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Adaptogen

Herbs of Immortality

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Contents
Articles
Adaptogen American ginseng Angelica sinensis Chinese food therapy Chinese herbology Codonopsis pilosula Devil's Club Double steaming Eleutherococcus senticosus Ginseng Ginsenoside Gynostemma pentaphyllum Lepidium meyenii List of food origins Panax pseudoginseng Panax vietnamensis Panax zingiberensis Pseudostellaria heterophylla Salvia miltiorrhiza Schisandra chinensis Suma root Withania somnifera Rhodiola rosea Rhodiola 1 4 7 9 12 32 34 36 38 41 52 55 59 64 74 77 79 80 82 86 91 92 96 101

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 103 105

Article Licenses
License 107

Adaptogen

Adaptogen
An adaptogen is a metabolic regulator which increases the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors, and to avoid damage from such factors. Environmental factors can be either physiological (external), such as injury or aging, or psychological (internal), such as anxiety. An adaptogen must have a normalizing effect, i.e. counteracting or preventing disturbances to homeostasis brought about by stressors. Moreover, it must be innocuous with a broad range of therapeutic effects without causing any major side effects. The adaptogen concept does not fit easily into the Western model of medicine.

History of the concept


The concept adaptogen was originally created by the pharmacologist A.V. Lazarev in 1947 to describe novel effects of dibazol 12-benzyl benzimidazol, an arterial dilator developed in France.[1] This concept was later (in the former Soviet Union) applied to describe remedies that increase the resistance of organisms to stress in experimental and clinical studies.[1][2][3] According to the original definition adaptogens are non-specific remedies that increase resistance to a broad spectrum of harmful factors - stressors - of different physical, chemical and biological natures.[1][2][4] This definition has been updated and today adaptogens are defined as a "new class of metabolic regulators which increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and to avoid damage from such factors."[2][4] In spite of an extensive amount of research in the USSR, (by 1984, more than 1,500 pharmacological and clinical published studies),[4] the concept is not generally recognized in Western countries as it seemed to be in contrast to some of the key concepts of modern pharmacology: potency, selectivity and with efficacy balanced by an accepted level of toxicity.[2][3] In 1998, however, the term adaptogen was allowed as a functional claim for certain products by US Food and Drug Administration and it is now a generally accepted concept,[2] also by the European Medicines Agency and EFSA.[5][6][7] Crude drugs that meet the criteria of being adaptogens are Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Panax ginseng.[2]

Mechanism of action
The mechanism of action has been hard to rationalize. However, by 1965 it had been demonstrated that the adaptogenic effect was dependent on the DNA-dependent synthesis of RNA.[1][4] By 1980, it was clear that the effect operated on the sympathetic nervous system.[3] A series of recent pharmacological studies have provided a rationale for the effects at the cellular molecular level. The stress-protective activity of adaptogens has been found to be associated on the cellular level via activation molecular chaperones Hsp70,[8][9][10][11][12] and other key mediators of the stress response such as cortisol, nitric oxide, stress-activated protein kinase JNK[13] and DAF-16.[14] Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and Neuropeptide Y might be primary upstream molecular targets of adaptogens in neuroglia cells.[11][12]

Repeated vs. single dose administration


The repeated administration of adaptogens gives an effect analogous to that produced by repeated physical exercise by a transition from homeostasis to heterostasis. The effect is mainly related to the HPA-axis (Hypophys-Pituitar-Adrenal-axis). Repeat dose administration of adaptogens has been shown to be of value in sports medicine and can lead to increased endurance for long distance runners, cross-country skiers etc, or to a more rapid recovery from a stressors events.[2] It should be pointed out that the stress protective effect by repeated intake is not the result of inhibition of the stress response, but of adaptive changes in the organism to the repeated stress-mimetic effect of the drug. Adaptogens are stress agonists and not stress-antagonists.[2][15]

Adaptogen Administration of adaptogens in a single dose is relevant when a rapid response to stress and strain is required. This effect is associated with the sympathetic nervous system. Suitable crude drugs for this purpose are Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis, which also can be used for repeated administration.[2] Panax ginseng, on the other hand gives an adaptive effect only after repeated administration for periods of one to four weeks.[2]

Adaptogens as stimulants
There are important differences between the stimulating effect of adaptogens and other stimulants of the central nervous system as summarized:[2][3][16]
Effect Stimulant Adaptogen High No Increase Increase Good No No Increase

Recovery process after exhaustive physical load Low Energy depletion Performance in stress Survival in stress Quality of arousal Insomnia Side effects DNA/RNA and protein synthesis Example Yes Decrease Decrease Bad Yes Yes Decrease

Amphetamine Ginseng

In contrast to conventional stimulants, such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, etc, which can impair mental function and lead to addiction and tolerance with long term use, adaptogens by definition and from numerous studies do not exhibit such negative effects.[1][2][3] One plant adaptogen that is derived from Rhodiola rosea has been shown to significantly regulate high-altitude sleep disorders and improve sleep quality. Plant adaptogens stimulate the nervous system by mechanisms which are totally different from those of conventional stimulants as associated with metabolic regulation of various elements of the stress system and modulation of stimulants-response comply.[12][13]

References
[1] Brekhman, II, and Dardymov, I. V. (1969). New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol 9, 419-430. [2] Samuelsson, G., and Bohlin, L. Drugs of Natural Origin: A Treatise of Pharmacognosy, 6 ed., Swedish Academy of Phramaceutical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009. Pp. 226-228. [3] Fulder, Stephen (1982) [1980]. The Tao of medicine: Ginseng, Oriental remedies, and the Pharmacology of Harmony (First American ed.). New York: Destiny Books. ISBN0-89281-027-0. [4] Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. (1999). Plant adaptogens. III. Earlier and more recent aspects and concepts on their mode of action. Phytomedicine 6, 287-300. [5] EMEA/HMPC/102655/2007. Reflection Paper on the Adaptogenic Concept. European Medicines Agency, London, 8 May 2008. [6] EFSA Consolidated list of Article 13 health claims of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (http:/ / www. efsa. europa. eu/ EFSA/ efsa_locale-1178620753812_article13. htm). [7] Legal and regulatory framework for herbal medicines. Association of the European Self-Medication Industry (AESMI). Brussells, April 2010. Pp.151-158. [8] Panossian, A., and Wikman, G. (2009). Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol 4, 198-219. [9] Panossian, A., Wikman, G., Kaur, P., and Asea, A. (2009). Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine 16, 617-622.

Adaptogen
[10] Panossian, A., Wikman, G., Kaur, P., and Asea, A. Molecular chaperones as mediators of stress protective effect of plant adaptogens. In: A. Asea, and B. K. Pedersen, (Eds.), Heat Shock Proteins and Whole Body Physiology, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010, pp. 351-364. [11] Panossian A, Wikman G, Kaur P, Asea A. Adaptogens (ADAPT-232) stimulate neuropeptide Y expression in neuroglia cells. 59th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research, 4th-9th September 2011, Anatalya, Turkey. Planta medica. 2011;77 (12), 1248. [12] Panossian, Alexander G.; Wikman, Georg; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Alexzander (13 January 2012). Malagon, Maria M.. ed. "Adaptogens stimulate neuropeptide Y and Hsp72 expression and release in neuroglia cells" (http:/ / www. frontiersin. org/ neuroendocrine_science/ abstract/ 17819). Frontiers in Neuroendocrine Science (Frontiers Media S.A.) 6 (6). doi:10.3389/fnins.2012.00006. . Retrieved January 28, 2012. [13] Panossian, A., Hambartsumyan, M., Hovanissian, A., Gabrielyan, E., and Wilkman, G. (2007). The Adaptogens Rhodiola and Schizandra Modify the Response to Immobilization Stress in Rabbits by Suppressing the Increase of Phosphorylated Stress-activated Protein Kinase, Nitric Oxide and Cortisol. Drug Targets Instights 1, 39-54. [14] Wiegant, F. A., Surinova, S., Ytsma, E., Langelaar-Makkinje, M., Wikman, G., and Post, J. A. (2009). Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology 10, 27-42. [15] Panossian, A., and Wagner, H. (2005). Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res 19, 819-838. [16] Fulder S. (1980). The Drug that builds Russians. New Scientists. 21, 83-84.

American ginseng

American ginseng
American ginseng

Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit

Conservation status

Vulnerable (NatureServe)[1] Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Subfamily: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Aralioideae Panax P. quinquefolius Binomial name Panax quinquefolius L. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the ivy family, commonly used as Chinese or herbal medicine. It is native to eastern North America, though it is also cultivated in places such as China.[2]

American ginseng The plant's forked root and leaves were traditionally used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans. Since the 19th century, the roots have been collected by "'sang hunters" and sold to Chinese or Hong Kong traders, who often pay very high prices for particularly old wild roots.[3] It is also known by its Chinese name Huaqishen (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Mandarin Pinyin: huqshn; Jyutping: faa1kei4sam1; literally "The Star-Spangled Banner (American) ginseng") or Xiyangshen (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Mandarin Pinyin: xyngshn; Jyutping: sai1joeng4sam1; literally "west ocean ginseng").

American ginseng in human figure

Under wooden shade, American Ginseng in late fall at Monk Garden in Wisconsin

American ginseng berries are ripe by late fall in Wisconsin

Production
American ginseng was formerly particularly widespread in the Appalachian and Ozark regions (and adjacent forested regions such as Pennsylvania, New York State and Ontario), but due to its popularity the wild plant has been overharvested, and is thus rare in most parts of the United States and Canada.[4] Ginseng is also negatively affected by deer browsing, urbanization, and habitat fragmentation.[5] It is also grown commercially, under artificial shade, in fields in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and usually harvested after three to four years.[4] Many ginseng growers in Wisconsin are represented by the "Ginseng Board of Wisconsin",[6] whose seal is often sought after on ginseng products to certify they are genuine. Wisconsin, particularly Marathon County, accounts for approximately 95% of production in the United States.[7] Ginseng is also widely grown in Ontario, Canada.[8]

Chemical components
Like Panax ginseng, American ginseng contains dammarane-type ginsenosides as the major biologically active constituents. Dammarane type ginsenosides include two classifications: the 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (ppd) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (ppt) classifications. American ginseng contains high levels of Rb1, Rd (ppd classification) and Re (ppt classification) ginsenosideshigher than that of P. ginseng in one study.[9]

Pharmacokinetics

Chemical structure of protopanaxadiol

When taken orally, ppd-type ginsenosides are mostly metabolized by intestinal bacteria (anaerobes) to ppd monoglucoside, 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (M1). [10] In humans, M1 is detected in plasma from 7 hours after the intake of ppd-type ginsenosides and in urine from 12 hours after the intake. These findings indicate that M1 is the final metabolite of ppd-type ginsenosides. [11] M1 is referred to in some articles as IH-901, [12] and in others as compound-K. []

American ginseng

References
[1] "Panax quinquefolius" (http:/ / www. natureserve. org/ explorer/ servlet/ NatureServe?searchName=Panax+ quinquefolius+ ). NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. . Retrieved 2007-07-03. [2] Xiang, Qibai; Lowry P., Porter (2007). "Panax quinquefolius" (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200015253). In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y.. Flora of China. 13. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p.491. . Retrieved 2007-07-03. [3] There is More to a Forest than Trees (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060828064746/ http:/ / www. research. vt. edu/ resmag/ 2002summer/ forestproducts. html). research.vt.edu (Summer 2002) [4] Research|Penn State: The unfolding story of Pennsylvania ginseng (http:/ / www. rps. psu. edu/ pennsylvania/ ginseng. html). Rps.psu.edu (2006-06-19). Retrieved on 2012-05-01. [5] Population Biology and Conservation Ecology of American Ginseng (http:/ / www. as. wvu. edu/ biology/ faculty/ JBMPersonalSite/ PopBioConsEcol. html). As.wvu.edu (2005-02-10). Retrieved on 2012-05-01. [6] ginsengboard.com (http:/ / www. ginsengboard. com/ ). Retrieved on 2012-05-01. [7] "Ginseng Prices at Highest in Decades". The Post Crescent. October 19, 2010. [8] American Ginseng Root (http:/ / www. raineyginseng. com/ american-ginseng. html). Rainey Ginseng. Retrieved on 2012-05-01. [9] Zhu, Shu; Zou, Kun; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Cai, Shaoqing; Komatsu, Katsuko (2004). "Comparative study on triterpene saponins of ginseng drugs". Planta medica 70 (7): 666677. doi:10.1055/s-2004-827192. PMID15303259. [10] Hasegawa, Hideo; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Matsumiya, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Masamori (1996). "Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria". Planta medica 62 (5): 453457. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957938. PMID8923812. [11] Tawab, M. A.; Bahr, U; Karas, M; Wurglics, M; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M (2003). "Degradation of ginsenosides in humans after oral administration". Drug metabolism and disposition 31 (8): 10651071. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.8.1065. PMID12867496. [12] Oh, Seon-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon (2004). "A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 194 (3): 221229. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2003.09.011. PMID14761678.

External links
"There is More to a Forest than Trees" (http://www.research.vt.edu/resmag/2002summer/forestproducts. html) by Lynn Davis, College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech "Roots and Regulations: The Unfolding Story of Pennsylvania Ginseng" (http://www.rps.psu.edu/ pennsylvania/ginseng.html), by Melissa Beattie-Moss

Angelica sinensis

Angelica sinensis
Angelica sinensis

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Apiaceae Angelica A. sinensis Binomial name Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels[1] Angelica sinensis, commonly known as "dong quai" or "female ginseng" is a herb from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China.

Pharmacology
Use in traditional Chinese medicine
The dried root of Angelica sinensis is commonly known as Chinese angelica (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dnggu; Peh-e-j: tong-kui) and is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine for gynecological ailments, fatigue, mild anemia and high blood pressure. The plant's phytochemicals consist of coumarins, phytosterols, polysaccharides, ferulate, and flavonoids.[2] It has antioxidant activity.[3]

Effects
This herb is used by herbalists for the female reproductive system, as they believe that it is a uterine tonic and hormonal regulator. It is often used in premenstrual syndrome formulas as well as menopausal formulas. However, this herb is not recommended during pregnancy due to possible hormonal, anticoagulant, and antiplatelet properties. Animal research has noted conflicting effects on the uterus, with reports of both stimulation and relaxation. Dong quai is traditionally viewed as increasing the risk of miscarriage.[4]

Angelica sinensis

Adverse effects
A. sinensis contains chemicals that are carcinogens.[4] It can cause skin to become extra-sensitive to the sun leading to a greater risk for skin cancer.[4] There is one case report of gynaecomastia following consumption of ding dang gui root powder pills.[5] It prolongs INR.

