x)

incl. Attenuator/Load (2x)

Cabinet, front Cabinet, inner, left Cabinet, rear, upper part

Stby and OnAir Combiner

MON1/2

Stby and OnAir Combiner Power Adder PADA**

MON1/2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

Power Adder PADS***

Power Adder PADS***

Cabinet, lower part, Backplane BPPS

AC/DCConverter: ACC /1 ACC /2 DC/DCConverter: DCCMV /1 DCCMV /2 DC main switch

AC/DCConverter: ACC /1 ACC /2 DC/DCConverter: DCCMV /1 DCCMV /2 DC main switch Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) and DCC5

TX1 TX2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

TX1 TX2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

Cabinet, rear, lower part, Backplane BPPS

Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) and DCC5

* optional; Modem= LGM1200MD or LGM28.8 ** GP2F active only *** GP2F standard or alternatively with BType (GP1F)

Fig. 25
Ed. 06.05 01.04

Assignment of subassemblies for GP dual ,


SOAC

27

GP 422
Description GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

2 3

rear view

front view

1 2 3

Door handle, rear door Local Control Panel (LCP) Door handle with key lock, front door

Fig. 26

Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP)


SOAC Ed. 01.04

28

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP1F

not assembled in 1F systems

not assembled in 1F systems RF cable directly fed to SOAC not assembled in 1F systems

Power Adder, alternatively with BType, not shown

3
not connected in 1F systems

Front

Rear

1 2 3

Local Control Panel (LCP) PINdiode transfer switch Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC)

Fig. 27
Ed. 01.10 01.04

Transmitter rack GP1F, dual, front door open, rear door open (example shown 2F)
SOAC

29

GP 422
Description GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

210

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.2.2 Shelter

GP 422
Description GP1F

See Fig. 28, 29. The Navaids shelter is used as permanent housing for electronic navaids equipment. The standard shelter is a selfsupporting transport unit which is especially suited for the whole range of transportation means. It withstands all climatic conditions worldwide and is designed, except for mechanical damages, for a minimum lifecycle of 10 years. The standard shelter meets the ISO/DIN standards/ requirements for transport containers. It consists of a selfsupporting, distortion resistant aluminium frame construction with eight ISO corners and standardized container dimensions. The walls are made of sandwich panels and provide plenty of options for installating equipment and accessories. The shelter includes a polyurethane layer that ensures excellent thermal isolation. The floor is covered with an antistatic material which is connected to the system ground to protect maintenance personnel and to avoid electronic equipment damage. The personnel door is in the front. The door has a key lock and can be locked from inside or outside. The inner and outer sides of the shelter are typically painted white (RAL 9002), but, optionally, they can be painted with warning colours as per ICAO Annex 10. The standard shelterincludes a complete electrical installation that can be easily adapted to specific project requirements. The battery box, which is hermetically sealed from the interior in its operating state, is accessible from the inside of the shelter and ventilated from the outside. Its shelftype construction provides space for a block of batteries (48 V, 256 Ah max.) for the NAV 400 navaids as well as for collocated equipment. One or two throughthewall air conditioning units and thermostats provide ventilation. The air conditioning equipment is designed to provide the appropriate environmental conditions for all products installed in the container. One fire extinguisher is provided. Other options are: obstruction lighting, heater, table and chair, bookshelves, or an additional sun roof. The navaids shelter is secured using the ISO corners and twist locks that connect it to four foundation blocks.The roof of the Navaids Shelter is accessible. The container itself is splashproof, resistant against sea climate and invulnerable to salty water, fungus and termites.

Support for A/C

2991
(Dimensions in mm; Tare weight approx. 900 kg)

2438

2438

Fig. 28
Ed. 01.04

Navaids shelter, dimensions


SOAC

211

GP 422
Description GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description
cable duct on the ceiling Signal cable (RF/AF)

10 ft Container Shelter

cable entry

Battery Box Ventilation of battery box

Wiring Diagram of electrical Installation


option box Main Fuse switch

L1 L2 L3

Residual Current Breaker

N
FI1

I>

40 0.03 B2A

PE Overvoltage Protection

F7

B10A

F8

B10A

B10A F4

B18A F3

C20A F1

Spare 2 optional

Earth Collector Bar

BCPS TX Rack DME etc.

. .. . . .. . . .. .
Inside Light Socket outlets
F20 (K50A)

DME

BCPS
TX

+ 48 V

if available AirConditioner Single Phase "Option"


F21 (G0,2A)

20 protected wires

Station Ground

+ Signal lines NF 600 OHM 90 V/Type F

Line Terminal Box

Emergency battery 48 V

Fig. 29

Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example)


SOAC Ed. 01.04

212


C20A F2 C20A F5 5

Top connector panel on cabinet

Location of NAV 400 racks (GP LLZ, DME) ,

Main Distribution Panel

C20A F6

F9

change o.

10

..
optional

A/C1 A/C2
set to 36 C

junction box heater

DME

Temp. Sensor

twilight switch

obstruction lights 1 2

* Example diagram for Mains Supply with 3 Phases, N and PE

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.3 2.3.1

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK General

All plugin or screwon subassemblies (printed circuit boards) in the transmitter rack for the GP1F version are described in Section 2.3. Because subassemblies of GP1F are mostly identical to those described with GP2F, a reference is made to the applicable sections of chapter 3 if there is no major difference in function. Their tasks are described and illustrated with the aid of simplified block diagrams. The integration within the complete system is shown in block diagram Fig. 119. More details about the subassemblies (printed circuit boards), which may exceed the information given in the following description part and figures, may be taken from the circuit diagrams listed in Fig. 210.

2.3.2

Overview Subassemblies GP1F Transmitter Rack


CODE NUMBER*) 1F REFERENCE 2F 2.3.3 (LGA) (SYN) (MODPA) (PADS) 1205700004 1204960002 1205890001 1206220001 1206090001 2.3.3.2 2.3.3.3 2.3.3.4 2.3.3.5 2.3.3.6 2.3.4 (INTFC) (INTFC) (LGM) (ECU) (SOAC) 1206280001 1204980001 1205700004 1205710003 1206210001 2.3.4.1 2.3.4.2 2.3.4.3 2.3.4.4 2.3.5 (LCP) (LGM 1200MD) (LGM 28.8) 83135 21001/21002 84045 83233 84045 83245 2.3.6 (LVS) (DCC5) (DCCMV) (ACC54) (ACC54) 83138 83138 58341 58341 30511 12400 20101 20102 3.3.3 3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 3.3.3.5 3.3.3.6.2 3.3.4 3.3.4.1 3.3.4.2 3.3.4.3 3.3.4.4 3.3.5 3.3.5.1 3.3.5.2.1 3.3.5.2.2 3.3.6 3.3.6.2 3.3.6.3 3.3.6.4 3.3.6.5

SUBASSEMBLY ASSIGNMENT Transmitter: LLZ/GP Audio Generator Synthesizer Modulator Power Amplifier GP PINdiode Transfer Switch Power Adder, alternativ. with BType Monitor: Monitor Interface LLZ/GP Monitor Processor Executive Control Unit Stby and OnAir Combiner Local/Remote Communication Interface: Local Control Panel Modem, dedicated line / party line Modem, switched line Power Supply: Low Voltage Sensor DCConverter 5 V (on LVS board) DCConverter Multivolt AC/DCConverter (12 A) AC/DCConverter (14 A)

*) The code numbers given may differ to those of the delivered installation in individual cases. In such case the actual code number can be taken from the delivery list of the installation or the drawing set.

Fig. 210

Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack)

Ed. 01.10 06.05

SOAC

213

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

214

SOAC

Ed. 06.05

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.3.3 2.3.3.1 Transmitter Subassemblies Overview

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F

The GP1F transmitter section, the function of which is to generate the RF signals and amplify the RF, consists of the following subassemblies (single, Fig. 211, blocks dark grey): Localizer/Glide Path audio generator Synthesizer Modulator/power amplifier for carrier (CSB) and sideband (SBO) PINdiode transfer switch BType: with additional Power Adder LGA SYN MODPA1 PADS

The location of the transmitter subassemblies is shown in Fig. 24.


NF dipole (NFM), opt.) BTyp, antennas A1,A2 0 reference/BType antennas A1, A2** from probes

Shelter/Cabinet

RF OUT
80 Phase Shifter

to antenna system

stby RF signal

field signals

Power Adder (PADS)


CSB SBO

RF OUT

CSB

SBO

GP1F BType alt. Version

PINdiode Transfer Switch


TX1 TX2

PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby and OnAir Combiner

SOAC Interface INTFC

CW RF SYN 1/2

Inputs analog

CW RF f0

Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 1

CSB

Synthesizer 1 SYN
CW RF f0 offset to SOAC

SBO

control

Audio Generator 1 LGA


BITE Integrity signals Analog IN (spare) SYN data

from MODPA 2

TRANSMITTER 1

TRANSMITTER 2

Executive Control Unit ECU

Audio Generator 2 LGA

Monitor 1 LGM
RS232C RS232C

RS232C RS232C

Monitor 2 LGM
RS232C

LRCI MODEM*
LCI LCCPU

LCP

MODEM*

* optional ** BType with DDMpresetting not 0

OIO (spare)

Maintenance Data Terminal

RMMC

PTT

Fig. 211
07.06 Ed. 06.05

GP1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)
SOAC

215

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F 2.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator LGA

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The LGA produces the composite carrierplussideband (CSB) and sidebandonly (SBO) modulation envelopes for the CSB/SBO MODPA. The LGA is described in detail in section 3.3.3.2.

2.3.3.3

Synthesizer (SYN)

For GP1F, the synthesizer delivers the CW RF of the desired frequency f0. In addition, a second RF output supplies the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) with a frequency which is 8 kHz offset to f0. The SYN is described in detail in section 3.3.3.3.

2.3.3.4

Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA)

The MODPA delivers both the CSB and the SBO power to the antennas. The MODPA is described in detail in section 3.3.3.4.

2.3.3.5

Transfer Assembly

See Fig. 212. The RF signals are distributed to the antenna system by means of the discrete PINdiode transfer switches. The PINDiode transfer switches and the attenuators/dummy loads are located on a printed circuit board which is mounted to a heat sink. The complete assembly is mounted at the rear of the cabinet. Components of the RF signals used for monitoring the standby transmitter are coupled out and fed to the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC). The components are: 4 PINdiode transfer switches (2 not used) including attenuators/dummy load resistors PINdiode bias supply (dc in: +24 V; dc out: +5 V, 120 V) transfer switch driver
J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3

4
J28

J11

3
J27

J8

2
J26
SBO

J5 J25

1
CSB1

J2

to antenna system
alternatively with BType HF OUT CSB SBO
80 Phase Shifter

J31

Driver and Bias supply

Power Adder (PADS)


CSB SBO

rear view CSB


J3

SBO
J6

not used
RF Stby
J9

not used
J12

20 dB/100 W

15 dB/1 W

20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W

15 dB/1 W

20 dB/100 W

10 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 1

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 2 120 VDC

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 3

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 4

J1

J2

J4

J5

+5 VDC

J7

J8

J10

J11

CSB/TX1

CSB/TX2

SBO/TX1 SBO/TX2 PINdiode PINdiode switch driver bias supply


J31 Control DC 24 VDC
J26 J25 J28 J27

not used
changeover signals

not used

not used

not used

Transfer assembly rear of cabinet

Stby and OnAir Combiner


J21 J20

ECU

24V1/24V2 to INTFC and monitor

Fig. 212

Transfer Assembly, block diagram


SOAC Ed. 06.05

216

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F

The function of the various components is to switch the antenna system over to transmitter 1 or 2. The signals of the transmitter which is currently switched to the antenna by the PINdiode transfer switch 1 to 2 each pass through to the antenna system. The changeover signals received from the Executive Control Unit (ECU) control the PINdiode switches 1 to 2. The CSB/SBO signals of the standby transmitter, which is active, but not switched to the antenna, are passed through to the Stby and SOAC by RF attenuators which are also used as dummy loads. The PINdiode transfer switch is supplied with two DC voltages (+5 V/2.5 A; 120 V/0.03 A) which are derived from the 24 V DC input in the bias supply part. This voltage coming from both DCCMV is ored at the SOAC. The location of the PINdiode transfer switch assembly is shown in Fig. 24.

2.3.3.6

BType: Power Adder (PADS)

The signal characteristic for the GP1F BType can be generated either in a similar way to the GP2F active with adjustment of the modulators (DDM unequal 0) or with the use of a Power Adder. With this alternative the same PADS is used as for the GP2F standard version but with another suitable wiring (Fig. 213). The PADS is described in detail in section 3.3.3.6.2 . The location of the Power Adder for the BType is shown in Fig. 24.
to J1, cabinet top (A2) to J8, cabinet top (A1)
J1 Z3 upper antenna Delay

swivel nut adjustable part position indication

W26
J2

Phase shifter

PADS, GP1F, BType cabinet, rear view

W21

J6
UPPER ANTENNA

J5
LOWER ANTENNA

J4
MIDDLE ANTENNA

W23

THALES
1206090001 PADS

J3
CLEARANCE

J2
COURSE SBO

J1
COURSE CSB

from J6, PIN diode transfer switch from J3, PIN diode transfer switch CSB
W17 PINdiode Transfer switch

W18 W17

INPUT

INPUT

INPUT

J1 J2
Load

J4 PADS J5
Load

NOTE: The A1 signal path is 180 longer than the A2 signal path

CSB+SBO,LSB

SBO

J3 J6

W21 W23

80 cable f Z3

9328390002 SBO,USB

A1 lower A2 upper

W18

adjustable Phase shifter

W26

to antenna system

Fig. 213
Ed. 06.05

GP1F, BType, overview and arrangement Power Adder PADS


SOAC

Delay

35

35

217

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

218

SOAC

Ed. 06.05

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F

The monitor section monitors the radiated signal and detects any errors or faults that might be critical for aviation. In addition to executive tasks, the monitor data can be used to identify any deviations or minor deficiencies in performance at an early stage, insofar as they might have a detrimental effect on the future continuity of service or system availability (warning monitor). The response to an alarm is a logiccontrolled changeover or disconnection of the transmitters performed by the Executive Control Unit (ECU). The monitor subassemblies thus comprise (Fig. 214, blocks dark grey): Monitor Interface Monitor signal processor Executive Control Unit Stby and OnAir Combiner (INTFC) (LGM) (ECU) (SOAC)

The location of the monitor subassemblies is shown in Fig. 24.


NF dipole (NFM), opt.) 0 reference/BType antennas A1, A2 from probes

Shelter/Cabinet

to antenna system

stby RF signal

field signals

RF OUT

CSB

SBO

PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby and OnAir Combiner

SOAC Interface INTFC

CW RF SYN 1/2

Inputs analog

CW RF f0

Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 1

CSB

Synthesizer 1 SYN
CW RF f0 offset to SOAC

SBO

control

Audio Generator 1 LGA


BITE Integrity signals Analog IN (spare) SYN data

from MODPA 2

TRANSMITTER 1

TRANSMITTER 2

Executive Control Unit ECU

Audio Generator 2 LGA

Monitor 1 LGM
RS232C RS232C

RS232C RS232C

Monitor 2 LGM
RS232C

LRCI MODEM*
LCI LCCPU

LCP

MODEM*

* optional

OIO (spare)

Maintenance Data Terminal

RMMC

PTT

Fig. 214
07.06 Ed. 06.05

GP1F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)
SOAC

219

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F 2.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The Monitor Interface (INTFC) is the signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide path facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and the systems integral and field detectors. The INTFC is described in detail in section 3.3.4.1.

2.3.4.2

Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM)

Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe landings. For this purpose, the LGM can be seen as a high precision audio frequency spectrum analyzer which continually measures and analyzes these signals, comparing their current values to stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the monitor signals an alarm condition. The monitored parameters are evaluated for the onantenna executive and field groups and the "hot" Standby group. The LGM is described in detail in section 3.3.4.2.

2.3.4.3

Executive Control Unit (ECU)

The Executive Control Unit (ECU) is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station (e.g. transfer, shutdown, bypass, etc.). Each Monitor reports its alarm status(es) to the ECU which then decides what type of action, if any, to take based upon that status and other internal state information. The ECU is described in detail in section 3.3.4.3.

2.3.4.4

Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC)

See Fig. 215, 217. The Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) unit processes the ILS monitor signals both for Localizer and Glide Path. For the Glide Path, it contains the function of an integral network which combines the input antenna sensor signals to farfield equivalent signals for position and width. The clearance path is not used in 1F installations. The SOAC operates in principal with a downconversion technique which results in 8 kHz intermediate signals for further processing. The local oszillator offset frequency of 8 kHz is directly supplied by the Synthesizer. The SOAC is described in detail in section 3.3.4.4.
* also LLZ with LPDantenna ** with LLZ and Dipole/Reflect. antenna Posn./CRS GP only* Integral Network Path Width

Antenna system Integral Network (LLZ)** Integral Sensors (GP)

GP A1/LLZ CRS Posn. GP A2/LLZ Width not used NFM Input OnAir down converter combiner

Posn./CRS Width not used NFM output

via INTFC to LGM 1/2

SYN TX1 (8 kHz offset) SYN TX2 (8 kHz offset) DC supply in DC

Offset frequency (CRS L.O.)

Course frequency (CLR L.O.) not used in 1F system Transfer control from ECU Posn./CRS via INTFC to LGM 1/2

RF aerial RF Stby PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby CRS CSB/GP A1 Stby CRS SBO/GP A2 not used not used Standby down converter combiner

Width not used

Fig. 215

Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), block diagram


SOAC Ed. 06.05

220

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (Onair)

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F

The signal flow within the SOAC for Null Reference and BType is shown in Figs. 218 and 219. For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.1 . The CLR channel paths are not used. Jumper J1 and J6 are set to 13, 24 to insert a voltage divider because the mixer frequency is directly fed from SYN1 and SYN2 (CLR out) and not via a MODPA.

2.3.4.4.2

Standby Channels

The signal flow within the SOAC for Null Reference and BType is shown in Figs. 218 and 219. For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.2 . The CLR channel paths are not used.

2.3.4.4.3
NOTE:

Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection


In GP1F applications, input J7 "A3" is used as input for sensor signals of antenna A2, i.e. upper antenna. Input J8 "A2" is used only in GP2F MType systems !

The configuration setting for the GP1F Null Reference and BType version is shown in Fig. 216. For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.3 .
J19/78 Null reference: J19/56 Sideband reference (BType):

Switch Path A Path B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x x x x x x x x

Switch Path A Path B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x x x x x x x x

Fig. 216

J19, example switch setting for GP1F Null reference and BType mode

2.3.4.4.4

Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution

The necessary offset of 8 kHz for the down conversion to the nominal frequency is derived from the second output of the synthesizer board. For details refer to section 3.3.4.4.4 .
RF connectors rear: GP Nearfield A1 LLZ
Nearfield CRS Posn.. A2* A3 (A2) CRS Width CRS Stby CRS Stby CRS Stby A1 CSB1 CSB A2* SBO A3 CRS Stby CSB CRS Stby SBO CLR Width(2) CLR Width(1) CLR Stby CLR Stby CLR Stby SBO CSB

J10

J9

J8

J7

J2

J47

J6

J17

J18

J16

J12

J4 J1

R485
RFcwCLR TX2 TP67

J14 J11

RFcwCRS TX2

R2 R105 R90 R62 R43

R511 R25 R275 R286

R240

R217

J3 J5

RFcwCLR TX1

TP69

J13 J15

RFcwCRS TX1

TP70

R382 R189 R383 R372 R386 R185 R379


J19

R123 R166 R150

R136 R133 R499

JP41

R327 R345 R343

R318

R305 R312

R353

TP68

R146 R524
TP71 TP5 TP4 J20 TP41 TP77 TP75 TP73 TP51 TP56

1 2

R377
TP62 TP65 TP59 GND TP66 TP60 TP61 TP18 TP14 TP13 TP16 TP10 TP7 TP6 TP2 TP1 JP43 TP57 TP58 GND TP30 TP55 TP53 TP24 TP29 TP26 TP47 TP49 TP37 TP25 TP27 J21 TP31 TP22 TP21 TP19 TP20

TP63

TP64

TP15

TP17

TP11

TP12

TP9 TP8 TP3 TP74 TP76 TP72

TP23

TP39 TP34

Front View

* used in GP2F, MType, only; for GP1F: A3 = upper antenna, here A2

Fig. 217
07.08 Ed. 06.05

Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), front view


SOAC

221

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F
A3RF

ILS 420
Equipment Description
TP31
A


RF A3 in (GP)
JP36 JP37,38 JP39,40 IF gain R286

Filter

Temp. comp. TP71

fact. align. phase calibr.

field align. Phase adj. TP27

TP25

S7

TP39

CLR Width In LLZ only J18 10 dB +15/5 dB


10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

20 kHz

R353

R345

out

CLR Width1

nom. 90 lag

SBO phase inversion

90 lead TP26

control*

R343

A1RF

JP31 JP32,33

JP34,35

LLZ only CLR Width2 in

IF gain R275

Filter

Temp. comp. TP24

+/

TP29

R327

TP37

mixer

J17 10 dB +15/5 dB
10 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

out CLR Width2

JP7,8

JP9,10

LLZ: CRS Width In (GP: A3 input) GP1F: A2 input

IF gain R43

Filter

Temp. comp. TP8

fact. align. phase calibr.

field align. Phase adj.

control*

TP62

R372

R377

TP51

TP6

mixer

out

J7

10 dB 10 dB JP11

+15/5 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

R150

R146

S1

CRS Posn.
A1 S8
A B

fixed phase A3 IF

nom. 90 lag TP60 ctrl*


B

90 lead TP9 TP7 T61 fixed phase field align. Phase adj.
A B

S3
A B

S4

A3RF JP12,13 JP14,15 IF gain R62

S2

Filter

Temp. comp. TP12


B

control* TP13 A2 IF TP64 TP63

+/

control*

GP2F only (GP: A2 input) J8

mixer
10 dB 10 dB +15/5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz fixed phase A1 IF JP18,19 IF gain R90

S5 fixed phase

TP10 R166

A1 IF R379

control* nom. 90

90 lead TP11

R383

JP16,17

Filter

Temp. comp. TP16

fact. align. field align. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP17 TP14
A

LLZ: CRS Posn. In (GP: A1 input)

S6 TP65

mixer J9
10 dB +15/5 dB 10 dB JP20

TP66 TP53

2 kHz

20 kHz

R189 nom. 90 lag

R185 90 lead TP15 A1 A2

A1RF

R386

out CRS Width


control* R382 A1+A2

JP22

JP23,24

NFM In J10
TP55 10 dB +15/5 dB 5V 1

mixer

IF gain R105 2 kHz

Filter

Temp. comp. TP18 TP41

20 kHz

out CRS NF local oscillator transfer switch J3 Clearance JP6 frequency J1 (CRS L.O.)
JP1

J19
2

J20
24V1 24V2

Ant. config. signal processing select MArray standard MArray TSIS SBand reference Null reference DF LLZ det mode DF LLZ int width

OnAir Combiner path


SYN TX1 (CLR out) SYN TX2 (CLR out) Transfer control from ECU

S1 5V
A B COM

J21 Transfer control


JP44,45

15

16

spare spare

S1

S3

0V: A COM 5V: B COM

Course frequency (CLR L.O.)

