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Design Considerations of B&W Industrial and Utility Size Reheat / Non-Reheat IR-CFB Boilers

S. Kavidass M.J. Szmania K.C. Alexander Babcock & Wilcox Barberton, Ohio, U.S.A. Presented to: Power-Gen Asia 96 Exhibition & Conference September 17-19, 1996 New Delhi, India

Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology has been in operation for many years producing steam for process and electric power generation. Worldwide, the use of CFB technology is increasing due to the ability to burn low-grade fuels such as high-ash, low-Btu and high-sulfur coals, lignite, anthracite, and petroleum coke. CFB boilers meet the stringent NO x, SO2, CO, and particulate emissions requirement for these fuels. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design considerations including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design and utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (Ubeams) with in-furnace solids circulation. B&W offers IR-CFB boilers up to 150 MW e, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units above 300 MWe. This paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, and boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages. The paper also updates the ongoing IR-CFB boiler contracts design.

B&W has more than 36 years in developing fluidized-bed boilers and now has developed four major product lines: atmospheric bubbling fluidized-bed boilers (BFB), atmospheric internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed boilers (IR-CFB), fast internal circulating-bed boilers (FICB) (through a technical agreement with Austrian Energy & Environment), and pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed boilers (PFBC).

To date, B&W and its joint venture and licensee companies have sold more than 40 fluidized-bed projects worldwide of which 12 are atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed boilers, given in Table 1. In 1984, B&W licensed CFB technology from Studsvik A.B. of Sweden. B&W developed a boiler design based on Studsviks technology, then developed and improved the original design concept. Currently, B&W has worldwide ownership of this CFB technology, including all patents. At its Alliance Research Center, B&W built several CFB pilot units to investigate the process and characterize performance of various fuels and sorbents. This includes a 0.7 x 0.7 x 7 m cold CFB model, a 0.23 x 0.23 x 10 m (0.28 MWt) CFB combustor and a 0.7 x 0.7 x 23 m (2.5 MWt) CFB combustor. The latter unique facility is used to evaluate innovative concepts for components or process changes, while providing results representative of commercial-size unit performance. B&W has progressed through three CFB boiler design generations in the commercial market, as shown in Figure 1. In the first generation design, the U-beam separators are located outside the furnace, and all separated solids recirculate through L-valves to the lower furnace. In the second generation design, patented in-furnace U-beams were added. These in-furnace Ubeams separate about 75% of the solids for circulation within the furnace. The remaining solids are separated by the external U-beams and recirculate through L-valves to the lower furnace. B&W currently offers a third generation IR-CFB boiler design based on operating experience from the two coal-fired second generation CFB boilers and results from the 2.5 MWt CFB test facility as given in Table 2. In this design, all solids

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Table 1 Circulating Fluidized Bed Projects B&W, Austrian Energy, B&W Joint Ventures Customer Plant Location Capacity lb/h (t/h) (100) (100) (74.3) (102.4) (211) (80) (130) (105) (46.1) (21.8) (230) (640) Fuel Wood Wastes, Wood Chips Wood Wastes, Wood Chips Wood Wastes Bituminous Coal High Ash Waste Coal Coal, Heavy Oil Coal, Lignite, Oil, Gas High Ash Coal Coal, Petroleum Coke, Natural Gas Sewage Sludge High Ash Anthracite High Ash Anthracite Start-Up Date 1986 1986 1986 1989 1990 1991 1994 1995 1996 1998 2000

Ultrapower West Enfield, Maine, U.S.A. 220,000 Ultrapower Jonesboro, Maine, U.S.A. 220,000 Sithe Energy Marysville, California, U.S.A. 164,000 Lauhoff Grain Co. Danville, Illinois, U.S.A. 225,800 Ebensburg Power Co. Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 465,000 Pusan Dyeing Co. Pusan, Republic of Korea 176,370 Thai Petrochemical Ind. Rayong, Thailand 286,750 Kanoria Chemicals & Renukoot, India 231,480 Industries Ltd. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois, U.S.A. 101,500 Los Angeles County Carson, California, U.S.A. 48,000 Sanitation District (3 boilers) Kharkov GRES-2 Kharkov, Ukraine 507,000 Zmiev GRES Komsomolsky, Ukraine 1,410,000

collected by U-beams are internally recirculated to the upper furnace. B&W is the pioneer and leader in developing the internal circulation CFB boiler. In addition, many design improvements have been made in several areas for higher availability and lower maintenance. Currently several units are being proposed up to 200 MWe and the company is pursuing unit designs 300 MWe and above.