Drug interactions
Angelica sinensis may increase the anticoagulant effects of the drug warfarin and consequently increase the risk of bleeding.[6]

References
[1] "Angelica sinensis information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?406655). www.ars-grin.gov. . Retrieved 2008-03-17. [2] Zhao KJ, Ding Dong TT, Tu PF, Song ZH, Lo CK, Tsim KW (April 2003). "Molecular genetic and chemical assessment of radix Angelica (Danggui) in China". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (9): 257683. doi:10.1021/jf026178h10.1021/jf026178h. PMID12696940. [3] Jia M, Yang TH, Yao XJ, Meng J, Meng JR, Mei QB (February 2007). "[Anti-oxidative effect of Angelica polysaccharide sulphate]" (in Chinese). Zhong Yao Cai 30 (2): 1858. PMID17571770. [4] Medline Plus Dang Gui (http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ medlineplus/ druginfo/ natural/ patient-dongquai. html) [5] Goh SY, Loh KC (March 2001). "Gynaecomastia and the herbal tonic "Dang Gui"". Singapore Med J 42 (3): 1156. PMID11405562. [6] Page RL, Lawrence JD (July 1999). "Potentiation of warfarin by ding dong quai". Pharmacotherapy 19 (7): 8706. PMID10417036.

Jung SM, Schumacher HR, Kim H, Kim M, Lee SH, Pessler F (2007). "Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels" (http://arthritis-research.com/content/9/4/R64). Arthritis Res. Ther. 9 (4): R64. doi:10.1186/ar2222. PMC2206389. PMID17612394. Considers anti-inflammatory properties of dried roots from the species Angelica sinensis (Dong Quai), Acanthopanax senticosus (now known as Eleutherococcus senticosus, or Siberian Ginseng), and Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal Skullcap).

External links
Angelica sinensis List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases) (http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/ plantdisp.xsql?taxon=87) Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/herbs/cangel. htm) MedlinePlus article on Dong quai (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-dongquai. html) says that high-quality research is lacking on Dong Quai's purported therapeutic effects, and that positive research results reported are at best preliminary. Angelica Sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. (http://libproject.hkbu.edu.hk/was40/detail?lang=en&channelid=1288& searchword=herb_id=D00117) Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese)(English) , Dang Gui, Chinese Angelica (http://libproject.hkbu.edu.hk/was40/outline?page=1& channelid=35734&searchword=&sortfield=+name_chi_sort&ispage=yes&trslc=50332398.1325071544. 1) Chinese Medicine Specimen Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University)
(traditional Chinese)(English)

Chinese food therapy

Chinese food therapy


Biologically based alternative and complementary therapy[1]

Herbalism Macrobiotic diet Natural health Orthomolecular medicine NCCAM classifications

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Alternative Medical Systems Mind-Body Intervention Biologically Based Therapy Manipulative Methods Energy Therapy See also

Complementary and alternative medicine Alternative medicine Complementary medicine Glossary of alternative medicine

Chinese food therapy (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: shlio) is a practice in the belief of healing through the use of natural foods instead of medications. Chinese food or Nutrition therapy, is a modality of traditional Chinese medicine, as opposed to evidence-based medicine. One of the central ideas in this belief system is that certain foods have a "hot" or heat inducing quality while others have a "cold" or chilling effect on one's body, organs or "energy" levels. The idea being that one's imbalance of natural "heat" and "cold" in a body can cause disease or be more conducive towards sickness. Although, in this belief system, it does not necessarily mean one's internal "heat" or "cold" balance is directly related to being physically hot (to the point of sweating) or cold (feeling chilly from cold weather). As an example, if one had a cold, or felt he was about to get a cold, he would not want to eat any "cold" foods such as a lemon, melon or cucumber. If one had a so called "hot" disease, like Eczema, then he would not want to eat "hot" foods such as garlic, onions, or chocolate lest the "hot" disease is worsened. Indeed, it is thought by some that these "hot" or "cold" properties of foods are so intense that merely the eating of too many of one or another can actually cause diseases. For example, the eating of too many "hot" foods like chili peppers or lobster could cause a rash, or the eating of too many "cold" foods such as watermelon, or seaweed could cause one to develop stomach pain or diarrhea. In this way, this health system is in direct opposition to the germ theory of disease (where microbes are described as the cause of many disease states) and evidence-based medicine. It is related to the concept of "" ni-wixi in Chinese medicine, being more aligned with Claude Bernard, and Antoine Bechamp's biological terrain theory of disease. This belief in foods having inherent "hot" or "cold" properties is prevalent throughout greater China. It is particularly popular among Cantonese people who enjoy slow-cooked soups. One of the most commonly known is a rice soup that goes by many names including congee and jook (Mandarin "zhou"). This is a traditional breakfast for Asian people all over the world. Congee recipes vary infinitely, depending upon the desired health benefits as well as taste. Chinese food therapy dates back as early as 2000 BC. However, proper documentation was only found around 500 BC. The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, also known as the Huangdi Neijing, which was written around 300 BC, was most important in forming the basis of Chinese food therapy. It classified food by four food groups, five tastes and by their natures and characteristics.

Chinese food therapy

10

Philosophy about food


The ideas of yin and yang are used in the sphere of food and cooking. Yang foods are believed to increase the body's heat (e.g. raise the metabolism), while Yin foods are believed to decrease the body's heat (e.g. lower the metabolism). As a generalization, Yang foods tend to be dense in food energy, especially energy from fat, while Yin foods tend to have high water content. The Chinese ideal is to eat both types of food to keep the body in balance. A person eating too much Yang food might suffer from acne and bad breath while a person eating too much Yin food might be lethargic or anemic.

Cantonese classification of food


Cantonese people pay much attention to the body's reaction to food. Food items are classified accordingly, and diet is adjusted based on the body's conditions. In effect, many Cantonese people practice food therapy in day to day situations. The following is a list of common food classifications:
Cantonese name rough translation dry fire (yang) related symptoms/effects examples cures

zohu

causes dryness of skin, chapped lips, nose bleed etc.

chili pepper, deep fried food, beef jerky, lychee. mango, pineapple, cherry.

any yin or cooling food

shr

wet heat (yang) causes mouth sore, urinary burning etc. probably due to the acidity or alkalinity.

chrysanthemum, sugar cane ( zhzh), Imperata arundinacea ( mogn), Prunella vulgaris L. ( xikco) any boosting or dry fire food

hnling

cold cooling (yin)

causes dizziness, weakness, pale or green face (low oxygen level in blood) etc.

watermelon, cantelope, honeydew and certain kinds of melon-type fruits or vegetables, green tea. all fibrous food, e.g. yam, chestnuts duck, goose, bamboo shoot, all shellfish

zh

blocking

cause indigestion, stomach gas etc. causes pus or swelling in wound, outbreak of acnes, hemorrhoid etc. causes gastric upset, runny stool, outbreak of acnes etc. mild yin type that counteract the dry fire type. Also listed as yin when overused.

haw (fruit shnzh), malt ( miy) abstinence at outbreak

poisoning

yun

greasy

all greasy food, e.g. bacon etc. beer, lettuce, sugar cane ( zhzh), Imperata arundinacea ( , mogn), American ginseng. apple, pear, fig, winter melon, longan, Dioscorea opposita ( huishn), lotus seed, lily bulb etc. Mutton, snake, wild games, beef, red dates ( hngzo). red wine, Korean ginseng. various

abstinence at outbreak

qngling

clear cooling

not needed if not overused

zrn

nourishing

moisturizing, soothing

not needed

bxu-yq

boosting

replenishes blood and Qi. Also listed as dry fire when overused. circulating blood and Qi. improves various internal functions

not needed if not overused

xngxu-huq jinp, kiwi, shngjn, yngxn, qingjn, qingg etc.

vigorating generating, strengthening

not needed not needed

Chinese food therapy The yin-yang type of each individual determines how susceptible the person is to these effects of food. A neutral person is generally healthy and will have strong reactions to these effects only after overconsumption of certain kind of food. A yang type person usually can eat all yin type food with no ill effect, but may easily get a nose bleed with small amount of yang type food. A yin type person is usually very unhealthy and is reactive to either yin or yang food. Boosting or nourishing type of food is needed to bring a yin person back to health.

11

Some common food therapy items and recipes


Bird nest ( ynw)
Oral secretion of swiftlets, collected from the binding material of their nests. Alleged effects: promote beautiful skin for women; "strengthen the spleen and open up the stomach" ( jinp-kiwi, meaning improve appetite and digestion). vegetables and fruits are believed to nullify the effect of bird nest if taken within the same day. The dried material is soaked in water to rehydrate. The soaked bird nest is cleaned by hand to remove other nest building debris such as grass and feathers. The cleaned and crumbled bird nest is double steamed with rock sugar as a dessert or with a small amount of pork as a soup.

Korean or Chinese ginseng ( Golshn)


Root of a plant that has the Yang properties. Alleged effects: promote circulation, increase blood supply, revitalize and aid recovery from weakness after illness. The ginseng root is double steamed with chicken meat as a soup. (See samgyetang.)

American ginseng ( huqshn)


Root of a plant similar to Korean ginseng, but it has the Yin properties. Alleged effects: cleansing of excessive Yang in the body, aphrodisiac. The ginseng is sliced, a few slices are soaked in hot water to make a tea. Most American ginseng is produced in Wisconsin, USA.

A Cantonese cough remedy


Dried duck gizzards, watercress, almond kernels ( nn-bixng chn-shn xyngci tng): Alleged effects: relieve both Yin (resulted from cold) or Yang (resulted from dryness) type of coughing. Watercress ( xyngci) is for removing excessive yang in the body. The sweet almond kernels ( nnxngrn) and bitter almond kernels ( bixngrn) target the lungs. The dried duck gizzards ( gn y-shn) are used to balance the yin-yang of the recipe. Watercress is available in most supermarkets while the rest of the ingredients can be found in most Chinese herb stores. The ingredients are slow cooked for couple of hours into a soup, a small piece of pork is optional for flavor. Do not use Yang type meat such as beef or chicken in this recipe because they nullify the effects of the watercress.

Chinese food therapy

12

External links
Chinese Food & Diet [2] Taiwan Culture Portal: Winter time is remedial Chinese food time [3] BIOLOGICAL TERRAIN VS THE GERM THEORY [4]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template:Biologically http:/ / www. shen-nong. com/ eng/ lifestyles/ index. html http:/ / www. culture. tw/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=1981& Itemid=157 http:/ / thehealthadvantage. com/ biologicalterrain. html

Chinese herbology
Chinese herbology (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: zhngyo xu) is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The term herbology is misleading in so far as plant elements are by far the most commonly, but not solely used substances; animal, human, and mineral products are also utilized. Thus, the term "medicinal" (instead of herb) is usually preferred as a translation for (pinyin: yo).[1]

Dried herbs and plant portions for Chinese herbology at a Xi'an market

Ready to drink macerated medicinal liquor with goji berry, tokay gecko, and ginseng, for sale at a traditional medicine market in Xi'an, China.

Chinese herbology

13

History
Chinese herbs have been used for centuries. Among the earliest literature are lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by the manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tombs which were sealed in 168BC. The first traditionally recognized herbalist is Shnnng ( , lit. "Divine Farmer"), a mythical god-like figure, who is said to have lived around 2800BC.[2] He allegedly tasted hundreds of herbs and imparted his knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants to farmers. His Shnnng Bn Co Jng ( , Shennong's Materia Medica) is considered as the oldest book on Chinese herbal medicine. It classifies 365 species of roots, grass, woods, furs, animals and stones into three categories of herbal medicine: 1. The "superior" category, which includes herbs effective for multiple diseases and are mostly responsible for maintaining and restoring the body balance. They have almost no unfavorable side-effects.
Chinese pharmacopoeia

2. A category comprising tonics and boosters, whose consumption must not be prolonged. 3. A category of substances which must usually be taken in small doses, and for the treatment of specific diseases only. The original text of Shennong's Materia Medica has been lost; however, there are extant translations.[3] The true date of origin is believed to fall into the late Western Han dynasty[2] (i.e., the first century BC). The Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was collated by Zhang Zhongjing, also sometime at the end of the Han dynasty, between 196 and 220 CE. Focusing on drug prescriptions,[4] it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang and the Five Phases with drug therapy.[5] This formulary was also the earliest Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically useful "patterns" (zheng ) that could serve as targets for therapy. Having gone through numerous changes over time, it now circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song dynasty.[6] Succeeding generations augmented these works, as in the Yaoxing Lun (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; literally "Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs"), a 7th century Tang Dynasty Chinese treatise on herbal medicine. Arguably the most important of these later works is the Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu) compiled during the Ming dynasty by Li Shizhen, which is still used today for consultation and reference.

Raw materials
There are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal recipes recorded in the ancient literature.[7] Plant elements and extracts are by far the most common elements used.[8] In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - out of these, only 45 were animal parts, and 30 were minerals.[8] For many plants used as medicinals, detailed instructions have been handed down not only regarding the locations and areas where they grow best, but also regarding the best timing of planting and harvesting them.[9] Some animal parts used as medicinals can be considered rather strange such as cows' gallstones.[10] In general, Chinese traditional medicine emphasizes the penis of animals as therapeutic.[11] Snake oil, which is used traditionally for joint pain as a liniment[12] was extensively marketing in the West in the late 1800s and early 1900s and wildly claimed to be effective in treating many maladies; however, there is no clinical evidence that it is

Chinese herbology effective.[12][13] Traditional Chinese Medicine also includes some human parts: the classic Materia medica (Bencao Gangmu) describes the use of 35 human body parts and excreta in medicines, including bones, fingernail, hairs, dandruff, earwax, impurities on the teeth, feces, urine, sweat, and organs, but most are no longer in use.[14][15][16]

14

Preparation
Each herbal medicine prescription is a cocktail of many substances, usually tailored to the individual patient.

Decoction
Typically, one batch of medicinals is prepared as a decoction of about 9 to 18 substances.[17] Some of these are considered as main herbs, some as ancillary herbs; within the ancillary herbs, up to three categories can be distinguished.[18] Some ingredients are added in order to cancel out toxicity or side-effects of the main ingredients; on top of that, some medicinals require the use of other substances as catalysts.