J13
JP30 JP25

not used not used

J11


GP2F active only mixer
IF gain R511

Filter Temp. comp.


2 kHz

TP77

TP74

Stby combiner path

Stby CSB A2

R524

J47

15/10 dB JP2,3

TP75

phase adj.

JP46

TP1

TP47

Stby CRS CSB Stby CSB

mixer

IF gain R2

Filter

Temp. comp.

TP76

TP72

out CS Stby Posn.


CSB

J2

15/10 dB

2 kHz

R123

TP2

R499

fact. align. CSB phase adj. field align. SBO Phase adj.

R133 TP49 +/

out CS Stby Width


CSB+SBO

TP5 JP4,5

Stby CRS SBO Stby SBO mixer J6


10 dB 10 dB

IF gain R25

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp. R136 SBO phase inversion TP3 fact. align. CSB phase adj. TP19 R305 TP73

Phase alignment: TP5/TP1: A1 A3 relative phase = 0

TP4

JP26,27

Stby CLR CSB Stby CLR J12 15/10 dB

mixer

IF gain R217

Filter

Temp. comp.

2 kHz

TP34

TP20

fact. align.

R312

field align. SBO Phase adj. TP23 R318

out CLR Stby Width

+/

JP28,29

Stby CLR SBO (LLZ only)

IF gain R240

Filter

Temp. comp.

J16

10 dB 10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

TP22

TP21

SBO phase inversion

*used for switch control

Fig. 218

Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, 0Ref. configuration selected


SOAC

222

Ed. 07.08 06.05

ILS 420
Equipment Description
A3RF JP36 JP37,38 JP39,40

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F
field align. Phase adj. TP27 TP31 TP25
A


RF A3 in (GP)
IF gain R286

Filter

Temp. comp. TP71

fact. align. phase calibr.

S7

TP39

CLR Width In LLZ: only J18 10 dB +15/5 dB


10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

20 kHz

R353

R345

out

CLR Width1

nom. 90 lag

SBO phase inversion

90 lead TP26

control*

R343

A1RF

JP31 JP32,33

JP34,35

LLZ only CLR Width2 in

IF gain R275

Filter

Temp. comp. TP24

+/

TP29

R327

TP37

mixer

J17 10 dB +15/5 dB
10 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

out CLR Width2

JP7,8

JP9,10

LLZ: CRS Width In (GP: A3 input) GP1F: A2 input

IF gain R43

Filter

Temp. comp. TP8

fact. align. phase calibr.

field align. Phase adj.

control*

TP62

R372

R377

TP51

TP6

mixer

out

J7

10 dB 10 dB JP11

+15/5 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

R150

R146

S1

CRS Posn.
A2+A1 S8
A B

fixed phase A3 IF

nom. 90 lag TP60 ctrl*


B

90 lead TP9 TP7 T61 fixed phase field align. Phase adj.
A B

S3
A B

S4

A3RF JP12,13 JP14,15 IF gain R62

S2

Filter

Temp. comp. TP12


B

control* TP13 A2 IF TP64 TP63

+/

control*

GP2F only (GP: A2 input) J8

mixer
10 dB 10 dB +15/5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz fixed phase A1 IF JP18,19 IF gain R90

S5 fixed phase

TP10 R166

A1+AA2 IF R379

control* nom. 90

90 lead TP11

R383

JP16,17

Filter

Temp. comp. TP16

fact. align. field align. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP17 TP14
A

LLZ: CRS Posn. In (GP: A1 input)

S6 TP65

mixer J9
10 dB +15/5 dB 10 dB JP20

TP66 TP53

2 kHz

20 kHz

R189 nom. 90 lag

R185 90 lead TP15 A1 A2

A1RF

R386

out CRS Width


control* R382 A1+A2

JP22

JP23,24

NFM In J10
TP55 10 dB +15/5 dB 5V 1

mixer

IF gain R105 2 kHz

Filter

Temp. comp. TP18 TP41

20 kHz

out CRS NF local oscillator transfer switch J3 Clearance JP6 frequency J1 (CRS L.O.)
JP1

J19
2

J20
24V1 24V2

Ant. config. signal processing select MArray standard MArray TSIS SBand reference Null reference DF LLZ det mode DF LLZ int width

OnAir Combiner path


SYN TX1 (CLR out) SYN TX2 (CLR out) Transfer control from ECU

S1 5V
A B COM

J21 Transfer control


JP44,45

15

16

spare spare

S1

S3

0V: A COM 5V: B COM

Course frequency (CLR L.O.)

J13
JP30 JP25

not used not used

J11


GP2F active only Stby CSB A2 mixer
IF gain R511

Filter Temp. comp.


2 kHz

TP77

TP74

Stby combiner path

R524

J47

15/10 dB JP2,3

TP75

phase adj.

JP46

TP1

TP47

Stby CRS CSB Stby CSB

mixer

IF gain R2

Filter

Temp. comp.

TP76

TP72

out CS Stby Posn.


CSB

J2

15/10 dB

2 kHz

R123

TP2

R499

fact. align. CSB phase adj. field align. SBO Phase adj.

R133 TP49 +/

out CS Stby Width


CSB+SBO

TP5 JP4,5

Stby CRS SBO Stby SBO mixer J6


10 dB 10 dB

IF gain R25

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp. R136 SBO phase inversion TP3 fact. align. CSB phase adj. TP19 R305 TP73

Phase alignment: TP5/TP1: A1 A3 relative phase = 0

TP4

JP26,27

Stby CLR CSB Stby CLR J12 15/10 dB

mixer

IF gain R217

Filter

Temp. comp.

2 kHz

TP34

TP20

fact. align.

R312

field align. SBO Phase adj. TP23 R318

out CLR Stby Width

+/

JP28,29

Stby CLR SBO (LLZ only)

IF gain R240

Filter

Temp. comp.

J16

10 dB 10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

TP22

TP21

SBO phase inversion

*used for switch control

Fig. 219
07.08 Ed. 06.05

Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, BType configuration selected

SOAC

223

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP1F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

224

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 06.05

ILS 420
Equipment Description 2.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies

GP 422
LRCI and Power Supply Subassemblies

The local remote communication interface functional unit (LRCI) is the focal point for communication between the various functional groups, the local control panel (LCP) and the remote control. The LRCI consists of the following subassemblies: Local Control Panel Modem for dedicated line Modem for switched line (LCP) (LGM1200MD, Party Line) (LGM 28.8)

The LRCI subassemblies are described in detail in section 3.3.5. The location of the LRCI subassemblies is shown in Fig. 24.

2.3.6

Power Supply

The power supply of the Navaids 400 installation is taken from mains (nom. 115 to 230 VAC) or from an existing DC power supply (nom. 48 V). The equipment contains therefore a mains module with battery charger (BCPS). The BCPS is modular in a buildingblock concept with several AC/DC converter ACC54 connected in parallel, and several DC/DC converters to generate the necessary voltages. A low voltage sensor cuts off the battery line to prevent deep discharge of the emergency batteries.The power supply subassemblies are described in detail in section 3.3.6. The location of the AC/DC and DC/DC converters is shown in Fig. 24.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

225

GP 422
LRCI and Power Supply Subassemblies

ILS 420
Equipment Description

226

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP2F

CHAPTER 3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION GP2F


3.1 3.1.1 GENERAL System Overview

See Fig. 31 to 35. The ILS GP2F installation comprises the following main components and accessories: Transmitter rack housing the transmitter, monitor and power supply/battery charging (BCPS), single or dual Emergency power supply (48 V lead battery) These components are housed in a building or shelter. Since there is possibility of generated oxyhydrogen, the battery is separately housed. Antenna system (refer to Part 3, Antenna System Description) The GP antenna is installed approximately 286 to 344 m beyond the runway threshold and 120 to 180 m from the runway centre line (see Fig. 12). The GP transmitter building (shelter) is installed in the vicinity of the GS antenna. Cable set Grounding The antenna system (including optional nearfield dipole) and the transmitter rack are connected via 7 coaxial cables. The cables are fed via connectors on top of the transmitter rack on the one hand to the Power Adder and the PIN diode transfer switch (3x RF out) and on the other hand to the Stby and OnAir Combiner unit (4x RF in) which combines the signal components, which are obtained via the coupling probes integrated in each antenna array. The Stby and OnAir Combiner supplies the resulting signals and the signal of the optional nearfield monitor at the antenna site to the monitors: Course position Course width Clearance Position Nearfield (POSN.) (WIDTH) (CLEAR.) (POSN. NF, optional)

A grounding network must be installed around the transmitter building (shelter) which does not afford special symmetrical requirements. The grounding networks of shelter and antenna system must be connected by low resistance. The GP transmitter can be controlled, monitored and maintained from the tower with a respective remote control and monitoring system (e.g. RMMC).

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

31

GP 422
Description GP2F 3.1.2 Basic Components of an GP Transmitter Rack

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The main components of a GP transmitter rack are as follows (see Fig. 33): Transmitter Monitoring System (monitor) Control and Switching Local/Remote Communication Interface (LRCI) Operating voltage supply

3.1.2.1

Transmitter

The dualized transmitter generates the required RF signals for this type of installation. These signals are fed to and radiated from the antenna system. Signal generation and transmitter control are microprocessor controlled. A single transmitter configuration is also available.

3.1.2.2

Monitor

The dualized monitor is supplied with signals from the internal and integral sensors and with informations obtained from the radiated RF field via an optional nearfield and/or farfield monitor dipole. The RF signals obtained are down converted by the Stby and OnAir Combiner to an Intermediate Frequency carrier and fed via an interface to the monitor signal processor for processing. A single monitor configuration is also available.

3.1.2.3

Control and Switching

The results of the monitor process are supplied to the control and switching function. These functions will switchover (in a dual system) or shutdown transmitters if the hardware based decision paths find an appropriate result. Also, the other control functions are performed here.

3.1.2.4

Local/Remote Communication Interface

The LRCI is the focal point for internal/external communication between the transmitter and the monitor, the local or remote operator and the system, including any connected subsystems. All communication with the system takes place via a local or remote intelligent terminal (PC or laptop), which is used for all settings, commissioning and maintenance. The MAIN STATUS indication, basic settings (on/off, change over, Mon. Bypass) and call up of certain transmitter or monitor measurement data are performed with the Local Control Interface (LCI) of the Local Control Panel (LCP).

3.1.2.5

Generation of the Operating Voltage

The transmitter rack requires a nominal supply voltage of 48 V. The mains module (ACC) of the BCPS supplies an output DC voltage of 54 V and 14 A max. Two of the modules are connected in parallel depending on the power requirement of the navigation system. The value of 54 V is derived from the trickle charge voltage for a 48 V lead battery. The DC/DC converters housed in the BCPS subrack act as switchedmode regulators, which supply the necessary supply voltages with a high efficiency, namely : DC/DC converter DCCMV +5 V/3 A; +15 V/2.5 A; 15 V/1.5 A; +24 V/11 A DC/DC converter DCC5 (on Backpanel) +5 V/3 A, used to supply separately LCP Modems ,

32

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP2F
A3 12 11
SBO A3 +Clear.

Tower 13

1 2 3 4

Power adder GP2F active Emergency power supply battery ILS/GP transmitter rack Stby and OnAir Combiner

Fig. 31

Tower 13

1 2 3 4

Power adder GP2F standard Emergency power supply battery ILS/GP transmitter rack Stby and OnAir Combiner

Fig. 32
10.04 Ed. 01.04

SOAC


A2 10 9 A1 6 8 7 5
5 6 7 8 9 Reflecting area Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) Inductive coupling probe A1 Dipole antenna array A1 Inductive coupling probe A2

CSB A2

CSB A1 +Clear.

GPshelter 4 1 3 2

10 11 12 13

Dipole antenna array A2 Inductive coupling probe A3 Dipole antenna array A3 Remote Control and Monitoring System

GP2F system overview (GP active)


A3 12 11 A2 10 9 A1 6 8 7 5
5 6 7 8 9 Reflecting area Nearfield Monitor dipole (opt.) Inductive coupling probe A1 Dipole antenna array A1 Inductive coupling probe A2

SBO+Clear.

CSB1+SBO

CSB1+SBO+Clear.

GPshelter 4 1 3 2

10 11 12 13

Dipole antenna array A2 Inductive coupling probe A3 Dipole antenna array A3 Remote Control and Monitoring System

GP2F system overview (GP standard)

33

GP 422
Description GP2F
A1 Antenna system A2 A3

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Nearfield dipole (opt.)

CSBA1/Clear.

CSBA2

SBOA3/Clear. A1 A2 A3 POSN.NF

Power Adder CSB1 SBO CLEAR. CSB2 4 Stby and OnAir Combiner

Aerial/Stdby

Interface

Course and Clearance Transmitter RS 232

Control and Switching

Monitor RS 232

RMMC Supply voltage

LRCI Modem Operating voltages DCConverter

RS 232 Terminal (PC/Laptop) Transmitter rack

Mains

ACC (BCPS)

NOTE:

Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 33

Main components of a GP2F transmitter cabinet (GP active)


Antenna system A2 Nearfield dipole (opt.)

A1

A3

CSB+SBO+Clear.

CSB1+SBO

SBO+Clear A1 A2 A3 POSN.NF

Power Adder CSB1 SBO Aerial/Stdby CLEAR. 4 Stby and OnAir Combiner

Interface

Course and Clearance Transmitter RS 232

Control and Switching

Monitor RS 232

RMMC Supply voltage

LRCI Modem Operating voltages DCConverter

RS 232 Terminal (PC/Laptop) Transmitter rack

Mains

ACC (BCPS)

NOTE:

Diagrammatic view, dual installation not shown for purposes of clarity.

Fig. 34

Main components of a GP2F transmitter cabinet (GP standard)


SOAC Ed. 10.04 01.04

34

ILS 420
Equipment Description
PINdiode transfer switch 24 V

GP 422
Description GP2F

SOAC

XMTR 1
24 V 5 V/15 V

MON1

LRCI/INTFC/ECU
5 V/15 V

MON 2**
5 V/15 V

XMTR 2**
24 V

LCP/Modem L/GA
48 V 5V

+24 V

+5 V +15 V

15 V

15 V +15 V

+5 V

+24 V

+5 V

DCCMV /1

DCCMV /2 **

DCC5

F4

TX1

TX2**
53,5 VDC

Low Voltage Sense sense relay

F5

(48 VDC nom.)

Mains module 1

Mains module 2

Battery

shunt

BCPS subrack

collocated equipment

Mains (115 VAC to 230 VAC)

** dual Version

Fig. 35

Power distribution, block diagram

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

35

GP 422
Description GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

36

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.2 3.2.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN GP Transmitter Rack

GP 422
Description GP2F

See Fig. 36 to 39. The cabinet is made of sheet steel. It accommodates three standard 19" subassembly carriers (subrack). The subracks are assembled with plugin units which are designed as double or single Euroform printed circuit boards (PCB) with dimensions of 233.4 x 200 [mm] or 100 x160 or 100 x 220 [mm]. The printed circuit boards are interconnected in each subrack on a motherboard back panel. The subracks themselves are connected together via flat ribbon cables with plugin connectors or via plug in or screwon coaxial cables (used for RF connections) at the rear. The front of the cabinet is hidden by a front door which can be key locked and swung open by a door handle. The local control and indication panel (LCP) is flushmounted in the front door. The cabinet rear is closed by a rear door which can also be swung open by a door handle. The installed equipment should have enough room between the cabinet and the shelter wall to allow the rear door to be opened and to allow space for measuring equipment. The RF outputs to the antenna and the monitor sensor inputs from the antenna are located on top of the cabinet. The AF or interface connections (e.g. detector signals, local PC, modem, etc.) are located on top of the cabinet and those for the power supply are located on the back panel of the BCPS subrack or on a terminal bar in the lower part on the rear side of the cabinet. The cabinet, which has a perforated metal plate at the top and bottom, is selfventilated (no forced ventilation necessary). The components of the PINdiode transfer switch are located on a heat sink mounted inside the cabinet at the rear side. The Stby and OnAir Combiner unit (SOAC) is mounted inside the cabinet at the front side. The SOAC can be hinged down for easier access to the backside located RF connections. The power adder for GP2F active is mounted to the left inner side wall, the one of the standard GP2F to the rear side, upper part, or to the rear door.

CAUTION
Do not block or seal the holes for the cooling air supply at the bottom of the rack or the cooling air outlet at the top of the rack (transmitter)!

WARNING
The heat sinks of the modulators (MODPA) may warm up during operation. This is normal and does not have any affect on the functioning of the devices. Avoid touching the heat sinks when the cabinet door has been opened for any reason. When replacing these subassemblies it is recommended to let them cool down for a while before touching them or take suitable measures (e.g. gloves). The inner borders of the cabinet doors may have a residual flash which may injure hands or fingers. Use the door handles for opening or closing the doors.

Ed. 01.04

SOAC

37

GP 422
Description GP2F
connection not used in GP2F standard PADS GP2F standard or PADA (altern.)***

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Power Adder mounted to rear door*** PADS incl. phase shifter or PADA

CLR

CRS

CRS

CLR

BP MODPA
J1
XMTR1

MOD/PA 2/1

MOD/PA 1/1

MOD/PA 1/2

MOD/PA 2/2

J2
XMTR2

LCP

CSB2** TX2 CLR

SBO CRS CSB

CSB2** TX1 CLR

Phone1

Modem*

J5
Modem2

Interface INTFC

J8 J6 J11

Phone2

J3

J7 J10

J13

J12

J16 Jumper1 J19 1 J18 +15V 5V 2 GND 15V


XA12 15V +15V 5V 1 15V +15V 5V CABI/O +24V2 +48V +24V1

BP Digital

J1 J4
MODDIG2

J17 J14
LCP/COM7 MODIG3

SYN 1

SYN 2

Modem*

ECU

J2

Modem1

5V3

MODDIG1

J9

J15

BP Digital
J10
IN1

J12

OUT

J7
IN1

J9

OUT

J4
IN1

J6

OUT

J1
IN1

J3

OUT

J11 J28
IN2 stby SBO

J8 J27
IN2 stby CSB stby SBO

J5 J26
IN2 stby CSB

J2 J25
IN2

J20

J21

J31 CSB2**

CLR

CRSSBO

CRSCSB

Stby and Onair Combiner

PIN diode Transfer Switch assembly

(includes combining network for GP not used in LLZ) ,

Power Adder** PADA alternative mounting

Power Adder** PADA alternative mounting

BPPS

TX1 TX2

LVS
DCC 5V

F4 F5 Relay

BPPS

Mains connection and mains filter

Front View

Rear View * optional

Remark: The RFcw connections of CRS and CLR frequency from J7 or J6 at the Synthesizer to the CRS and CLR MODPA may be interchanged. But in one cabinet both TX must be connected the same.

** GP2F active only *** GP2F standard

NOTE:

The diagram shows the locations of the plugin and screwon subassemblies (printed circuit boards). The module assignment for GP2F is shown in greater detail in Fig. 37.

Fig. 36

Locations in the GP2F rack


SOAC Ed. 06.05 01.04

38

LGM 1

LGM 2

LGA 1

LGA 2

BP MODPA

LCP/CT6

LCP/CT5

DCCMV /1

ACC 54

DCCMV /2

ACC 54

MAINPWR

LCP/CT1

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP2F

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP1F dual SUBRACK View from left to right Front door Backplane MODPA, left TX1 Subassembly used Cabinet, preassembled LCP assign. to

TYPE of INSTALLATION: GP2F, dual SUBRACK Subassembly used Cabinet, preassembled LCP MODPA 2/1 CLR CSB2** CSB1 SBO CSB1 SBO CLR CSB2** MON1/2 TX1 TX1 TX1 TX1/2 TX2 TX2 TX2 LGM2 LGM1 TX1/2 assign. to

MODPA 1/1 Backplane MODPA, right TX2 MODPA 1/2

CRSCSB CRSSBO CRSCSB CRSSBO

MODPA 1/1 MODPA 1/2

Backplane Digital INTFC SYN 1 LGA 1 LGM 1 ECU LGM 2 LGA 2 SYN 2 Modem* Modem* Cabinet, rear PINdiode transfer switch
SBO,CSB

MODPA 2/2 INTFC SYN 1 LGA 1 LGM 1 ECU LGM 2 LGA 2 SYN 2 Modem* Modem* PINdiode transfer switch
SBO,CSB1; CLR ; CSB2

MON1/2 TX1 TX1 TX1 TX1/2 TX2 TX2 TX2 LGM2 LGM1 TX1/2

incl. Attenuator/Load (1x)

incl. Attenuator/Load (2x)

Cabinet, front Cabinet, inner, left Cabinet, rear door

Stby and OnAir Combiner

MON1/2

Stby and OnAir Combiner Power Adder PADA**

MON1/2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

Power Adder (BType)

Power Adder PADS***

Cabinet, lower part, Backplane BPPS

AC/DCConverter: ACC /1 ACC /2 DC/DCConverter: DCCMV /1 DCCMV /2 DC main switch

AC/DCConverter: ACC /1 ACC /2 DC/DCConverter: DCCMV /1 DCCMV /2 DC main switch Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) and DCC5

TX1 TX2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

TX1 TX2 TX1/TX2 TX1/TX2

Cabinet, rear, lower part, Backplane BPPS

Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) and DCC5

* optional; Modem= LGM1200MD or LGM28.8 ** GP2F active only, can be also loacated on the rear door like the PADS *** GP2F standard

Fig. 37
06.05 Ed. 01.04

Assignment of subassemblies for GP dual ,


SOAC

39

GP 422
Description GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

2 3

rear view

front view

1 2 3

Door handle, rear door Local Control Panel (LCP) Door handle with key lock, front door

Fig. 38

Transmitter rack ILS 420 (LLZ/GP)


SOAC Ed. 01.04

310

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Description GP2F

connection not used in GP2F standard

3a

Front
1 2 3 3a 4

Rear

Local Control Panel (LCP) PINdiode transfer switch Power Adder PADA incl. opt. phase shifter (or PADS with phase shifter for GP2F standard) Power Adder PADA, alternative mounting inside Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC)

Fig. 39
06.05 Ed. 01.04

Transmitter rack GP2F active, dual, front door open, rear door open (example view)
SOAC

311

GP 422
Description GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

312

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.2.2 Shelter

GP 422
Description GP2F

See Fig. 310, 311. The Navaids shelter is used as permanent housing for electronic navaids equipment. The standard shelter is a selfsupporting transport unit which is especially suited for the whole range of transportation means. It withstands all climatic conditions worldwide and is designed, except for mechanical damages, for a minimum lifecycle of 10 years. The standard shelter meets the ISO/DIN standards/ requirements for transport containers. It consists of a selfsupporting, distortion resistant aluminium frame construction with eight ISO corners and standardized container dimensions. The walls are made of sandwich panels and provide plenty of options for installating equipment and accessories. The shelter includes a polyurethane layer that ensures excellent thermal isolation. The floor is covered with an antistatic material which is connected to the system ground to protect maintenance personnel and to avoid electronic equipment damage. The personnel door is in the front. The door has a key lock and can be locked from inside or outside. The inner and outer sides of the shelter are typically painted white (RAL 9002), but, optionally, they can be painted with warning colours as per ICAO Annex 10. The standard shelterincludes a complete electrical installation that can be easily adapted to specific project requirements. The battery box, which is hermetically sealed from the interior in its operating state, is accessible from the inside of the shelter and ventilated from the outside. Its shelftype construction provides space for a block of batteries (48 V, 256 Ah max.) for the NAV 400 navaids as well as for collocated equipment. One or two throughthewall air conditioning units and thermostats provide ventilation. The air conditioning equipment is designed to provide the appropriate environmental conditions for all products installed in the container. One fire extinguisher is provided. Other options are: obstruction lighting, heater, table and chair, bookshelves, or an additional sun roof. The navaids shelter is secured using the ISO corners and twist locks that connect it to four foundation blocks.The roof of the Navaids Shelter is accessible. The container itself is splashproof, resistant against sea climate and invulnerable to salty water, fungus and termites.