Economics of Using Opportunity Fuels in a CFB Boiler

The primary objective of selecting a CFB boiler is to reduce the capital and operating costs. The CFB boiler provides the economic benefit of burning low-grade fuels with superior environmental performance. The favorable economics of CFB boilers are mainly due to the following: Accepts low quality and less expensive fuels. Reduces fuel crushing cost. Lower capital cost (no emissions control equipment) and lower operating cost. Fuel flexibility (within the specified range).

and rear, through special nozzles for staged combustion. This limits the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fluidizing air velocity is greater than the terminal velocity of most of the particles in the bed. Thus, fluidizing air elutriates the solid particles through the combustor freeboard (dilute bed). The transition between these two regions is gradual. The entrained solids and gas mixture enters the two rows of in-furnace U-beam separators and approximately 75% of solids, including unburned carbon and unutilized calcium oxide (CaO), are separated. Most of the remaining 25% of the solids are separated by the external four rows of U-beams and collected solids are returned to the lower furnace, falling as a curtain along the rear wall. The fines collected by the secondary separator (typically a multi-cyclone dust collector MDC) are also recirculated to the lower furnace. While enhancing fuel burnout and sorbent utilization, B&W also uses its patented secondary recycle system to control upper furnace solids density and bed temperature. B&W IR-CFB boilers can operate at higher solids densities in the upper furnace compared with hot cyclone based CFB units. This can provide a higher rate of gas-solids reaction for combustion, good sulfur capture, and a high heat transfer rate between the bed and the furnace walls.

B&W IR-CFB Boiler Process

In B&Ws internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed boiler, a portion of combustion air (55%-70%, depending on fuel) is introduced through the bottom of the bed. The bed material typically consists of fuel, limestone, sand and ash. The bottom of the bed is supported by water-cooled membrane walls with air nozzles for air distribution. The fuel and limestone are fed into the lower bed. In the presence of fluidizing air, the fuel and limestone quickly and uniformly mix in a turbulent environment and behave like a fluid at bed velocity. Carbon particles in the fuel are exposed to the combustion air at fluidizedbed temperatures of 843 to 899 C (1550 to 1650 F). The balance of the combustion air is admitted as overfire air at two levels at the top of the lower furnace, both furnace front

IR-CFB Boiler Design Procedure

B&W IR-CFB boiler design procedure is outlined including the methodology involved for setting up the boiler heating surfaces. Data Required for Boiler Design Fuel. Fuel type and range of fuel properties, proximate and ultimate analysis, HHV or LHV, fuel ash chemical analysis. Limestone. Chemical analysis, reactivity or attrition characteristics. Sand. Chemical composition, shape factor and hardness. Steam. Main steam flow/pressure/temperature, reheat steam

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flow, reheat steam inlet and outlet pressure/temperature, feedwater temperature at MCR and peak load conditions; additional data on desuperheating spray water temperature, superheater steam temperature control range, and boiler turndown. Auxiliary Fuel. Fuel analysis for start-up and load carrying. Site Data. Site data and ambient conditions. Emissions. Emission requirements such as NOx , SO2, CO, and particulate. Heat and Material Balance Including Fuel Efficiency B&W has established CFB functional standards based on pilot facility test data for various fuels and the commercial operating boiler database to select the process parameters. The

Cumulative Efficiency Component Collection Efficiency 100

95% 95% 5.0 5.0

99.5% 90.0% 0.5 Fly Ash

Solids Storage Hopper 95 Solids Flow Control

Multiclone Dust Collector 4.5

fuel (sizing, ash and moisture content, FC, VM, total sulfur), limestone, and emissions data are carefully reviewed as key inputs to the computerized heat and material balance and fuel efficiency calculation program. The key process parameters used to establish the heat and material balance in addition to the steam conditions are the furnace temperature, calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) molar ratio for the specified sulfur capture efficiency, combustion efficiency, excess air, bottom/fly ash split, secondary collector (MDC) solids recycle rate, U-beams and MDC solid collection efficiencies, and flue gas temperature leaving the air heater. Typical process parameters for different fuel types are given in Table 2. The fuel efficiency is calculated based on PTC 4.1 heat loss method, which includes heat credits for fan power input. The American Boiler Manufacturers Association recommendations for sorbent reactions and radiation loss are used. B&W IR-CFB boiler radiation loss is close to that of a conventional PC-fired boiler (hot cyclone CFB loss is higher). Ash heat loss from the bed drain and elsewhere is accounted for in the efficiency calculation. Some of the typical output data established from the heat and material balance program are fuel efficiency, heat input and output, and flow rates for all major streams (fuel, sorbent, air, flue gas, ash). Gas and solid stream compositions are estimated for over forty (40) state points.