Characteristic little black pills of Chinese patent medicine

Chinese Patent Medicine


Chinese patent medicine (traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: zhngchng yo) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. They are standardized herbal formulas. From ancient times, pills were formed by combining several herbs and other ingredients, which were dried and ground into a powder. They were then mixed with a binder and formed into pills by hand. The binder was traditionally honey. Modern teapills, however, are extracted in stainless steel extractors to create either a water decoction or water-alcohol decoction, depending on the herbs used. They are extracted at a low temperature (below 100 degrees Celsius) to preserve essential ingredients. The extracted liquid is then further condensed, and some raw herb powder from one of the herbal ingredients is mixed in to form an herbal dough. This dough is then machine cut into tiny pieces, a small amount of excipients are added for a smooth and consistent exterior, and they are spun into pills. Teapills are characteristically little round black pills. Chinese patent medicines are easy and convenient. They are not easy to customize on a patient-by-patient basis, however. They are often used when a patient's condition is not severe and the medicine can be taken as a long-term treatment. These medicines are not patented in the traditional sense of the word. No one has exclusive rights to the formula. Instead, "patent" refers to the standardization of the formula. In China, all Chinese patent medicines of the same name will have the same proportions of ingredients, and manufactured in accordance with the PRC Pharmacopoeia, which is mandated by law. However, in western countries there may be variations in the proportions of ingredients in patent medicines of the same name, and even different ingredients altogether. Several producers of Chinese herbal medicines are pursuing FDA clinical trials to market their products as drugs in U.S. and European markets.[19]

Chinese herbology

15

Chinese Herbal Extracts


Chinese herbal extracts are herbal decoctions that have been condensed into a granular or powdered form. Herbal extracts, similar to patent medicines, are easier and more convenient for patients to take. The industry extraction standard is 5:1, meaning for every five pounds of raw materials, one pound of herbal extract is derived.[20]

Categorization
There are several different methods to classify traditional Chinese medicinals: The Four Natures (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: sq) The Five Flavors (Chinese: ; pinyin: wwi) The meridians (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: jnglu) The specific function.

Four Natures
The Four Natures are: hot, warm, cool, or cold (or, neutral in terms of temperature).[21] Hot and warm herbs are used to treat cold diseases, while cool and cold herbs are used to treat heat diseases.[21]

Five Flavors
The Five Flavors, sometimes also translated as Five Tastes, are: acrid/pungent, sweet, bitter, sour, and salty.[21] Substances may also have more than one flavor, or none (i.e., a "bland" flavor).[21] Each of the Five Flavors corresponds to one of the zng organs, which in turn corresponds to one of the Five Phases:[22] A flavor implies certain properties and therapeutic actions of a substance: saltiness "drains downward and softens hard masses";[21] sweetness is "supplementing, harmonizing, and moistening";[21] pungent substances are thought to induce sweat and act on qi and blood; bitterness "drains heat, purges the bowels, and eliminates dampness".

Meridians
This classification refers not just to the meridian, but also to the meridian-associated zng-organ, which can be expected to be primarily affected by a given medicinal (there are 12 standard meridians in the body a medicinal can act upon). For example, traditional beliefs hold that menthol is pungent and cool and goes to the Lung and the Liver channels. The Traditional Chinese concept of the Lungs includes the function of protecting the body from colds, and menthol is thought to cool the Lungs and purge heat toxins caused by wind-heat invasion (one of the patterns of common cold).

Specific function
These categories mainly include: exterior-releasing[23] or exterior-resolving[24] heat-clearing[23][24] downward-draining[23] or precipitating[24] wind-damp-dispelling[23][24] dampness-transforming[23][24] promoting the movement of water and percolating dampness[23] or dampness-percolating[24] interior-warming[23][24] qi-regulating[23] or qi-rectifying[24]

dispersing food accumulation[23] or food-dispersing[24] worm-expelling[23][24] stopping bleeding[23] or blood-stanching[24]

Chinese herbology quickening the Blood and dispelling stasis[23] or blood-quickening[24] or Blood-moving.[25] transforming phlegm, stopping coughing and calming wheezing[23] or phlegm-transforming and cough- and panting-suppressing[24] Spirit-quieting[23][24] or Shen-calming.[25] calming the Liver and expelling wind[23] or Liver-calming and wind-extinguishing[24] orifice-opening[23][24] supplementing[23][24] or tonifying:[25] this includes qi-supplementing, blood-nourishing, yin-enriching, and yang-fortifying.[24] astriction-promoting[23] or securing and astringing[24] vomiting-inducing[23] substances for external application[23][24]

16

Nomenclature
Many herbs earn their names from their unique physical appearance. Examples of such names include Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae seu Achyranthis), "cow's knees," which has big joints that might look like cow knees; Bai Mu Er (Fructificatio Tremellae Fuciformis), white wood ear,' which is white and resembles an ear; Gou Ji (Rhizoma Cibotii), 'dog spine,' which resembles the spine of a dog.[26]

Color
Color is not only a valuable means of identifying herbs, but in many cases also provides information about the therapeutic attributes of the herb. For example, yellow herbs are referred to as 'huang' (yellow) or 'jin' (gold). Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri) means 'yellow fir," and Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae) has the label 'golden silver flower."[27]

Smell and Taste


Unique flavors define specific names for some substances. "Gan" means 'sweet,' so Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) is 'sweet herb," an adequate description for the licorice root. "Ku" means bitter, thus Ku Shen (Sophorae Flavescentis) translates as 'bitter herb.'[28]

Geographic Location
The locations or provinces in which herbs are grown often figure into herb names. For example Bei Sha Shen (Radix Glehniae) is grown and harvested in northern China, whereas Nan Sha Shen (Radix Adenophorae) originated in southern China. And the Chinese words for north and south are respectively "bei" and "nan."[29] Chuan Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) and Chuan Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae) are both found in Sichuan province, as the character "chuan" indicates in their names.[30]

Chinese herbology

17

Function
Some herbs, like Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae), literally 'prevent wind," prevents or treats wind-related illnesses. Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci), literally 'restore the broken,' effectively treats torn soft tissues and broken bones.[31]

Country of Origin
Many herbs indigenous to other countries have been incorporated into the Chinese materia medica. Xi Yang Shen (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii), imported from North American crops, translates as 'western ginseng," while Dong Yang Shen (Radix Ginseng Japonica), grown in and imported from North Asian countries, is 'eastern ginseng.' Similar examples are noted in the text whenever geography matters in herb selection.[32]

Toxicity
From the earliest records regarding the use of medicinals to today, the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese materiae medicae.[33] The toxicity in some cases could be confirmed by modern research (i.e., in scorpion); in some cases it couldn't (i.e., in curculigo).[34] Substances known to be potentially dangerous include aconite,[34] secretions from the Asiatic toad,[35] powdered centipede,[36] the Chinese beetle (Mylabris phalerata, Ban mao),[37] and certain fungi.[38] Further, ingredients may have different names in different locales or in historical texts, and different preparations may have similar names for the same reason, which can create inconsistencies and confusion in the creation of medicinals,[39] with the possible danger of poisoning.[40][41][42]

Efficacy
Regarding Traditional Chinese herbal therapy, only few trials exist that are considered to be of adequate methodology by modern western medical researchers, and its effectiveness therefore is considered poorly documented.[43] For example, a 2007 Cochrane review found promising evidence for the use of Chinese herbal medicine in relieving painful menstruation, compared to conventional medicine such as NSAIDs and the oral contraceptive pill, but the findings have to be interpreted with caution due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies (as, amongst others, data for placebo control could not be obtained).[44]

Ecological impacts

Chinese herbology

18

The traditional practice of using (by now) endangered species is controversial within TCM. Modern Materia Medicas such as Bensky, Clavey and Stoger's comprehensive Chinese herbal text discuss substances derived from endangered species in an appendix, emphasizing alternatives.[45] Poachers supply the black market with such substances,[46][47] including tiger penis[11][48] and rhinoceros horn.[49] The black market in rhinoceros horn has reduced the world's rhino population by more than 90 percent over the past 40 years.[50] Concerns have also arisen over the use of turtle plastron[51] and seahorses.[52] TCM recognizes bear bile as a medicinal.[53] In 1988, the Chinese Ministry of Health started controlling bile production, which previously used bears killed Dried seahorses like these are before winter. Now bears are fitted with a sort of permanent catheter, which is extensively used in traditional more profitable than killing the bears.[54] More than 12,000 asiatic black bears medicine in China and elsewhere are held in "bear farms", where they suffer cruel conditions while being held in tiny cages.[53] The catheter leads through a permanent hole in the abdomen directly to the gall bladder, which can cause severe pain. Increased international attention has mostly stopped the use of bile outside of China; gallbladders from butchered cattle (ni dn / / ) are recommended as a substitute for this ingredient.

Herbs in use
There are over three hundred herbs that are commonly being used today. Some of the most commonly used herbs are Ginseng ( , , rnshn), wolfberry ( ), Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis, , , dnggu), astragalus ( , , hungq), atractylodes ( , , bizh), bupleurum ( , chih), cinnamon (cinnamon twigs ( , guzh) and cinnamon bark ( , rugu)), coptis ( , , hunglin), ginger (, , jing), hoelen ( , flng), licorice ( , gnco), ephedra sinica ( , , mhung), peony (white: , bisho and reddish: , chsho), rehmannia ( , , dhung), rhubarb ( , , dhung), and salvia ( , , dnshn).

Chinese herbology

19

Ginseng
The use of ginseng ( ) is well over two thousand years old in Chinese medicine. Ginseng contains ginsenosides. The amount of ginsenosides in ginseng depends on how the plant was cultivated and the age of the root. Wild ginseng is rare and commands the highest prices on the market. Red Panax ginseng is the most popular form of ginseng and it is usually packaged as a liquid or tea. Ginseng comes in two kinds, red and white. The color of the ginseng depends on how it is processed. White ginseng is unprocessed and dries naturally. Red ginseng is processed with steam and is believed to be more effective. Native Americans have used American ginseng for dry coughs, constipation, and fevers. TCM Information: Species: Panax ginseng. Pinyin: Ren Shen. Common Name: Chinese Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen, Heart. Actions: Tonifies yuan qi to treat collapse of qi, tonifies spleen and lung, generates fluids, mildly tonifies heart qi.[55][56][57] Species: Elutherococcus senticosus. Pinyin: Ci Wu Jia. Chinese red ginseng roots Common Name: Siberian Ginseng. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Slightly bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Heart, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies spleen and kidney, mildly tonifies heart qi, promote blood circulation, calms shen.[58][59] Species: Panax quinquefolius. Pinyin: Xi Yang Shen. Common Name: American Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Slightly bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Lung. Actions: Tonifies lung and spleen qi, tonifies lung yin, cools fire from lung yin deficiency, generates fluids.[60][61]

Chinese herbology

20

Mushrooms
Mushrooms have long been used as a medicinal food and as a tea in Chinese herbology. Clinical, animal, and cellular research has shown some mushrooms may be able to up-regulate aspects of the immune system.[62][63][64][65] Notable mushrooms used in Chinese herbology include Reishi and Shiitake.

Wolfberry
Wolfberry ( ) is grown in the Far East and is grown from shrubs with long vines. The shrubs are covered with small trumpet-shaped flowers, which turn into small, bright red berries. The berries are usually fresh and sometimes used when dried. TCM Information: Species: Lycium barbarum. Pinyin: Gou Qi Zi. Common Name: Chinese Wolfberry. Quality: Sweet, Neutral. Meridians: Liver, Lung, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies kidney and lung yin, tonifies liver blood, tonifies jing, improves vision.[66][67][68]

Dang Gui
Dang Gui ( , Angelica sinensis or "female ginseng") is an aromatic herb that grows in China, Korea, and Japan. TCM Information: Species: Angelica sinensis. Pinyin: Dang Gui. Common Name: Chinese Angelica Root. Quality: Sweet, Pungent(Acrid), Warm. Meridians: Liver, Heart, Spleen. Actions: Tonify blood, invigorate blood, regulate menstruation, relieve pain, unblock bowels by moistening intestine.[69][70][71]

Lycium barbarum, Wolfberry ( )

Astragalus
Astragalus ( ) is a root used for immune deficiencies and allergies. TCM Information: Species: Astragalus membranaceus. Pinyin: Huang Qi. Common Name: Astragalus Root, Milkvetch Root. Quality: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen. Actions: Raise yang qi to treat prolapse, tonify spleen and lung qi, tonify wei qi, increases urination, promotes drainage of pus, generates flesh.[72][73][74]

Atractylodes
Atractylodes ( ) is believed to be important in the treatment of digestive disorders and problems of moisture accumulation. TCM Information: Species: Atractylodes lancea. Pinyin: Cang Zhu. Common Name: Atractylodes Rhizome. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Strong to dry dampness, strengthens the spleen, induce sweating, expel wind-cold, clears damp-heat from lower jiao, improves vision.[75][76][77]

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21

Bupleurum
Bupleurum ( ) is believed to be useful for the treatment of liver diseases, skin ailments, arthritis, menopausal syndrome, withdrawal from corticosteroid use, nephritis, stress-induced ulcers, and mental disorders. TCM Information: Species: Bupleurnum chinense. Pinyin: Chai Hu. Common Name: Hare's Ear Root. Quality: Bitter, Pungent(Acrid), Cool. Meridians: Gallbladder, Liver, Pericardium, San Jiao. Actions: Treats alternating chills and fever, clears lesser yang disorders, relieves liver qi stagnation, raises yang qi to treat prolapse, treats certain menstrual disorders.[78][79][80]

Cinnamon
Cinnamon ( , ), mostly gui zhi and rou gui, are twigs and bark from large tropical trees. Studies show that cinnamon reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes, and the findings suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.[81][82][83][84][85][86][87] TCM Information: Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Gui Zhi. Common Name: Cinnamon Twig. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Warm. Meridians: Heart, Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating, warms and unblocks channels, unblocks yang qi of the chest, treats dysmenorrhea.[88][89][90] Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Rou Gui. Common Name: Cinnamon Bark. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Hot. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonifies kidney yang, leads fire back to its source, disperses cold, encourages generation of qi and blood, promotes blood circulation, alleviates pain due to cold, dysmenorrhea.[91][92][93]

Coptis chinensis
Coptis chinensis ( ) is a rhizome that is one of the bitterest herbs used in Chinese medicine. TCM Information: Species: Coptis chinensis. Pinyin: Huang Lian. Common Name: Coptis Rhizome. Qualities: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Clears heat and drains damp, drains fire(especially from heart and stomach), eliminates toxicity.[94][95][96]

Ginger
Ginger (, ) is a herb and a spice that is used in Chinese cuisine. There are four main kinds of preparations in Chinese herbology: fresh ginger, dried ginger, roasted ginger, and ginger charcoal, all made of the rhizomes. TCM Information: Species: Zingiber officinalis. Pinyin: Sheng Jiang ( , ). Common Name: Fresh Ginger Rhizome. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Slightly warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Release the exterior, expel cold, warm the middle jiao, relieve nausea, transform phlegm, warm lung to stop coughing, treat toxicity, and moderate the toxicity of other herbs.[97][98][99] Species: Zingiber officinalis. Pinyin: Gan Jiang ( , ).
Ginger is consumed in China as food and as medicine.