Support for A/C

2991
(Dimensions in mm; Tare weight approx. 900 kg)

2438

2438

Fig. 310
Ed. 01.04

Navaids shelter, dimensions


SOAC

313

GP 422
Description GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description
cable duct on the ceiling Signal cable (RF/AF)

10 ft Container Shelter

cable entry

Battery Box Ventilation of battery box

Wiring Diagram of electrical Installation


option box Main Fuse switch

L1 L2 L3

Residual Current Breaker

N
FI1

I>

40 0.03 B2A

PE Overvoltage Protection

F7

B10A

F8

B10A

B10A F4

B18A F3

C20A F1

Spare 2 optional

Earth Collector Bar

BCPS TX Rack DME etc.

. .. . . .. . . .. .
Inside Light Socket outlets
F20 (K50A)

DME

BCPS
TX

+ 48 V

if available AirConditioner Single Phase "Option"

20 protected wires

Station Ground

+ Signal lines NF 600 OHM 90 V/Type F

F21 (G0.2A)

Line Terminal Box

Emergency battery 48 V

Fig. 311

Standard shelter, inner arrangement and electrical installation (example)


SOAC Ed. 01.04

314


C20A F2 5 C20A F5

Top connector panel on cabinet

Location of NAV 400 racks (GP LLZ, DME, CVOR, DVOR) ,

Main Distribution Panel

C20A F6

F9

change o.

10

..
optional

A/C1 A/C2
set to 36 C

junction box heater

DME

Temp. Sensor

twilight switch

obstruction lights 1 2

* Example diagram for Mains Supply with 3 Phases, N and PE

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3 3.3.1

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F DESCRIPTION OF SUBASSEMBLIES OF THE TRANSMITTER RACK General

All plugin or screwon subassemblies (printed circuit boards) in the transmitter rack for the GP2F versions are described in Section 3.3. Their tasks are described and illustrated with the aid of simplified block diagrams. The integration within the complete system is shown in block diagram Fig. 120. More details about the subassemblies (printed circuit boards), which may exceed the information given in the following description part and figures, may be taken from the circuit diagrams listed in Fig. 312. The following sections describe first the subassemblies of the GP2F "active" version. Because subassemblies of the "standard" GP2F version are mostly identical, the differences in description are highlighted in the correspondent section.

3.3.2

Overview Subassemblies GP2F Transmitter Rack


CODE NUMBER*) REFERENCE 3.3.3 (LGA) (SYN) (MODPA) (PADA) (PADS) 1205700004 1204960002 1205890001 1206220001 1206340001 1206090001 3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 3.3.3.5 3.3.3.6 3.3.3.6.1 3.3.3.6.2 3.3.4 (INTFC) (INTFC) (LGM) (ECU) (SOAC) 1206280001 1204980001 1205700004 1205710003 1206210001 3.3.4.1 3.3.4.2 3.3.4.3 3.3.4.4 3.3.5 83135 21001/21002 84045 83233 84045 83245 3.3.5.1 3.3.5.2.1 3.3.5.2.2 3.3.6 83138 83138 58341 58341 30511 12400 20101 20102 3.3.6.2 3.3.6.3 3.3.6.4 3.3.6.5

SUBASSEMBLY ASSIGNMENT Transmitter: LLZ/GP Audio Generator Synthesizer Modulator Power Amplifier GP PINdiode Transfer Switch Power Adder (options) Power Adder (GP2F active) Power Adder (GP2F standard) Monitor: Monitor Interface LLZ/GP Monitor Processor Executive Control Unit Stby and OnAir Combiner

Local/Remote Communication Interface: Local Control Panel (LCP) Modem, dedicated line / party line (LGM1200MD) Modem, switched line (LGM28.8) Power Supply: Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) DCConverter 5 V (on LVS board) (DCC5) DCConverter Multivolt (DCCMV) AC/DCConverter (12 A) (ACC54) AC/DCConverter (14 A) (ACC54)

*) The code numbers given may differ to those of the delivered installation in individual cases. In such case the actual code number can be taken from the delivery list of the installation or the drawing set.

Fig. 312
Ed. 01.10 01.04

Circuit diagrams of subassemblies (transmitter rack)


SOAC

315

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

316

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.3 3.3.3.1 Transmitter Subassemblies Overview

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

The GP2F transmitter section, the function of which is to generate the RF signals and amplify the RF, consists of the following subassemblies (single, Fig. 313, blocks dark grey); the block diagram shows both active and standard version: Localizer/Glide Path audio generator Synthesizer Modulator/power amplifier for carrier 1 (CSB1) and sideband (SBO) Modulator/power amplifier for clearance and carrier 2 (CSB2) PINdiode transfer switch Power Adder (GP2F active or standard)
MType Antennas A1, A2, A3 MType Antennas A1, A2, A3 from probes

LGA SYN MODPA1 MODPA2 PADA; PADS


NF dipole (NFM), opt.)

Shelter/Cabinet

to antenna system
Phase Shifter

Power Adder (PADS) RF OUT


CSB* SBO* Clear.*

Phase Shifter ***

stby RF signal

field signals

RF OUT
CSB A1

Power Adder (PADA)


SBO A3 Clear. CSB A2 **

GP2F standard version

PINdiode Transfer Switch


TX1 TX2 CSBA1 (CSB)*

PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby and OnAir Combiner

SOAC Interface INTFC


from MODPA 1/2

CW RF TX1/2 CRS/CLR Inputs analog

TRANSMITTER 1
CW RF f0 + 4 kHz

TRANSMITTER 2

Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 1 Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 2

Synthesizer 1 SYN
CW RF f0 4 kHz

SBOA3 (SBO)* Clearance CSBA2** control

Audio Generator 1 LGA


BITE Integrity signals Analog IN (spare) SYN data

Executive Control Unit ECU

Audio Generator 2 LGA

Monitor 1 LGM
RS232C RS232C

RS232C RS232C

Monitor 2 LGM
RS232C

LRCI MODEM***
LCI LCCPU

LCP

MODEM***

* RF signal in GP2F standard ** used in GP2F active *** optional OIO (spare) Maintenance Data Terminal RMMC PTT

Fig. 313
07.06 Ed. 01.04

GP2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)
SOAC

317

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.3.2 Localizer/Glide Path Audio Generator (LGA)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 314. The Audio generator LGA produces the composite carrierplussideband (CSB) and sideband only (SBO) modulation envelopes for the CSB1/SBO MODPA and, in dual frequency Glide Path systems, the Clearance and CSB2 (active only) MODPA. NOTE: Audio Generator and Monitor module commonality: The same CCA module is used for the Monitor and Audio functions, which reduces spare inventory requirements. The difference is the dedicated individual firmware used. The CCA automatically configures itself for audio generator or monitor function when it is plugged into the backplane. The audio and monitor functions are always completely independent. Program updates are easily accommodated (see also 3.3.4.2.1 ).

3.3.3.2.1

LGA Hardware

The design meets all audio generation requirements by combining an advanced EPLD in conjunction with an Intel 80C196 highperformance microcontroller. The design provides for measuring all required analog and digital signals through multiplexed input and direct port input/output (I/O). The versatile 80C196 RISCbased microcontroller provides complex I/O and an instruction set suitable for both computational and generalpurpose use. Supporting circuitry for the 80C196 includes code (FLASH, program storage) and data (SRAM) memory as well as nonvolatile data storage (EEPROM, storage of station specific characteristics). The EPLD provides chipselect logic, Direct Memory Access (DMA) interface to the SRAM for automatic sampled A/D conversion, automatic D/A conversion for audio generation, a highspeed UART, and ROMless booting of the FLASH programming bootloader program. EPLD based hardwarepartitioning of the programming function prevents accidental FLASH programming. A timetested minimal multitasking OS kernel allows partitioning the software into separate functional tasks, easing the development and testing of the design and reducing design errors. The 80C196 microcontroller was selected based on its ideal combination of features for embedded applications including its internal I/O peripherals and its RISC based architecture which is optimized for both highspeed mathematical computations (e.g. DSP) and generalpurpose use (e.g. interrupts and multitasking). The embedded software consists of a mix of compiled "C" language routines plus assembly language routines for timecritical portions. Internal peripherals include a watchdog timer, two 16bit generalpurpose timers, a highspeed I/O subsystem, and a hold/hold acknowledge bus protocol interface (used by the DMA). The 80C196s highlevel of integrated peripherals and its multifeature advanced EPLD help it to achieve the system requirements. The increased reliability that results from reducing part counts makes it superior to other microprocessor or microcontroller implementations. For signal processing, up to 32 analog inputs are available for signals and 8 analog inputs for reference inputs. Selected signal and reference inputs are fed to a monolithic, unitygain differential amplifier for common mode noise rejection. The reference input can also be connected to a software controlled 0 to +10 Volt DAC controlled DC offset adjustment circuit to minimize a signals DC component, to maximize its AC portion and increase the signals signaltonoise ratio (SNR). The accurate, highspeed 12bit A/D converter has a dynamic range of 10 Volts. Weak signals may be amplified by a softwarecontrolled DAC gain amplifier to more closely achieve the A/Ds fullscale range. The EPLD provides the ability to automatically sample an entire block of data, in 128sample increments up to 1024 equally spaced samples, as needed for digital signal processing. Oversampled DC signals are averaged to provide resolution greater than 12 bits for various calibration operations.

318

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

The EPLD also provides logic for a highspeed (19,200 bps) serial interface. The transmit/receive lines are buffered to normal EIA RS232/ITUV.23 levels for communication with the LCP For audio . generation, the EPLD provides a convenient memory window for writing/reading the waveform data to/from SRAM and, when enabled, the EPLD automatically uses DMA to transfer the data from memory to the 13bit audio generator DACs. By maintaining a versatile, highlevel approach, the audio generator meets the requirements for generating highquality signals for localizer or glide path systems. This flexible approach provides features that are not available with an allhardware implementation. These features include selfcalibration that continuously removes data acquisition errors from actual signal data while also verifying its validity through the use of design based, hardcoded limits, plus easy signal waveform adjustment through the audio generators memory window.

3.3.3.2.2

LGA functional Operation

Onboard automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of the audio generator and audio generation paths. The audio generator/monitor provides the capability to fully characterize its analog signal processing through programcontrolled adjustments using a precision 5 V (0.05 %) reference. Once its A/D subsystem is characterized, the processor then calibrates the A/D circuits which provides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware adjustments. The precision external reference is continuously crossverified using the A/Ds internal precision reference. Two modes exist for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12bit A/D may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conversions of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardwareassisted data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128sample increments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and 30.72 kHz. Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontrollers data memory (SRAM) using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling mode is used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the analysis to be performed on the result. The audio card has a highspeed (19,200 bps) serial input/output communication link with the LCP for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and system status identifiers: alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation (used only in the LGM application) oncommand calibration of audio generator and detectors calibration results of audio generator, or detectors Digital signal generation of navigational tones eliminates the audio generator maintenance as a source of error. The audio generator generates all navigation and identification information used to modulate the ILS RF carrier and provides the means to control the radiated signal. Four channels of digitally synthesized navigation information are provided, one each for course/path carrierplus sideband (CSB1), course/path SBO, Clearance and carrierplussideband CSB2 (GP2F active only). Each of these synthesizers uses a 12bit digitaltoanalog (D/A) converter that outputs 512 separate data points for each ILS cycle (1/30th of a second), assuring very accurate and precise navigation audio that allow a DDM control resolution of 0.0005. When all the pattern calculations are completed, the audio generator then loads the information to the randomaccess memory (RAM). The RAM information is in the form of complete navigation waveform in digital format. This exact information is converted to analog signal by very accurate 12bit D/A converters, filtered, and amplified through operational amplifiers and output to the modulator/ power amplifier.
Ed. 07.06 01.04 SOAC

319

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Once loaded, the monitor and audio generator board remain independent until a change in station parameters is input by an operator. The complete navigation waveform always uses the full 12 bits of the D/A converter for best possible accuracy. The amplitude (RF level and modulation) is set using an 8bit multiplying D/A converter that functions as an accurate 256step level control. The monitor and audio generator are completely independent. Two LED at the front signalize availability or ok of the CPU and audio signals. NOTE: The LLZ or GP installation can be equipped with the LGx Ref. 1205700004, e.g. for replacement. The LGx 1205700004 is backward compatible to the LGx 0003 version and can be used with former standard Export SW kits used by the 1205700003.

The location of the two LGA (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 36.

Serial communication to LRCI

UART

EPLD (1) Autoboot sequencer


clock CPU Normal Audio on

Reset out (P2/c18)

Board personality
LGA/LGM

3.3V

Flash program memory


(Firmware LGM) Firmware LGA station data config. data

LGM program memory 1st data

Digital output buffer

8 External signals
(e.g. ANT SEL, Shut down, ...)

used in LGM application Digital input buffer RS 422 Digital output


CPU Bus MicroController

MUX External signals


(e.g. DME KEY IN, INTFC_CLK,...)

80C196KB

Frequency measure

EEPROM configuration memory


station data, config. data

Reset

Debug communication used in LGA application CSB/SBO


clock 1 CSB/2 SBO (I/Q)

External signals
(e.g. +24 V, +48 V, obstr. light, etc.)

20 MUX 3 Analog measure

14.7456 MHz

Course CLR/CSB2* to MODPA s

External Reference signals Internal signals

RAM data memory

Analog wave generator


(8 DAC)

Clearance Ident (not with GP) Integrity to ECU KEY_DME (not with GP)

ADCS

clock

EPLD (2) timing control


Vcc 3.3V

* active GP only

Fig. 314

Localizer/Glide Path Audio generator (LGA)


SOAC Ed. 01.10 01.04

320

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.3.3 Synthesizer (SYN)

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

See Fig. 315. The Frequency synthesizer CCA generates the RF carrier for the course MODPA and, if a dual frequency system, also for the clearance MODPA. The synthesizer produces a clean low noise CW signal. The low noise signal is achieved by high frequency, phase stable TCXO and modern Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) technology. The DDS allows a phase detector to operate at a frequency more than 350 times the 25 kHz of conventional PLL designs, which gives a potential of 48 dB more phase correction gain at 150 Hz than conventional designs. The desired frequency is easily set with the jumpers. Once the frequency is set, the synthesizer is automatically ready for glide path or localizer function. The frequency accuracy is achieved by the use of a stable TCXO and small frequency steps allowed by the DDS design. The TCXO has a specified frequency tolerance of 10 parts per million (ppm) from 40 to 85 degrees. The carrier frequencies are phase locked to this frequency and can be set in 0.17 Hz steps (0.52 Hz steps for the glide slope). The station frequency and frequency offset for the capture effect is set by the program in the programmable readonly memory (PROM). The 8 kHz will be set to less than 2 Hz error and phase locked to the same TCXO to always have less than 2 Hz error. For measurement, the 8 kHz frequency difference is either counted down to 125 Hz (default for ILS 420) to be compatible with other ILS systems or directly supplied as 8 kHz (jumper selectable) for use in a more accurate difference detector. Direct Digital Synthesis : The heart of the design is the DDS integrated circuit. The DDS and the 10 bit D/A converter are specified for clock speeds up to 125 MHz and output frequencies of up to 40 MHz. The big advantage of using the DDS approach is that instead of a phase detector in the PLL that is limited to the channel frequency separation, the PLL detector can operate at 10 MHz or more. A frequency higher than 10 MHz can be used but there is a trade off between increased PLL gain and more spurious noise out of the DDS. Using a high PLL detector frequency allows a much higher correction gain. The glide path phase corrections at 90 and 150 Hz are particularly interesting. The feedback correction frequency of any phase locked loop is limited by the frequency of the phase detector. With a standard PLL, the maximum phase detector frequency is the channel separation. The gain of the phase correction loop at 150 Hz can go up to 6 dB for every octave the phase detector frequency goes up. Since 25 kHz to 10 MHz is more than 8 octaves, the loop could theoretically have 48 dB more gain at 150 Hz than a PPL with a phase detector operating at 25 kHz. The 10 MHz (channel frequency divided by 10 for the localizer and by 30 for the glide path) can be set by increments of the TCXO divided by the numerical counter of the DDS integrated circuit (IC). For the capture effect, the plus and minus 4 kHz offset can be set in less than 1 Hz steps from the same TCXO and will always be phase locked at the exact frequency difference. Phaselockedloop IC The Phaselockedloop integrated circuit (IC) used is a high quality part designed for lownoise synthesizers. It allows the phase detector to operate at the incoming reference frequency. This is highly desirable in this application because the phase detector can operate at the 10 MHz DDS output frequency. The IC has all the counters, lock detector, and charge pump output to complete a PLL function. The voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO) input will handle up to 2000 MHz and will allow this same circuit to operate in the DME band. The output filter to the VCOs is a standard active lowpass filter. VoltageControlledOscillators These VCOs are rugged, linear tuning, surface mount, minicircuit VCOs. The DDS IC requires a 40bit tuning word to set it up and to set the 3bit counter. This is accomplished with five 8bit words and two ICs. The timing and control IC is a programmable device that has a resistancecapacitance (RC) oscillator and the outputs to control loading and addressing of the DDS IC and PROM.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

321

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The frequency set will be input to the DDS IC at power up and periodically thereafter. The coding from BCD to binary is programmed into the PROMs. By programming PROMs, the VCO output frequency can be set to within less than 1 Hz for each channel frequency. Jumpering either the 100 MHz jumper or the 300 MHz jumper sets the VCO divider in the PLL IC and selects either the 100 MHz VCO or the 300 MHz VCO. Selecting the 100 or 300 MHz jumper also routes the signal through the 380 MHz low pass filter or the 135 MHz lowpass filter. The location of the two SYN (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 36.

(VCO2)
harmonic filter

VCO
LLZ
f+4 kHz

RF out CRS
J7

DDS
clock 8 bit

PLL
divide by 30/12

low pass

Amplifier VCO
GP

LLZ or GP

BCD jumper frequency select


J1 to J4

feedback loop

EPLD

EPROM

TCXO
39.95 MHz

Mixer

8 kHz :64 freq. diff. 125 Hz (default setting) LLZ :128 GP :256 fout

8 bit

clock harmonic filter

(VCO1)

VCO
LLZ
f4 kHz

DDS

PLL
divide by 30/12

low pass

Amplifier VCO
GP

RF out CLR
J6

LLZ or GP

feedback loop

Fig. 315

Synthesizer (SYN), block diagram

322

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.3.4 Modulator Power Amplifier (MODPA)

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

See Fig. 316, 317, 318. The Modulator/power amplifier (MODPA) assembly provides two amplitude modulated signals, the CSB and the SBO. One MODPA unit is required for single frequency operation and two units are required for twofrequency operation.

CSBsignal (modulated with "90+150 Hz")

SBOsignal (modulated with "90150 Hz", the RF phase is reversed at the zero crossings of the envelope curve)

Fig. 316

CSB and SBO, amplitude modulated signals (principle view)

The designs and operation of the Localizer and Glide Path power amplifiers are the same, differing only in those components specific to the operating frequency bands. Consequently, the following discussion applies equally to both units. The CSB and SBO modulators, linear RF power amplifiers, and support circuits for measurement of power output, reflected power, and associated monitoring functions are constructed on a single surface mount printed wiring board. The printed wiring board is mounted on a heat sink inserted in the power amplifier card cage within the transmitter equipment cabinet. For the active GP2F, a special jumper setting and external connection (SBO section) allows the output RFcw of one MODPA to be one input path of the other that is responsible for the CSB2 path. CSB modulator power amplifier section RF carrier on the selected operating frequency is input to the MODPA from the synthesizer. This signal is routed to an initial power divider from which two outputs are obtained. One signal is routed to the SBO section of the MODPA. The other output from the power divider is amplified in a broadband MMIC amplifier, after which it is routed to a second power divider and split into the two channels used within the CSB section of the MODPA.
Linear power amplifier Phase PIN diode AM modulator Modulator Coupler Low pass filter RF out to antenna

AM Error amplifier MMIC AMP Power Divider

AM Detector

Sample of RF output signal

Amplitude error control voltage Phase Error amplifier

RF from frequency subthesizer J1 RFcw out Power Divider

Phase correction control voltage Carrier reference phase Factory Delay Phase Phase feedback

J6* to SOAC *LLZ: J7 CSB Audio waveform from Audio Generator RFcw to SBO section

Phase align

Detector

Fig. 317
07.08 Ed. 01.04

MODPA CSB section, block diagram


SOAC

323

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

One signal which will become the modulated carrier is routed to a phase modulator (electronically controlled phase shifter) and then to the AM modulator. From the AM modulator this signal is applied to a linear RF power amplifier which increases the level of the lowpower modulated signal to obtain the specified output power level. The signal is next applied to a low pass filter to remove undesired harmonics from the transmitter output. Following the filter, a directional coupler in the output line provides samples of the forward and reflected RF output signals. The forward power RF sample is used in two feedback loops to control both the amplitude and the phase performance of the CSB MODPA. Modulation of the transmitter and correction of any AM modulation distortion is accomplished by the AM loop. The CSB Audio waveform consisting of a DC level, the 90 and 150 Hz audio tones and the Ident tone is created by the audio generator and input to one side of the AM loop error amplifier. An audio signal from a highly linear AM detector that is driven from the RF output sample obtained from the directional coupler is also input to the loop error amplifier. The input DC level sets the desired RF carrier power, and the detected DC level is proportional to the actual RF carrier power. Similarly, the level of the 90 and 150 Hz tones, relative to the DC level, at the input of the error amplifier sets the desired modulation percentage for each tone. The detected level of these tones represents the actual modulation percentage, including the effects of modulator and linear amplifier nonlinearity. The signals are applied to the differential inputs of the AM error amplifier where the difference between them is amplified and output as a control voltage which is applied to the AM modulator. The result is a closed loop feedback control system which continuously detects and compensates for any deviation in RF power or modulation percentage. It also removes any distortion introduced by the AM modulator or the linear RF power amplifier. Thus, the output power and modulation percentage are accurately determined by the digitally generated input CSB signal from the audio generator. The CSB phase control loop operates like the AM loop and has two primary functions. The first is to set and maintain the phase relationship between the input RF carrier signal (from the synthesizer) and the modulated output carrier. In conjunction with similar loops in the SBO section (which are also referenced to the input carrier), this maintains the desired phase relationship between the CSB and SBO signals. The second function of the CSB phase control loop is to compensate for any undesired phase modulation of the RF carrier occurring in the linear RF power amplifier. This form of phase modulation, often referred to as AM to PM conversion, commonly occurs in highly efficient linear RF power amplifiers, and may result in undesired PM sidebands on the transmitter output. The phase feedback loop operates as follows. A phase detector, implemented with a double balanced mixer, provides one input to a high gain phase error amplifier, where it is compared with a 0 volt reference. The phase detector has two inputs, one is a sample of the RF output signal from the directional coupler. This signal contains the carrier and any phase modulation components. The other signal, obtained from the power divider at the input to the CSB section, consists only of unmodulated carrier originating from the frequency synthesizer. Undesired phase modulation is detected by the phase detector and output as an error voltage and amplified by the loop error amplifier. The output from the loop error amplifier is applied as a phase correction control voltage to the phase modulator or electronic phase shifter. This signal, when applied to the modulator, counter modulates the RF carrier such that any undesired phase modulation generated by the AM modulator or the linear power amplifier, is canceled and does not appear at the transmitter output. To maintain the desired phase relationship between the CSB and SBO channels, it is necessary to have the proper phase delay in the phase reference input to the phase detector. The delay compensates for the difference in propagation delay between the reference phase channel components and those in the modulated RF channel. Obtaining the delay is accomplished by means of a fixed LC delay network, in conjunction with a variable phase trimmer. Most of the phase delay is provided by the fixed delay network. Unit to unit variations are trimmed out with the factory phase alignment control during a onetime adjustment and unit test.