A - First Generation

Table 2 IR-CFB Process Parameters

99.7% 88.0%

Cumulative Efficiency Component Collection Efficiency 100

75% 75%

97.5% 90.0%

Fuel Type
0.3 Fly Ash

Combustion Excess Furnace Efficiency Air Temperature 20% 15% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 25% 25% 843C 843C 857C 857C 1550F 1550F 1575F 1575F

25 75



Solids Storage Hopper 22.5 Solids Flow Control

Multiclone Dust Collector 2.2

B - Second Generation

Cumulative Efficiency Component Collection Efficiency 100

75% 75%

97.5% 90.0%

99.7% 88.0%

Waste Wood >99.5% Lignite 99.0-99.5% Sub-Bituminous Coal 98.5-99.0% Bituminous Coal 98.0-99.0% High Volatile Bituminous Coal 97.5-98.0% Low Volatile Bituminous Waste 96.5-97.0% High Ash Coal (Low to Medium Volatile) Delayed Petroleum Coke 97.5-98.0% Anthracite 96.5-97.5% (6-8% Volatile Matter) Anthracite 96.0-96.5% (4-6% Volatile Matter)

871C 1600F 871C 1600F 871C 1600F 885C 1625F 885C 1625F

25 75



0.3 Fly Ash


Solids Transfer Hopper 2.2

Solids Storage Hopper

Multiclone Dust Collector Solids Flow Control

C - Third Generation Note: Values are based on 100 units of solids exiting the furnace shaft.

Figure 1

B&W CFB Solids Circulation Schematics.

Furnace Design Procedure The success of any CFB boiler design and operation starts with furnace design. The important aspects of the furnace design are the furnace temperature, furnace inventory and distribution, limestone and fuel particle size, gas residence time, furnace depth and furnace heating surface. The output data of the heat and material balance program is transferred to the furnace program. Additional process parameters are required to run the computer program: furnace height, number of zones, effective heating surface per zone, (including division walls evaporative surface and wing walls super-

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heater surface), heat release rate per zone, lower furnace velocity, typically 3.7 to 4.3 m/s (12-14 ft/s) and upper furnace superficial velocity, typically 5.2 to 6.1 m/s (17-20 ft/s), furnace depth 3.7 to 4.6 m (12-15 ft), particle density and size for circulating solids, refractory height/thickness/conductivity, solids mass flux at furnace outlet, U-Beams cavity heating surface, etc. Predicted furnace performance includes the furnace vertical temperature profile, heat transfer rates at each zone and cavity, solid bulk densities with pressure drop profile, and furnace exit gas/solids temperature. In setting furnace surface, the furnace plan area is set by velocity and the furnace height is set by the flue gas residence time. Furnace depth is set by air penetration and U-beam considerations. Internal surface is added as required to control bed temperature and satisfy heat absorption requirements. Furnace temperature is one of the key parameters in the CFB boiler design as it influences sorbent utilization to meet required SO2 emissions, NOx emissions, combustion efficiency, and heat transfer to the furnace walls. The furnace temperature is selected based on fuel properties and emission control considerations. B&W has spent considerable effort establishing the heat transfer correlations and the furnace design procedures for IRCFB boilers. The furnace is typically divided, for heat transfer calculations, into as many as 8 to 10 zones depending upon the height of the furnace. Local heat transfer correlations include convection and radiation (gas-wall and particulate-wall). A typical overall heat transfer coefficient (UT) of the furnace is in the range of 153.3 to 199 W/m2 K (27-35 Btu/hr-ft2 F). The B&W IR-CFB boiler design featuring MDC or ESP first pass ash recycle to the furnace utilizes a high solids recirculation rate, thus establishing relatively high furnace inventory. IRCFB upper furnace inventory is around 0.04 to 0.06 kPa (0.16 to 0.20 in. wg) per 0.305 m (ft) of furnace height. Typical temperature and density profiles are shown in Figures 2 and 3. A careful evaluation is done to select the optimum furnace with consideration to performance requirements, capital cost and auxiliary power consumption.