Chinese herbology Common Name: Dried Ginger Rhizome. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Hot. Meridians: Heart, Lung, Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Warms the spleen and stomach, restores devastated yang, warms the lung to transform thin mucus, warms and unblocks channels.[100][101]

22

Licorice
The use of the licorice plant ( ) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is thought to help treat hepatitis, sore throat, and muscle spasms. TCM Information: Species: Glycyrrhiza inflata or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Pinyin: Gan Cao. Common Name: Licorice Root. Quality: Sweet, Neutral. Meridians: All 12 channels, but mainly Heart, Lung, Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Tonify spleen qi, moisten lung for dry cough, clears heat and fire toxicity, tonifies heart qi to regulate pulse, alleviates spasmodic pain, antidote for toxicity, moderates the effects of harsh herbs.[102][103][104]

Ephedra
Ephedra ( ) TCM Information: Species: Ephedra sinica or Ephedra intermedia. Pinyin: Ma Huang. Common Name: Ephedra Stem. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Slightly Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating and release exterior for wind-cold invasion with no sweating, promotes urination, move lung qi for wheezing, cough or asthma.[105][106][107]

Peony
Peony ( , ) comes in two varieties: bai shao(white) and chi shao (red), the root of the plant is used in both varieties. TCM Information: Species: Paeonia lactiflora. Pinyin: Bai Shao. Common Name: White Peony Root. Quality: Bitter, Sour, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonify liver blood, calms liver yang, alleviates flank/abdominal pain from liver qi stagnation or liver and spleen disharmony, preserves yin and adjusts nutritive and protective levels, regulates menses for blood deficiency problem.[108][109][110] Species: Paeonia lactiflora or Paeonia veitchii. Pinyin: Chi Shao. Common Name: Red Peony Root. Quality: Sour, Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, invigorates blood and dispel stasis to treat irregular menses, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and fixed abdominal masses.[111][112]

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23

Rehmannia
Rehmannia ( ) is a root where the dark, moist part of the herb is used. TCM Information: Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Sheng Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root. Qualities: Sweet, Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, nourishes yin, generates fluids, treats wasting and thirsting disorder.[113][114] Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Shu Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root Prepared with Wine. Qualities: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Tonifies blood, tonifies liver and kidney yin, treats wasting and thirsting disorder, nourishes jing.[115][116][117]

Rhubarb
Rhubarb ( ) is a large root and was once one of the first herbs that was imported from China. TCM Information: Species: Rheum palmatum, Rheum ranguticum, or Rheum officinale. Pinyin: Da Huang. Common Name: Rhubarb Root and Rhizome. Quality: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Purge accumulation, cool blood, invigorate blood, drain damp-heat.[118][119][120]

Salvia
Salvia ( ) are the deep roots of the Chinese sage plant. TCM Information: Species: Salvia miltiorrhiza. Pinyin: Dan Shen. Common Name: Salvia Root. Qualities: Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Heart, Pericardium, Liver. Actions: Invigorate blood, tonify blood, regulate menstruation, clear heat and soothe irritability.[121][122][123]

50 Fundamental herbs

Chinese rhubarb depicted by Micha Boym (1655)

In Chinese herbology, there are 50 "fundamental" herbs, as given in the reference text,[124] although these herbs are not universally recognized as such in other texts. The herbs are:
Binomial nomenclature Chinese name English Common Name (when available) Korean Mint Chinese Alangium Root Chinese anemone

Agastache rugosa

[125] [127]

hu xing ()

[126] [128] [128][129]

Alangium chinense

b jio fng ()

Anemone chinensis (syn. Pulsatilla [129] chinensis) Anisodus tanguticus Ardisia japonica Aster tataricus Astragalus propinquus (syn. Astragalus [132] membranaceus) Camellia sinensis Cannabis sativa

bi tu weng ()

shn lng dng () z jn ni () z wn () hung q () [133] [131]

[130] Marlberry Tatar aster, Tartar aster

or bi q ()

[133]

Chinese astragalus

ch sh () or ch y () d m ()

Tea Plant Cannabis

Chinese herbology

24
hng hu () ru gi () x shng tng () or () dun hung lin () yn h su () b du () yun hu () yng jn hu () [134] z hu mn tu lu () sh h () or sh h ln () chng shn () Safflower Cassia, Chinese Cinnamon Velvet leaf Chinese Goldthread Fumewort Purging Croton Lilac Dahpne Devil's Trumpet Jimson Weed Noble Dendrobium Blue Evergreen Hydrangea, Chinese Quinine Chinese ephedra Hardy rubber tree Peking spurge [137]

Carthamus tinctorius Cinnamomum cassia Cissampelos pareira Coptis chinensis Corydalis ambigua Croton tiglium Daphne genkwa Datura metel Datura stramonium (syn. Datura tatula) Dendrobium nobile Dichroa febrifuga Ephedra sinica Eucommia ulmoides Euphorbia pekinensis [136] [135]

co m hung () d zhng () d j () y y qi () [138]

Flueggea suffruticosa (formerly Securinega suffruticosa) Forsythia suspensa Gentiana loureiroi Gleditsia sinensis Glycyrrhiza uralensis Hydnocarpus anthelminticus (syn. H. anthelminthica) Ilex purpurea Leonurus japonicus Ligusticum wallichii Lobelia chinensis Phellodendron amurense Platycladus orientalis (formerly Thuja orientalis) Pseudolarix amabilis Psilopeganum sinense Pueraria lobata Rauwolfia serpentina [140]

linqio

()

Weeping Forsythia

d dng () zo ji () gn co () [139] Chinese Honeylocust Licorice Chaulmoogra tree

d fng z ()

dngqng () y m co () chun xing () bn bin lin () hung bi () cbi ()

Purple Holly Chinese motherwort Szechuan lovage Creeping Lobelia Amur cork tree Chinese Arborvitae

jn qin sng () shn m hung () g gn () shgnm (), cng shgnm () or ynd sh m () dhung () or gn dhung () yo yng d hung () Qng hi d jun () yn m xing () w wi zi () [141]

Golden Larch Naked rue Kudzu Sarpagandha, Indian Snakeroot

Rehmannia glutinosa Rheum officinale Rhododendron tsinghaiense Saussurea costus Schisandra chinensis

Chinese Foxglove Chinese or Eastern rhubarb

Costus Chinese Magnolia Vine

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25
hung qn () bi b () fng j () hui (), hui sh (), or hui hu () Stephania Root Pagoda Tree Baikal Skullcap

Scutellaria baicalensis Stemona tuberosa Stephania tetrandra Styphnolobium japonicum (formerly Sophora japonica) Trichosanthes kirilowii Wikstroemia indica

gu lu () lio g wng ()

Chinese Cucumber Indian stringbush

Other Chinese herbs


In addition to the above, many other Chinese herbs and other substances are in common use, and these include: Akebia quinata ( ) Arisaema cum bile[142] ( ) Arsenic trioxide ( ) Arsenolite ( ) Aspongopus ( ) Asteriscus pseudosciaenae ( ) Benzoinum ( ) Bombyx batryticatus ( ) Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae ( ) Bulbus fritillariae hupehensis ( ) Bulbus fritillariae pallidiflorae ( ) Bulbus fritillariae thunbergii ( ) Bulbus fritillariae ussuriensis ( ) Bulbus lycoridis radiatae ( ) Cacumen securinegae suffruticosae ( ) Cacumen tamaricis ( ) Calamina ( ) Calculus bovis ( ) Calculus equi ( ) Calomelas ( ) Calyx seu fructus physalis ( ) Caulis ampelopsis brevipedunculae ( ) Caulis aristolochiae manshuriensis ( ) Caulis bambusae in taeniam ( ) Caulis clematidis armandii ( ) Caulis entadae ( ) Caulis erycibes ( ) Caulis et folium piperis hancei ( ) Caulis et folium schefflerae arboricolae ( ) Caulis euphorbiae antiquori ( ) Caulis fibraureae ( ) Caulis gneti ( ) Caulis hederae sinensis ( ) Caulis impatientis ( ) Caulis lonicerae ( )

Chinese herbology Caulis mahoniae ( ) Caulis perillae ( ) Caulis piperis kadsurae ( ) Caulis polygoni multiflori ( ) Caulis sargentodoxae ( ) Caulis sinomenii ( ) Caulis spatholobi ( ) Caulis tinosporae ( ) Caulis trachelospermi ( ) Cera chinensis ( ) Chenpi (Sun-Dried tangerine (Mandarin) peel) ( ) Cinnabaris ( ) Clematis ( ) Colla corii asini ( ) Concha arcae ( ) Concha haliotidis ( ) Concha margaritifera usta ( ) Concha mauritiae arabicae ( ) Concha meretricis seu cyclinae ( ) Concretio silicea bambusae ( ) Cordyceps sinensis ( ) Corium erinacei seu hemiechianus ( ) Cornu bubali ( ) Cornu cervi ( ) Cornu cervi degelatinatum ( ) Cornu cervi pantotrichum ( ) Cornu saigae tataricae ( ) Cortex acanthopanacis ( ) Cortex ailanthi ( ) Cortex albiziae ( ) Cortex cinchonae ( ) Cortex dictamni ( ) Curcuma ( ) Dalbergia odorifera ( ) Hirudo medicinalis ( ) Myrrh ( ) Olibanum ( ) Persicaria ( ) Polygonum ( ) Sparganium ( ) Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria) ( )

26

Chinese herbology

27

References
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[128] "Alangium chinense in Flora of China @ efloras.org" (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200014707). . Retrieved 2008-02-14. [129] "Anemone chinensis information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?404160). USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [130] "Anisodus tanguticus in Flora of China @efloras.org" (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200020508). . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [131] Flora of China: Ardisia japonica (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200016777) [132] "Astragalus propinquus" (http:/ / www. ildis. org/ LegumeWeb?version~10. 01& LegumeWeb& tno~16104). ILDIS LegumeWeb. International Legume Database & Information Service. 2005-11-01. . Retrieved 2008. [133] "Huang qi, Complementary and Alternative Healing University" (http:/ / alternativehealing. org/ huang_qi. htm). . Retrieved 2008-02-19. 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Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Securinega+ suffruticosa) on January 17, 2009. . Retrieved 2008-02-06. [138] Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. Commercial Press, fifth Edition, p. 844. [139] "Glycyrrhiza uralensis - Plants For A Future database report" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090115192919/ http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Glycyrrhiza+ uralensis). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Glycyrrhiza+ uralensis) on January 15, 2009. . Retrieved 2008-02-08. [140] "Ligusticum wallichii | Plants For A Future database report" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080303144528/ http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Ligusticum+ wallichii). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Ligusticum+ wallichii) on March 3, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-02-21. [141] Rehmannia glutinosa (http:/ / www. ibiblio. org/ pfaf/ cgi-bin/ arr_html?Rehmannia+ glutinosa)

30

Chinese herbology
[142] Cap 549 Sched 2 CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES (CHINESE MEDICINE ORDINANCE) (http:/ / www. legislation. gov. hk/ blis_ind. nsf/ d2769881999f47b3482564840019d2f9/ 75693bae1ea33cd3482567fa00292a6a?OpenDocument)

31

John K. Chen and Tina T. Chen (2004): "Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology" (http://aompress.com/ book_herbology/index.html). ISBN 0-9740635-0-9 John K. Chen and Tina T. Chen (2009): "Pocket Atlas of Chinese Medicine" (http://aompress.com/ book_formulas/index.html). ISBN 978-0-9740635-7-7 Ergil, M. et al. (2009): "Pocket Atlas of Chinese Medicine" (http://books.google.com.hk/ books?id=kdZ1rFKW-LEC&pg=PA146&dq=tcm+pattern+diagnosis&hl=zh-CN#v=onepage&q=tcm pattern diagnosis&f=false) Thieme. ISBN 978-3-13-141611-7 Foster, S. & Yue, C. (1992): "Herbal emissaries: bringing Chinese herbs to the West" (http://books.google.com. hk/books?id=y78zzxTN570C&printsec=frontcover&dq=herbal+emissaries&hl=zh-CN#v=onepage&q& f=false). Healing Arts Press. ISBN 978-0-89281-349-0 Kiessler, Malte (2005): "Traditionelle Chinesische Innere Medizin" (http://books.google.de/ books?id=Mmm-ZlIHrjwC&pg=PA14&dq=tcim+kiessler&hl=de&sa=X&ei=9iGtT9DqHfGYiAfG87GzCQ& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false). Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag. ISBN 978-3-437-57220-3 Goldschmidt, Asaf (2009). The Evolution of Chinese Medicine: Song Dynasty, 960-1200. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-42655-8 Sivin, Nathan (1987). Traditional Medicine in Contemporary China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan. ISBN978-0-89264-074-4 Unschuld, Paul U. (1985). Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN978-0-520-05023-5 Xu, L. & Wang, W. (2002) "Chinese materia medica: combinations and applications" (http://books.google.com. hk/books?id=36dhuXGm3OgC&pg=PA1&dq=traditional+chinese+medicine+herb&hl=zh-CN#v=onepage& q=traditional chinese medicine herb&f=false) Donica Publishing Ltd. 1st edition. ISBN 978-1-901149-02-9

External links
A free encyclopedia of chinese herbs (alternativehealing.org) (http://alternativehealing.org/ chinese_herbs_dictionary.htm) How Clean and Pure are Chinese Herbs? (http://www.drshen.com/herbprocess.html)

Codonopsis pilosula

32

Codonopsis pilosula
Codonopsis

Codonopsis pilosula

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Asterales Campanulaceae Codonopsis C. pilosula Binomial name Codonopsis pilosula Franch. Codonopsis pilosula (Chinese: ; pinyin: dngshn), also known as dang shen or poor man's ginseng, is a perennial species of flowering plant native to Northeast Asia and Korea and usually found growing around streambanks and forest openings under the shade of trees.

Codonopsis pilosula

33

Growth
The plant is shrubby and dense and has a tendency to climb, producing heart shaped leaves, light green five pointed bell shaped flowers with prominent yellow or light purple veins. The plant can grow up to 8-10 feet in height with roots 1-3cm thick.

Traditional uses
The roots of C. pilosula (radix) are used in traditional Chinese medicine. The roots are harvested from the plant during the third or fourth year of growth and dried prior to sale.

Codonopsis pilosula leaves

The root is also used as a gentler and more economical substitute for Panax ginseng.

Varieties
Codonopsis pilosula var. handeliana - (Chinese: ) Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta - (Chinese: ) Codonopsis pilosula var. volubilis - (Chinese: )

Dried Codonopsis pilosula root

References
1. Wang ZT, Ng TB, Yeung HW, Xu GJ (December 1996). "Immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide-enriched preparation of Codonopsis pilosula roots". Gen. Pharmacol. 27 (8): 134750. PMID9304404.

Further reading
1. Winston, David & Maimes, Steven. Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press, 2007. Contains a monograph on Codonopsis pilosula (Dang shen)and health benefits.