324

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
SBO modulator power amplifier section

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

This section controls the SBO Power, suppresses the RF carrier, and adjusts the SBO phase relative to the CSB phase over the full range of 0 to 360 degrees. Full 360 degree phase adjustment saves time during system installation by eliminating the need to cut RF cables to the correct phase length. Fig. 318 shows the block diagram of the SBO section. InPhase and Quadrature modulation signals are used in a closed loop system. The RF carrier is input to the SBO section from the power divider in the CSB section as discussed previously. This signal is routed to an additional power divider to create two channels; one is the SBO modulator channel, and the other is a carrier phase reference channel similar to that used in the CSB section. From the power divider, a CW signal is sent to the IQ modulator. For the active GP2F, the RF carrier from the CSB section is coupled out (J7) and fed as input RF to the SBO section of second MODPA (J7) which is used to modulate the CSB2 signal. The IQ modulator consists of an input, 90 degree, power divider, two double balanced modulators, and an inphase power combiner. The 90 degree power divider splits the input signal into two signals having a phase difference of 0 and 90 degrees. Each is applied to a balanced modulator. Each modulator is designed so that an input on the control voltage port will result in an RF output phase which is 0 degrees and proportional in amplitude to the voltage applied. Similarly, if the polarity of the voltage is negative, the RF output phase is 180 degrees relative to the input phase, and the amplitude is again proportional to the magnitude of the control signal. One is used to modulate the 0 degree (I) signal, from the power divider, and the other is used to modulate the 90 degree (Q) signal. The two modulated signals are then summed in the inphase power combiner to obtain the vector summation of the 0 and 90 degree components. For example, equal level control signals applied to both modulators will produce a vector sum of 45 degrees. Thus, any output phase may be obtained by adjusting the relative proportion and the polarity of I and Q control signals. The power output obtained is proportional to the magnitude of the two signals. The output phase will be constant as the power is varied with the control voltages, provided the relative amplitude ratio is held constant between the I and Q voltages.
IQ Modulator I modulation 0 90 degr. Power Divider 90 I Error amplifier RF carrier input from CSB section Power Divider Q modulation I error voltage Q control JP5 RF in/out SBO "I" Audio from Audio Generator 0 to 5 V peak SBO "Q" Audio from Audio Generator 0 to 5 V peak 0 90 degr. Power Divider 90 Q Detector I Detector Inphase Power Divider Sample of RF output signal I control Inphase power combiner IQ modulated SBO RF Low pass filter Linear power amplifier RF out to antenna Coupler

J7 GP2F active only

Carrier reference phase Factory Delay Phase align

Q error voltage Q error amplifier

IQ Demodulator

Fig. 318
Ed. 01.04

MODPA SBO Section Block Diagram


SOAC

325

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The balanced modulators also suppress the RF carrier. Ideally, with 0 Volts on the control port, the output from each modulator is 0. If an AC signal, symmetrical about 0 Volts, is applied, the output from each modulator is a double sideband, suppressed carrier, or SBO, signal. By adjusting the relative magnitude and polarity of the AC signals applied to the I and Q modulation ports, a SBO signal of any desired phase from 0 to 360 degrees is obtainable. In the ILS 420 MODPA units, the IQ modulator is used in conjunction with an IQ demodulator in a closed loop feedback system (refer to the block diagram). RF is applied to the IQ modulator operating as discussed above. The I and Q signals are summed and routed to the linear RF power amplifier where the signal is increased to the desired power level. The amplified signal is low pass filtered, to suppress harmonics, and routed to the antenna system via a directional coupler. A sample of the modulated RF output signal, obtained from the coupler, is input to the IQ demodulator. Also input to the demodulator is an unmodulated carrier phase reference obtained from the input power divider. As in the case of the CSB section, a phase delay network and factory set fine phase alignment control are provided to set the reference phase input to the IQ demodulator. Operation of the IQ demodulator is the reciprocal of the modulator. The demodulator provides two outputs: an I output proportional to the inphase modulation components of the RF signal and a Q output proportional to the quadrature modulation components of the RF signal. The Q channel feed back loop operates similarly. Amplitude and phase errors in the quadrature component of the RF output sample are detected, compared with the input from the audio generator, and fed back to control the Q modulator. In operation, the I and Q feedback loops drive the IQ modulator to produce SBO modulation which accurately replicates the amplitude and phase of the I and Q waveforms input from the audio generator. By adjusting the I and Q inputs under software control, the SBO power and phase may be accurately set and maintained. The IQ demodulator I and Q outputs send to two high gain error amplifiers having differential inputs. These amplifiers also receive the I and Q modulation signals from the SBO section of the audio generator. The I error amplifier provides an output proportional to the error between the I input audio and the I detector output. This output controls the I modulator as part of a negative feed back loop which drives the I modulator to cancel any difference between the desired audio input and the detected I modulation. This closed loop system effectively removes nonlinearity, distortion, or drift in the modulator or the RF power stages. Linear Power Amplifiers RF Power FETs are employed in the Localizer and Glide Path power stages. FET RF power amplifiers provide high gain, wide operating band widths, and the inherent ability to withstand open or short circuit load conditions without damage. For added protection, the amplifiers incorporate a reverse power sensor and fold back circuit which reduces the power output until the load mismatch is corrected. Each amplifier includes forward and reverse power sensors and detectors providing power measurement outputs to the system monitor and portable maintenance data terminal. The power amplifiers are conservatively designed and fully capable of continuous CW power outputs in excess of the peak envelope power required for full modulation. A large and conservatively designed heat sink provides cooling of the output and driver stages for both designs. Junction temperatures are maintained below 125 C in a +55 C environment. This temperature is well below the manufacturers rated junction temperatures for each type of power amplifier FET. The location of the MODPA (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 36.

326

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.3.5 PINDiode Transfer Switch

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

See Fig. 319. The RF signals are distributed to the antenna system by means of the discrete PINdiode transfer switches. The PINDiode transfer switches and the attenuators/dummy loads are located on a printed circuit board which is mounted to a heat sink. The complete assembly is mounted at the rear of the cabinet. Components of the RF signals used for monitoring the standby transmitter are coupled out and fed to the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC). The components are: 4 PINdiode transfer switches including attenuators/dummy load resistors PINdiode bias supply (dc in: +24 V; dc out: +5 V, 120 V) transfer switch driver The function of the various components is to switch the antenna system over to transmitter 1 or 2. The signals of the transmitter which is currently switched to the antenna by the PINdiode transfer switch 1 to 4 (Course/Clearance) each pass through to the antenna system. The changeover signals received from the Executive Control Unit (ECU) control the PINdiode switches 1 to 4 for the Course and Clearance branch. The CSB1/SBO and Clear./CSB2 (GPactive) signals of the standby transmitter, which is active, but not switched to the antenna, are passed through to the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) by RF attenuators which are also used as dummy loads. The PINdiode transfer switch is supplied with two DC voltages (+5 V/2.5 A; 120 V/0.03 A) which are derived from the 24 V DC input in the bias supply part. This voltage coming from both DCCMV is ored at the SOAC. The location of the PINdiode transfer switch assembly is shown in Fig. 36.
to antenna system
J10 J12 J7 J9 J4 J6 J1 J3

to antenna system
CSB+SBO+Clear. CSB1+SBO SBO+Clear
A1 A2 Z3 J4 J2 J3 J6 A3

4
J28

J11

3
J27

J8

2
J26
SBO

J5 J25

1
CSB1

J2

CSBA1
Z1** J5 J2

SBOA3
Z3** J3 J1 J4

CSBA2

GP2F active

GP2F standard Z1
J5 J1 Z1,3=phase shifter

CSB2*

Clearance

PADA

PADS

J31

Driver and Bias supply CSB1 SBO Clear.

rear view CSB1


J3

SBO
J6

6 dB/5 W**

6 dB/5 W**

Clear.
J9

CSB2*
J12

RF Stby 20 dB/100 W 10 dB/1 W 15 dB/1 W

20 dB/100 W

15 dB/1 W

20 dB/100 W

10 dB/1 W 20 dB/100 W

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 1

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 2 120 VDC

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 3

Antenna changeover PINdiode switch 4 *

J1

J2

J4

J5

+5 VDC

J7

J8

J10

J11

CSB/TX1

CSB/TX2

SBO/TX1 SBO/TX2 PINdiode PINdiode switch driver bias supply


J31 Control DC 24 VDC
J26 J25 J28 J27

Clear./TX1
changeover signals

Clear./TX2

CSB2/TX1*

CSB2/TX2*

Transfer assembly rear of cabinet

Stby and OnAir Combiner


J21 J20

ECU

24V1/24V2 to INTFC and monitor

* GP2F active only ** optional

Fig. 319
06.05 Ed. 01.04

Transfer Assembly, block diagram


SOAC

327

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.3.6 Power Adder

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The Power Adder (PAD) is used to process the incoming signals to appropriate outgoing signals which supply the antennas A1, A2 and A3 to built a GP2F (MType) system. This task is done by individual Power Adders for the active GP2F (PADA) and the standard GP2F (PADS).

3.3.3.6.1

Power Adder (PADA), GP2F (MType, active)

See Fig. 320. The simple Power Adder for the active GP2F version (PADA) is used to add the clearance RF signal to the CSB1 RF signal which is fed to antenna A1 as CSBA1, and to the SBO RF signal which is fed to antenna A3 as SBOA3. In the active GPversion the CSBA2 signal is directly fed to the antenna A2. The location of the PADA is shown Fig. 320 (alternatively within the cabinet or at the rear door) and in Fig. 36. Optionally, phase shifters Z1 and Z3 may be installed which allow a fine tuning of A1 or A3 phases during flight check. The default setting is 0, mid position.

PADA location in cabinet rear view, right side wall (cabling example)

PADA, top view

PADA location in cabinet, rear door including optional phase shifters (cabling example)

CSBA2

MIDDLE ANTENNA

W22 J2
power adder CSB+Clear.

A2

J5

CSBA1

LOWER ANTENNA

CSB2

CSB1
6 dB opt.

W21

adjustable Phase Shifter* f Z1

A1 W26* to antenna system A1*

Clear.
6 dB opt.

J4
power divider power adder SBO+Clear. SBOA3

default setting 0

SBO
PINdiode transfer switch

UPPER ANTENNA

A3 W26*

J1
6 dB

J3 PADA

W23

adjustable Phase Shifter* f Z3

A3*

default setting 0

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22. * optional: these phase shifters may be optionally installed, if the PADA is located in the rear door. Cables W21,W23 are fed then to the phase shifters.

Fig. 320

PADA, GP2F (MType, active), block diagram and design


SOAC Ed. 06.05 01.04

328

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

to J1, cabinet top (A2) to J8, cabinet top (A1) to J2, cabinet top (A3)

swivel nut adjustable part position indication


Z3 UPPER ANTENNA

W26
J2

J1

Z1 LOWER ANTENNA

PADA, GP2F active Cabinet, rear view

W25
J2

J3 (A3)
W22 W23
UPPER ANTENNA

NOTE: Without optional phase shifters RF cables W21 and W22 are fed directly to J8 (A1) and J2 (A3). Normally the phase shifters are set to 0 as default. from J12, PIN diode transfer switch from J9, PIN diode transfer switch from J3, PIN diode transfer switch from J6, PIN diode transfer switch

J4 THALES
CLR IN

1206340001 PADA

J5 (A1)
W21
LOWER ANTENNA

INPUT W19 W17 W18 attenuator* attenuator*

INPUT

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22. * an attenuator (6 to 10 dB) may be optionally inserted in the SBO and CLR supply line.

Fig. 321

Power Adder PADA, mechanical arrangement and cabling

06.05 Ed. 01.04

SOAC

J1

Delay Delay 35 0

Phase shifter

35

Phase shifter

J1

SBO IN

J2
CSB IN

INPUT

329

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.3.6.2 Power Adder (PADS), GP2F (MType, standard)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 323, 322. The Power Adder PADS for the standard GP2F (MType) is used to divide and combine the CSB, the SBO and the Clearance RF signal to provide the appropriate feeding signals for the GP antennas A1 (CSB+SBO+Clear.), A2 (CSB+SBO) and A3 (SBO+Clear.). Mechanically adjustable phase shifters Z1 and Z3 are installed at the outputs J5 and J6, which may be used for phasing of antennas (A1/A2 and A1/A3) during first alignment and for a fine tuning during flight check if necessary. The default setting is 0, mid position, the setting range +/35. Fig. 323 shows the mechanical design, Fig. 322 shows the principle of operation. The location of the PADS is shown in Fig. 36. The COURSE CSB input is the CSB signal as delivered from the transmitter with a power up to 5 watt; it is divided in two signals. One is applied via a 180 line W1 and attenuated by about 5.5 dB to the combiner A1 which combines the incoming signals SBO and CSB to the required A2 signal CSB+SBO. The other is fed via a crossover circuit to combiner A4 which combines incoming signals of CSB, SBO+Clearance to the required A1 signal CSB+SBO+Clear.. The COURSE SBO input is the SBO signal as delivered from the transmitter with a power up to 1.5 watt; it is divided in two signals. One is applied via a crossover circuit with 180 phase shift to combiner A1. The other is fed via a further divider to one path supplying combiner A6 which combines incoming signals of Clearance and SBO to the required signal for combiner A4. The other path is fed via a crossover circuit with 180 phase shift and attenuators to combiner A8, which supplies the SBO+Clear. signal via a 90 line W2 to antenna A3.

PADS phase shifters, located at rear door of the cabinet


NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22.

PADS, top view J1


W1 180 A1 X1 crossover adjustable Phase Shifter

J4 W22
CSB+SBO

A2

CSB

J5
A4

SBO
6 dB

J2

W21

Z1

W25

A1

CSB+SBO+Clear.

Clear.
PIN diode transfer switch X2 crossover

to antenna system

A6

adjustable Phase Shifter

J3
A8 W2 90

J6 W23 PADS

W26

Z3 SBO+Clear.

A3

Fig. 322

Power Adder PADS, GP2F (MType, standard), block diagram


SOAC Ed. 06.05 01.04

330

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

to J1, cabinet top (A2) to J8, cabinet top (A1) to J2, cabinet top (A3)
J1 Z3 UPPER ANTENNA

swivel nut adjustable part position indication

W26
J2

J1

Z1 LOWER ANTENNA

PADS, GP2F standard Cabinet, rear view


W22

W25
J2

W21

J6
UPPER ANTENNA

J5
LOWER ANTENNA

MIDDLE ANTENNA

W23

THALES
1206090001 PADS

J3
CLEARANCE

J2
COURSE SBO

COURSE CSB

from J9, PIN diode transfer switch from J6, PIN diode transfer switch from J3, PIN diode transfer switch

W19 W18 W17

INPUT

INPUT

attenuator*

NOTE: In some installations cable W22 for A2 may be labelled as W23 or W24, and W23 for A3 as W22. * an attenuator (6 to 10 dB) may be optionally inserted in SBO supply line.

Fig. 323

Power Adder PADS, GP2F standard (MType), mechanical design

06.05 Ed. 01.04

SOAC

Delay Delay 35 0

Phase shifter

35

Phase shifter

J4

J1

INPUT

331

GP 422
Transmitter Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

332

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.4 Monitor Subassemblies

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

The monitor section monitors the radiated signal and detects any errors or faults that might be critical for aviation. In addition to executive tasks, the monitor data can be used to identify any deviations or minor deficiencies in performance at an early stage, insofar as they might have a detrimental effect on the future continuity of service or system availability (warning monitor). The response to an alarm is a logiccontrolled changeover or disconnection of the transmitters performed by the Executive Control Unit (ECU). The monitor subassemblies thus comprise (Fig. 324, blocks dark grey); the block diagram shows both active and standard version: Monitor Interface Monitor signal processor Executive Control Unit Stby and OnAir Combiner
MType Antennas A1, A2, A3

(INTFC) (LGM) (ECU) (SOAC)


MType Antennas A1, A2, A3 from probes NF dipole (NFM), opt.)

Shelter/Cabinet

Phase Shifter

to antenna system Power Adder (PADA)


SBO A3 Clear. CSB A2

stby RF signal

field signals

Power Adder (PADS) RF OUT


CSB* SBO* Clear.*

RF OUT
CSB A1

**

GP2F standard version

PINdiode Transfer Switch


TX1 TX2 CSBA1 (CSB)*

PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby and OnAir Combiner

SOAC Interface INTFC


from MODPA 1/2

CW RF TX1/2 CRS/CLR Inputs analog

TRANSMITTER 1
CW RF f0 + 4 kHz

TRANSMITTER 2

Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 1 Modulator/ Power Amplifier MODPA 2

Synthesizer 1 SYN
CW RF f0 4 kHz

SBOA3 (SBO)* Clearance CSBA2** control

Audio Generator 1 LGA


BITE Integrity signals Analog IN (spare) SYN data

Executive Control Unit ECU

Audio Generator 2 LGA

Monitor 1 LGM
RS232C RS232C

RS232C RS232C

Monitor 2 LGM
RS232C

LRCI MODEM***
LCI LCCPU

LCP

MODEM***

* RF signal in GP2F standard ** used in GP2F active *** optional OIO (spare) Maintenance Data Terminal RMMC PTT

Fig. 324
07.06 Ed. 01.04

GP2F transmitter, block diagram (dual system partly and power supply not shown)
SOAC

333

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.4.1 Monitor Interface (INTFC)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 325. The Monitor Interface (INTFC) is the signal interface for all configurations of localizer and glide path facilities. It provides the necessary interface between the electronics subsystem and both the systems integral and field detectors. It also provides the interface for other internal and external signals that are fed to the subsystem, including obstruction light information, voice input, temperature measurement inputs. A monitors primary function is to monitor onantenna and standby sensor signals which are processed in the Standby and OnAir combiner for aerial and standby transmitter. For CAT II/III dual equipment systems, there are 7 (6) navigation signal inputs from integral, far field, and internal standby detectors for LLZ (GP). If LLZ nearfield is used in addition to farfield, then a LLZ has 8 signals. Also, the option having two farfield (nearfield) signals can add one more signal to the LLZ (GP). Dual field monitoring is split between the two monitors (one to each independently). Signal inputs on the INTFC are coupled both with buffer amplifiers and with transformer coupling to provide isolation between the system and external detectors, i.e. inputs of FFM1, FFM2 and LLZ antenna cable fault input (LPD antenna). The input signals come into the INTFC down converted in the SOAC to an IFsignal of about 8 kHz. The analog multiplexer MUX1 and MUX2, one for each monitor, select which signal to demodulate. The demodulation produces a DC level representing the original RF carrier level, plus AC components representing the original audio modulation frequencies 90 and 150 Hz. A "reference detector generator" provides a stable, simulated detector calibration signal using only a single 120 Hz modulation frequency rather than the normal 90/150/1024 Hz frequencies, as 120 Hz is midway between the critical 90 and 150 Hz frequencies.The reference detector allows verification of the demodulator operation and continuous compensation for changes in gain. The lowpass filter removes 1024 Hz Morse code identification (Ident, LLZ only), since there are separate Ident envelope detectors (1 and 2) for Ident monitoring. For factory test purposes (with use of e.g. the PIR) a further multiplexer path is assembled which processes the same signals as MUX1 and MUX2. Multiplexer input path selection is done by the monitor through a set of four digital signals. This arrangement allows all detector signals to be processed using the same processing path (independent paths for each monitor). The input of the additonal multiplexer can also be selected manually via the hexswitch SW2. NOTE: The INTFC 1206280001 is backward compatible to the INTFC 1204980001 version. If the LLZ or GP installation shall be equipped with the INTFC board, Ref. No. 1206280001, e.g. for replacement, it is allowed to use both INTFC 120628 and 120498 in the same system. Fig. 325 shows in addition to the above described INTFC 1206280001 the block diagram of the previously used INTFC 1204980001.

The location of the Monitor Interface is shown in Fig. 36.