90 (21.3) 60 (18.3) 50 (15.2)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Dilute Bed

Figure 3 Typical atmospheric circulating fluidized bed furnace density profile.

100 90 80 70
Furnace Height, ft

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1450





Furnace Temperature, F

Figure 2 A typical IR-CFB furnace predicted temperature profile.

Convective Heating Surface Design The output data from the furnace performance and heat and material balance programs are transferred to the convective heating surface program to design the reheater, superheater, economizer, and air heater. Other input data (such as physical arrangement) are typical for convection heating surface design, set specifically for CFB conditions. The B&W IR-CFB boiler uses a pendant reheater and superheater design arrangement with the hot reheater and secondary superheater located after the U-beam separator as shown in Figure 4. The cold reheater can be pendant or horizontal, depending on heat duty, and is located after the secondary superheater. Convection pass side walls are steam-cooled. The flue gas velocity through the superheater and reheater is set as low as 7.6 to 8.5 m/s (25 to 28 ft/s) and is very uniform across the superheater and reheater. As a result, the potential for erosion is greatly reduced. On reheat units, all primary superheater surface is typically located in the upper furnace as wing walls. On non-reheat units, some or all primary superheater is pendant surface in the convection pass. The economizer surface is horizontal and is designed for flue gas velocity of 6.1 to 10.6 m/s (20 to 35 ft/s), depending on solids loading. The economizer flue gas outlet temperature is selected considering the feedwater temperature plus 42 to 56 C (75-100 F) to optimize heat absorption split between the economizer and air heater. The economizer feedwater outlet temperature is normally limited to 28 C (50 F) less than saturation temperature. The tubular air heater is designed to recover the remaining heat in the flue gas to meet the boiler efficiency requirement. On CFBs, B&W typically designs the air heater with flue gas outside the tubes. The tube spacing and arrangement are in-line to minimize fouling potential and erosion. Design flue gas velocities are 9 to 13.7 m/s (30-45 ft/s). Air temperature entering the air heater is selected to prevent cold-end tube corrosion and is dependent on fuel properties and flue gas end temperature.

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Dewpoint corrosion potential from SO 3 is greatly reduced with in-furnace sulfur capture. Boiler Heat Duty Distribution The boiler heat duty is summarized by using the outputs from the furnace and convection pass calculations. A typical IR-CFB boiler heat duty distribution is given in Figure 5. The final superheater temperature and the control range are set by the customer. Economic considerations are used to determine superheater and reheater heat duty split, location for the primary and secondary superheater surfaces and cold and hot reheater surfaces, and the amount of attemperator spray for the superheater. The economizer and air heater heat duty split requires a careful evaluation. The economizer heat transfer coefficient of 45.4 to 65.1 W/m2K (8-12 Btu/hr-ft 2 F) is 2.0 to 3.0 times higher than the air heater heat transfer coefficient. To take advantage of this fact, it is desirable to maximize economizer heat absorption within the limits prescribed earlier. Saturated units or very low superheater temperature units often require a boiler bank to meet the additional evaporative heat duty. (See Figure 6.) Ultimately, the boiler design will be based on performance and economic considerations.

Non-Reheat Duty Subcooled



Non-Reheat Distribution Eco Furnace

In-Furnace SH PSH FSH

Reheat Duty Subcooled Evaporation Superheat Reheat

Reheat Distribution Eco Furnace

In-Furnace SH PSH













Actual Distribution, %

IR-CFB Boiler Design Description

B&W IR-CFB boiler design has incorporated the following improved features based on operating experience with coal and wood-fired CFB boilers: Improved fuel feed system. Simplified MDC ash recycle system. Pendant superheater and reheater. Full internal solids recirculation system from the primary separator. Reduced number of U-beam rows.

Figure 5 steam).

Typical IR-CFB boiler heat duty distribution (water &

Superheater U-Beams

Hot Reheater Secondary Superheater Cold Reheater Particle Transfer Hopper Economizer In-Furnace Superheater Dust Collector Tubular Air Heater To Baghouse Furnace Dust Collector

Primary Impact Separator: Internal External



Coal Feeder Start-Up Burners Limestone Feed Bed Drain Cooler

ject Ash Rein


Figure 4 Third generation reheat CFB boiler.