External links
C. pilusula photo [1]

Codonopsis pilosula

34

References
[1] http:/ / img. china. alibaba. com/ img/ offer/ 32/ 53/ 24/ 18/ 32532418

Devil's Club
Devil's club

Flower and bumblebees

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Subfamily: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Aralioideae Oplopanax O. horridus Binomial name Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. Devil's Club (Oplopanax horridus, Araliaceae; syn. Echinopanax horridus, Fatsia horrida) is a large shrub primarily native to the cool moist forests of western North America, but also disjunct on islands in Lake Superior. It is noted for its large palmate leaves and erect, woody stems covered in brittle spines. Also known as Devil's Walking Stick, the species was once included in the closely related genus Fatsia as Fatsia horrida.[1] Devil's Club generally grows to 1 to 1.5 metres (3ft unknown operator: u'strong'in to 4ft unknown operator: u'strong'in) tall; however, instances exist of it reaching in excess of 5 metres (unknown operator: u'strong'ft) in rainforest gullies. The spines are found along the upper and lower surfaces of veins of its leaves as well as the stems. The leaves are spirally arranged on the stems, simple, palmately lobed with 5-13 lobes, 20 to 40 centimetres

Devil's Club (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' in) across. The flowers are produced in dense umbels 10 to 20 centimetres (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' in) diameter, each flower small, with five greenish-white petals. The fruit is a small red drupe 4 to 7 millimetres (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' in) diameter.[1] The plant is covered with brittle yellow spines that break off easily if the plants are handled or disturbed, and the entire plant has been described as having a "primordial" appearance. Devil's Club is very sensitive to human impact and does not reproduce quickly. The plants are slow growing and take many years to reach seed bearing maturity, and predominately exist in dense, moist, old growth conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest.[1]

35

Habitat
This species usually grows in moist, dense forest habitats, and is most abundant in old growth conifer forests. It is found from Southcentral Alaska to western Oregon and eastward to western Alberta and Montana. Disjunct native populations also occur over 1500 kilometres (unknown operator: u'strong'mi) away in Lake Superior on Isle Royale and Passage Island, Michigan and Porphyry Island and Slate Island, Ontario.[2]

Shiny red drupes in elongate clusters (Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest).

Propagation
Devil's club reproduces by forming clonal colonies through a layering process. What can appear to be several different plants may actually have all been one plant originally, with the clones detaching themselves after becoming established by laying down roots.[3]

Uses
Native Americans used the plant both as food and medicine. The plant was traditionally used by Native Americans to treat adult-onset diabetes and a variety of tumors. Traditionally, it was and is still used to make paints. In vitro studies showed that extracts of Devil's Club inhibit tuberculosis microbes.[4] Because Devil's club is related to American Ginseng, some think that the plant is an adaptogen . The plant has been harvested for this purpose and marketed widely as "Alaskan ginseng",[5] which may damage populations of Devil's Club and its habitat. The genus Panax ('true' ginseng) is exceptional among Araliaceae both morphologically and chemically. Other, even closely related plants with proven adaptogen effects, such as Eleutherococcus senticosus the "siberian ginseng", are chemically dissimilar to Panax ginseng.[6]

Spines of O. horridus, Squak Mountain State Park, Issaquah, Washington

Devil's Club

36

Notes
[1] Pojar, Jim; Andy MacKinnon (1994). Plants of Coastal British Columbia. BC Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing. pp.82. ISBN=1-55105-042-0. [2] http:/ / www. fs. fed. us/ database/ feis/ plants/ shrub/ oplhor/ all. html [3] Trevor C. Lantz and Joseph A. Antos (2002). "Clonal expansion in the deciduous understory shrub, devil's club" (http:/ / article. pubs. nrc-cnrc. gc. ca/ RPAS/ rpv?hm=HInit& afpf=b02-095. pdf& journal=cjb& volume=80). Can. J. Bot. 80 (10): 10521062. doi:10.1139/b02-095. . [4] Inui T, Wang Y, Deng S, Smith DC, Franzblau SG, Pauli GF (Jun 1). "Counter-current chromatography based analysis of synergy in an anti-tuberculosis ethnobotanical". Journal of Chromatography A 1151 (12): 2115. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.01.127. PMC2533621. PMID17316661. [5] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?q=alaskan+ ginseng& ie=UTF-8& oe=UTF-8 [6] Davydov M, Krikorian AD (2000). "Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look". J Ethnopharmacol. 72 (3): 34593. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00181-1. PMID10996277.

Large leaves extend from the top of spiny stems

External links
Michigan Natural Features Inventory -- Oplopanax horridus (http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/data/rareplants. cfm?el=13372) USDA plants profile: Oplopanax horridus (http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=OPHO) Edibility of Devil's Club (http://www.northernbushcraft.com/plants/devilsClub/notes.htm): Visual identification and edible parts of Devil's Club.

Double steaming
Double steaming, sometimes also dubbed double boiling, is a Chinese cooking techniques to prepare delicate food such as bird nests, shark fins, etc. The food is covered with water and put in a covered ceramic jar and the jar is then steamed for several hours. This technique ensures there is no loss of liquid or moisture (its essences) from the food being cooked, hence it is often used with expensive ingredients like Chinese herbal medicines. In Cantonese, double steaming is called dan (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dn). Note that the Cantonese usage of Shark fin soup this Chinese character deviates from its original meaning which is simmer or stew in Mandarin. This technique is also common in the neighboring province of Fujian.

Famous examples
Cantonese cuisine is famous for its slow cooked soup. One famous dish of this kind is called the Winter melon urn ( ). It is prepared by emptying the inside of a winter melon to make an urn. The outside of the winter melon is often carved with artistic patterns. The inside is then filled with soup ingredients such as Chinese cured ham, and several Chinese herbs. The whole urn completed with its original melon lid is double steamed for at least four hours. The flavor of the soup is soaked into the "flesh" of the melon. The whole melon and its content is brought to the dinner table. The soup is served by scooping out the liquid and the inside wall of the melon. In this case, the edible melon takes the place of the double steaming jar. This application is possible because winter melon has a waxy, and

Double steaming thus waterproof, rind. Winter melon is believed to be nourishing and it is seldom cooked with ingredients that are believed to be too yin or too yang. There is another dessert dish called double steamed frog ovaries in a coconut ( ), which is recommended for women. The Chinese medicinal ingredients (including hasma), spices, and rock sugar are placed inside a young coconut to soak in the original coconut juice. The filled coconut is then double steamed for several hours. The whole coconut is served whole at the table after dinner. The contents and the inside wall of the coconut are scooped out to be consumed.

37

Eleutherococcus senticosus

38

Eleutherococcus senticosus
Eleutherococcus senticosus

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Eleutherococcus E. senticosus Binomial name Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim.[1] Synonyms

Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms[1] Hedera senticosa Rupr. & Maxim.[1]

Eleutherococcus senticosus (formerly Acanthopanax senticosus) is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia. It is often colloquially referred to as Siberian Ginseng, eleuthero or Ciwujia, and is sometimes shortened to E. senticosus in medical literature. E. senticosus has been studied as an adaptogen, and has a history of use in Chinese medicine, where it is known as c w ji ( ).[1] The herb grows in mixed and coniferous mountain forests, forming low undergrowth or is found in groups in thickets and edges. E. senticosus is sometimes found in oak groves at the foot of cliffs, very rarely in high forest riparian woodland. Its native habitat is East Asia, China, Japan, and Russia. E. senticosus is broadly tolerant of soils, growing in sandy, loamy, and heavy clay soils with acid, neutral, or alkaline chemistry and including soils of low nutritional value. It can tolerate sun or dappled shade and some degree of pollution. E. senticosus is a deciduous shrub growing to 2m at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It flowers in July in most habitats. The flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by insects.[2]

Eleutherococcus senticosus E. senticosus is a new addition to Western natural medicine, but has quickly gained a reputation similar to that of the better known Chinese Ginseng. Though the chemical make-up of the two herbs differs, their effects seem to be similar. The herb is an adaptogen, is anticholesteremic, is mildly anti-inflammatory, is antioxidant, is a nervine, and is an immune tonic. It is useful when the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is depleted. Symptoms of this condition include fatigue, stress, neurasthenia, and sore muscles associated with the hypofunctioning of the endocrine system, and adrenal exhaustion indicated by a quivering tongue, dark circles under the eyes, and dilating/contracting pupils. Eleuthero may alleviate these symptoms.[3]

39

Synonyms
E. senticosus was previously marketed in the United States as Siberian Ginseng because it has similar herbal properties to those of Panax ginseng. However, it belongs to a different genus in the family Araliaceae, and it is currently illegal in the United States to market eleuthero as Siberian Ginseng, since the term "ginseng" is reserved for the Panax species.[3]

Ethnomedical use
E. senticosus is an adaptogen that has a wide range of health benefits attributed to its use.[4] Currently, most of the research to support the medicinal use of E. senticosus is in Russian or Korean. E. senticosus contains eleutherosides, triterpenoid saponins that are lipophilic and that can fit into hormone receptors. Extracts of E. senticosus have been shown to have a variety of biological effects in vitro or in animal models: increased endurance/anti-fatigue [5] memory/learning improvement[6] anti-inflammatory [7] immunogenic[8] In Chinese herbology, Eleutherococcus senticosis is used to treat bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy or radiation, angina, hypercholesterolemia, and neurasthenia with headache, insomnia, and poor appetite.[9][10][11] Eleutherococcus senticosus has been shown to have significant antidepressant-like effects in rats.[12][13] Eleutherococcus senticosus is also gaining popularity in use for easing withdrawal from certain types of addictions (physical and/or psychological dependence on psychoactive substances i.e. Marijuana)

Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves

Eleutherococcus senticosus

40

Chemical constituents
The major constituents of E. senticosus are ciwujianoside A-E, eleutheroside B (syringin), eleutherosides A-M, friedelin, and isofraxidin.[3]

Interactions and side effects


People with medicated high blood pressure should consult their doctor before taking E. senticosus because it may reduce their need for medication. E. senticosus will enhance the effectiveness of mycin class antibiotics. E. senticosus, when purchased from non-GMP sources, has occasionally been adulterated with Periploca graeca, which can potentiate digoxin or similar drugs; however, this is not an interaction of E. senticosus.[3]

References
[1] "Eleutherococcus senticosus information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?15004). www.ars-grin.gov. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [2] "Eleutherococcus senticosus" (http:/ / www. ibiblio. org/ pfaf/ cgi-bin/ arr_html?Eleutherococcus+ senticosus#WEBREFS). www.ibiblio.org. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [3] Winston, David & Maimes, Steven. Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press, 2007. [4] Huang L, Zhao H, Huang B, Zheng C, Peng W, Qin L.,"Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology." Pharmazie. 2011 Feb;66(2):83-97 [5] Huang L.-Z., Huang B.-K., Ye Q., Qin L.-P. "Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus" Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011 133:1 (213-219) [6] Xu Y.J., Han C.J., Xu S.J., Yu X., Jiang G.Z., Nan C.H. "Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue" Neural Regeneration Research 2008 3:2 (192-195) [7] Jung S.M., Schumacher H.R., Kim H., Kim M., Lee S.H., Pessler F. "Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: Elevation of prostaglandin D2levels" Arthritis Research and Therapy 2007 9:4 Article Number R64 [8] Chen R., Liu Z., Zhao J., Chen R., Meng F., Zhang M., Ge W. "Antioxidant and immunobiological activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fractions purified from Acanthopanax senticosu" Food Chemistry 2011 127:2 (434-440) [9] Halstead B, Hood L (1984). Eleutherococcus senticosisSiberian Ginseng, OHAI. p.7. [10] Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, Art of Medicine Press, City of Industry, CA 2004 [11] [David Winston. Native American, Chinese, and Ayurvedic Materia Medica, HTSBM, pp. 1-1 [12] Kurkin VA, Dubishchev AV, Ezhkov VN, Titova IN, Avdeeva EV (2006). "Antidepressant activity of some phytopharmaceuticals and phenylpropanoids" (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ t6512435001n1418/ ). Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal 40 (11): 6149. doi:10.1007/s11094-006-0205-5. . [13] Deyama T, Nishibe S, Nakazawa Y (December 2001). "Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (12): 105770. PMID11749801.

Brunner, R., Tabachnik, B. (1990). Soviet Training and Recovery Methods, pp.21721. Sport Focus Publishing. Bohn B, Nebe CT, Birr C (1987). "Flow Cytometric Studies with Eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an Immunomodulating Agent". Drug Res 37 (10): 11936. Winston, David & Maimes, Steven. ADAPTOGENS: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press, 2007. Contains Russian research on E. senticosus and a monograph on the herb.

Eleutherococcus senticosus

41

External links
Eleutherococcus senticosus Photos (PlantSystematics.org) (http://www.plantsystematics.org/cgi-bin/dol/ dol_terminal.pl?taxon_name=Eleutherococcus_senticosus) Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 2: Radix Eleutherococci (World Health Organization) (http:/ /apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js4927e/10.html) Siberian ginseng article (http://www.wholehealthmd.com/ME2/dirmod. asp?sid=17E09E7CFFF640448FFB0B4FC1B7FEF0&nm=Reference+Library&type=AWHN_Supplements& mod=Supplements&mid=&id=0DC8ED69766246FB915CCDE7DD755848&tier=2) Eleuthero article (http://www.allnatural.net/herbpages/eleuthero.shtml) Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS (May 2003). "Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers" (http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/ content/31/5/519.full). Drug Metab. Dispos. 31 (5): 51922. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.5.519. PMID12695337. University of Maryland Alternative Medicine Reference (http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsHerbs/ GinsengSiberianch.html) Kimura Y, Sumiyoshi M (December 2004). "Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice" (http://linkinghub. elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(04)00423-4). J Ethnopharmacol 95 (23): 44753. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.027. PMID15507373. Jung SM, Schumacher HR, Kim H, Kim M, Lee SH, Pessler F (2007). "Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels" (http://arthritis-research.com/content/9/4/R64). Arthritis Res. Ther. 9 (4): R64. doi:10.1186/ar2222. PMC2206389. PMID17612394.

Ginseng
Ginseng

Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae

Ginseng

42 Subfamily: Genus: Aralioideae Panax L. Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius

Ginseng (generic term)


Chinese name Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese

or

Transcriptions Hakka - Romanization ngin11 sem24 Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin rn shn - Bopomofo Min - Hokkien POJ jn-sim; ln-sim Wu - Romanization zen sen Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping jan4sam1
Vietnamese name Quc ng Nhn Sm

Ginseng

43
Korean name Hangul Hanja

Transcriptions - Revised in-sam Romanization - McCuneReischauer in sam

Japanese name Kanji Kana

Transcriptions - Romanization chsen ninjin

Ginseng species
Chinese name Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese

Transcriptions Hakka - Romanization ngin11 sem24 sug5 Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin rn sn sh - Bopomofo Min - Hokkien POJ jn-sim-siok Wu - Romanization zen sen tsoh Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping jan4sam1suk6
Korean name Hangul Hanja

Ginseng

44

Transcriptions - Revised in-sam-sok Romanization - McCuneReischauer in sam sok

Japanese name Kanji

Transcriptions - Romanization tochibaninjin zoku

Ginseng (pronounced /dns/[1]) is any one of eleven species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae. Ginseng is found only in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly Korea, northern China (Manchuria), and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng known. This article focuses on the Series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is in the same family, but not genus, as true Ginseng. Like Ginseng, it is considered to be an adaptogenic herb. The active compounds in Siberian Ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. Instead of a fleshy root, Siberian Ginseng has a woody root, (see below).