334

SOAC

Ed. 01.10 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
INTFC 1206280001
Ident peak detect (LLZ only) buffer/filter
path 1

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F
to Monitors LGM 1/2
detector/amplfier
keying output Ident peak key tone

from SOAC:
(Stby and On Air Combiner)
integral

Ident evaluation buffer/filter


path2

gr: key tone rd: Alarm HW MEM ALRM_MEM

to monitor 1 analog input from/to ECU (n.c.)* to monitor 2 analog input to monitor 1 detector analog input

LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. LLZ (GP) CRS Width LLZ (GP) NFM LLZ CLR Width (GP CLR Width) LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. LLZ CLR Width CRS CLR/GP CLR LLZ (GP) CRS Width (LLZ only) LLZ FFM1 LLZ FFM2

detector/amplfier

keying output 90 Level detector DC, Hz Hz, 150 DDM, SDM, RF Low pass filter Interface clock out (120 Hz)

10
internal

MUX 1

path1

AM detector buffer Ref. generator 1 AM detector buffer Ref. generator 2

calibr. signal 120 Hz 1 chopped

MUX 2
T2,T3

path2

Level detector 150 Hz DDM, SDM, RF Low pass filter


squaring amplif. 90 Hz and 150 Hz

DC, 90 Hz,

to monitor 2 detector analog input MODFREQ (n.c.)*

calibr. signal 120 Hz 2, chopped

Multiplexer
Test detector input selection

AM detector buffer
SW2 Input select

TP19 Level detector DDM, SDM, RF Test output *** Low pass filter TP18

LOC ant cable fault (from LPD antenna) inside temp. outside temp. obstr. lights

T1

Antena fault tone receiver

1200 Hz tone, output TTL

to monitor 1/2**

amplifier for temperature measurement buffer

to LGA 1/2

diverse input signals

buffer SW Monitor ok Gate by HW Mon 4


MON1,2 OUT A,B

to LCP to/from ECU (n.c.)*


4
MON1,2 IN A,B

* not used in standard version; not connected at BP Digital 1205980002

** not used

*** factory use to Monitors LGM 1/2

INTFC 1204980001
(previously used)
Ident peak detect (LLZ only) path 1 path2 buffer/filter Ident evaluation reference detector generator
integral

detector/ amplifier detector/ amplifier

to monitor 1 analog input to monitor 2 analog input to monitor 1 detector analog input to monitor 2 detector analog input

from SOAC:
(Stby and On Air Combiner) LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. LLZ (GP) CRS Width LLZ (GP) NFM LLZ CLR Width (GP CLR Width) LLZ (GP) CRS Posn. LLZ CLR Width CRS CLR/GP CLR LLZ (GP) CRS Width (LLZ only) LOC FFM 1 LOC FFM 2 LOC ant cable fault Freq. difference 1 (8kHz) Freq. difference 2 inside temp. outside temp. obstr. lights 2 Battery fuse monitoring diverse input signals DME Key/DME Lock (LLZ only)

buffer/filter

MUX 1
10

path 1 unity gain buffer low Q audio carrier bandpass

rms to dc conv. switched capacitor 5 pole low pass antialiasing low pass rms to dc conv. switched capacitor 5 pole low pass antialiasing low pass

internal

T1...10 trafo isolated input

MUX 2

path2 unity gain buffer low Q audio carrier bandpass

to monitor 1/2**
2x SPDT amplifier for temperature measurement buffer buffer buffer 2 Stby Main

to LGA 1/2

to LCP to/from ECU (LLZ only)

Fig. 325
Ed. 01.10 01.04

LLZ/GP Monitor Interface (INTFC), principle block diagram


SOAC

335

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.4.2 Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 326. Signals transmitted from a localizer or glide path station must be constantly validated to ensure safe landings. For this purpose, the LGM can be seen as a high precision audio frequency spectrum analyzer which continually measures and analyzes these signals, comparing their current values to stored alarm limits. If a measured parameter is not within limits, the monitor signals an alarm condition. The monitored parameters are evaluated for the onantenna executive and field groups and the "hot" Standby group. The following sections describe the functions of an individual board unless otherwise specified. NOTE: Monitor and Audio Generator module commonality: The same module is used for the Monitor and Audio functions. The difference is the dedicated individual firmware used which defines the operation of the board. The audio and monitor functions are always completely independent. Program updates are easily accommodated (see 3.3.4.2.1 ).

3.3.4.2.1

LGM Hardware

The design meets all monitoring requirements by combining an advanced EPLD in conjunction with an Intel 80C196 highperformance microcontroller. The design provides for measuring all required analog and digital signals through multiplexed input and direct port input/output (I/O). The versatile 80C196 RISCbased microcontroller provides complex I/O and an instruction set suitable for both computational and generalpurpose use. Supporting circuitry for the 80C196 includes code (FLASH, program storage) and data (SRAM) memory as well as nonvolatile data storage (EEPROM, storage of station specific characteristics). The EPLD provides chipselect logic, Direct Memory Access (DMA) interface to the SRAM for automatic sampled A/D conversion, automatic D/A conversion for audio generation, a highspeed UART, and ROMless booting of the FLASH programming bootloader program. EPLD based hardwarepartitioning of the programming function prevents accidental FLASH programming. A timetested minimal multitasking OS kernel allows partitioning the software into separate functional tasks, easing the development and testing of the design and reducing design errors. Program updates are easily accommodated by an onboard autoboot sequencer. This sequencer is activated by a specific sequence of the two switches on the front edge of the board. When activated, the sequencer looks for the uploading of special boot software which will permit the processor to be capable of writing to the Flash memory. The processor has write capability to the flash only while in this special boot mode. Once the special boot software is uploaded, new application code can be uploaded and stored. The 80C196 microcontroller was selected based on its ideal combination of features for embedded applications, including its internal I/O peripherals and its RISC based architecture which is optimized for both highspeed mathematical computations (e.g. DSP) and generalpurpose use (e.g. interrupts and multitasking). The embedded software consists of a mix of compiled "C" language routines and, for timecritical portions, assembly language routines. Its internal peripherals include a watchdog timer, two 16bit generalpurpose timers, a highspeed I/O subsystem, and a hold/hold acknowledge bus protocol interface (used by the DMA). The 80C196s highlevel of integrated peripherals and its multifeature advanced EPLD help it achieve the system requirements. Its increased reliability is due to its reduced part count compared to other microprocessor or microcontroller implementations. For signal processing, up to 32 analog inputs are available for signals and 8 analog inputs for reference inputs. Selected signal and reference inputs are fed to a monolithic, unitygain differential amplifier for common mode noise rejection. The reference input can also be connected to a software controlled 0 to +10 Volt DAC controlled DC offset adjustment circuit to minimize a signals DC component, to maximize its AC portion, and to increase the signals signaltonoise ratio (SNR).

336

SOAC

Ed. 01.10 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

The accurate, highspeed 12bit A/D has a dynamic range of 10 Volts. Weak signals may be amplified by a softwarecontrolled DAC gain amplifier to more closely achieve the A/Ds fullscale range. The EPLD provides the ability to automatically sample an entire block of data, in 128sample increments up to 1024 equally spaced samples, as needed for digital signal processing. Oversampled DC signals are averaged to provide resolution greater than 12 bits for various calibration operations. The EPLD also provides logic for a highspeed (19,200 bps) serial interface. The transmit/receive lines are buffered to normal EIA RS232/ITUV.23 levels for communication with the LCP By main. taining a versatile, highlevel approach, the monitor meets the requirements for monitoring the localizer or glide path systems. This flexible approach provides features that are not available with an all hardware implementation. NOTE: The LGx 1205700004 is backward compatible to the LGx 0003 version and can be used with former standard Export SW kits used by the 1205700003.

The location of the two LGM (transmitter 1 and 2) is shown in Fig. 36.
EPLD (1) Autoboot sequencer
clock CPU Normal Audio on

Serial communication to LRCI

UART

Reset out (P2/c18)

Board personality
LGA/LGM

3.3V

Firmware LGM

Flash program memory


(Firmware LGM) Firmware LGM LGM program memory 1st data

LGM program memory 1st data

Digital output buffer

4 to INTFC (MUX)

8 External signals
(e.g. ANT SEL, Shut down, ...)

used in LGM application Digital input buffer RS 422 Digital output


CPU Bus MicroController

Exec. Alarm Stby Alarm Field alarm Integr. A Alarm Integr. B Alarm

MUX External signals


(e.g. DME KEY IN, INTFC_CLK,...)

80C196KB

Frequency measure

EEPROM configuration memory


station data, config. data

Reset

Debug communication used in LGA application CSB/SBO


clock 1 CSB/2 SBO (I/Q)

External signals
(e.g. +24 V, +48 V, obstr. light, etc.)

20 MUX 3 Analog measure

14.7456 MHz

Course CLR/CSB2*

to MODPA s

External Reference signals Internal signals

RAM data memory

Analog wave generator


(8 DAC)

Clearance Ident (not with GP) Integrity to ECU KEY_DME (not with GP) * active GP only

ADCS
see Fig. 327

clock

EPLD (2) timing control


Vcc 3.3V

Fig. 326
Ed. 01.10 01.04

Localizer/Glide Path Monitor (LGM)


SOAC

337

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.4.2.2 LGM functional Operation

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 326, 327. Onboard automatic calibration eliminates factory or field hardware adjustment of monitor and detector paths. The monitor provides the capability to fully characterize its analog signal processing through programcontrolled adjustments, using a precision 5 Volt (0.05 %) reference. Once its A/D subsystem is characterized, the monitors are then capable of calibrating the detector path which provides accurate system measurements without factory or field manual hardware adjustments. The precision external reference is continuously crossverified using the A/Ds internal precision reference. Two modes exist for acquiring a digital representation of a selected analog signal. The 12bit A/D may be used to acquire either a single sample of a selected analog signal, or a block of conversions of a selected signal may be acquired with virtually no processor overhead. The hardwareassisted data conversion control and DMA are by an EPLD. The block size is selectable in 128sample increments from 128 to 1024 samples and two different acquisition times are available: 7.58 and 30.72 kHz. Each sample of converted data is transferred directly in the microcontrollers data memory (SRAM) using the hold/hold acknowledge bus arbitration protocol. The selection of which sampling mode is used (block or single) on a given signal is based on the signal type (periodic or dc) and the analysis to be performed on the result. The monitor cards have a highspeed (19,200 bps) Serial input/output communication link with the LCP for access to the following setup parameters, commands, and system status identifiers: alarm/prealarm limit entry and validation calibration results of monitor or detectors current executive, field, and/or hot standby parameter readings
Data conversion control 1 measurement signals 5 signal input e.g. waveform DC values, etc.

Interface CCA Detector mux output Out

17 32 1

32 input signal MUX

Sample clock and DMA logic (part of EPLD)

Start Convert
calibration voltage for ADC calibration intern.

End of Convert 12bit ADC 16 bit data to CPU data latch (RAM)

In

8 input reference MUX


8

Out

Variable Gain Out 8bit DAC

In

block conversion/single sample

Differential Amp 0V to +10V DC offset 8 bit DAC

Out

CPU data bus

CPU data bus

Ref

high accuracy 5 V reference AGND

Fig. 327

Monitor ADCS conceptual block diagram


SOAC Ed. 01.04

338

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Monitor Stabilization Time

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

The monitor stabilization time is the time it takes a monitor to measure and analyze any specific critical input signal. A hardwareassisted data acquisition subsystem allows concurrent data processing which reduces fault detection latency. The monitor processes signals sequentially, so it is necessary to determine the number of signals processed each monitor cycle and the time it takes to process them. The time it takes for a monitor to acquire and process each detected signal is shown in Fig. 328 a) for a single signal. The three timing components are: Ts is the 10 ms settling time of the audiocarrier demodulator and filter path (on the INTFC), Ta is the 33.333 ms A/D signal acquisition sampling time and Tp is the digital signal processing time (i.e. converting the time samples into DC+AC components, performing scaling and calibration adjustments, plus alarm processing). Now, since Tp is less than Ts, by preselecting the next signal immediately after the current signal has been acquired, the Tp of the current signal may be made coincident with the Ts of the next signal. Thus, the effective throughput is 10+33.333 ms or 43.333 ms, as shown in Fig. 328 b). Note that this pipelined method produces the fastest processing throughput achievable for a single demodulatorA/D converter system. Only the very first measurement has the burden of the extra 10 ms of settling time, but it occurs within the powerup transition during the system stabilization period, and so it is transparent to the systems normal operation.
a) single A/D acquisition and signal processing times b) Pipelined signal processing Ts Ts Ta Ta (signal A) Tp Tp Ts Ta (signal B) Tp

Fig. 328

Acquisition and processing times

Fig. 329 a) lists the set of detector signals processed for a LLZ2F and GP2F with Field and hot Standby configured. The integrity signal is always processed (i.e. not configurable). The temporal importance of these signals varies and is used to produce the resultant cycling of signals as listed in Fig. 329 b). The worst case timing is for a LLZ2F with executive nearfield monitoring, with five signal processing slots total. The "other" slot is multiplexed depending on the stations configuration as listed in Fig. 329 b). This ordering affects the throughput of those signal groups but not the critical Executive signal group.
a) Monitor detector processing cycle Item 1 2 3 4 5 b) LLZ Exec Course Position Exec Course Width Exec Course Clearance Width (executive) Near Field Other GP Exec Path Position Exec Path Width Exec Path Clearance Width N/A Other

measurement cycle within the "other" slot


Measurement types cycles Integrity ADCS autocal Integrity Field Integrity Field ADCS autocal Field Integrity ADCS autocal Standby Integrity Field Integrity Field ADCS autocal Field Standby Field

Configuration No Field or Standby Field only Standby only Field & Standby

Fig. 329
Ed. 01.04

Monitor detector processing cycle and measurement cycle within the "other" slot
SOAC

339

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Thus, for the worst case configuration (LLZ2F with NFM), there are a total of 5 signals at about 43.333 ms each for a total of 216.67 ms. However, there is an additional overhead of about 25 ms in the total processing (due to higherpriority task and interrupt service routine interrupts), so the actual total is closer to 242 ms, or about 4 cycles per second. Thus, if any arbitrary Executive signal became corrupt, it would take a maximum of a of a second to detect it. Similarly, it would take a minimum of a of a second for the monitor to "recover" from the faulty signal on an equipment transfer. Fault Identification Digital signal processing techniques provide system status with minimal time delay. To fully characterize the valid operation of a localizer or glide slope station, a predefined set of signals must be measured and validated. The Thales monitor extracts the value of these parameters from the detected analog signals using Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) for the timetofrequency domain conversion of the critical 90 and 150 Hz navigation signal components. Additionally, frequency (e.g. carrier frequency) and/or period (e.g. carrier frequency difference) measurements are performed on selected digital signals. Fail Safe The ILS 420 (LLZ/GP) Monitor has numerous failsafe checks for different aspects of its monitoring operation. In general, a failsafe trigger could potentially impact continuityofservice or at least levelofservice by, for instance, causing it to switch from CAT. III to CAT. II or CAT. I, at least momentarily. The highavailability mode of the ILS 420 architecture relies on dual monitors which must agree on alarm status (i.e. alarmAND) before any control action is taken. Therefore, momentary "glitches" on one monitor, even those resulting in a monitor reset (see below), should not result a transfer or shutdown, since concurrent failures on both monitors are very improbable.

340

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.4.3 Executive Control Unit (ECU)

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

See Fig. 330, 331. The Executive Control Unit (ECU) is responsible for performing all the control actions of the station (e.g. transfer, shutdown, bypass, etc.). The ECU is a statemachine built primarily from three EPLDs. Two critical EPLDs are semiredundant, although each has some unique inputs and outputs. These semiredundant EPLDs must remain synchronized, and this synchronisation is monitored by a missingclock detector. Each Monitor reports its alarm status(es) to the ECU which then decides what type of action, if any, to take based upon that status and other internal state information (e.g. if the transmitters are on or not, if the alarm is bypassed or not, etc.). All noise susceptible control inputs are digitally debounced in hardware. The alarm status reporting protocol between the Monitors exec tasks and the ECU is a dynamic protocol (i.e. not level driven) as shown in Fig. 330. When the Monitor detects the rising edge of the ECU status poll input, it must output one and only one positive edge on any of the five (5) status lines going to the ECU for each status that is normal. When no edge is generated, the respective data group is considered to be in alarm. While this pollresponse protocol may add up to a 26.7 ms latency to the alarm response time, it is not susceptible of the failure modes associated with level or even other edgetriggered mechanisms commonly used. All ECU status I/O is polled (i.e. not interrupt driven) by the Monitors exec task. Thus, if the Monitor software has a stuck interrupt or somehow hangs (i.e. prevents an alarm status report cycle), the ECU will interpret this as an alarm condition and respond appropriately. This Monitor/ECU "handshake" cycles every 26.67 ms (i.e. the ECU detects a dead Monitor within 26.67 ms). NOTE: If the LLZ or GP installation shall be equipped with the ECU Ref. 1205710003, e.g. for replacement, it is allowed to use both the 0001 or 0002 and the new 0003 version together in one system. But, to get the benefit of the 0003 (e.g. advanced MITtest) it is recommended to replace and use the 0003 in both LLZ and GP of a runway system.

The location of the ECU is shown in Fig. 36.


tpoll = 26.667 ms t1 ECU to Monitor poll tR tH Monitor to ECU response tR = tH = 1 tick (typical) A B C A

(A) Poll cycle begins on positive edge of ECUs poll, soliciting Monitors status. (B) Monitor generates one (and only one) positive edge of response pulse to indicate that the alarm status is normal, otherwise the ECU assumes status is alarm. (C) Monitor must remove normal status pulse (i.e. return low) before end of t1. The result of the previous status poll takes effect now.

Fig. 330

ECU to Monitor Status Polling

3.3.4.3.1

Executive Control Unit Action

A pollresponse alarm status protocol assures failsafe communications between the monitor and the ECU. The primary purpose of the monitor is to identify outoftolerance transmitter signals and pass this information to the ECU for possible corrective action. The Local Control Panel (LCP) provides all alarm local and remote status information. Alarm action depends on whether the ECU is configured for alarmAND (higher continuity of service) or alarmOR (higher station integrity). Alarm AND requires that both Monitors indicate the same alarm before control action is initiated, while alarmOR initiates control action based on only one monitors status. Alarm control action results in either a transfer to standby equipment (dualequipment) or cessation of transmission (single equipment of hot Standby in alarm) by the ECU based on monitor alarm indication.
Ed. 01.10 01.04 SOAC

341

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

For "hot" standby equipment, if ECU control action results in the shut down of Standby equipment, the system cannot enter CAT. III operation. Once a parameter fault is detected, a programmable time delay (0 to 100 s in 0.01second increments) is initiated within the monitor. Separate alarm timers exist for Executive, (LLZ) Near Field, Field, and hot Standby parameter groups. If the corresponding delay expires before the fault condition is cleared, an alarm condition exists for that group and its corresponding alarm status is signaled to the ECU. The monitor provides a set of edgetriggered alarm outputs (executive, field, standby, plus Integrity A and B) which indicate the current state of the equipment. When the ECU requests alarm status from a monitor, the ECU sends a positiveedge poll, and it must receive a positiveedge on the monitor status outputs that are not in alarm. The monitor acknowledgment must occur within a 26.67 ms window to indicate a normal status, otherwise the ECU interprets the status as an "alarm" indication. Station controls, as defined in ICAO Annex 10, are implemented in the ECU. The total time that an outoftolerance signal is radiated (i.e. onantenna) is computed as a function of the monitor stabilization time and ECU equipment transfer time (direct shutdown time is always shorter). The monitor is designed to comply with the ICAO recommendation of 1 s when the monitor programmable alarm time delay is set to 0. Implementation of dynamic, edgetriggered status protocol, versus a static status, protocol between the monitors and ECU is but one of many failsafe design features incorporated into the equipment. To ensure the highest level of safety, the monitor response is not generated within an interrupt routine, but is softwarepolled instead. Thus a monitor with stuckinterrupts cannot respond with a "normal" alarm status. This protocol is immune to both short or open circuits and "streaming" on the communication signals as all are interpreted as an alarm indication. The monitors ECU status watchdog: The exec task (highest priority) reports Monitor alarm status to the ECU and verifies the update rate of the Monitors EXEC, FIELD, STANDBY, and Integrity data measurements. The maximum ECU status update periods is as follows: Signal Group EXEC FIELD STANDBY INTEGRITY Must be updated no less than every ... 0.5 s 1.0 s 6.0 s 2.0 s

If these periods are not met, then the exec task forces the corresponding groups status into alarm on subsequent ECU status polls, regardless of the data tasks last reported value. The ECU includes an interface for collocation with a DME equipment. For GP this interface is not used. Integrity test The purpose of the Integrity test is to verify the Monitor ability to measure signals and perform alarm processing. The ILS 420 does this in a innovative way that is more comprehensive than prior methods employed by any other ILS equipment. Each LGA produces two special Integrity signals (A and B). These signals are routed to the ECU. The Integrity signals from the onantenna equipment are then toggled between signals A and B and fed as one signal into the Monitors Integrity input. While the Monitor measures only one Integrity signal input, it must apply two distinct sets of limits to this single measurement. The signals and limits are designed so that, when the limits are applied to the current Integrity signal input, only one set of limits has no parameters in alarm. The ECU times the responses of the Integrity signal changes sent to the Monitors, and if the Monitors do not issue the correct response within the ECUs hardcoded time limit, then the Monitor is declared to be in Integrity alarm. An Integrity alarm may cause the ECU to initiate executive control action, depending on whether the ECU is configured for alarmAND or alarmOR operation.

342

SOAC

Ed. 01.10 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Oscillator serial communication to/from RSCU Bypass UART serial communication to/from LCP UART

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

RSCU Control **
On/Off toggle Status

FFM1 FFM2

Shutdown 1A (SYN) Status

LCP Control
Bypass On/Off toggle

Redundant Shutdown

Shutdown 1B (LGA) Shutdown 2A (SYN) Shutdown 2B (LGA)

Oscillator
Mon 1 pres TX1 pres Mon 2 pres TX2 pres Bypass 1 from LGM 1/2 Integrity A1 Integrity B1 Integrity A2 Integrity B2 System configuration

Station Control 1st

Antenna Select via SOAC to PINdiode transfer switch

Integ. detector

Field Alarm 1 Field Alarm 2 Standby Alarm 1 Standby Alarm 2

Configuration switch
Main 1 Lock Bypass OR enable Hot Stby Field enable Field executive Com Shutdown DME Bypass

Bypass 2

Station Control 2nd

Integ. detector Status poll combiner

OR enable Executive Alarm 1 Executive Alarm 2 Bypass 3 Off Tx1/Tx2

safety shutdown
Executive on

clck fail detect.

Start clock Status poll 1 LGM 1 Status poll 2 LGM 2

Buffer
Integrity test signal A 1 from LGA 1/2 Integrity test signal B1 Integrity test signal A2 Integrity test signal B2 Monitor 1 integrity test signal

Integrity test signal

to LGM 1/2 Monitor 2 integrity test signal Antenna Select

DME Key 1/2 EXEC_OFF DME Bypass DME Indep./Associated

DME Ident* DME Interlock*

DMEKey to/from INTFC DMELock

** used for special application only

* LLZ only

Fig. 331
Ed. 01.10 01.04

Executive Control Unit (ECU), block diagram


SOAC

343

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

344

SOAC

Ed. 01.10 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.4.4 Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC)

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

See Fig. 332, 333, 334, 337. The Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) unit processes the ILS monitor signals both for Localizer and Glide Path. For the Glide Path, it contains the function of an integral network which combines the input antenna sensor signals to farfield equivalent signals for position and width, and clearance. The SOAC operates in principal with a downconversion technique which results in 8 kHz intermediate signals for further processing. Fig. 332 shows the basic functions, Fig. 337 the design of the SOAC. In LLZ, the RF signal is supplied by the Integral Network (Dipole/Reflector antenna) located in the ADU as precombined CRS Posn., CRS Width, CLR Width signals or CSB, SBO, CLR from DUCU (LPD antenna). For GP the input signals are supplied from the probes of antennas A1, A2, A3. In addition , there is the optional nearfield monitor signal (NFM). These signals become converted to 8 kHz and output without additional processing other than a level adjustment (for LLZ) or combined to Posn., Width and Clear. (GP and LLZ LPDantenna). Fig. 333 and 334 indicate the block diagram showing the RF and IF processing. The Input RF signals containing Course and Clearance frequencies are routed via a power divider to separate down conversion mixers. These are designated the "Course" and "Clearance" mixers. For the Course down conversion, the CLR RF carrier frequency is used as the local oscillator signal. Similarly, for the Clearance down conversion, the CRS RF carrier frequency is used as the local oscillator signal. The RF frequency of these signals is separated by 8 kHz. The local oscillator frequencies are derived from the same frequency synthesizer used to generate the RF transmitter carrier frequencies. The output of the Course mixer consists of the Course RF input spectrum down converted to an 8 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) while the Clearance signal spectrum is translated to an IF centered on 0 Hz. Similarly, the Clearance mixer outputs the clearance RF input frequency to an IF centered at 8 kHz and the Course RF input is output at an IF centered on 0 Hz. High pass filters at the output of each mixer attenuate the DC and 90 Hz and 150 Hz components of the undesired signal and pass the desired 8 kHz IF signals. The 8 kHz IF signals are processed to create the appropriate monitoring signals which are fed via the INTFC board to the monitor 1 and 2. The location of the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC) is shown in Fig. 36.
* and LLZ with LPDantenna ** with LLZ and Dipole/reflector antenna 1) Posn./CRS GP * Integral Network Path Width Clearance

Antenna system Integral Network (LLZ)** Integral Sensors (LLZ)*

GP A1/LLZ CRS Posn. GP A2/LLZ Width GP A3/LLZ CLR Width NFM Input OnAir down converter combiner

Posn./CRS Width Clearance NFM output

via INTFC to LGM 1/2

SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR) SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR) DC supply in DC

Clearance frequency (CRS L.O.)