Figure 6

Southern Illinois University CFB boiler.

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Furnace inventory control through adjustable MDC or ESP first-pass ash recycle rate. The following components of the IR-CFB boiler are the heart of the CFB process and are described in more detail: Boiler furnace. Fuel/limestone feed system. Primary air nozzles. U-beam solids separators and recirculation system. Secondary solids separator and recirculation system. Bed drain ash coolers. Boiler Furnace The furnace cross section dimensions are selected based on flue gas superficial velocity. Currently, B&W uses 3.7 and 4.6 m (12 and 15 ft) deep furnaces. The furnace wall is made of gastight membraned water cooled walls 76 mm tube diameter on 102 mm centers (3 in. on 4 in.). The bottom, or primary zone, furnace cross section is reduced to provide good solids mixing, promote solids entrainment and provide good turndown. The auxiliary start-up burners and flyash re-injection points from the secondary separator are located in the primary zone. A thin layer of refractory is applied to all lower furnace wall surfaces (including division walls) to protect against corrosion and erosion. B&W normally uses 16 mm (0.625 in.) thick refractory over a dense pin studded pattern. Refractory thickness selection may vary depending upon the fuel properties. An ultra-high-strength, abrasion-resistant low-cement alumina refractory is used for the lower furnace. Refractory is also installed at the furnace roof tubes and each wing wall nose. B&W uses carefully designed overfire air nozzles to admit secondary air to complete the combustion through good flue gas and air mixing. The good mixing is achieved by using variable diameter high velocity nozzles in the front and rear furnace walls. In addition to the enclosure walls, internal heat transfer surfaces such as division and wing walls are used to achieve the desired furnace temperature. The division walls, 76 mm tube diameter on 102 mm centers (3 in. on 4 in.), span up to 60% of the furnace depth with full furnace height. The wing walls, 51 mm on 63.5 mm centers (2 in. on 2.5 in.), are located in the upper furnace and expand down from the furnace roof near the front wall (See Figure 7). Length and quantity of steam-cooled wing walls are varied depending on final steam conditions. Fuel/Limestone Feed System Fuel handling (crushing, storing and feeding into the furnace) is one of the major challenges in CFB boiler operation, especially with opportunity fuels. The feed system should be designed to ensure reliable fuel feed over the CFB boiler lifetime with low maintenance. Fuel characteristics, including flow properties, abrasiveness, moisture content, fuel size, etc., have to be investigated to select the proper feed system. Fuel is fed to the boiler front wall through a series of feed chutes (see Figure 8). The fuel chute with stand pipe should have at least a 70 degree angle from horizontal. This system also provides the seal between furnace operating pressure and atmospheric pressure. Primary air is used to sweep the fuel into the furnace and as seal air to the fuel feeder. The number of feed points is set to achieve acceptable combustion in the furnace. Lower volatile fuels require fewer feed points. To minimize the number of coal feeders, bi-directional screws or a pair of drag chain conveyors can be used to connect the discharge of each fuel feeder to the individual fuel chutes.
Steam Cooled Wing Wall

5/ 8

2 1/8 in. in.

Shop Installed Pin Studs

Division Wall (Membrane)

Division Wall Cross Section at Refractory Zone

Figure 7 IR-CFB wing wall and division wall.

Limestone crushing, storing and feeding are relatively easy compared to the fuel when the limestone moisture content is kept within an acceptable range. The limestone size distribution is important for sulfur capture and furnace inventory. The limestone is fed either pneumatically or mechanically into the CFB boiler. In a mechanical system, the limestone is fed into the discharge end of the fuel feeder via rotary seal feeders. The limestone falls by gravity down to the fuel feed chute with fuel into the furnace. The pneumatic feed system feeds the limestone directly into the furnace through furnace openings in the front and rear walls. Primary Air Nozzles Bubble caps are fitted on the distributor floor panel as shown

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Bubble Cap

Lower Furnace Frontwall Air From Windbox

Furnace Sidewall

Furnace Rearwall

Distributor Plate with Bubble Caps Windbox

Figure 9 Furnace distributor plate and bubble caps.

