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FACULTY OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE (FASS) FAKULTI SAINS SOCIAL GUNAAN

OUMH1203 ENGLISH FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Name:

Matric No:

NRIC No:

Telephone No.:

Email Address:

Tutor: Local Learning Centre:

SEMESTER MAY 2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Praise to the Lord for providing me with great health, strength and emotional supporting completing this assignment. It is with great appreciation that I acknowledge the contributions and support in completing this dissertation. It is with great appreciation that I acknowledge the contributions and support of my lecturer whose time, effort and guidance were highly beneficial especially during my completing my assignment. My sincere appreciation and thanks to my colleagues for their constant support, guidance and friendship. My special appreciation to Ramlah Othman @ Dj Kak Lang Ketua Unit Berita Tawau Fm, who is willing to cooperate very well with me in completing this task. The collaboration of Puan Noraziana Wahab @ Dj Azian, who is one the of journalist is highly appreciated. Thanks also to the Tawau RTM station who is willing to accept my presence during the interview process. I really appreciate all my family members because of their endless support; encouragement and understanding throughout my good times as well as my tough times are so meaningful. Finally, I am grateful to my company, the government whos allowed me topursue this assignment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 5.0 INTRODUCTION Malaysia Broadcast Journalism History News Broadcasting Radio News 3 6 7 2 13 PAGE

THE ROLE OF THE NEWS IN MALAYSIA BROADCAST JOURNALISM Selected Radio Station Radio News Release Schedule FINDING AND DISCUSSION Historical Development of the Selected News Production SUMMARY 9 12 8 9

1.0 1.1

INTRODUCTION Malaysia Broadcast Journalism History

Media, better known as the mass media is often associated with both communication and mutual correlates. If you review the development of the media, the media began to grow after the existence of human writing systems. Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods, instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (via air, cable, and Internet), television (via air, cable, and Internet), and, especially recently, the Internet generally. Such media disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text, and/or sounds.The southeast Asian country of Malaysia includes people from many other Asian and western countries and numerous ethnic groups. This diversity is reflected in its economy, politics, social systems, and culture. Written literature in Malaysia goes back to the sixteenth century and describes old Malaya society, for example, Hikayat Hang Tuah (Hang Tuah's Life Story) and Sejarah Melayu , a history of the Malaysian peninsula. The first newspaper in Malaysia, begun by the British in Penang in 1805, was the Prince of Wales Island Gazette . The history of radio in Malaya began in the year 1921 when an electrical engineer from the Johore Government, A.L. Birch, brought the first radio set into the country. He then established the Johore Wireless Association and commenced broadcasting through 300 meter waves. This was then followed by the establishment of the same association in Penang and the Malayan Wireless Association in Kuala Lumpur. In the year 1930, Sir Earl from the Singapore Port Authority commenced its short wave broadcast every fortnight either on Sundays or Wednesdays. The Malaysian Parliament, approved by the Broadcasting Act in December 1987, gives the Minister of Information the authority to monitor and control all radio and television broadcasting. Radio Television Malaysia broadcasts over six networks in various languages and dialects. Besides Radio Malaysia, Suara Islam (Voice of Islam) and Suara Malaysia (Voice of Malaysia) broadcast regularly in Peninsular Malaysia. Radio Television Malaysia broadcasts in Sabah and Sarawak. There is also Rediffusion Cable Network Sbn Bhd and Time Highway Radio, both of which have offices in Kuala Lumpur and primarily serve East Malaysia. In the early 50's, broadcasting activities in Malaya were operated from its temporary studio in Jalan Young (now know as Jalan Cenderasari) in Kuala Lumpur and later in 1956, were moved to the Federal House, Kuala Lumpur. It was here that broadcasting in Malaysia grew with the establishment of several stations throughout the country including Sabah and Sarawak. Other television networks besides Radio Television Malaysia in Sabah and Sarawak are situated on Peninsular Malaysia. Radio Television Malaysia, founded in 1963, controls programming from its main office in Kuala Lumpur. TV 3 (Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Bhd) is Malaysia's first private television station that began broadcasting in 1984. Measat Broadcast Network systems began operating when
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Malaysia's first satellite was launched in January 1996. Malaysia launched a second satellite in October of that year. Mega TV, which started broadcasting in 1995, has five foreign channels, and the government owns 40 percent of Mega TV. The commercial station, MetroVison began broadcasting in July 1995. It is 44 percent owned by Sendandang Sesuria Sbn Bhd and 56 percent owned by Metropolitan Media Sbn Bhd. In addition, as of 1996, when the government ended the ban on private satellite dish ownership, Malaysians can own dishes. Malaysians enjoy listening to 6 radio channels 24 hours a day in Malay, English, Mandarin and Tamil while East Malaysians (Sabah and Sarawak) are tuning to radio channels in their respective native languages such as Kadazan, Murut, Dusun, Bajau, English and Mandarin via Blue Channel RTM Kota Kinabalu. Bidayuh, a dialect widely used by Sarawakians, is the main language for Blue Channel RTM Kuching. Iban and Kayan/Kenyah are dialects used in the Green Channel of the station while English and Mandarin are local dialects used for the Red Channel. Except for RTM Limbang, dialects used for the Red Channel. Except for RTM Limbang, dialects used to communicate with the listeners are as mentioned but Bisaya and Murut (Lun Bawang) are also spectacular dialects used in that channel.