Ginseng field in Wisconsin

Etymology
The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rnshn (simplified: ; traditional: ). Rn means "man" and shn means a kind of herb; this refers to the root's characteristic forked shape, which resembles the legs of a man.[2] The English pronunciation derives from a southern Chinese reading, similar to Cantonese yun sum (Jyutping: jan4sam1) and the Hokkien pronunciation "jn-sim".

Ginseng hand cream from North Korea

The botanical/genus name Panax means "all-heal" in Greek, sharing the same origin as "panacea", and was applied to this genus because Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine as a muscle relaxant. Besides Panax ginseng, there are many other plants which are also known as or mistaken for the ginseng root. The most commonly known examples are Xiyangshen, also known as American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Japanese ginseng (Panax japonicus), crown prince ginseng (Pseudostellaria heterophylla), and Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Although all have the name ginseng, each plant has distinctively different functions. However, true ginseng plants belong to the Panax genus.[3]

Ginseng

45

Traditional uses
Both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots are taken orally as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants, and in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root, it is most often available in dried form. This ingredient may also be found in some energy drinks, often the "tea" varieties; in these products, ginseng is usually present in subclinical doses and does not have measurable medicinal effects.[4] It can be found in cosmetic preparations as well, but has not been shown to have clinically effective results.

Modern science and ginseng


Ginsenosides are the active compounds that distinguish the Panax species, and the beneficial ginsenosides are contained in the fleshy portions of the plant. There are many manufacturers of ginseng products who, knowingly or unknowingly, actually use counterfeit products or ginseng leaves instead of roots. Herbal companies who follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regularly test for the quality, potency, and species authentication of herbs using cross-sectional microscopic examination, thin layer chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). One study found HPLC is especially useful in the differentiation and authentication of Panax ginseng from Panax quinquefolius due to the unambiguous distinction of slightly varying isotypes of ginsenoside compounds.[5] Ginseng is noted for being an adaptogen, one which can, to a certain extent, be supported with reference to its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties.[6] Some studies have found no adaptogen responses in animal studies (Survival test on mice swimming).[7] Many studies have been done with varying results using only ginseng extracts. However, when ginseng is used in combination with other traditional Chinese herbs, the synergistic effects had many more definitive and positive results. For example, Si Jun Zi Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, the main ingredient of which is ginseng, has been shown in multiple studies to have radioprotective effects, preventing a decrease in the hematocrit during radiotherapy.[8][9] In research, it has been difficult to either verify or quantify the exact medicinal benefits of ginseng using science, as there are contradictory results from different studies, possibly due to the wide variety and quality of ginseng used in the tests. High-quality studies of the effects of ginseng in the United States are rare.[10] However, many high-quality, double blind, randomized controlled trials have been done in Asian countries, such as China, South Korea and Japan. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), similar to Panax ginseng in that they both contain the active component ginsenoside, is distinguished in traditional Chinese medicine theory by having a cold property while the property of ginseng is warm. Japanese ginseng, though the same species as ginseng, is thought to have cooling properties similar to American ginseng due to the difference in cultivation environment. (cite M5050) American ginseng has been shown in various studies to have a beneficial effect for diabetes in the regulation of blood sugar levels.[11] A comparative, randomized and double-blind study at the National Autonomous University of Mexico indicated it may be "a promising dietary supplement" when assessed for an increase in quality of life.[12] A randomized, double-blind study showed that an extract of American ginseng reduced influenza cases in the elderly when compared to placebo.[10] A recent study at the University of Hong Kong has identified ginseng to have anti-inflammatory effects. The study found of the nine ginsenosides they identified, seven could selectively inhibit expression of the inflammatory gene CXCL-10. P. ginseng appear to inhibit some characteristics associated with cancer in animal models; nevertheless, this effect is unclear in humans.[13] A randomized, double-blind pilot study noted Ginseng appeared to reduce fatigue in cancer

Ginseng patients.[14] There are references in literature, including authoritative compendia, that show interactions with ginseng. Herbalist Jonathan Treasure of the British National Institute of Medical Herbalists traces the growth of misinformation on an alleged adverse herb-drug interaction between the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer). This originally was mentioned in a 1985 editorial by Shader and Greenblatt in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Shader and Greenblatt devoted a couple of lines to the case of a 64-year-old woman who took an undisclosed dose for an undisclosed time of a dietary supplement product called "Natrol High" while concurrently taking phenelzine 60mg qd. She experienced symptoms of "insomnia, headache, and tremulousness". Treasure contacted Natrol by e-mail and discovered within ten minutes that there was no P. ginseng in the formula, but instead Eleutherococcus senticosus which was then called by the popular name "Siberian ginseng", and it was given in a subclinical dosage mixed with a variety of other herbs. The purported interaction effects are well-known side effects of phenelzine alone, which had been given in a high dosage and are not at all suggestive of Eleutherococcus. However, this misinformed article with a misidentified herb has been picked up in literature searches and megastudies, and is now documented by conventional medical authorities, such as Stockley's, and is repeated in several botanical monographs, e.g. World Health Organization (WHO 1999).[15][16][17]

46

Ginseng and reproductive activity


A 2002 study by the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) found that in laboratory animals, both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance libido and copulatory performance. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng or its ginsenoside components on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues.[18][19] In males, ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection.[20] This is consistent with traditional Chinese medicine and Korean medicine medicinal uses of ginseng. Ginseng is known to contain phytoestrogens.[21][22][23] In some studies, ginseng has been demonstrated to have a stimulating effect on the pituitary gland to increase the secretion of gonadotropins. Another study found that in young mice, it speeds up the development of reproductive organs, while in adult male mice, it stimulates the production of sperm, and lengthens the estrus period in female mice.[3]

Side effects
According to a Sports Nutrition FAQ published by UMass Amherst, one of P. ginseng's most common side effects is the inability to sleep.[24] However, other sources state ginseng causes no sleep difficulties.[25] Other side effects can include nausea, diarrhea, headaches, nose bleeds,[26] high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and breast pain.[27] Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants.[28] Ginseng has been shown to have adverse drug reactions with phenelzine, alcohol, and warfarin.[29]

Overdose
The common adaptogen ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts. One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of acute overdose of Panax ginseng is bleeding. Symptoms of mild overdose with Panax ginseng may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, increased sexual desire, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue.[3] Symptoms of gross overdose with Panax ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic (blue) facial complexion, red facial complexion, seizures, convulsions, and delirium.[3]

Ginseng Patients experiencing any of the above symptoms are advised to discontinue the herbs and seek any necessary symptomatic treatment.[3]

47

Common classification
P.quinquefolius American ginseng (root)
According to traditional Chinese medicine, American ginseng promotes yin energy, cleans excess yang and calms the body. The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while Asian ginseng promotes yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is because, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in yang and vice versa, so that the two are balanced. Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in Manchuria and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in ancient times. Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very yang.

Ginseng roots in a market in Seoul, 2003

Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed American ginseng must be good for yin, because it came from a hot area. They did not know, however, that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions. Nonetheless, the root is legitimately classified as more yin because it generates fluids.[30] The two main components of ginseng are claimed to be in different proportions in the Asian and American varieties, and are speculated to be the cause of the excitatory versus tonic natures.[31] The ginseng is traditionally hewn and a few slices are simmered in hot water to make a decoction. Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia and the American state of Wisconsin, according to Agri-food Canada [32]. P. quinquefolius is now also grown in northern China. The aromatic root resembles a small parsnip that forks as it matures. The plant grows 6 to 18inches tall, usually bearing three leaves, each with three to five leaflets two to fiveinches long.

Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root)


Panax ginseng is available in four forms: 1. The form called fresh ginseng is the raw product. 2. The form called white ginseng (WG) is fresh ginseng which has been dried. It is grown for four to six years, and then peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. White ginseng is air dried in the sun and may contain less of the therapeutic constituents. It is thought by some that enzymes contained in the root break down these constituents in the process of drying. Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.

Ginseng and reishi mushrooms in bottles being sold in Seoul, Korea.

3. The form called red ginseng (RG) is harvested after six years, is not peeled and is steam-cured at standard boiling temperatures of 100 C (unknown operator: u'strong'F), thereby giving it a glossy reddish-brown color. Steaming the root is thought to change its biochemical composition and also to prevent the breakdown of the active ingredients. The roots are then dried. RG is more common as herbal

Ginseng medicine than WG, and there is increasing research on the pharmacological activities of RG specific ginsenoside. 4. The form called sun ginseng (SG) is created from a heat processing method which increases ginsenoside components such as ginsenoside-[Rg.sub.3], -[Rk.sub.1] and -[Rg.sub.5] by steaming white ginseng at a higher temperature than red ginseng. The herb is steamed for three hours at 120 C (unknown operator: u'strong'F). Research has shown that SG has increased nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite scavenging activities compared with conventionally processed RG or WG. The increased steaming temperature produces an optimal amount of biological activity due to its ability to amplify specific ginsenosides. Japanese researchers set out to investigate the antioxidant effect of SG on oxidative stress.

48

Red ginseng
Red ginseng (Hangul: ; Hanja: ; RR: hong-sam, simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: hng sn), is Panax ginseng that has been heated, either through steaming or sun-drying. It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle. This version of ginseng is traditionally associated with stimulating sexual function and increasing energy. Red ginseng is always produced from cultivated roots, generally from Korea. In 2002, a preliminary double-blind, crossover study of Korean red ginseng's effects on impotence reported that it can be an effective alternative for treating male erectile dysfunction, during which 60% of study participants noted an improvement in ability to produce an erection.[33] Another study reported red ginseng reduced the relapse of gastric cancer versus control.[34]

Red ginseng

A study of ginseng's effects on rats found that while both white ginseng and red ginseng appear to reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with red ginseng.[35] A study by Sung H, Jung YS, Cho YK. showed potentially beneficial effects of a combination of Korean red ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients.[36] Falcarinol, a seventeen-carbon diyne fatty alcohol was isolated from carrot and red ginseng, and was thought to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial (breast cancer) cells.[37] Other acetylenic fatty alcohols in ginseng (panaxacol, panaxydol and panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties.[38]

Ginseng

49

Wild ginseng
Wild ginseng is that which grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found to be growing. Wild ginseng is relatively rare, and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a root to reach maturity). Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American, and can be processed to be red ginseng. There are woods-grown American ginseng programs in Maine, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia and Harvested ginseng in Germany. Kentucky,[39][40] and United Plant Savers has been encouraging the woods planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets. Woods-grown plants have a value comparable to wild-grown ginseng of similar age.

Ginseng alternatives
These mostly "adaptogenic" plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different family or genus. Only jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng. Since each of these plants has different uses, one should research their properties before using.[41] Schisandra chinensis (five flavoured berry) Gynostemma pentaphyllum (southern ginseng, jiaogulan) Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) Pseudostellaria heterophylla (prince ginseng) Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng, ashwagandha) Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng, suma) Lepidium meyenii (Peruvian ginseng, maca) {Note: Maca has absolutely nothing to do with ginseng.} Oplopanax horridus (Alaskan ginseng)

Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the genus Panax): Angelica sinensis (female ginseng, dong quai) Panax notoginseng (known as san qi, tian qi or tien chi, hemostatic ingredient in Yunnan Bai Yao)

References
[1] "ginseng" (http:/ / dictionary. cambridge. org/ dictionary/ british/ ginseng?topic=common-plants). Cambridge Dictionaries Online. . Retrieved 2011-06-04. [2] Oxford Dictionaries Online, s.v. " ginseng (http:/ / oxforddictionaries. com/ definition/ ginseng)". [3] Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, by John K. Chen, Tina T. Chen [4] Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. [5] T. W. D. Chan,, P. P. H. But,, S. W. Cheng,, I. M. Y. Kwok,, F. W. Lau, and, H. X. Xu, 2000, "Differentiation and Authentication of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Ginseng Products by Using HPCL/MS" Analytical Chemistry,72 (10), 23292329 [6] Davydov M, Krikorian AD. (October 2000). "Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72 (3): 345393. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00181-1. PMID10996277. [7] Lewis WH, Zenger VE, Lynch RG. (August 1983). "No adaptogen response of mice to ginseng and Eleutherococcus infusions". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8 (2): 209214. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(83)90054-5. PMID6685799. [8] Hae June Lee, Se Ra Kim, Jong Choon Kim, Chang Mo Kang, Yun Sil Lee, Sung Kee Jo, Tae Hwan Kim, Jong Sik Jang, Seung Yeol Nah, Sung Ho Kim, 2006, "In Vivo radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active ginsenosides." Phytotherapy Research, 20:5; 392-395.