Figure 8 IR-CFB gravity feed chutes.

in Figure 9. The B&W bubble cap pressure drop at full load is about 406 mm wg (16 in.wg). The bubble caps are designed to distribute the air uniformly, prevent the back sifting of solids at low load operation, and create good turbulence and fuel/sorbent mixing in the primary zone. The bubble cap material is SS 304. The spacing between the caps is 114 mm x 102 mm (4.5 in. x 4 in.). U-Beam Solids Separators and Recirculation System The solids separation system is a key element to any CFB boiler design, influencing both capital and operating costs. B&W has invested heavily in research and development to produce efficient and economical U-beam separators, as shown in Figure 10. The boiler has two stages of primary solids separators: in-furnace U-beam separators and external U-beam separators. The in-furnace U-beams (two rows) can collect about 75% of the entering solids. The flue gas velocity across the U-beams is 8 m/s (26 ft/s).This provides high collection efficiency and limits the gas-side pressure drop across all U-beam rows to 25 mm wg (<1.0 in. wg) as compared with cyclone-type separators pressure drop of 100-200 mm wg (4-8 in. wg). The material used for U-beams is either TP 309 H/TP 310 H or TP 253 MA depending upon the furnace design temperature. Four rows of U-beams are installed externally to the furnace and most of the remaining solids are collected by these U-beams. A particle transfer hopper is located at the bottom of the Ubeams. The separated solids are recycled internally into the fur-

nace. The important technical issue associated with internal solids recycle design is providing a pressure seal between the furnace and solids transfer hopper. To confirm validity of the internal recycle design, the concept was extensively tested in the 2.5 MWt CFB test facility at B&W's Alliance Research Center. To prevent furnace flue gas from flowing into the transfer hopper, the discharge opening and hopper internals are designed to operate with a column of falling solids which forms a pressure seal. Providing the pressure seal in this design is an easier task as compared with the solids return to the lower furnace for two reasons. First, the pressure differential of 50 mm wg (<2 in. wg) is much smaller than the 812 mm wg (32 in. wg) differential at the lower furnace. Second, the pressure differential quickly decreases with load reduction while in the lower furnace the pressure remains essentially the same. Deflector plates are used to divert the solids towards the lower furnace. Secondary Solids Separation and Recirculation System The (MDC) device is located at the bottom of the convection pass after the economizer; flue gas enters the top of the MDC and leaves the rear. The MDC inlet velocity is chosen for 21.3 m/s (70 ft/s). The collecting tube diameter is 229 mm (9 in.), distributed evenly over the second pass entire cross section. The MDC provides good retainment of fine particles (> 50 mm and above), as compared to large diameter hot cyclones used in cyclone-type CFBs. MDC tubes and spin vanes have high hardness ( up to 550 BHN), designed for several years of useful life. The MDC tubes can be easily inspected and replaced during a planned boiler outage.

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for these countries, ESP first-pass ash recycle can be used (see Figure 11). The ESP first-pass ash is relatively coarse and average particle size is around 70 microns. Collected ash is stored in a separate ash hopper, with controlled recycle to the furnace. Bed Drain Ash Coolers and Solids Re-Injection System The purpose of draining the bed material from the furnace is to control the bed solids inventory and remove oversized material accumulated during operation. 203 mm (8 in.) diameter bed drain pipes are used to drain the material. The number of bed drain points is selected based on the furnace plan area and the fuel. The drained material is at bed temperature and carries a considerable amount of sensible heat. The material is cooled to an acceptable temperature before disposal into the ash system. Water-cooled screws or fluidized-bed ash coolers can be used for the bed drain cooling. The type of ash cooler depends on the fuel properties, plant economics, heat utilization, and the need for bed material classification for reinjection of fine particles. Fluidized-bed ash coolers typically can strip the fine particles less than 200 mm and reinject them to the furnace with fluidizing air.

Gas Plus Solids Flow

Gas Flow

1. Sidewall Membrane Panel 2. U-Beam 3. Seal Baffle

Figure 10a U-Beam separators plan view.

Advantages of the B&W IR-CFB Boiler

External U-Beams

In-Furnace U-Beams

The boiler is compact with primary U-beam separators and internal solids recycle. The boiler has a smaller footprint (up to 20 to 25% less building volume compared to a cyclone-based CFB boiler).