1.2

News Broadcasting

News broadcasting is the broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either produced locally in a radio studio or television studio newsroom, or by a broadcast network. It may also include additional material such as sports coverage, weather forecasts, traffic reports, commentary and other material that the broadcaster feels is relevant to their audience. There are several matters we need to focus on news broadcasting which are; structure, content and style. Newscasts, also known as bulletins or news programs, will differ in content, tone and presentation style depending on the format of the channel on which they appear, and their timeslot. In most parts of the world, national television networks will have network bulletins featuring national and international news. The top rating shows will often be in the evening at 'prime time', but there are also often breakfast time newscasts of two to three hours in length. Rolling news channels broadcast news 24 hours a day. Many video and audio news reports presented on the Internet are updated 24 hours a day. Local news may be presented by stand-alone local TV stations, local stations affiliated to national networks or by local studios which 'opt-out' of national network programming at specified points. Different news programming may be aimed at different audiences, depending on age, socio-economic group or those from particular sections of society. 'Magazine-style' television shows may mix news coverage with topical lifestyle issues, debates or entertainment content. Newscasts consist of several different elements, introduced by a news presenter or presenters. The presenters read 'links' and do interviews. Most news stories come in the form of short 'packages' or live reports. Packages are pre-recorded reports usually lasting from one to five minutes. News reporters gather and edit together interview clips, pictures and their own 'pieces to camera' to tell a story. They script and record a 'voice-over' to explain the pictures and link the elements together. Live reports may be delivered from the news studio or from a relevant location. These may be in the form of a reporter being interviewed by an anchor, known as a 'two-way', or by a guest involved in or offering analysis on the story being interviewed by a reporter or anchor. There may also be breaking news stories which will present live rolling coverage. Packages will usually be filmed at a relevant location and edited in an editing suite in a newsroom or a remote contribution edit suite in a location some distance from the newsroom. They may also be edited in mobile editing trucks, or satellite trucks, and transmitted back to the newsroom. Live coverage will be broadcast from a relevant location and sent back to the newsroom via fixed cable links, microwave radio, production truck, satellite truck or via online streaming. Roles associated with television news include a technical director, floor director audio technician and a television crew of operators running character graphics (CG), teleprompters and professional video cameras. 1.3 Radio News
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Radio was the first medium for broadcast journalism. Many of the first radio stations were co-operative community radio ventures not making a profit. Later, radio advertising to pay for programs was pioneered in radio. Later, television displaced radio and newspapers as the main news sources for most of the public in industrialized countries. Radio news is the same as television news but is transmitted through the medium of the radio. It is more based on the audio aspect rather than the visual aspect. Sound bites are captured through various reporters and played back through the radio. News updates occur more often on the radio than on the television - usually about once or twice an hour. Most news shows are broadcast live. Radio station newscasts can range from as little as a minute to as much as the station's entire schedule, such as the case of all-news radio, or talk radio. Stations dedicated to news or talk will often feature newscasts, or bulletins, usually at the top of the hour, usually between 3 and 8 minutes in length. They can be a mix of local, national and international news, as well as sport, entertainment, weather and traffic, or they may be incorporated into separate bulletins. There may also be shorter bulletins at the bottom of the hour, or three at fifteen minute intervals, or two at twenty minute. There are two types of radio frequency we can listen to which are:
a. More often, AM stations will air a 6 minute newscast on the top of the hour, which