Ginseng
[9] Hsu H.-Y., Yang J.-J., Lian S.-L., Ho Y.-H., Lin C.-C. 1996, "Recovery of the hematopoietic system by Si-Jun-Zi-Tang in whole body irradiated mice." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 54 (2-3), pp. 69-75. [10] McElhaney JE et al. (2004). "A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American Ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults". J Am Geriatr Soc 52 (1): 1319. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52004.x. PMID14687309. [11] Vladimir Vuksan, PhD; John L. Sievenpiper, BASc; Vernon Y. Y. Koo, MSc; Thomas Francis, PhD; Uljana Beljan-Zdravkovic, MD, MSc; Zheng Xu, MD; Edward Vidgen, BSc, 2000, Arch Intern Med, 160:1009-1013. [12] Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C. (1996). "Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract". Drugs Exp Clin Res. 22 (6): 323329. [13] Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H (2000). "The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence". Cancer Causes Control 11 (6): 565576. doi:10.1023/A:. PMID10880039. [14] Barton, DL; Soori, GS; Bauer, BA; Sloan, JA; Johnson, PA; Figueras, C; Duane, S; Mattar, B et al (2010). "Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA.". Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer 18 (2): 17987. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0642-2. PMID19415341 [15] (http:/ / www. herbological. com/ images/ downloads/ HH2. pdf) Treasure, Jonathan. Medline & The Mainstream Manufacture of Misinformation 2006 [16] Stockley, IH (2002), Stockley's Drug Interactions. 6th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press. [17] WHO (1999), "Radix Ginseng", in,WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Geneva: World Health Organization, 168-182. [18] Hong B; Ji YH; Hong JH; Nam KY; Ahn TY A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol. 2002; 168(5):2070-3 (ISSN: )Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea [19] Murphy and Lee Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:372-7 PMID [20] de Andrade E; de Mesquita AA; Claro Jde A; de Andrade PM; Ortiz V; Paranhos M; Srougi M Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Sector of Sexual Medicine, Division of Urological Clinic of So Paulo University, So Paulo, Brazil. [21] Lee, YJ; Jin, YR; Lim, WC; Park, WK; Cho, JY; Jang, S; Lee, SK (2003). "Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". Archives of pharmacal research 26 (1): 5863. doi:10.1007/BF03179933. PMID12568360. [22] "Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng". The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 87 (8): 36915. 2002. doi:10.1210/jc.87.8.3691. PMID12161497. [23] "A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells". The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 84 (4): 4638. 2003. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00067-0. PMID12732291. [24] (http:/ / www. umass. edu/ cnshp/ faq. html) [25] "The Ginseng Book." Stephen Fulder, PhD [26] Ginseng definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of some medical terms defined on MedTerms (http:/ / www. medterms. com/ script/ main/ art. asp?articlekey=17671) [27] (http:/ / www. aafp. org/ afp/ 20031015/ 1539. html) [28] Fugh-Berman, Adriane (2000). "Herb-drug interactions" (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science/ article/ B6T1B-41CNTJ6-T/ 2/ 5571af69320b04517be500e5704b99c1). The Lancet 355 (9198): 134138. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06457-0. PMID10675182. . [29] Izzo A.A. Ernst E. (2001). "Interactions Between Herbal Medicines and Prescribed Drugs: A Systematic Review" (http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ adis/ dgs/ 2001/ 00000061/ 00000015/ art00002#aff_1). Drugs (Adis International) 61 (15): 21632175. . Retrieved 3/1/2012. [30] Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004 [31] Ginsenoside#Mechanism of action [32] http:/ / www. agr. gc. ca/ misb/ spec/ index_e. php?s1=gin& page=intro [33] Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY. (2002). "A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report". Journal of Urology 168 (5): 2021. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)64298-X. PMID12394711. [34] Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, Joh YG, Cho MY. (2002). "Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer". American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 30 (4): 48394. doi:10.1142/S0192415X02000661. [35] Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, Yun HY (2001). "Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds". Journal of Korean Medical Science 16 (S): 618. [36] Sung, Heungsup; Jung, You-Sun and Cho, Young-Keol (2009). "Beneficial Effects of a Combination of Korean Red Ginseng and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients" (http:/ / cvi. asm. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ CVI. 00013-09v1). Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16 (8): 112731. doi:10.1128/CVI.00013-09. PMC2725544. PMID19535541. . [37] fatty alcohols and aldehydes (http:/ / www. cyberlipid. org/ simple/ simp0003. htm#10) [38] fatty alcohols and aldehydes (http:/ / www. cyberlipid. org/ simple/ simp0003. htm#12) [39] state.tn.us (http:/ / www. state. tn. us/ environment/ na/ ginseng. shtml) TDEC: DNH: Ginseng Program (http:/ / www. kyagr. com/ marketing/ plantmktg/ ginseng. htm) [40] Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots (http:/ / www. ces. ncsu. edu/ depts/ hort/ hil/ hil-127. html) [41] Winston, David; Maimes, Steven (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press.

50

Ginseng

51

Further reading
Books Pritts, K.D. (2010). Ginseng: How to Find, Grow, and Use Americas Forest Gold. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3634-3 Taylor, D.A. (2006). Ginseng, the Divine Root: The Curious History of the Plant That Captivated the World. Algonquin Books. ISBN 978-1-56512-401-1 Review articles Choi, K.-T. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korea Panax ginseng C A Meyer, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2008),29(9):1109-1118. (http://www.nature.com/aps/ journal/v29/n9/pdf/aps2008134a.pdf) Qi, L.-W. et al. Ginsenosides from American ginseng: chemical and pharmacological diversity, Phytochemistry (2011),72(8):689-699. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3103855/pdf/nihms292266.pdf) (No authors listed). Panax ginseng. Monograph, Alternative Medicine Review: a journal of clinical therapeutics (2009),14(2):172-176. (http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/14/2/172.pdf) Ginseng Side Effects (http://www.ginsengsideeffects.net/)

External links
MedlinePlus-Ginseng - National Institutes of Health (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/ patient-ginseng.html) Asian Ginseng - NCCAM - National Institutes of Health (http://nccam.nih.gov/health/asianginseng) Ginseng Safety Tips (http://www.koreanginsengroot.com/ginseng-safety-tips.html) Overdose and Safety information (http://www.drugs.com/MTM/ginseng.html) Ginseng Abuse Syndrome disputed (http://tangcenter.uchicago.edu/herbal_resources/ginseng.shtml) Panax ginseng - American Family Physician (http://www.aafp.org/afp/20031015/1539.html) Korea Ginseng- The Official Korea Tourism Guide Site (http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6. jsp?cid=261253) Ginseng Benefits (http://www.ginsengbenefits.net/ginseng_benefits)

Ginsenoside

52

Ginsenoside
Ginsenoside Rg1

Identifiers CAS number ChemSpider EC-number ChEMBL Jmol-3D images 22427-39-0 390498
[2] [3] [4] [1]

244-989-9

CHEMBL501637 Image 1 Properties


[5]

Molecular formula Molar mass


(verify) [6]

C42H72O14 801.01 g/mol

(what is: / ?) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25C, 100kPa)

Infobox references

Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of steroid glycosides, and triterpene saponins, found exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng). Ginsenosides have been the target of research, as they are viewed as the active compounds behind the claims of ginseng's efficacy. Because ginsenosides appear to affect multiple pathways, their effects are complex and difficult to isolate. Ginsenosides are separated by column chromatography. Ginsenoside content can vary widely depending on species, location of growth, and growing time before harvest. The root, the organ most often used, contains saponin complexes. These are often split into two groups: the Rb1 group (characterized by the protopanaxadiol presence : Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd) and the Rg1 group (protopanaxatriol: Rg1, Re, Rf, and Rg2).[7]

Ginsenoside

53

Rb1 group
Rb1
Appears to be most abundant in Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng). Rb1 seems to affect the reproductive system in animal testicles. Recent research shows that Rb1 affects rat embryo development[8] and has teratogenic effects, causing birth defects.[9] Another study shows that Rb1 may increase testosterone production in male rats indirectly through the stimulation of the luteinizing hormone. Traditional Chinese medicine asserts that Panax quinquefolius promotes yin in the body. It also inhibits chemoinvasion and angiogenesis.

Rc
Ginsenoside-Rc is a steroid molecule that can be found in the ginseng plant and is recognized for producing more sedative related results than other ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside-Re or ginsenoside-Rg. In one study on breast cancer and different ginsenosides, it was found that ginsenoside-Rc was capable of inhibiting the growth of these cancer cells. This suggests that there is a possibility that ginsenoside-Rc may have effects that prevent or limit the development of breast cancer.[10] An experiment was performed on Caenorhabditis elegans and their survival in a cholesterol-absent medium with the presence of ginsenoside-Rc. While the lack of cholesterol for Caenorhabditis elegans had been expected to reduce the lifetime of the worm, results proved otherwise: The consumption of ginsenoside-Rc had elongated the normal life span of the worm.[11] A further study was also able to demonstrate a possible effect of ginsenoside-Rc on the motility of sperm. Data from this experimentation showed a significant increase in motility when the sperm was in a ginsenoside-Rc solution.[12]

Rg1 group
Rf
Present in Panax ginseng; not present in Panax quinquefolius.[13]

Rg1
Appears to be most abundant in Panax ginseng (Chinese/Korean Ginseng). Improves spatial learning and increase hippocampal synaptophysin level in mice, plus estrogen-like activity (which could account for the boosting of "yin" theory). A recent study demonstrated that Rg1, isolated from Panax ginseng is able to attenuate the oxidative stress in the liver of exhaustive exercised rats. [14]

Ginsenoside

54

Rg2
Ginsenoside Rg2 appears also to be abundant in Panax ginseng and could protect memory impairment via anti-apoptosis in a rat model with vascular dementia.[15][16] Rg2 is a -L-Rha-D-Glc glycoside of panaxatriol.

Metabolism
M1 (20-O--D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) is a ppd-type monoglucoside ginsenoside metabolized by intestinal bacteria in humans.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

http:/ / www. commonchemistry. org/ ChemicalDetail. aspx?ref=22427-39-0 http:/ / www. chemspider. com/ 390498 http:/ / ecb. jrc. ec. europa. eu/ esis/ index. php?GENRE=ECNO& ENTREE=244-989-9 https:/ / www. ebi. ac. uk/ chembldb/ index. php/ compound/ inspect/ CHEMBL501637 http:/ / chemapps. stolaf. edu/ jmol/ jmol. php?model=O%28%5BC%40%40%5D%28%5BC%40H%5D3CC%5BC%40%40%5D4%28C%29%5BC%40%5D5%28C%29C%5BC%40H%5D%28O%5BC% [6] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special%3Acomparepages?rev1=461120608& page2=%3AGinsenoside [7] wrc.net (http:/ / www. wrc. net/ wrcnet_content/ herbalresources/ materiamedica/ materiamedica. aspx?mmid=16) [8] [http://www.eshre.com/emc.asp?pageId=450 eshre.com] [9] Chan LY, Chiu PY, Lau TK (October 2003). "An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model". Human Reproduction 18 (10): 21668. doi:10.1093/humrep/deg401. PMID14507839. [10] Murphy, Laura (August 2000). "American Ginseng in the Prevention and Treatment of Human Breast Cancer" (http:/ / stinet. dtic. mil/ oai/ oai?verb=getRecord& metadataPrefix=html& identifier=ADA385433). Southern Illinois University Carbondale. . [11] Lee JH, Choi SH, Kwon OS, et al. (November 2007). "Effects of ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30 (11): 212634. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.2126. PMID17978487. [12] Chen JC, Chen LD, Tsauer W, Tsai CC, Chen BC, Chen YJ (2001). "Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc on inferior human sperm motility in vitro" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0HKP/ is_1_29/ ai_73711388/ ). The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 29 (1): 15560. doi:10.1142/S0192415X01000174. PMID11321473. . [13] Assinewe VA, Baum BR, Gagnon D, Arnason JT (July 2003). "Phytochemistry of wild populations of Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (16): 454953. doi:10.1021/jf030042h. PMID14705875. [14] Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Hou C.W., Huang C.Y., Lee S.D., Hsu M.F., Yu S.H., Chen C.Y., Liu Y.Y., Kuo C.H. (2012: 932165). "Ginsenoside-Rg1 Protects the Liver against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats" (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC3176525/ ?tool=pubmed). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. doi:10.1155/2012/932165. . [15] Zhang G, Liu A, Zhou Y, San X, Jin T, Jin Y (February 2008). "Panax ginseng ginsenoside-Rg2 protects memory impairment via anti-apoptosis in a rat model with vascular dementia". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115 (3): 4418. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.026. PMID18083315. [16] Yoon SR, Nah JJ, Kim SK, et al. (July 1998). "Determination of ginsenoside Rf and Rg2 from Panax ginseng using enzyme immunoassay". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 46 (7): 11447. PMID9692222.

External links
http://www.eshre.com/ecm/main.asp?lan=99&typ=308 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Researchers caution over using ginseng in early pregnancy Tsai SC, Chiao YC, Lu CC, Wang PS (March 2003). "Stimulation of the secretion of luteinizing hormone by ginsenoside-Rb1 in male rats". The Chinese Journal of Physiology 46 (1): 17. PMID12817698. Ginsenosides as Quality Indicators in Woods-grown American Ginseng (http://www.hort.cornell.edu/ department/faculty/mudge/ginsenosides/Ginsenosides.html) Title: The Effect of Production Practices on the Quality of Ginseng Roots (http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/ english/crops/facts/98-067.htm) The King's University College Biology Department (http://www.kingsu.ab.ca/~hank/HDBMfiles/Ginseng lecture/Lecture on ginseng.htm)

Gynostemma pentaphyllum

55

Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Gynostemma pentaphyllum

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Subfamily: Subtribe: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Cucurbitales Cucurbitaceae Zanonioideae Gomphogyninae Gynostemma G. pentaphyllum Binomial name Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino 1902 Gynostemma pentaphyllum, also called jiaogulan (Chinese: ; pinyin: jiogln, literally "twisting-vine orchid"[1]) is an herbaceous vine of the family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber or gourd family) indigenous to the southern reaches of China, northern Vietnam, southern Korea, and Japan. Jiaogulan is best known as an herbal medicine reputed to have powerful antioxidant and adaptogenic effects purported to increase longevity. Clinical research has indicated a number of therapeutic qualities of Jiaogulan, such as lowering cholesterol and high blood pressure, strengthening immunity, and inhibiting cancer growth.

Baby jiaogulan plants

Gynostemma pentaphyllum

56

Description
Jiaogulan belongs to the genus Gynostemma, in the family Cucurbitaceae, which includes cucumbers, gourds, and melons, although it lacks the characteristic fruit. It is a climbing vine, attaching itself to supports using tendrils. The serrated leaves commonly grow in groups of five (as in G. pentaphyllum) although some species can have groups of three or seven leaves. The plant is dioecious, meaning each plant exists either as male or female. Therefore, if seeds are desired, both a male and female plant must be grown.

Taxonomy
Gynostemma pentaphyllum is known as Jiaogulan (Chinese: "twisting-vine-orchid"[1]) in China. The plant was first described in 1406 CE by Zhu Xiao, who presented a description and sketch in the book Materia Medica for Famine as a survival food rather than a medicinal herb.[2] The earliest record of jiaogulan's use as a drug comes from herbalist Li Shi-Zhen's book Compendium of Meteria Medica published in 1578, identifying jiaogulan for treating various ailments such as hematuria, edema in the pharynx and neck, tumors, and trauma. While Li Shi-Zhen had confused jiaogulan with an analogous herb Wulianmei, in 1848 Wu Qi-Jun rectified this confusion in Textual Investigation of Herbal Plants, which also added more information on medicinal usage.[3] Modern recognition of the plant outside of China originated from research in sugar substitutes. In the 1970s, while analyzing the sweet component of the jiaogulan plant (known as amachazuru in Japan), Dr. Masahiro Nagai discovered chemical compounds identical to some of those found in Panax ginseng, an unrelated plant.[4] Afterward, Dr. Tsunematsu Takemoto discovered that jiaogulan contains four saponins identical to those in Panax ginseng as well as seventeen other similar saponins. Over the next decade 82 saponins (gypenosides) were identified in jiaogulan, compared to the 28 (ginsenosides) found in Panax ginseng.

Distribution and habitat


Over thirty species of Gynostemma are known to grow throughout China, predominantly in the Southwest, although most species exist in at least one other country. The species G. pentaphyllum has the widest distribution outside of China, ranging from India to Southeast Asia to Japan and Korea. Jiaogulan is a vine hardy to USDA zone 8 in which it may grow as a short lived perennial plant. It can be grown as an annual in most temperate climates, in well-drained soil with full sun. It does not grow well in cold climates with temperatures below freezing.