Gas & Solids

Solids Returned to Particle Transfer Hopper

Solids Returned to Furnace

Figure 10b

U-Beam separator.

The collected fines are stored at the bottom of the MDC hopper or a separate ash hopper in the case of ESP first-pass ash recycle. Variable drive rotary feeders are used to control the ash recycle flow from the hopper to the furnace. The ash is dropped onto the air-assisted conveyor which transports the solids for reinjection. The ash flow rate can be adjusted by varying the rotary feeder speed for furnace temperature control. In some developing countries, MDC tube cost and availability are a major concern. To meet the CFB boiler requirements

Figure 11 Kanoria CFB boiler.

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Boiler design is especially suitable for repowering of PCfired boilers where space is limited. Two-stage solids separation efficiency (>99.7%) provides for higher carbon burn-up efficiencies, better limestone utilization and higher solids residence time. Dynamic load change response is achieved due to the absence of massive refractory and the ability to control furnace inventory using variable ash recycle from the MDC or ESP first-pass. Wide turndown ratio (5:1) without auxiliary fuel is possible due to the selection of furnace velocity and controllable solids recycle. Less refractory in the boiler allows for quick start-up and less maintenance (hot cyclone can have 4 to 5 times the amount of refractory). Provides higher reliability, operability, and availability with lower maintenance.

As a result of the low temperatures at which a fluidized bed operates, thermal NOx makes a minor contribution to overall emissions. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers are also designed to suppress the amount of fuel NOx formed. This is accomplished by supplying less than the theoretical amount of combustion air as primary air. As a result of this staged air admission process, some of the fuel nitrogen compounds released in the lower furnace decompose into molecular nitrogen rather than forming fuel NOx. The degree of air staging (or primary-to-secondary air ratio) is a function of the fuel. It is established when the boiler is designed to provide for both good combustion efficiency and low NOx formation. In practice, the primary-to-secondary air ratio may be adjusted, to a limited degree, to arrive at the best combination of fuel burnout and NOx emissions. Control of CO and Hydrocarbons Emissions A CFB boiler is designed to maximize combustion efficiency by minimizing unburned carbon and the quantity of CO and hydrocarbons in the flue gas. This is done by choosing the bed temperature, primary-to-secondary air split, proper number of fuel feed points, proper design of the overfire air system, and sufficient furnace residence time for mixing and maximum fuel burnout. Since some of these factors also influence SO2 capture and NOx emissions, a compromise is usually sought during boiler design and tuning to achieve the optimal overall performance. Typical NO x and CO values are shown in Table 3. Additional NO x reduction (40% to 60% of CFB process NOx) can be achieved by injecting ammonia (NH3) either in the upper furnace or after the U-beams. In both cases a sufficient residence time (not less than 0.5 sec) is provided for NOx reduction reactions before gases enter U-beams or the superheater surface, respectively.

IR-CFB Boiler Emissions Control

Environmental regulations impose limits on emissions from boilers and combustion processes. The emissions limits vary, but the pollutants controlled are generally the same. These are sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers are designed to burn solid fuels while controlling many of these emissions. Control of SO2 Emissions When sulfur bearing fuels are burned, most of the sulfur is oxidized to SO 2, which becomes one of the constituents of the flue gas. When limestone is added to the bed in the temperature range of 816 to 899 C (1500-1650 F), it undergoes a transformation called calcination to form lime (CaO) by endothermic reaction: CaCO3 CaO + CO2 766 Btu/lb of CaCO3 Once formed, solid CaO reacts with gaseous SO 2 and oxygen to form CaSO4 according to the following exothermic reaction: SO2 + 1/2 O2 + CaO CaSO 4 (s) + 6733 Btu/lb of S The resulting calcium sulfate is a chemically stable solid at fluidized-bed operating temperatures and is removed from the system for disposal. Sulfur dioxide reductions of 90% are typically achieved in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler with calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) mole ratios of 2 to 2.5, depending on the sulfur content of the fuel and the reactivity of the limestone. In general, the lower the sulfur concentration in the fuel, the greater the calcium to sulfur mole ratio must be for a given SO2 removal efficiency. For removal requirements greater than 90%, the amount of limestone needed must be increased. Limestone utilization is also dependent on the bed temperature, decreasing quickly when the temperature is outside of a 816 to 871 C (1500-1600 F) range. The physical properties and reactivity of limestone vary significantly and it may be necessary to try several different limestones before the most economical one is found. Control of NOx Emissions NO x present in flue gas generally comes from two sources: the oxidation of nitrogen compounds in the fuel (fuel NOx), and the reaction between the nitrogen and oxygen in the combustion air (thermal NOx).