Course frequency (CLR L.O.)

SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS) Transfer control from ECU Posn./CRS via INTFC to LGM 1/2

RF aerial RF Stby PINdiode Transfer Switch

Stby GP CRS CSB A2 Stby CRS CSB/GP A1 Stby CRS SBO/GP A3 Stby CLR CSB Stby CLR SBO* Standby down concverter combiner

Width Clearance

1) with GP2F active

Fig. 332
10.04 Ed. 01.04

Stby and OnAir Combiner, overview


SOAC

345

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F 3.3.4.4.1 Operation of a typical Down Conversion Channel (Onair)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 333, 334. The following section describes the main functions of the Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC). Hereby some functional parts used in GP applications are also described which are not used in LLZ. The combiner consists of a number of identical down converter channels which may be configured to monitor both the onair and standby transmitters of a dual frequency Localizer or Glide Path. Operation of all channels is essentially the same, with the major difference being that the onair monitor channels have more gain and dynamic range than the channels for monitoring of the standby transmitter. The operation of a typical channel (example: "A3 Input") is described in the following. This channel is used for monitoring either the A3 antenna of a Glide Path, or the CRS WIDTH Input from a Localizer combiner. The signal routing is defined with jumper bank J19, set for GP to 34 or 12. Signals are Input at J7 and routed to a power splitter. The power splitter is used to make a portion of the signal available to the clearance down converter for certain applications, such as monitoring the clearance level at A3 of an Marray (GP only). This option is selected with jumpers (JP11). After the power splitter means are provided to adjust the dynamic range of the down converter to handle the specified 46 to +17 dBm RF input range. Coarse adjustment of the RF level is accomplished with two fixed 10 dB aftenuators which may be switched in or out by means of jumpers (JP7,8). In addition, other jumpers (JP9,10) enable selection of either a 5 dB attenuator or an amplifier having a gain of +15 dB. Thus a total adjustment range of 25 to +15 dB of gain is provided. This is sufficient to ensure that the mixer operates well within its dynamic range under all input signal conditions. From JP10 the signal is routed to the down conversion mixer, and converted to the 8 kHz intermediate frequency (IF). Passing a passive RF filter the signal is fed to R43. This potentiometer provides fine adjustment of the signal level on the output of the mixer. It enables continuous adjustment of the IF level over a 20 dB dynamic range. From the IF gain control, the 8 kHz IF signal is routed to a high pass active filter having a 2 kHz cut off frequency, and a gain of 20 dB. This filter rejects the undesired 90 and 150 Hz components. Next the signal is routed to a low pass filter with a 20 kHz cut off frequency. These stages provide an additional gain of 18 dB. The combination of the 2 kHz high pass and 20 kHz low pass filters provide a band pass response which is very flat at the 8 kHz IF frequency and which rolls off sharply at 150 Hz and 50 kHz. Attenuation of signals above 20 kHz is desirable to avoid interference from nearby transmitters, or the transfer switch power supply which operates at 50 kHz. From the filters, the signal is routed to a temperature compensation circuit which is required to overcome a slight variation in conversion loss of the mixers with temperature. Increasing temperature results in slightly less output from the mixers. The temperature compensation circuit is simply a voltage divider with a negative temperature coefficient thermistor connected to increase the input to the operational amplifier as temperature increases. From the temperature compensation circuit, the 8 kHz signal is routed different ways for GP and LLZ depending on the configuration selected. For LLZ it is routed as fixed phase signal via switch S5 to a fixed phase network and then to a adjustable phase shifter network (R166) which allows phase compensation during field alignment. The signal is next fed to the output (TP53) as CRS WIDTH adjustable via R383 and R382. For GP applications the signal is routed to an adjustable phase shift network (not used in LLZ), which is used in conjunction with similar networks in the A1 and A2 channels, to remove any differences in the phase shift of the three down converter channels. To do this an initial phase shifter is introduced which produces an adjustable lag (with R150) which is nominally 90. This is done as part of the factory test process. Following the signal is routed to a second adjustable phase shifter which is used to phase match the monitor signals during system installation. The phase is adjusted with R146 which provides an adjustment range of +62 to 62. This allows to match the phase difference of two channels (e.g. A3,A2) to 0 measured between TP9 and TP13.

346

SOAC

Ed. 10.04 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
A3RF

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F
IF gain R286 JP39,40

RF A3 in (GP) CLR Width In LLZ: only

JP36 JP37,38

Filter

Temp. comp. TP71

fact. align. phase calibr. TP25 R353 nom. 90 lag

field align. Phase adj. TP27


A

TP31 S7 TP39

mixer J18 10 dB +15/5 dB


10 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz

R345 90 lead TP26

out
B

control*

R343

CLR Width1 GP CLR


A1RF JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35

SBO phase inversion

LLZ only CLR Width2 in

IF gain R275

Filter

Temp. comp. TP24

+/

TP29

R327

TP37

mixer

J17 10 dB +15/5 dB
10 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

out CLR Width2

JP7,8

JP9,10

LLZ: CRS Width In (GP: A3 input)

IF gain R43

Filter

Temp. comp. TP8

fact. align. phase calibr.

field align. Phase adj.

control*

TP62

R372

R377

TP51

TP6

mixer

out

J7

10 dB 10 dB JP11

+15/5 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

R150

R146

S1

CRS Posn.
A3+A1 S8
A B

fixed phase A3 IF

nom. 90 lag TP60 ctrl*


B

90 lead TP9 TP7 T61 fixed phase field align. Phase adj.
A B

S3
A B

S4

A3RF JP12,13 JP14,15 IF gain R62

S2

Filter

Temp. comp. TP12


B

A3 IF TP13 TP64

control*

+/

control*

GP2F only (GP: A2 input) J8

mixer
10 dB 10 dB +15/5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz fixed phase A1 IF JP18,19 IF gain R90

S5 fixed phase

TP10 R166

TP63 R379

control* nom. 90

90 lead TP11

R383

JP16,17

Filter

Temp. comp. TP16

fact. align. field align. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP17 TP14
A

LLZ: CRS Posn. In (GP: A1 input)

S6 TP65

mixer J9
10 dB +15/5 dB 10 dB JP20

TP66 TP53

2 kHz

20 kHz

R189 nom. 90 lag

R185 90 lead TP15 A1 A2 A3 CLR

A1RF

R386

out CRS Width


control* R382 A1+A2+A3

JP22

JP23,24

NFM In J10
TP55 10 dB +15/5 dB 5V 1

mixer

IF gain R105 2 kHz

Filter

Temp. comp. TP18

TP41

20 kHz

out CRS NF local oscillator transfer switch J3 Clearance JP6 frequency J1 (CRS L.O.)
JP1

J19
2

J20
24V1 24V2

Ant. config. signal processing select MArray standard MArray TSIS SBand reference Null reference DF LLZ det mode DF LLZ int width

OnAir Combiner path


SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR) SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR) Transfer control from ECU

S1 5V
A B COM

J21 Transfer control


JP44,45

15

16

spare spare

S1

S3

0V: A COM 5V: B COM

Course frequency (CLR L.O.)


field align. TP77 R524 JP46 TP1

J13
JP30 JP25

SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS)

J11

GP2F active only Stby CSB A2 J47 Stby CRS CSB Stby CSB A1 J2

mixer
15/10 dB JP2,3

IF gain R511

Filter Temp. comp.


2 kHz

TP74

Stby combiner path

TP75 Temp. comp.

phase adj. TP76

TP47 TP72

mixer
15/10 dB

IF gain R2

Filter
2 kHz

out CS Stby Posn.


CSB

R123 TP2 fact. align. CSB phase adj. field align. SBO Phase adj. TP5

R499 R133 TP49 +/

out CS Stby Width


CSB2+CSB1+SBO

JP4,5

Stby CRS SBO Stby SBO A3 J6 mixer


10 dB 10 dB JP26,27

IF gain R25

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp. R136 SBO phase inversion TP4 TP3 fact. align. CSB phase adj. TP19 R305 TP73

Phase alignment: TP5/TP1: A1 A3 relative phase = 0

Stby CLR CSB 15/10 dB Stby CLR J12

mixer

IF gain R217

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp.

TP34 R312

TP20 field align. SBO Phase adj. TP23 R318

out CLR Stby


+/ JP28,29

Stby CLR SBO (LLZ only)

IF gain R240

Filter

Temp. comp.

J16

10 dB 10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

TP22

TP21

SBO phase inversion

*used for switch control

Fig. 333
Ed. 01.04

Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, active Marray configuration selected

SOAC

347

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F
A3RF

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Filter
Temp. comp. TP71 R353 nom. 90 lag SBO phase inversion fact. align. phase calibr. TP25 R345 90 lead TP26 field align. Phase adj. TP27
A B

RF A3 in (GP)

JP36 JP37,38

JP39,40

TP31 S7 TP39

IF gain R286

CLR Width In LLZ: only J18 10 dB +15/5 dB


10 dB

mixer
2 kHz 20 kHz

out CLR Width1


control* R343


A1RF JP31 JP32,33 JP34,35

LLZ only CLR Width2 in

IF gain R275

Filter

Temp. comp. TP24

+/

TP29

R327

TP37

mixer

J17 10 dB +15/5 dB
10 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

out CLR Width2

JP7,8

JP9,10

LLZ: CRS Width In (GP: A3 input)

IF gain R43

Filter

Temp. comp. TP8

fact. align. phase calibr.

field align. Phase adj.

control*

TP62

R372

R377

TP51

TP6

mixer

out

J7

10 dB 10 dB JP11

+15/5 dB

2 kHz

20 kHz

R150

R146

S1

CRS Posn.
A3+A1 S8
A B

fixed phase A3 IF

nom. 90 lag TP60 ctrl*


B

90 lead TP9 TP7 T61 fixed phase field align. Phase adj.
A B

S3
A B

S4

A3RF JP12,13 JP14,15 IF gain R62

S2

Filter

Temp. comp. TP12


B

control* TP13 A2 IF TP64 TP63

+/

control*

GP2F only (GP: A2 input) J8

mixer
10 dB 10 dB +15/5 dB 2 kHz 20 kHz fixed phase A1 IF JP18,19 IF gain R90

S5 fixed phase

TP10 R166

A1+A3 IF R379

control* nom. 90

90 lead TP11

R383

JP16,17

Filter

Temp. comp. TP16

fact. align. field align. phase calibr. Phase adj. TP17 TP14
A

LLZ: CRS Posn. In (GP: A1 input)

S6 TP65

mixer J9
10 dB +15/5 dB 10 dB JP20

TP66 TP53

2 kHz

20 kHz

R189 nom. 90 lag

R185 90 lead TP15 A1 A2 A3 CLR

A1RF

R386

out CRS Width


control* R382 A1+A2+A3

JP22

JP23,24

NFM In J10
TP55 10 dB +15/5 dB 5V 1

mixer

IF gain R105 2 kHz

Filter

Temp. comp. TP18

TP41

20 kHz

out CRS NF local oscillator transfer switch J3 Clearance JP6 frequency J1 (CRS L.O.)
JP1

J19
2

J20
24V1 24V2

Ant. config. signal processing select MArray standard MArray TSIS SBand reference Null reference DF LLZ det mode DF LLZ int width

OnAir Combiner path


SYN TX1 via MODPA (CLR) SYN TX2 via MODPA(CLR) Transfer control from ECU

S1 5V
A B COM

J21 Transfer control


JP44,45

15

16

spare spare

S1

S3

0V: A COM 5V: B COM

Course frequency (CLR L.O.)


field align.

J13
JP30 JP25

SYN TX1 via MODPA (CRS) SYN TX2 via MODPA (CRS)

J11


GP2F active only Stby CSB A2 mixer
IF gain R511

Filter Temp. comp.


2 kHz

TP77

TP74

Stby combiner path

R524

J47

15/10 dB JP2,3

TP75

phase adj.

JP46

TP1

TP47

Stby CRS CSB Stby CSB

mixer

IF gain R2

Filter

Temp. comp.

TP76

TP72

out CS Stby Posn.


CSB

J2

15/10 dB

2 kHz

R123

TP2

R499

fact. align. CSB phase adj. field align. SBO Phase adj.

R133 TP49 +/

out CS Stby Width


CSB+SBO

TP5 JP4,5

Stby CRS SBO Stby SBO J6 mixer


10 dB 10 dB JP26,27

IF gain R25

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp. R136 SBO phase inversion TP4 TP3 fact. align. CSB phase adj. TP19 R305 TP73

Phase alignment: TP5/TP1: A1 A3 relative phase = 0

Stby CLR CSB Stby CLR J12 15/10 dB

mixer

IF gain R217

Filter
2 kHz

Temp. comp.

TP34 R312

TP20 field align. SBO Phase adj. TP23 R318

out CLR Stby Width


+/ JP28,29

Stby CLR SBO (LLZ only)

IF gain R240

Filter

Temp. comp.

J16

10 dB 10 dB

mixer

2 kHz

TP22

TP21

SBO phase inversion

*used for switch control

Fig. 334

Stby and OnAir Combiner, block diagram, standard Marray configuration selected
SOAC Ed. 01.04

348

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

Test point TP7 is provided to enable the installer to determine the center point of the adjustment range of by connecting an Ohmmeter from the test point to ground. This measurement may be made with the system powered because the wiper of the potentiometer is grounded. When the resistance from TP7 to ground is 3.7k the wiper is at the center of the available phase adjustment range. Due to the non linear change in phase with resistance, the electrical center of the phase adjustment range is not the physical center of the resistance adjustment range. Each phase adjustment on the combiner board has a similar test point to enable the installer to determine the center point of the phase adjustment range and, by noting the resistance, approximately how much phase shift has been introduced.

3.3.4.4.2

Standby Channels

See Fig. 333, 334. Operation of the standby transmitter monitor converter channels is similar to the onair channels. The notable exceptions being that less gain is required and the IF does not have a 20 kHz low pass filter. A low pass filter is not required due to the benign interference situation resulting from the direct connection between the Standby transmitter and the Standby combiner circuits. The arrangement of the phase shifters in the course and clearance standby converter lF pathes are different, but the operational concept is the same. In all cases there is a factory alignment which takes out any difference in down conversion phase tracking between channels (e.g. R123, R305) and a "field" phase adjustment (e.g. R136, R524*) to phase the monitor during installation. For monitoring the active Glide Path standby transmitter, three standby down converters are required: CSB1/A1, SBO, CSB2/A2. JP46 must be set to enable the A2 channel for active GP (not used in LLZ).
(* GP2F active only)

3.3.4.4.3

Antenna Configuration Signal Processing Selection

See Fig. 333, 334, 335. The outputs of the three onair combiner channels are routed, either directly from the IF output, or from the outputs of the phase shifters, by means of analog switches which send the signals to the combining network. To simplify setup of the combiner for a particular antenna type, a single jumper is installed between two pins of J19. This, in conjunction with the diode matrix is sufficient to set all of analog switches to the correct position for each supported antenna configuration. Depending upon the system configuration, Glide Path or Localizer, and antenna array type, this network is configured to provide the required combining functions. In the case of a GP2F (MType) the input signals of A1 IN, A2 IN and A3 IN are combined to the signal CRS Width. The presence of a real diode causes +5 V to be applied to the related switch and that causes the switch (S1 to S8) to be changed from A COM to B COM. The setting for the active and standard GP2F MType is shown in Fig. 335.
J19/34 "Marray TSIS" (GP2F active or standard): J19/12 "Marray (GP2F standard only):

Switch Path A Path B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x x x x x x x x

Switch Path A Path B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x x x x x x x x

GP2F active: Diode CR10 (for S1) must not be assembled!

Fig. 335

J19, example switch setting for GP2F active and standard MArray mode

3.3.4.4.4

Local Oscillator Switching and Distribution

See Fig. 333. The local oscillator signals for the mixers are obtained from output connectors on the RF power amplifiers (MODPA). These signals are routed to input connectors on the SOAC. Two signals are required, one from TX1, and one from TX2. From the input connector the LO signal is routed to a jumper which either passes it directly to the LO transfer switch or to a resistive RF sampling network.
10.04 Ed. 01.04 SOAC

349

GP 422
Monitor Subassemblies GP2F

ILS 420
Equipment Description

In ILS 420, the signal is sent directly to the LO transfer switch by setting the jumpers. The expected LO power with this connection is 5 (5) dBrn and is not at all critical because the LO amplifier operates in saturation. The LO transfer switch is controlled by a logic signal (TRAN1ONLOW). When this signal is low, TX1 is on the antenna and the TX1 LO signals are sent to the onair combiner down converters, while the TX2 LO signals are sent to the standby down converters. This signal may be monitored at TP55. The LO signals are amplified to obtain the required LO power for the mixers. All LO signals are distributed in shielded phase matched 50 Ohm strip lines run on an inner layer of the printed circuit board. The logic signal is also fed through to the PINdiode transfer switch.

3.3.4.4.5

DC supply for PINDiode Transfer Switch CAUTION

The 24 V supply for the PINdiode transfer switch is "ORed" on the SOAC board by diodes.

Do not accidentally ground these diodes by a scope probe ground lead or other test lead.

3.3.4.4.6

Additional Functions

Additional functions, i.e. optional phase detector operation, are implemented in the SOAC which concern the GP system only. This measurement feature is selected with JP43. JP41 and potentiometer R485 are used in this application. The phase detector provides phase measurement of A2, A3 compared to fixed phase of A1. The output signal (TP86) is a DCvoltage which is proportional to the phase difference of the two input signals. The out signal is supplied at the BPDigital to the monitors but not evaluated as standard.
JP43
1 A1IFadj. phase A1fixed phase CLR A1 fixed phase CLR A3 fixed phase A3IF adj. phase A3IF fixed phase A2 fixed phase A2/A3IF adj. phase 15 16 2 TP67 phase zero adjustment R485 8 kHz squaring amplifier TP69 IN adjustable 90 lead JP41 0 20 Hz 180 TP70 1 V = 10 phase difference or relative phase change TP68 to BPdigital, J18: 25 CSC_PHS_DET_A 26_CSC_PHS_DET_B Phase detector Phase detector out

Fig. 336

GP phase detector application (optional)


A2 A3 CRS Width CRS Stby CRS Stby CRS Stby A1 CSB1 CSB A2 SBO A3 CRS Stby CSB CRS Stby SBO CLR Width(2) CLR Width(1) CLR Stby CLR Stby CLR Stby SBO CSB

RF connectors rear: GP Nearfield A1 LLZ


Nearfield CRS Posn..

J10

J9

J8

J7

J2

J47

J6

J17

J18

J16

J12

J4 J1

R485
RFcwCLR TX2 TP67

J14 J11

RFcwCRS TX2

R2 R105 R90 R62 R43

R511 R25 R275 R286

R240

R217

J3 J5

RFcwCLR TX1

TP69

J13 J15

RFcwCRS TX1

TP70

R382 R189 R383 R372 R386 R185 R379


J19

R123 R166 R150

R136 R133 R499

JP41

R327 R345 R343

R318

R305 R312

R353

TP68

R146 R524
TP71 TP5 TP4 J20 TP41 TP77 TP75 TP73 TP51 TP56

1 2

R377
TP62 TP65 TP59 GND TP66 TP60 TP61 TP18 TP14 TP13 TP16 TP10 TP7 TP6 TP2 TP1 JP43 TP57 TP58 GND TP30 TP55 TP53 TP24 TP29 TP26 TP47 TP49 TP37 TP25 TP27 J21 TP31 TP22 TP21 TP19 TP20

TP63

TP64

TP15

TP17

TP11

TP12

TP9 TP8 TP3 TP74 TP76 TP72

TP23

TP39 TP34

Fig. 337

Stby and OnAir Combiner (SOAC), front view


SOAC Ed. 10.04 01.04

350

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.5 LRCI Subassemblies

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies

The local remote communication interface functional unit (LRCI) is the focal point for communication between the various functional groups, the local control panel (LCP) and the remote control. The LRCI consists of the following subassemblies: Local Control Panel Modem for dedicated line Modem for switched line (LCP) (LGM1200MD, Party Line) (LGM 28.8)

Each installation contains an LCP which controls the LRCI functions and is responsible for local con, trol and the local main status of the station. In addition to the serial interfaces for communication with the monitor and transmitter processors (LGM and LGA) and the Executive Control Unit (ECU), it has RS232 interfaces for connecting locally to a standard PC that is loaded with the PC User Program software, and it controls communication with the remote site via the modems.

3.3.5.1

Local Control Panel (LCP)

The LCP consists of two separate boards: Local Control CPU board (LCCPU) Local Control Interface (LCI) The location of the LCP is shown in Fig. 36.