can be either a local report, a national report from a radio network or a mix of both local and national content, including weather and traffic reports. Some stations also air a two minute report at the bottom of the hour.
b. FM stations, unless they feature a talk radio format, usually only air minute-long news

capsules featuring a quick review of events and an abbreviated weather forecast, and usually only in drive time periods or in critical emergencies, since FM stations usually focus more on playing music. Traffic reports also air on FM stations, depending on the market.

2.0 2.1

THE ROLE OF THE NEWS IN MALAYSIA BROADCAST JOURNALISM Selected Radio Station

In this task, I have chosen RTM Sabah as the subject of my research. There are many radio stations is under the auspices of the RTM Sabah. Tawau FM is one of the local radio stations run by Radio Television Malaysia. I have chosen Tawau FM to study its role in the field of broadcast journalism in Malaysia as I live in the Tawau Distric area. To complete my study on the given task, I have conducted an interview with Ramlah Othman @ Dj Kak Lang Head of News Officer, Tawau Fm. Penerbit Rancangan , Minda, SorotanThrough this interview I can learn the history of radio broadcasting especially in news broadcasting. History of broadcasting in Sabah began in 1939 with a guest line racing in Jesselton which known now as Kota Kinabalu made in English and broadcast via radio-telephone to Sandakan. Mobile radio is dominated by the Department of Radio-Telegraph that existed before the year. Press the experiment at home Mr Bradley conducted in the afternoon by posting news, announcements and articles sometimes on horse racing is indeed a great advantage. Radio broadcasts from home Mr Bradley grew rapidly and has received support from the government of the British Colony of North Borneo. Commenced full operation in 1952 with the introduction of radio programs and is not structured this service officially known as the Radio Sabah. On 9 November 1955 Sabah Radio Service was officially launched simultaneously with the opening of a temporary building located at Bukit Brace near the clock tower in the state capital. Also launched was broadcast the evening by the Colonial Governor of North Borneo, Sir Roland Turnbull. After Sabah gained independence through the creation of Malaysia in 1963, Department of Broadcasting Malaysia had retreated with the Information Department of Malaysia in 1964 under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Information. History of radio in Tawau began on February 15, 1964 upon completion of radio transmitting stations in the development of radio Tawau in Sabah, which began in 1939. At that time the functions of the radio transmitter station in Tawau is a broadcast medium of radio programs broadcast from Kota Kinabalu. In line with the rapid development of radio and the local community demand, at 31 0gos 1987 Tawau radio transmitting station has its own broadcast and from the start on air as Radio Malaysia Tawau via Medium Wave (MW) 747 Kilohertz. Since the release through the MW 747 KHz can be followed only in some areas only and the emergence of FM stereo broadcasts a clear, on August 26, 2003 Tawau FM broadcasts were upgraded to a Stereo FM frequency of 100.1 Megahertz through 1 Kilo Watt of power that could be heard throughout the Tawau, including Semporna, Kunak, Lahad Datu and some areas in neighbouring countries.

2.2

Radio News Release Schedule

Besides entertainment, Radio Malaysia Tawau FM is also the news channel to each of its listener. References TawauFM also evolved branding:

August 31, 1987-Radio Malaysia Tawau In 1997, Radio Malaysia Sabah Siaran di Tawau Year 2000 - Radio Malaysia Tawau August 7, 2005-TawauFM June 1, 2009 - Radio Malaysia TawauFM

Moreover, it is the listener top brands past and present when its try to promote awareness and open to amend and to incorporate community values towards a better life. It teaches people to always succeed and perfect in life. Below is the Tawau FM news schedule; Chart 1.0 Time 0700- hours 0745- hours 0800- hours 0900- hours 1100- hours 1300- hours 1330- hours 1500- hours 1630- hours 1700- hours Bahasa Malaysia News National News TawauFM News SabahFM News National News World News from the Centre of Radio RTM KL News from the Centre Radio RTM KL SabahFM Short News TawauFM News SabahFM News National News from the Centre of Radio RTM KL Period 15 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 5 minutes 5 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes

The reporters RTM Sabah also report current news from the site from time to time. They also responsible for reporting and record the important events that became history. In the recorded history of the country, actually own journey from the early and climb many times to the present era is also the basis for the development of the country's broadcasting industry.