Table 3 Typical IR-CFB Emissions (lb/MBtu) Fuel Bituminous Coal Low Volatile High Volatile Lignite and Sub-Bituminous Coal Waste Wood Petroleum Coke Anthracite NOx 0.05 - 0.10 0.10 - 0.15 0.10 - 0.20 0.15 -0.25 0.10 - 0.20 0.10 - 0.15 CO < 0.20 < 0.10 < 0.10 < 0.06 < 0.20 < 0.25

Control of Particulate Emissions To meet the particulate emission requirements, a final dust collector is required. Often there is a question whether an ESP or a baghouse should be used. B&W usually selects a baghouse when limestone is used for sulfur capture. A baghouse is less sensitive to excursions in dust loading and ash content variation in the fuel. A baghouse has a high gas-side pressure drop of 1.5 to 2.0 kPa (6-8 in.wg) and requires occasional bag replacement, giving higher O&M costs than an ESP. An ESP can be selected as an alternate particulate control device in places where

Babcock & Wilcox

baghouses are not readily available or where there is no limestone used for sulfur capture. There is concern that the presence of CaO and CaSO 4 affects the resistivity and may reduce the ionization potential. The ESP should have enough fields to accommodate excursions and fuel ash variation. ESP gas-side pressure drop is less than 0.5 kPa (2 in.wg).

this boiler for Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Ltd. in Renukoot, UP, India. The boiler, shown in Figure 11, will generate 29.2 kg/s of 6.3 MPa and 485 C (231,480 lb/hr of 938 psig and 905 F) steam. The fuel is high-ash low-heating value sub-bituminous coal. The boiler erection is completed and the commissioning is in progress. Start-up of the unit is scheduled at the end of July 1996.

IR-CFB Boiler Existing Contracts

Two projects utilizing the B&W IR-CFB boilers design are in progress: Southern Illinois University IR-CFB Boiler Contract The IR-CFB boiler for Southern Illinois University (Figure 6) will generate 12.8 kg/s of 4.5 MPa/399 C (101,500 lb/hr of 675 psig/750 F) steam. This boiler will utilize Illinois bituminous coal and, as an alternate fuel, petroleum coke. The unit is also capable of carrying 67% load while firing natural gas. The boiler erection is completed and commissioning activity is in progress. Start-up of the unit is scheduled at the end of August 1996. Kanoria Chemicals IR-CFB boiler Contract Another IR-CFB boiler has been designed and erected (under license) by Thermax B&W Ltd. (TBW), one of B&Ws joint venture companies located in Pune, India. TBW is supplying

B&W has established IR-CFB boiler design based on more than 36 years of fluidized-bed experience plus the knowledge gained from test facilities and the data from commercial operating units. B&Ws IR-CFB boiler is a unique, simple and compact design providing lower capital and operating costs and high reliability. This information and knowledge is integrated with sophisticated computer programs to provide the tools needed to design CFB boilers for specific fuels. CFB boiler designers use detailed information on fuel, sorbent, steam conditions, stack temperature and emission requirements for setting process parameters and configurations providing an economic CFB boiler design. B&W IR-CFB boiler design is valuable for repowering of the existing power plants where the IR-CFB boiler fits into the plan area of PC-fired boilers.

References 1. Belin, F., Maryamchik, M., Fuller, T.A., and Perna, M.A., CFB Combustor with Internal Solids Recirculation - Pilot Testing and Design Applications, 13th International Conference on Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Orlando, Florida, May 7-10, 1995. 2. Kavidass, S., Alexander, K.C., Belin, F., James, D.E., Operating Experience with High Ash Waste Coal in a B&W CFB Boiler, Power-Gen Asia 94, Hong Kong, August 23-25, 1994. 3. Jones, C.S., Alexander, K.C., Belin, F., CFB boilers for Ukrainian Low Grade Coals, Power-Gen Americas 94 Conference, Orlando, Florida, December 7-9, 1994 4. Steam/its generation and use, 40th edition, Chapter 16, Atmospheric Pressure Fluidized-Bed Boilers, Babcock & Wilcox, 1992.


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