LGA

LGM

ECU

LGA

LGM

PC local

PCRemote Modems

BCPS opto in spare opto out spare

TX1

TX2

RS232

in/out opto out in/out

RS232

RS232

RS232/485/TTL opto out opto in

in

out

Local Control CPU (LCCPU)

Local Control Interface (LCI)

Fig. 338
07.06 Ed. 01.04

LCP, overview
SOAC

351

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies 3.3.5.1.1 Local Control CPU (LCCPU)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 339. The LCCPU and its processor comprise the switching center between the operator side (local or remote) and the four subsystems of a dual Navaids system (two transmitters and two monitors). Its most important tasks are as follows: Communication control and communication with the various functional units (e.g. transmitter internal, other systems like DME etc.) Sequence control Executive commands (e.g. to ECU) Local display control and local operation Remote control Battery measurement and monitoring The LCCPU board is equipped for these tasks with the peripherals needed for various purposes. The CPU function is built by an individual CPU board (PC104 compatible), which is inserted to a DIMMconnector on the LCCPU board. The processor functions are defined by the associated software. The respective memory area (EEPROM, DRAM, Flash memory) is located on the CPU board. R/Woperation of the RAMdisk is indicated by a flashing HDLED. The realtime clock is battery backedup via X36. The supervisory controller (D83) manages the battery voltage supervision, watch dog enabling (X35), and reset switch (S2). A live LED (H1) connected to the supervisory controller indicates the LCCPU is operable. The LCCPU board provides 10 serial communication ports. The serial communication controllers (SCC) used have two channels each. Each channel has its own interrupt connected to an interrupt request line on the PC104 bus. The serial controller clock input for baud rate generation is 1.8432 MHz (standard PC COM). Three serial ports are provided with a jumper selectable signal interface which can be set to RS232, RS422, RS485 or TTL. Each selectable port has an associated jumper bank: port 3: X95, X24, X41, X25...32 port 4: X99, X15, X40, X16...23 port 5: X8, X9, X11...14, X37...39 The following equipment functions and components are controlled via the serial interfaces: Communication between the transmitter and monitor processors (channel 1, 2, 9, 10) Communication with ECU (channel 5) Communication with the local PC control unit (user program software) (channel 8) Communication with the remote PC control unit via modem (channel 6) Additional communication channels via serial interface or modem, spare (channel 3, 4, 7)

The LCCPU board provides several I/O registers with specialized signal function. After reset, all output register are cleared to zero. The Input/Output register function is used mainly to control both transmitters. Registers 4, 5 (IN) and 6 (OUT) are used for signal exchange from/to the ECU. The Local Control Interface (LCI) is controlled via registers 4,5 (OUT) and 3 (IN). Signal BFUSE from the battery switch signals an interruption of battery supply and is fed via register 5 (IN) to the LCCPU. The additional optocoupler inputs (Addin1 to 4) to register 7 (IN) are spare. Additional executive commands (Addout1 to 6) can be supplied via register 7 (OUT) to optocouplers. Addout1 and Addout2 are used to switch the AC/DC power supply, BCPS OFF (AC DC ENA 1 and AC DC ENA 2). The other outputs Addout 3 to 6 are spare.

352

SOAC

Ed. 07.06 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description
Optocoupler Input Register 1 8 Optocoupler 2 8 parallel IN 8x
level configurable 8 bit

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies
SCC 16552 P
port 1

parallel IN 8x spare

X2 8

RS232 Rx/Tx

X1

Channel 1 TX1

8 bit

D10 S D63

port2

RS232 Rx/Tx

X1

Channel 2 TX2

level conf. X81...84 Optocoupler

D50 Output Register 1


8 bit

spare X2

SCC 16552 P
port3

RS485/ 422 TTL X1 RS232 Rx/Tx


configuration jumpers

Channel 3 LGM 2/DME PC Com 3

X2 parallel OUT 16x spare from BPDigital


ADB1..8: Alarm Smoke, AC Fail 1 / 2 Batt Disconnect other spare ADB9..12: BFUSE, AC DC OFF 1 / 2, spare Alarm Intrusion other spare

8 16 8 Interface Register Input Register 4 D1 Input Register 5 D2 Output Register 6 D7

D23 2
8 bit

S to UARTS (SCC) D71 PAL Decoder D80 SCC 16552 P A0...3 S D72 SCC 16552 P
port7 port9 port4

D29

RS485/ 422 TTL X1


configuration jumpers

Channel 4 LGM 3/NDB PC Com 4

X6

RS232 Rx/Tx

X6

4 4

I/O Decoder D65,68

port6

TTL X1

Channel 6 LGM1 RCUnit

to BPDigital
(Alarm RST Smoke)

CTL bit 7

RS232 Rx/Tx

other spare

X6

D0...7 Output Register 4,5


16 bit

X6

Channel 9 Mon 1

Indication control

RS232 Rx/Tx

X1

D39,38

Channel 7 PC Com 2 not used

Local Control Interface (LCI)

commands
Ubat Fault Out5...7

Input Register 3
8 bit

S
port8

RS232 Rx/Tx

D13 Output Register 3


8 bit

D78 RS485/ 422 TTL SCC 16552 P


port5

X4

Channel 8 PC Com 1 Local PC

X7

TTL not used

X2

D41

X1 RS232 Rx/Tx
configuration jumpers

Channel 5 ECU (ILS 420)

Control 33/100* MHz Process. clock S


port10

PC104 board
DIMMPC/386I or DIMMPC/520I
Address bus Data bus

RS232 Rx/Tx

D64

X6

Channel 10 Mon 2

Optocoupler Input Register 7 X6 4 4 U36...39 from BPDigital Parallel Addin 1..4 spare

Reset
S2

8 bit

PAL Decoder D86

Battery SL389 3,6 V X36


battery on

microprocess. Supervisory D83

Ubat Fault to D13

SCC clock

D33

D74 X35 1.8432 MHz


TTL not used

Optocoupler Input Register 6


8 bit

IRQ 3...6 10 14...15

watch dog on

Output Register 7
8 bit

X6 6
U3..6,16,17

to BPDigital Parallel Addout1,2:


AC DC ENA 1,2

Life LED

X2

D62 S1/1...8*

D17

* for optional use, not assembled

X56,X55,X54 power supply (+5/15/GND) X5 not used

Addout3...6 spare from DCC5/15/15 via BPDigital

Fig. 339
08.04 Ed. 01.04

Local Control CPU (LCCPU), block diagram


SOAC

353

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Auxiliary optocoupler isolated inputs via register 1,2 (IN) and optocoupler isolated outputs via register 1,2 (OUT) may be used for additional user features. The parallel, isolated inputs and outputs can be reserved for various analog signals to supply additional information (e.g. burglary alarm, fire etc.). The auxiliary inputs (IAUX8 to 15) can be set to high or low level logic with jumper X81 to 84. The auxiliary outputs and inputs are available on top of the cabinet via SubD connectors. The battery backup function on the LCCPU board is connected to the CPU board for realtime clock supply. The battery is a 0.8 Ah non rechargeable Lithium cell with a voltage rating of 3.6 V. The battery backup function is enabled if jumper X36 is closed. The battery voltage is compared against a fixed reference voltage. If the voltage drops to <2.9 V, a BIT signal is generated by the supervisory circuit D83. The LCCPU has its own RESET signal controlled by the switch S2 at the supervisory circuit D83. This signal is ORed with the reset on the CPU board. The watchdog on the LCCPU board is active if jumper X35 is closed and if enabled by software. Additional connectors are provided on the LCCPU board but not used. They are designed for optional connections of a keyboard (X10), printer (X53), an ethernet line (X100), or DME/NDB (X50 to 52).

3.3.5.1.2

CPU Board (PC/386I or PC/520I))

See Fig. 340. The CPU board is a PC104 compatible PC and consists of the following main components: Processor 80386SX or 586DX* Standard AMI BIOS address, data, control bus Realtime clock EEPROM (setup data) 4 MB or 32 MB* DRAM Flash hard disk (8 MB or 32 MB*) supervisory circuit

The CPU board has its own RESET signal. This signal is ORed with the push button reset line coming from switch S2 on the LCCPU board. The watchdog of the CPU board is not activated. The CPU board is located piggy back on the LCCPU board.

33/100* MHz Process. clock

I/O controller

Address

Processor 80386SX or 586DX*

Data

to/from LCCPU board

Control

uP Super visory

BIOS EEPROM

Real time clock

EEPROM
Set Up data

DRAM 4 MB (32 MB)*

Flash disk 8 MB (32 MB)* Battery supply

32.768 kHz Watch Dog/Reset HDLED

* with DIMMPC/520I

Fig. 340

CPU board, block diagram


SOAC Ed. 08.04 01.04

354

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.5.1.3 Local Control Interface (LCI)

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies

See Fig. 341, 342. The Local Control Interface (LCI) is the operators local interface. Its indicators show the local main status, and its liquid crystal display (LCD) screen gives local operator access to critical control functions and to historical transmitter and monitor measurement data. The menu based operation is achieved with four control buttons below the LCDscreen. It includes a key locked switch function that switches from local to remote control or to maintenance local operation. The graphics LCD screen can display up to 16 lines with up to 40 characters. The LCI is flush mounted in the front door.

LCI
Alarm device
B1 X9 H1 to 3 Audible device driver

LCCPU
control lines in/out Data
display data

Indicators

Indicator driver

Liquid Crystal Display Screen (TFT)

brightness R1

DC supply

control button S1 to S4 Key control X4

key lock

Interface

Fig. 341

Local Control Interface (LCI), block diagram


liquid crystal display screen

ALARM

TX 1:

main status indication

WARNING

ILS 420 GLIDEPATH ON TX 2: ON STANDBY MAIN LOAD AERIAL 146 hrs. 145 hrs. 1 NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL
MONITOR

NORMAL

Monitor: Executive: Far Field: Standby: Maintenance


MENU

2 NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL


ALERTS CONTROL

REMOTE LOCAL

keylock switch

MAINTENANCE

S1

S2

S3

S4

control buttons

Fig. 342
Ed. 01.04

Local Control Interface (LCI), visible front view (text example: system status screen)
SOAC

355

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies 3.3.5.2 3.3.5.2.1 Modem Dedicated Line Modem LGM1200MD

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 343. The LGM 1200MD is a universally applicable half duplex permanent line modem. The data transfer rate is 1200 or 600 bit/s. The LGM 1200MD (MD=multidrop) is optimised for operation on permanent twowire lines in the "party line" mode. In the party line mode, several modems are served by a control station via one line only (polling mode). The LGM 1200MD operates in the voice band with FSK modulation, its frequency shift keying conforms with V.23 at 1300 Hz and 2100 Hz with up to 1200 bit/s and 1300 Hz and 1700 Hz with up to 600 bit/s. The data transfer method is half duplex or simplex. Generation of interfering trailing bits (on deactivation of the remote transmitter) is largely excluded by processcontrolled "fast clamping" of the received data. In the asynchronous mode, data transfer from 0 to 1200 bit/s or 0 to 600 bit/s is possible, independently of the code and speed. A microcomputer controls and monitors all functions of the LGM. Parameters for the processor and processorindependent circuitry can be influenced by means of 14 adjacent coding switches. A poweron selftest is run. LEDs indicate transmit and receive data activity or line seizure. The connected trunk lines are accessible via an ISEP test socket on the front panel (for monitoring the analog line signal). When the "TEST" key on the front panel is pressed, the modem switches to the "close range analog loop" (without transmitter) while the key is pressed. This is also active during the transmission phase (the connection is then aborted). In half duplex mode on twowire connections, each participating data transmission equipment seizes the telephone line in succession. The respective DTE responsible for transmission controls operation with the 105/S2/RTS (ready to send) signal. This activates the modems carrier. The DTE must only offer data to the modem via the 103/D1/TD line. There is a preset delay after the "ready to send" has elapsed and then the modem switches the 106/M2/CTS ("clear to send"). During the delay time between the "ready to send" 105/S2/RTS and "clear to send" 106/M2/CTS signals, the signal detector of the receiving modem will already react and will adapt the clock signals of the receiver to the clock pulse of the incoming signals.
Over voltage protection a2 La Lb b2 E connection 2wire line

transmit path
Level adaptation

TxA FSK signal converter

Level adaptation

Filter

RxA

receive path

TD

Microprocessor
RD DIL switch

TTL/V.24 interface Data in/out

Set 1...14

Fig. 343

LGM1200MD, block diagram


SOAC Ed. 01.04

356

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies

With the 109/M5/DCD (receive signal level) signal, the receiving modem indicates that it is capable of forwarding received data (104/D2/RD). If the 109/M5/DCD (receive signal level) signal is not in the ON state, the receive interface line (104/D2/RD) is in the "I" state. A socalled fast clamping circuit is integrated in the LGM1200MD to avoid trailing bits during reception. It is processorcontrolled, and no more than 1 byte can occur as a trailing byte. NOTE: When using the LGM1200MD the permanent line must be equipped with a termination (600 Ohm/47 nF parallel) at the point where it ends (station and remote ends). The R/C combination can be soldered onto the 9pin SubD connector together with the twowire line.

The location of the LGM1200D is shown in Fig. 36.

3.3.5.2.2

Switched Line Modem LGM 28.8

See Fig. 344. The LGM 28.8 high speed modems are for duplex operation, and they support all common duplex modulation procedures. The modems are designed for synchronous as well as asynchronous data transmission according to the following CCITT modulation modes: V.34 (only LGM28.8), V.32bis, V.32, V.22bis, V.22, and V.21, which have implemented the data securing procedures according to V.42 and MNP4. Data compressing to increase the baud rate is implemented according to V.42bis and MNP5. These procedures enable a practical fault free transmission between two data terminal equipment (DTE) units. Depending on the procedure, the transmission rate can be increased up to 38400 Bd (autobaud) using V.42bis and the ATmode/reliable mode. The modems can also communicate with modems from other vendors at the same transmission rates, provided these modems comply with CCITT Recommendations V.22 and V.22bis. Software configuration is possible using AT or DNL commands while hardware configuration is performed employing the DIP switches located at the bottom and on one side of the module. It is designed for operation in public switched networks and consequently equipped with an integrated automatic dialing facility (IAWD). The subscriber can, however, set up Data connections by dialing manually and pressing the data key. Pointtopoint operation on dedicated lines (leased or tie lines) is likewise possible. Almost all the modem functions can be set by the data terminal equipment (DTE) using a command set in accordance with CCITT Recommendation V.25bis. Correct operation of the microprocessor and the signal processors is monitored by an integrated circuit, which initiates a "master reset" if one of these processors malfunctions (watchdog). A data connection can be set up by means of either the integrated automatic dialing facility or the automatic call acceptance feature. It is also possible to dial out or to accept incoming calls manually. No dialing takes place on dedicated lines. All the V.25bis commands and messages are exchanged via the interfaces which are also used to transfer the actual data. After a call request with identification, the LGM checks whether the subscriber line is already busy, i.e. whether the subscriber is in the process of making a call. If not, the outside line is seized. The LGM then transmits the dialed digits which have previously been transmitted by the DTE. After the dialing procedure, an intermittent 1300 Hz tone is transmitted and the modem waits for a constant 2100 Hz answer tone. As soon as this answer tone which is transmitted by modems with an automatic call acceptance facility is identified, the two modems start the prolog (handshake). A data connection can only be terminated by the DTE, unless there is no carrier for more than 250 ms/10 s. In this case, the line seizure is canceled by the LGM.
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

357

GP 422
LRCI Subassemblies

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Eighteen switches are provided on the pc board for presetting the seven different operating modes, the four communication protocols and various other parameters. A selftest is performed each time the modem is switched on. The default setup is as follows: 2400 bd, V.22bis, autodial. If autodial is set, the connection is set up automatically by the modem. The telephone number is notified to the modem by means of a request (command). This call request with identification can be preceded by a command for setting the transmission parameters. The command and the desired data (transmission parameters and telephone number) can be transmitted automatically using the communication software; that is, the user does not need to be concerned with this. The location of the LGM 28.8 is shown in Fig. 36.

La a2 Lb b2 Ringing tone detection G E

Busy detection

Modem controller

Data key detection

Setting

Fig. 344

LGM 28.8, block diagram

358

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.6 Power Supply

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

The power supply of the Navaids 400 installation is taken from mains (nom. 115 to 230 VAC) or from an existing DC power supply (nom. 48 V). The equipment contains therefore a mains module with battery charger (BCPS). The BCPS is modular in a buildingblock concept with up to two AC/DC converter ACC54 connected in parallel, and individual DC/DC converter to generate the necessary voltages. A low voltage sensor (LVS) cuts off the supply line to a connected emergency battery to prevent against deep discharge. The AC power supply is switched on or off at the ACC54 modules while the DC supply is switched on or off by switches TX1 or TX2 located on a panel in front of the BCPS subrack. The location of the AC/DC, the DC/DC converters and the switches TX1/TX2 is shown in Fig. 36.

3.3.6.1

Overview DC/DC Converter and Power Switching

See Fig. 345. A total of 3 DC converter are required for the DC voltage supply; these are subdivided into 2 groups: Group 1 supplies transmitter 1 and comprises the following unit: DC converter +24 V/11 A nom., +15 V/2.5 A, 15 V/1 A, +5 V/3 A ( (DCCMV) Group 2 supplies transmitter 2 and comprises the following unit: DC converter +24 V/11 A nom., +15 V/2.5 A, 15 V/1 A, +5 V/3 A ( (DCCMV) As soon as the AC/DC converter is switched on, switch S1 can be set to supply group 1 and switch S2 group 2 with a DC supply voltage of +54 V. Once S1 or S2 are switched to ON, commonly used modules INTFC, ECU and the LRCI are supplied with DC (15 V, 5 V). The DC converter DCC5 supplies the LCP and the Modems when either switch S1 or S2 is on to enable operability if one or both of the DCCMV may be shut down. S1 and S2 have an overcurrent protection function in addition to their manual switching function. They respond at >16 A for either switch. NOTE: The supply voltage of the DC converter described here is a rated 54 V for mains operation or 48 V for battery operation. In mains operation the operating voltage may rise to 65 V; in battery operation it may fall to 43 V (monitoring limits). The permitted input voltage range of the DC converter is therefore between 43 and 65 V. The term "variable input voltage" has therefore been used in a number of cases in the description which follows. The various voltage specifications should therefore be interpreted within this context.

The actual voltage value for measurement purposes on the LGA is derived directly behind the TX1 and TX2 switch. The line to the LGA, and the DCC5, is protected with a fuse: F4 (T1.0 A). A further fuse F5 (T6.3H) is used to protect the DCsupply of a collocated device.
TX1/MON1 INTFC/ECU/LRCI TX2/MON2 L/GA 1/2 LCP/Modem

+24 V

+5/+15/15 V

+5/+15/15 V

+24 V

DCCMV /1

DCCMV /2 **
F4 48 V

+5 V

DCC5 LVS

TX1 S1 collocated equipment


F5

TX2** S2
53,5 VDC (48 VDC nom.) sense

Low Voltage Sense relay Battery

** dual Version

Fig. 345
Ed. 01.04

Overview power supply


SOAC

359

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies 3.3.6.2 Low Voltage Sensor (LVS)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 346. The Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) comprises: Low voltage sensor circuits and drive stage for the cut off relay and a measurement multiplexer and, assembled also to the LVS circuit board, the DCC5 module (IMS 25), see 3.3.6.3. A low voltage sensor, which is built on a separate printed circuit board that is on the back of the BCPS backpanel, cuts off the battery supply line at a defined low voltage level. This level (40.8, 43.2, 45 V) can be defined with jumper setting (X12, X13). To disable the low voltage cut off function jumper X11 must be open. In addition the low voltage sensor board contains a multiplexer MUX to fed through current/voltage measurement signals from/to BPPS. The location of the LVS is shown in Fig. 36. The optional On/Off control for DCCMV is set fixed to On with jumper X14,X15.
to BPPS
X9 X10

+54V 54 VDC to battery

+54V

VCC +5 V

in

out control

X1

X3

out

DC/DC converter DCC5


X8 X11 X13 X12 sense 54 V

IBAT+ IBAT INAV+ INAV

MUX Current measurement

X14

X15 X2 in

REL
(on BPPS) X4

Low Voltage Sensor GND


GND 54 V

On/Off control DCCMV (optional) LVS

Fig. 346

Low Voltage Sensor (LVS), block diagram

3.3.6.3

DC Converter 5 V (DCC5)

See Fig. 347. The DCC5 subassembly is a DC converter, which generates a stabilized output voltage (5.1 V/3 A) for the LRCI subassemblies from a nominal input voltage of 54VDC (operating range 40...65V). It is located on the Low Voltage Sensor (LVS) board. The converter module is subdivided into a primary and a secondary section. The two sections are electrically isolated from each other in the power stage by a transformer. The DC supply voltage is converted into an AC voltage in a forward converter with a clock frequency of 30 kHz. The output is directly monitored and feedback to the primary control circuit via a pulse transformer, resulting in tight regulation of the output voltage. Current limitation is provided by the primary circuit. The DCC5 is active when switches TX1 and/or TX2 are set to ON.
Module Vo+ Vi+ 48 V Vi Input Filter Forward Converter Vo GND 5V/3 A

Conttrol

Fig. 347

DC converter DCC5, block diagram


SOAC Ed. 01.04

360

ILS 420
Equipment Description 3.3.6.4 DC Converter Multivolt (DCCMV)

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

See Fig. 348. The DCCMV subassembly is a DC converter, which generates four stabilized output voltages from a nominal input voltage of 54 V DC (operating range 40...65 V). The DCCMV supplies the voltages below at the output: +24 V, nominal 11 A, max. 14 A +15 V, 2.5A 15 V, 1 A +5.2 V, 3 A. These voltages are referenced to a common neutral. The DCCMV comprises a primary and secondary section. The two sections of the device are electrically isolated from each other both in the power section and in the control and monitoring circuit by means of transformers and optocouplers. In addition the primary on/off signal is coupled also via optocoupler. A LED located on the front signals the presence of the output voltage. The main functional units of the DCCMV are:

V Power section
Primary safety and softstart circuit Input filter Power conversion stage 24 V Power conversion stage 5 V and 15 V Rectifier and output filter Voltage regulators for 15V

V Control and monitoring section


Primary controller including auxiliary voltage generator, control input On/off, oscillator, pulse width modulator, controller, driver stage Secondary controller and monitor including voltage and current monitor 24 V and 5 V, over/undervoltage and temperature monitor, BIT/Alarm signalling The DC supply voltage is converted into an AC voltage in a forward converter (FWC) for 24 V and a flybackconverter (FBC) for 5 V and 15 V. Both converter work with a clock frequency of approximately 100 kHz. A transformers each, which also ensures electrical isolation of the secondary section, transforms the input voltage to the required output voltage. The dc converter is primary protected against overcurrent or short circuit by means of fuse NSI1 (30 A). If the input voltage is connected incorrectly, diode D1 will be enabled and the fuse is blown to prevent any damage. R1 prevents against overvoltage peaks up to 130 VAC. The power section is initially isolated from the input by means of the FET transistors T1,T2, which are controlled by IC1 and act as primary on/off switch. The ON or OFF command which enables the main and auxiliary voltage is supplied via optocoupler IC2. The incoming voltage is smoothed and noise is suppressed by L/C elements in the input filter. The voltage is reduced in the power conversion stage by means of electronically controlled chopping. IC5 as primary control circuit generates the chopping frequency of 100 kHz and controls both the driver stage T11...12,TR6 for the 24 V power section with OUT1 (FWC) and directly the 5 V/15 V power section with OUT2 (FBC).
Ed. 01.04 SOAC

361

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The 24 V driver stage in turn controls the 24 V power section (FWC) consisting of FET transistors T3,4, building a bridge with D2,3. The bridge circuit chops the DC voltage. The chopped DC voltage is transformed by TR2 to the desired value, then rectified and smoothed via an output filter. The 5 V/15 V power section (FBC) consists of FET transistor T5 and transformator TR3. T5 chops the DC voltage. The chopped DC voltage is transformed by TR3 to three desired values with three secondary windings. For the 5 V path the output voltage is rectified and smoothed via an output filter. The secondary output current is monitored via the voltage drop on a series resistor. For the 15 V path the output voltages are rectified, smoothed and regulated to +15 V or 15 V with integrated voltage regulators IC101, 102. The regulated voltages are led via an smoothing output filter to the output. The input voltage for the auxiliary voltage generator is extracted after the smoothing stage. The auxiliary voltage for primary and secondary controller and monitoring circuits is generated by an individual converter built by IC3, T8 and TR5. It works with a clock frequency of approx. 100 kHz. The output voltage is regulated directly via the turnon time of the power stage in order to obtain stabilized voltages of 24 V and 5 V. This regulation is implemented via the primary controller (IC5), which obtains its information from the various current and voltage sensor circuits. The regulation takes the form of changes in the pulse width, suppression of single clock pulses and deactivation. The operational reliability of the converter is ensured by a number of monitoring circuits. The power stages are protected against overvoltage, undervoltage and overcurrent conditions. It is interlocked in the event of an automatic deactivation resulting from an overvoltage condition. This interlock can be cancelled by interrupting the power supply or by entering the Tx OFF and Tx ON commands at the keyboard of the rack or software command (PC). A primary or secondary overcurrent condition will lead to pulse width control, which causes the output voltage to be reduced. The current transformers TR1,TR4 monitor the primary power sections for overcurrent conditions, whilst the secondary output current is monitored via the voltage drop on a series resistor for the 24 V and 5 V path. As BIT signal a switch function, which indicates operation of the DC converter, is implemented. In the event of a malfunction FET transistor T102 becomes conductive and the front LED does not light.