3.0 3.1

FINDING AND DISCUSSION Historical Development of the Selected News Production

(Logo of Radio Television Malaysia)

(Logo of Radio Malaysia Tawau FM)

At first glance many may think there is no difference between broadcast news writing with the writing of print publication. Although the concept its delivery almost the same, but the style of writing is actually quite different. Why so? The answer is because the medium is both varied. Newspaper or magazine to read while listening to the radio or TV or the audience. Hence, of course, different writing styles for different targets. If the daily use of language the full use of the broadcast news spoken language. In other words, writing daily for viewing by the eye and ear the news broadcast for the senses. Through interviews conducted with the head news unit of TawauFM, news unit developments changed much since its inception in 1964. At the beginning Fm Tawau, the functions of a radio transmitter station in Tawau is the medium of radio programs broadcast from Kota Kinabalu. In line with the rapid development of radio and the local community requests, at 31 0gos 1987 Tawau radio transmitting station has its own broadcast on air. Anyway the news unit has not been established in TawauFm at the time. The news from the center Radio RTM Kuala Lumpur and Kota Kinabalu. Stereo FM broadcasts a clear, on August 26, 2003. Tawau FM broadcasts were upgraded to Stereo FM frequency of 100.1 Megahertz through 1 Kilo Watt of power that could be heard throughout the included Semporna, Tawau, Kunak, Lahad Datu and some areas in neighboring countries. With a clear FM stereo broadcast, the news unit has been established to deliver latest news around Tawau district and nationwide. The news unit has done a tremendous job in the field of broadcast journalism in Malaysia as they deliver news that can educate people about things happening surround them. Every day we will read the news and articles in newspapers or magazines. We also heard the news on the radio or watching the news on television. Various news and events published and reported to us through the radio and other electronic media. Who is doing this noble work? Of course it was done by journalists and broadcasters for electronic media. TawauFM also have a good journalist and broadcaster who can deliver quality news for the listener. One of TawauFM journalist is Puan Noraziana Wahab @ Dj Azian. Puan Noraziana Wahab mentioned that their job is to cover the events, events, activities and any incidents that can be used as news and stories to be reported to the readers, listeners
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and viewers. In addition, professional journalists will have the opportunity to meet with various community groups such as the prominent leaders, politicians and businessmen. As a journalist, every day she will be given assignments to cover certain events or individuals interviewed. After that, she will return to the newsroom to write stories or articles on earlier interviews. Then the news or articles written will be edited before publication or broadcast in the media by the author of the head news unit Puan Ramlah Othman who is also a deejay. Puan Ramlah said that as head of the new unit she has to make sure that intro or lead in every news session must interest the listener. It is a very important element. Thus, the news editor of publication must satisfy the following matters when making the intro: Attract the attention of listeners / viewers to satisfy the core of any news. Do not make the difficult intro understood by inserting too many facts. Intro to recent / current. Many chose TawauFM as a source of receipt of discourse and as a platform choice because radio is able to give inspiration on the world around that they could not get information on real situations that occur around them, locally and abroad. TawauFM need support through feedback to the quality of their work continues to the top on the stage of liver caring listeners and viewers. Ethical news broadcasting in line with the requirements of the Ministry. Description as follows: Channel all information and policies agree by the government, Delivering latest news To publish a balanced report, Delivering reports with concise, clear and precise and Guiding and once expressed needs of society. Until now, this radio news unit is still running as usual. It broadcasts news from within and outside the state, particularly the latest news in the district of Tawau. Although it was broadcast for a short moment but it was concise and informative for every the listener.

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4.0

SUMMARY

While Malaysia has kept up with the rest of the world in technology and a prosperous economy, a truly free press in 2002 does not exist in this Southeast Asian country. Little has changed. The government still views the media as a means for promoting the government. It believes the press should not be sensational but should be a watchdog for society. Radio is a medium that does not appear; it is also known as a personal medium. Radio requires imagination. It has its own characteristics different because it involves the imagination with a TV and a "picture themselves". In the literature, everything imaginable. On TV, the story can be seen and heard and need less imagination. But in radio, the story can only be heard. Radio is about what happened; it is medium now. All people listen to the radio to find out the news of an emergency. Radio is on the words and sounds. Because this medium does not appear, his words can not be seen by the audience. Radio language is similar to speech than writing. Journalists in Malaysia have to contend with many obstacles that journalists who live in other countries do not. The local and foreign journalists in Malaysia have to contend with various press laws and publications acts, as well as libel suits. It seems little change can be expected in the years to come so long as the government associates gains with a press controlled by the authorities. As newspaper reporters, broadcast journalists also have a responsibility and ethics in the course of their duties. They must be aware and understand the laws affecting the job done. They need to carefully deal with sensitive issues and can also handle a certain topic. The language used by broadcast journalists and professional responsibility must be heard and meet the needs of listeners and viewers. The language used should also be objective and neutral. Broadcast journalists also use the language of speech or conversation. Important than the language used in usage and meaning as broadcast journalists responsible for: To the listeners and viewers To the law For the management of a station and To the ethics and values of the task.

Broadcast journalists should be objective in reporting facts. It is the responsibility of the highest among the print media. Reports made to be impartial, fair and honest. This is because the purpose of broadcasting the news in a democracy is to give people the right to know what is happening around them. With the publication of good journalism, Malaysia will remain a great nation in maintaining the well being of its multi-races people.

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5.0

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asher, R. E., ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, vol. 5. New York: Pergamon Press, 1994. Associated Press (2001). Broadcast News Handbook: A Manual of Techniques and Practices. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-7136-3882. Barr, Cameron W. (28 September 1998). "Combative Leader Challenges Both His People and Foreign Press," Christian Science Monitor, vol. 90, issue 212: 8. Brooks, Brian (2004). Telling the Story: The Convergence of Print, Broadcast and Online Media. Boston: Bedford, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-40906-0. DeFleur, Melvin (2002). Understanding Mass Communication. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-12857-3. "Detention Without Trial: (April-July 2001). Internal Security Act, ISA," Malaysian Civil and Political Rights , 2nd Quarter 2001, Suram, Selangor, Malaysia. The Europa World Year Book , vol. II. London: Europa Publications Limited, 1999. "Foreign Labor Trends, Malaysia, 1994-1995," U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, prepared by the American Embassy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1995. Gullick, John. 1981. Malaysia: Economic Expansion and National Unity. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, Ingram, Derek. "Commonwealth Press Union," Round Table , vol. 349, issue 1 (January 1999): 28. Kurian, George Thomas, ed. 1982. World Press Encyclopedia. New York: Facts on File, Inc. Loo, Eric. "Media Tightly Prescribed, (Fall 1996)." Neiman Reports , vol. 50, issue 3: 79. Martin, Stella, and Denis Walls. 1986. In Malaysia. London: Brandt Publications. McLuhan, Marshall (1964). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press (also New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964; Critical edition, Gingko Press, 2003).ISBN 0-26263159-8, ISBN 978-0-26263159-4. Murphy, Dan. (13 March 2001). "Malaysia's Strike on Freedoms," Christian Science Monitor , vol. 93, issue 74 :3. Neto Anil. July 15, 2000. "Libel Award Chill Malaysia's Journalists," Asia Times , Available at http://www.atimes.comINTERNET . Osman, Mohd Taib. 1985.Malaysian World-View. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,
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"Publish and be Chastised," The Economist , vol. 358 (3 March 2001). Roff, William R. 1967. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. New Haven, CN.: Yale University Press,. Ross-Larson, Bruce, ed. Malaysia 2001: A Preliminary Inquiry. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Syed Kechik Foundation, 1978. "The Shaming of Malaysia," The Economist , vol. 349 (7 November 1998). Sumner, Jeff, ed. 2002. Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media , 136th ed., vol. 5. Farmington Hills, MI.: Gale. Van Wolferen, Karel, (Winter 1995). "The Limits of Mass Media," NIRA Review

Websites: http://www.tawaufm.gov.my http://www.rtmsabah.gov.my/sejarah.htm http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Televisyen_Malaysia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcast_journalism http://www.thefreedictionary.com/broadcast+journalist

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