362

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

Primary safety circuit Uin+ IC1 48 Vdc


D1 U R1 T1,2

Filter

Primary power section

Secondary power section

TR1 D2

Rectifier

Filter + 24 V/11 A

Uin NSI1/30 A 6.3x32mm

T3

TR2

28 V current U0
D3

T4

FWC current

Rectifier

Filter + 5 V/3 A 5 V current U0

TR4

Rectifier

voltage regulator +15 V


IC101

+ +15 V/2.5 A U0

TR3

T5

Rectifier FBC current

voltage regulator 15 V
IC102

U0

15 V/1 A

test connector primary

heat sink

Primary controller
disable 5V TR6

R173

disable 24V enable 5 & 24 V current FBC current FWC sync 2 Controller 24V Controller 5V overvoltage

IC5
T14 T12 OUT1 T11 OUT2 T10

ST1

OK LED Front panel


TR5 sync2 enable 5 & 24 V IC2 Uaux. second. IC9 Uaux.

temperature overvoltage undervoltage current monitor 24 V, 5 V voltage monitor 24 V, 5 V

IC3
RT/CT ref. volt. OUT T8 Uaux. primary Uref IC6 IC8 IC7

switch T102

BIT signal

Remote On/Off

test connector secondary disable keep alive

reference voltages Auxiliary voltage generator

Secondary controller and monitor

ST2

FWC = Forward Converter FBC = Flyback Converter

Fig. 348
Ed. 01.04

DC converter DCCMV, block diagram


SOAC

363

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies 3.3.6.5 AC/DC Converter (ACC54)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

See Fig. 349. See Fig. 349. The mains unit ACC54 acts as a AC/DC converter which generates a stabilized 54 VDC voltage obtained from the mains voltage (wide range input: 115 VAC to 230 VAC, 15 %). It is a push pull switchedmode converter with electrical isolation of the input and output. Up to two mains units connected in parallel buffer a 48V battery (24 lead cells), which can supply the connected navigation system with voltage for several hours if mains power fails. The output voltage is 54 V. This ensures that the battery charge is permanently maintained (2.25 V per cell, standby parallel operation). The supply to the navigation system from the mains and the battery trickle charge is still ensured in case of a power subrack failure. A power switch, a fuse, an LED, and two test jacks for the voltage ahead of the isolating diode are located on the front panel. The LED signals the presence of the equipment output voltage, but not of the battery voltage. The AC/DC converter consists mainly of the following functional groups: Input section (primary) with noise suppression filter for AC Power section (primary/secondary) Flux converter controller (primary/secondary) DC/DC controller (primary/secondary) Output section (secondary)

In the input section the input voltage of 230 VAC passes a fuse, an overvoltage protector, and an RF filter to prevent RF interference voltages. It is rectified with a bridgeconnected rectifier and smoothed by an electrolytic capacitor. The subassembly also contains a resistor which limits the current inrush. This resistor is shortcircuited by a relay contact (K1A) following current stabilization. The DC voltage generated in the mains board is chopped in the power pc board with the aid of a push pull power circuit with a frequency of 20 kHz. The square wave voltage generated in this way is stepped down in a transformer and rectified. The input and output of the device are electrically isolated with the aid of this transformer. The DC voltage generated in this way is then smoothed with the aid of a number of chokes and filter capacitors. The voltage is fed via an RF output filter, to prevent RF interference voltages and a further fuse to the output terminals. The output voltage is regulated by modifying the pulse width for driving the switching transistor. The 20 kHz control pulses for the transistor chopper are generated in the flux converter controller. The output current is measured by means of the series resistor in the output line. The voltage drop at this resistor, which is a measure of the current flow, passes to the monitor DC/DC converter, where it serves as the actual value for current limiting. The clock generator (oscillator frequency 400 kHz) supplies, after the frequency division, the auxiliary voltage and the controller DC/DC converter. An appropriate circuit enables the pulse width to be modified so that the output voltage can remain roughly constant until the maximum output current of 12.2 A (with Ref. No. 58341 20101) respectively 14 A (with Ref. No. 58341 20102) is reached. When this current is reached, the pulse width is reduced accordingly. The resulting output characteristic is thus almost rectangular. The input quantities received by the controller are the output voltage of 54 V and the voltage drop at a series resistor. The pulse width is controlled by these quantities through a nominal/actual comparison. An additional circuit interrupts the generation of the control pulses in the case of an overvoltage  62 V at the output of the power pc board. In such cases the output voltage is also interrupted.

364

SOAC

Ed. 07.08 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

Any fault which occurs in the power supply triggers a BIT signal to the navigation system e.g.: failure of one of the subracks connected in parallel undervoltage  45 V in one subrack overvoltage  62 V total failure of the power supply or mains

The appropriate WARNING is displayed for as long as the system is supplied with power by the battery. The fault can be localized following manual input of a fault interrogation.

Power section
push pull converter
F/6.3A

OK LED Front panel test jack front panel +Vout Filter 54 VDC
F/1A

F/5A L 230 VAC N PE PE Filter K1A

Vout

voltage measurement UDC driver TEMP current measurement IDC Temperature PCFI heat sink

control of setup relais

current measurement

Flux converter controller


Primary

DC/DC converter controller


Primary Primary monitoring PFCENA

DC/DC converter controller


Secondary setpoint control pulse modulation driver Synchronization DC converter DCSYNC

control driver/bridge

voltage AC PFCAC

bridge current PDCI

voltage AC ACVLO

voltage DC PFCV

Control section

PFCG

DC/DC converter monitor


Secondary output voltage output current overvoltage Temperature

Primary auxiliary voltage

Flux converter Synchronization PFCSync

R32

Fine adjustment output voltage for optimization of charging voltage

clock generator divider 400 kHz Secondary auxiliary voltage

auxiliary voltage converter

Remote On/Off

Status

5 V/10 mA potential free Optocoupler in

closed contact BITSignal potential free BCPSx (x= 1..4)

Fig. 349
Ed. 01.04

AC/DC converter (ACC54), block diagram


SOAC

365

GP 422
Power Supply Subassemblies

ILS 420
Equipment Description

366

SOAC

Ed. 01.04

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
Emergency Power Supply

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY


4.1 GENERAL
For use in Navaids 400, a set of lead batteries, comprising four bloc batteries, is connected in parallel to the DC voltage supply from the mains unit BCPS. In case of a mains failure or disconnection of the primary voltage for maintenance purposes, it is used to supply the Thales navigation installation. Batteries, which are maintained at a permanent cell voltage of 2.25 V (standby parallel operation) by the BCPS, are supplied by Thales as standard for NAVinstallations (Navaids 400). Battery sets are available as lead acid batteries (type Vb...) or maintenance free lead batteries (type 12 VE...) using an electrolyte which is fixed as a gel. NOTE: Maintenance free lead batteries (type VE... series) can be installed in a battery compartment or shelf which does not require forced ventilation due to the type of batteries.

The recommended battery type has a capacity tailored to the requirements of the Thales navigation installation. In such case should be noted, that the 54 V trickle charge voltage supplied by the BCPS is a fixed output and can not be changed therefore. NOTE: Alkaline batteries, e.g. Nickel Cadmium batteries, require a different charging method, and cannot therefore be used in conjunction with the power supply BCPS (module ACC 54, Ref. No. 58341 20100).

Batteries supplied by the customer have to correspond to the specification of recommended battery sets. The following battery types are recommended for ILSinstallations:
System ILS 420 LLZ2F GP2F GP2F + DME415
*

Mode

Current at 48 V batt. operation

Capacity

Type *

No. of bloc batteries

Thales Ref. No. for battery set

hot stdby hot stdby hot stdby

ca. 13,73 A ca. 6,31 A ca. 9,13 A

54 Ah 68 Ah 36 Ah 46 Ah 36 Ah 46 Ah

Vb 12144 12 VE 75 Vb 12143 12 VE 50 Vb 12143 12 VE 50

4x 12 V bloc 4x 12 V bloc 4x 12 V bloc 4x 12 V bloc 4x 12 V bloc 4x 12 V bloc

83131 72242 83131 72253 83131 72241 83131 72251 83131 72241 83131 72251

Vb = lead acid batterie; 12 VE xx= maintenance free battery

Dimensions and weight of the recommended bloc batteries:


Type Vb 12143 Vb 12144 12 VE 50 12 VE 75 Dimension [ L x D x H] 221 x 176 x 277 311 x 176 x 277 218 x 164 x 220 314 x 164 x 220 Weight [kg] 24.8 33.7 18.9 26.7 Weight of acid 5.3 7.8 Remarks

Discharge times (guiding values) by use of the recommended battery set:


System LLZ 421 GP 422 GP 422+DME Mode Type Vb 12144 12 VE 75 Vb 12143 12 VE 50 Vb 12123 12 VE 50 Discharge time * ca. 4.5 h ca. 4.7 h ca. 7.7 h ca. 7.3 h ca. 5.1 h ca. 5.7 h Remarks Times down to reaching the nominal overdischarge limit of the battery (manufacturer instruction)

*) The discharge times are valid for an environmental temperature of approx. 20 C. At lower temperature the discharge times are decreased accordingly.

Ed. 07.06

SOAC

41

GP 422
Emergency Power Supply 4.2 CONNECTION OF BATTERIES CAUTION

ILS 420
Equipment Description

Before the battery is connected the power supply unit BCPS must be connected to the mains, and the output voltage must have reached its rated value; the reaching of this level is displayed by lighting LEDs at the front panels of the AC/DCconverter in the cabinet. The battery set is connected via two PVCinsulated cables as per DIN 57281, 16 mm2 (red and black or blue). The length of this connection is restricted to a maximum of 10 m for electrical reasons. The red cable should be connected to the positive terminal of the battery set (+), and the black cable to the minus terminal (). It should be connected to the transmitter rack corresponding the polarity at the "B1+" and "B1" terminals. The cables of "B1+" and "B1" are fed via the fuse switch F20 (50 A) in the fuse box to protect the batteries. For monitoring purposes, the battery is connected via a measuring cable (5x 1.5 mm2) to the BCPS (terminals 2, 1, F, F, 0). This cable is connected on one hand to the terminals BAT0, BAT1 and BAT2 in the battery fuse box, and connects on the other hand the auxiliary contact (BFUSE) at the fuse switch F20 to terminals F, F. The measuring cables BAT0, BAT1, BAT2 are protected by the fuse switch F21 (0.2 A). The terminal signs for battery monitoring mean: BAT0 BAT1 BAT2 (0) (1) (2) 0 V or 24 V (half battery voltage; not used in ILS 420) 48 V or +

The test procedure for the battery measurement is described in the Technical Manual, Part 2, chapter 6, Maintenance (ILS), or chapter 5, Maintenance (CVOR/DVOR). The discharge times of the recommended batteries related to the NAVsystems concerned are listed in the table in section 4.1.

CAUTION
Maintenancefree batteries have to be set into operation within a half year after delivery to prevent drawback in lifetime of battery.

42

SOAC

Ed. 07.06

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
RMMC

CHAPTER 5 REMOTE MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING CONFIGURATION (RMMC)


5.1 APPLICATION AND DESIGN

The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC) is used for remote monitoring, operation and maintenance of all the connected navigation systems. The network has a radially configured architecture based on communication between the system components via switched or private lines in the public network and dedicated lines in private networks. The remote control system components allow all the networked navigation systems to be operated optionally from central points, from normal operation of the dual systems with automatic changeover in the event of a fault through manual operation to measurement and setting of all the possible signal parameters, as well as detailed fault analyses on the basis of a wide range of measured values. They facilitate new maintenance strategies, whereby importance is placed firstly on concentrating logistics and qualified personnel, and secondly on responding to specific failures with systematic maintenance activities rather than relying on periodic precautionary measures. This considerably improves both maintenance efficiency and the economic efficiency of the systems throughout their service life. The RMMC can be composed of RCMS components and the PC User Program (e.g. ADRACS and/or the latest development, the MCS). Although these advantages only apply to the modern generation of air traffic control systems developed by Thales ATM, with the navigational aids, namely the enroute navigational systems CVOR and DVOR, the approach and landing systems ILS and MLS, the ILS farfield monitor (FFM) for Localiser, the TACAN 453 and the electronic TACAN antenna (ELTA 200), the DME 415/435, and the NDB 436 radio beacons, the extensive range of interface boards makes it possible to incorporate other collocated systems in the remote control and monitoring strategy if desired.
Remote Maintenance Center

RMC 443

Monitoring and Control System


optional Controller WorkingPosition CWP

MCS

RCSE 443
INC

CWP

RCMS 443 RCMS 443 Other systems

Fig. 51
Ed. 07.06

RMMC, overview
SOAC

REU Firewall Router

LAN

National

PSTN

RCMS 443
Remote Control and Monitoring System

RCSE 443
INC REU

Stations

51

GP 422
RMMC 5.1.1 Hierarchy of RMMC Remote Control System Components

ILS 420
Equipment Description

At the top, the Remote Maintenance Center (RMCC) is used as central point to obtain an overview of the status of all available systems. The RMCC is connected via dialing modems to the public PTT network to obtain serial data from the RMCR, LCU 443 or RCMS 443. For MCS see section 5.1.3. At the RMCR the main status of all enroute equipment (CVOR, DMETransponder and TACAN ground stations) of one defined region are displayed continuously at the indication and control panel (INC) of the RMC and at installed optional Remote Status Units (RSU) to the controller for enroute. Besides enroute subsystems, the main status of the Landing Systems ILS and MLS are also displayed for maintenance purposes. The RMCR is also connected to the PTT network via autodialing modems. For special applications a fixed line interface may be provided. For maintenance activities at the screen of the Personal Computer maintenance data are displayed. The maintenance technician obtains all the data from the subsystems configured for this region with defined menus on the screen of the data terminal (PC). It is possible to use the PC User Program software (ADRACS or MCS) for maintenance purposes to control Navaids 400 family or System 4000 equipment at the remote site. For MLS the MLSmenu technique is employed as well as respective ELTA, DME, or TACANPC supervisory programs. The RCMS 443 and the NAV LCU 443 are link control units and provide central points for communication between RMCs and the navaids systems. While the RCMS is connected via twisted telephone line pairs and modems to the ILS/MLSequipment the NAV LCU 443 has direct RS232/422 interfaces to the CVOR, DVOR, TACAN and ELTAequipment, and DME. For small projects, it is possible to connect the NAV LCU of enroute navigation systems via switched lines to an RCMS.
RMCC
Remote Maintenance Center REGIONAL RMCR RMCR RMCR Remote Maintenance Center CENTRAL

PTT network

RMS

RCMS 443 ILS

LCU 443 VOR


LLZ GP MM LCP VOR 4000 TAC ELTA CVOR 431

RCMS 443 MLS

TAC AZ EL DME/P

ELTA

Fig. 52

Hierarchy of the RMMC system components


SOAC Ed. 07.06

52

ILS 420
Equipment Description 5.1.2 5.1.2.1 System Configuration Local Remote Control Interface

GP 422
RMMC

The NAV stations communicate with the remote control system in different ways. The remote control interfaces which are provided locally vary according to the type of installation: Type Modem Baudrate 600 bd 1200 bd (V.23) Remark System 4000 (until 92) System 4000 (since 1993), AN 400 (until 1999) SYSTEM 4000, AN 400 (since 1999) ILS MK20A AN 400 (up to end 1999) AN 400 (since 1999) DME 415, 435, TAC 453 ELTA200 LCU 443 (up to end 2000)

Dedicated line ZU1 ZUA29

LGM1200MD

600/1200 bd (V.23) party line 1200 bd (V.23), half duplex 1200...19200 bd (V.32) 1200...38400 bd (V.34) 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600

LGM9600H1 LGM14.4 LGM28.8 Std. bus modem

LGM724,(desktop) 2400 bd (V.22bis) Switched line LGM14.4 LGM28.8 LGM64K (ISDN) up to 14.4 kbd up to 28.8 kbd 64 kbd

5.1.2.2

Remote Control and Status Equipment (RCSE 443)

The RCSE is an REU with a control and indication panel (INC). It can be used as a simple, yet complete, remote control unit. The INC indicates the states of up to eight substations with the following LED displays: ALARM, WARNING, NORMAL, DATA COMmunication and MAINTENance. An alarm tone is sounded if a status changes. Each station can be selected by pressing a membrane button, in order to activate the EQUIPment ON, OFF and CHANGEOVER functions and to indicate specific monitor alarms. An additional status indication device is the control tower unit (CTU), which however, only indicates the NORMAL, WARNING and ALARM operating states of up to eight NAV stations. Its display brightness is adjustable to permit adaptation to the varying light conditions in the control tower. The CTU can be used in conjunction with a runway selector (RWYSELECT), which activates the ILS systems in one approach direction and switches the other direction to a dummy load. This panel also indicates the general status of the two ILS systems (OPERATIONAL, DEGRADED, SHUT DOWN) and their availability (ENABLE) to aircraft as a landing aid. A variety of interface boards is available for serial or parallel data I/O, installing an ETHERNET interface, connecting a PC and autodialing via the public network, so that the system has a considerable potential for expansion. The connections to the NAV stations are set up via modems and telephone lines (600 ohms). The control and indication panels are connected by means of serial RS422 interfaces.
Ed. 07.06 SOAC

53

GP 422
RMMC 5.1.2.3 Remote Control and Monitoring System (RCMS 443)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The maintenance, fault analysis and documentation functions of the RMMC are implemented by connecting a PC system to the RCSE and installing the RMS or RCMS application software on it. The difference in the names is a reflection of the definitions laid down by the U.S. FAA. An RMS designed for maintenance purposes has direct, permanent access to the navigation systems via separate cable connections, and is operated independently of the Remote Control and Status Equipment (RCSE), while an RCMS uses the same communication paths for the maintenance functions as it does for remote control and monitoring. The following functions are provided: System status indication for each connected system Permanent indication of the general status of all systems Permanent indication of the current date and time Detailed status indications for a selected system Polling, display and setting of system parameters Polling of internal measured values (BIT) Continuous monitoring of parameters (either printout if a programmable limit value is reached or periodic polling) 5level password protection Configuration of the remote maintenance and monitoring system Loading and saving of setups for operation Logbook function, status and alarm history memories Selection of data to be printed out

5.1.2.4

Local Communication Unit (LCU)

The local communication unit (LCU) comprises a remote control electronic unit (REU), which is equipped according to the specific requirements of the NAV station. It serves as a communication interface between the connected equipment and the public switched network, and as a common point for connecting a service terminal (Laptop PC) for commissioning and maintenance purposes. NOTE: In AN 400 enroute navigation systems (e.g. CVOR 431) no separate LCU device has to be used as local communication interface. The LCU functionality is integrated in the NAV 400 subrack, i.e. the LCU software is running on the already existing LCP board, additional modems are used for communication purposes.

5.1.2.5

Remote Maintenance Center (RMC 443)

If a maintenance center is installed, it is possible to connect several different remote control systems to a central REU via switched lines. The general status of all the remote control systems in the network is indicated permanently on one or more INC panels. Any change in a status causes a connection to be set up automatically from the LCU or the RCSE to the responsible center and all the current status information to be transmitted. The center can also be set up to poll the regional stations periodically. The center is fully equipped to exchange such data with the networked systems which is necessary for it to be able to perform a detailed fault diagnosis. It communicates either directly with enroute navigation systems via switched connections or with ILS substations via the Remote Control and Status Equipment (RCSE) at each airfield.

54

SOAC

Ed. 07.06

ILS 420
Equipment Description

GP 422
RMMC

TO MAINTENANCE CENTER PTTLINE

ETHERNET (LAN)

MODEM

CTU

REU
INC

RWY SELECT

LCU

MODEM MODEM

MODEM

MODEM

MODEM

KDI

CSB

CU ELTA

FFM

Marker VOR DVOR DME TACAN

LLZ

GP

DME

SYSTEM 2 (S 4000)

MODEM MODEM

Modem

MODEM

MODEM

LCP

CSB

CU ELTA

FFM

Marker DME CVOR TACAN

LLZ

GP

DME

DVOR

SYSTEM 1 (NAV 400)

Fig. 53
Ed. 07.06

Example Configuration: RCMS 443 for two ILS and VOR/DME/TACAN


SOAC

55

ADDITIONAL PANELS

RCSE

RCMS

GP 422
RMMC 5.1.3 Monitoring and Control System (MCS)

ILS 420
Equipment Description

The new MCS is based on the existing Thales RMMC, and replaces the remote control equipment RCSE 443 and the ADRACS PC user Program functionality. The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring Configuration (RMMC) is used for remote monitoring, operation and maintenance of all connected navigation systems. The RMMC network has a radially configured architecture based on communication between Thales Monitor and Control Systems (MCS) on different levels, local (airport) and remote (regional, national, international). The MCS systems are connected via WAN/LAN/Internet or via switched/private lines in the public network (PTT) and dedicated lines in private networks. With the use of the MCS for control and monitoring via personal computer (PC) a userfriendly interface for the supervision adjustment and modification of relevant operating data according to the respective operational application is made available for first set up and ongoing operation of the terrestrial and satellite navigation equipment (e.g. DVOR, CVOR, DME, ILS, ADSB). The use of common PC standards and operating systems ensures a familiar operating environment for the user.

Controller Working Position (optional)

Controller Working Position CWP

Controller Working Position CWP

Controller Working Position (optional)

CWP

CWP

LAN
National Remote (National, Regional)
SNMP protocol

LAN
Firewall Router Firewall Router Regional

LAN/WAN/ PTT/Leased Lines


SNMP protocol

Local (Airport)

Firewall Router

LAN
Customerspecific Equipment
(e.g. intrusion alarm)

CWP

MCWP
proprietary protocol Controller Working Position (optional)

Satellite Navigation Equipment


(e.g. ADSB)

Terrestrial Navigation Equipment


(e.g. DME, VOR, ILS)

Fig. 54

MCS system architecture and components (example)


SOAC Ed. 07.06

56