Toxicity
Unlike most plants of the Cucurbitaceae family, jiaogulan does not show toxicity.[5][6]

Use in ethnomedicine
The plant is best known for its use as an herbal medicine. It has not seen widespread use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) because it grows far from central China where TCM evolved; consequently, it was not included in the standard pharmacopoeia of the TCM system. Until recently it was a locally-known herb used primarily in mountainous regions of southern China and in northern Vietnam. It is described by the local inhabitants as the "immortality herb", because people within Guizhou Province, where jiaogulan tea is consumed regularly, are said have a history of unusual longevity.[7][8] Jiaogulan is most often consumed as an herbal tea, and is also available as an alcohol extract and in capsule or pill form.[9]

Gynostemma pentaphyllum

57

Clinical research
Antioxidant
Jiaogulan has been found to increase superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a powerful endogenous cellular antioxidant. Studies have found it increases the activities of macrophages, T lymphocytes and natural killer cells and that it acts as a tumor inhibitor.[10]

Adaptogen
Jiaogulan is known as an adaptogen, which is an herb reputed to help the body to maintain optimal homeostasis.[11] Its chemical constituents include the triterpenoid saponins gypenosides which are closely structurally related to the ginsenosides which are present in ginseng.[12] Most research has been done since the 1960s when the Chinese realized that it might be an inexpensive source of adaptogenic compounds, taking pressure off of the ginseng stock. Adaptogenic effects include regulating blood pressure and the immune system, improving stamina and endurance.[13] Jiaogulan is also believed to be useful in combination with codonopsis for jet lag and altitude sickness.[8]

Blood pressure
The adaptogenic nature of gypenosides have been found lower hypertension and raise hypotension, keeping blood pressure in a normal range. Laboratory tests demonstrate that jiaogulan stimulates the release of nitric oxide, causing blood vessels to relax; this is one proposed mechanism by which jiaogulan reduces high blood pressure.[14] In a double-blind study, gypenosides administered to those with Grade II hypertension showed 82% effectiveness in reducing hypertension, compared to 46% for ginseng and 93% for Indapamide (a hypertension medication).[15]

Cardiovascular functions
Animal studies as well as clinical testing on humans suggest that jiaogulan, when combined with other herbs, has beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, increasing heart stroke volume, coronary flow, and cardiac output while reducing the heart rate, without affecting arterial pressure.[16][17]

Cholesterol reduction
Numerous clinical studies in Chinese medical literature have shown that jiagolan lowers serum cholesterol,[18] triglycerides, and LDL (the "bad" cholesterol) while raising HDL ("good" cholesterol) levels, with reported effectiveness rates ranging from 67% to 93%.[19]

Diabetes
Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea has been studied in a randomized controlled trial in type 2 diabetic patients.[20] It may have potential as a hypoglycemic treatment to reduce blood glucose.[21]

Alternate names
Western languages such as English and German commonly refer to the plant as jiaogulan. Other names include:[22] Chinese: xiancao (, literally "immortal grass"; more accurately "herb of immortality") English: five-leaf ginseng, poor man's ginseng, miracle grass, fairy herb, sweet tea vine, gospel herb, Southern Ginseng Japanese: amachazuru (kanji: ; hiragana: ; literally amai=sweet, tasty cha=tea, zuru=vine, creeping plant) Korean language: dungkulcha () or dolwe () Latin: Gynostemma pentaphyllum or Vitis pentaphyllum

Gynostemma pentaphyllum Taiwanese: sencauw Tay language: zan tong Thai: jiaogulan () Vietnamese: gio c lam or b ng (b= nutritious, ng=bitter) Portuguese: cip-doce

58

References
[1] Blumert, Michael; Jialiu Liu (2003). Jiaogulan: China's "Immortality" Herb. Badger, CA: Torchlight Publishing. pp.12. ISBN1-887089-16-0. [2] Cheng JG et al (1990). "Investigation of the plant jiaogulan and its analogous herb, Wulianmei". Zhong Cao Yao 21 (9): 424. [3] Blumert, p. 21. [4] Nagai, Masahiro (November 1976). "Abstracts of Papers, 23d Meeting of the Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy". Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy. pp.37. [5] Attawish A, Chivapat S, Phadungpat S, Bansiddhi J, Techadamrongsin Y, Mitrijit O, Chaorai B, Chavalittumrong P (September 2004). "Chronic toxicity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum". Fitoterapia 75 (6): 53951. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2004.04.010. [6] Choi HS, Park MS, Kim SH, Hwang BY, Lee CK, Lee MK (2010). "Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease" (http:/ / www. mdpi. com/ 1420-3049/ 15/ 4/ 2814/ pdf) (PDF). Molecules 15 (4): 281424. doi:10.3390/molecules15042814. . [7] Winston, David; Steven Maimes (April 2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press. ISBN978-1-59477-158-3. Contains a detailed herbal monograph on jiaogulan and highlights health benefits. [8] Bensky, Dan; Andrew Gamble, Steven Clavey, Erich Stger (September 2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, 3rd Edition. Eastland Press. ISBN978-0-939616-42-8. [9] Blumert, pp 66-70. [10] Liu, et al (1992). "Therapeutic effect of jiaogulan on leukopenia due to irradiation and chemotherapy". Zhong Guo yi Yao Xue Bao 7 (2): 99. [11] David Winston; Steven Maimes (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press. ISBN978-1-59477-158-3. [12] Liu SB, Lin R, Hu ZH (February 2005). "Histochemical localization of ginsenosides in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and the content changes of total gypenosides [Chinese]". Shih Yen Sheng Wu Hsueh Pao: Journal of Experimental Biology 38 (1): 5460. [13] "Complete Jiaogulan information from Drugs.com" (http:/ / www. drugs. com/ npp/ jiaogulan. html). Drugs.com. . [14] Tanner MA, Bu X, Steimle JA, Myers PR (1999-10-03). "The direct release of nitric oxide by gypenosides derived from the herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum". Nitric Oxide 3 (5): 35965. doi:10.1006/niox.1999.0245. PMID10534439. [15] Lu, GH et al (1996). "Comparative study on anti-hypertensive effect of Gypenosides, Ginseng and Indapamide in patients with essential hypertension". Guizhou Medical Journal 20: 1926. [16] Chen, LF et al (1990). "Comparison between the effects of gypenosieds and ginsegnosides on cardiac function and hemodynamics in dogs". Chinese J Pharmacol Toxicol 4 (1): 1720. [17] Zhou, Ning-Ya et al (1993). "Effects of gypenosides-containing tonic on the pulmonary function in exercise workload". Journal of Guiyang Medical College 18 (4): 261. [18] la Cour B, Mlgaard P, Yi Z (May 1995). "Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of hyperlipidaemia". J Ethnopharmacol 46 (2): 1259. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01234-5. PMID7650951. [19] Blumert, p. 42. [20] Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG (May 2010). "Antidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patients". Hormone & Metabolic Research 42 (5): 3537. PMID20213586. [21] Hoa NK, Phan DV, Thuan ND, Ostenson CG (April 2009). "Screening of the hypoglycemic effect of eight Vietnamese herbal drugs". Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology 31 (3): 1659. PMID19536359. [22] "Other Names for Jiaogulan" (http:/ / www. immortalitea. com/ othernames. htm). Immoralitea. 2005. . Retrieved 2009-07-27.

External links

Gynostemma at Drug Digest (http://www.drugdigest.org/wps/portal/!ut/p/c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hjA3cDA3dnz1ADN09jA08LD18LH8cgoKihfjhIh1m8AQ7gaKDv55Gfm6pfkJ1XDgA dl2/d1/ L0lJSklLVUtVSklKSkpDZ3BSQ2dwUkEhIS9vSHd3QUFBWVFBQUVJSWdsRVU1QUFHTVlJU0pLMHJVbEdzYTBqQSEhL ?searchString=jiaogulan&x=0&y=0&select_category=3) History of Jiaogulan (http://www.immortalitea.com/index.php?main_page=page&id=10)

Lepidium meyenii

59

Lepidium meyenii
Lepidium meyenii

Root

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Brassicales Brassicaceae Lepidium L. meyenii Binomial name Lepidium meyenii Walp. Synonyms Lepidium peruvianum Lepidium meyenii, known commonly as maca, is an herbaceous biennial plant or annual plant (some sources say a perennial plant) native to the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia. It's also found in some parts of Brazil. It is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl (actually a fused hypocotyl and taproot), which is used as a root vegetable and a medicinal herb. Its Spanish and Quechua names include maca-maca, maino, ayak chichira, and ayak willku.

Botanical characteristics
Although this species has been used by the Andean people for two thousand years, their knowledge was first brought under Linnaeus' system of classification by Gerhard Walpers in 1843 as Lepidium meyenii. In studying different specimens since the late 1960s, most botanists now consider the widely cultivated natural maca of today to be a newer domesticated species, L. peruvianum.[1] This more recent designation was made by Dr. Gloria Chacon. The Latin name recognized by the USDA continues to be Lepidium meyenii,[2] however most contemporary botanists employ the name "peruvianum" and consider it most accurate to describe the species".[3] The growth habit, size, and

Lepidium meyenii proportions of maca are roughly similar to those of the radish and the turnip, to which it is related. The green, fragrant tops are short and lie along the ground. The thin frilly leaves are born in a rosette at the soil surface, and are continuously renewed from the center as the outer leaves die. The off-white, self-fertile flowers are borne on a central raceme, and are followed by 45mm siliculate fruits, each containing two small (2-2.5mm) reddish-gray ovoid seeds. The seeds, which are the plant's only means of reproduction, germinate within five days given good conditions. The seeds have no dormancy, as maca's native habitat remains harsh year-round. Maca is the only member of its genus with a fleshy hypocotyl, which is fused with the taproot to form a rough inverted-pear-shaped body. Maca does vary greatly in the size and shape of the root, which can be triangular, flattened circular, spherical or rectangular, the latter of which forms the largest roots. Maca hypocotyls can be gold or cream, red, purple, blue, black or green. Each is considered a genetically unique variety, as seeds of the parent plants grow to have roots of the same color. Recently, specific phenotypes (in maca, 'phenotype' pertains mainly to root color) have been exclusively propagated to ascertain their different nutritional and therapeutic properties. Cream colored roots are the most widely grown and are favored in Peru for their enhanced sweetness and size. Black maca is considered the strongest in energy and stamina-promoting properties, being both sweet and slightly bitter in taste.[4] Red maca is becoming popular with many people, and has been clinically shown to reduce prostate size in rats.[5] These three phenotypes are the primary ones being grown and exported. Maca is traditionally grown at altitudes of approximately 8,000-14,500ft (2,400-4,400 metres) elevation.[6] It grows well only in cold climates with relatively poor agricultural soils, habitats where few other crops can be grown. Like many cruciferous root vegetables, maca can exhaust soils that are not well tended. Nearly all maca cultivation in Peru is carried out organically, as there are few pests naturally occurring at such high altitudes, and maca itself is seldom attacked. Maca is sometimes interplanted with potatoes, as it is known to maca farmers that the plant itself naturally repels most root crop pests. Maca croplands are fertilized mainly with sheep and alpaca manure, and are often rested for a period of years to rebuild nutrients in the soils. 8 to 10 months elapse between sowing and maturity for harvest. The yield for a cultivated hectare is approximately 5 tons. Maca is typically dried for further processing, which yields about 1.5 tons total. Although maca has been cultivated outside the Andes, it is not yet clear whether it develops the same active constituents or potency. Hypocotyls grown from Peruvian seeds form with difficulty at low elevations, in greenhouses or in warm climates. For approximately 2,000 years, maca has been an important traditional food and medicinal plant in its limited growing region, where it is well-known and celebrated.[7] It is regarded as a highly nutritious, energy-imbuing food, and as a medicine that enhances strength, endurance and also acts as an aphrodisiac.[7] During Spanish colonization maca was used as currency.[8][9]

60

Lepidium meyenii

61

Constituents
In addition to sugars and proteins, maca contains uridine, malic acid and its benzoyl derivative, and the glucosinolates, glucotropaeolin and m-methoxyglucotropaeolin. The methanol extract of maca tuber also contained (1R, 3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a molecule which is reported to exert many activities on the central nervous system.[10] Many different alkamides were found in maca.[11] The nutritional value of dried maca root is high, similar to cereal grains such as rice and wheat. The average composition is 60-75% carbohydrates, 10-14% protein, 8.5% dietary fiber, and 2.2% fats. Maca is rich in the dietary minerals calcium and potassium (with low content of sodium), and contains the essential trace elements iron, iodine, copper, manganese, and zinc as well as fatty acids including linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acids, and 19 amino acids.[6] Further, Maca contains selenium and magnesium, and includes polysaccharides.[12] Maca's reported beneficial effects for sexual function could be due to its high concentration of proteins and vital nutrients;[9] maca contains a chemical called p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which reputedly has aphrodisiac properties.[1]
(1R, 3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-carboline-3-carboxylic acid

Uses and preparation


Maca has been harvested and used by humans in the Andean Mountains for centuries. Contrary to frequent claims that maca's cultivation was common in what is today Peru, it has been shown that until the late 1980s, maca has only been cultivated in a limited area around Lake Junin, in Central Peru.[13] Historically, maca was often traded for lowland tropical food staples, such as corn, rice, manioc (tapioca roots), quinoa and papaya. It was also used as a form of payment of Spanish imperial taxes. It is often cited that maca was eaten by Inca imperial warriors before battles. Their legendary strength was allegedly imparted by the preparatory consumption of copious amounts of maca, fueling formidable warriors. After a city was conquered, the women had to be protected from the Inca warriors, as they became ambitiously virile from eating such quantities of maca. This is of course an appealing endorsement for the masculine angle of maca's recent marketing campaign. Whether or not this oft repeated historical use is actually true has yet to be determined. Those who have studied maca's history have not been able to locate formal mention of this particular use.[14] In Peru, maca is prepared and consumed in several ways, although traditionally it is always cooked. The freshly harvested hypocotyl can be roasted in a pit (called huatia), and this is considered a delicacy. Fresh roots are usually available only in the vicinity of the growers. The root can also be mashed and boiled to produce a sweet, thick liquid, dried and mixed with milk to form a porridge or with other vegetables or grains to produce a flour that can be used in baking. If fermented, a weak beer called chicha de maca can be produced. In 2010 a US based brewery called Andean Brewing Company, became the first company to produce and commercialize beer made from Maca under the brand KUKA Beer. The leaves can also be prepared raw in salads or cooked much like Lepidium sativum and Lepidium campestre, to which it is genetically closely related.[15] The growing demand of the supplement industry has been one of the primary reasons for maca's expanding cultivation in Peru and Bolivia.[16] The prominent product for export is maca flour, which is a baking flour ground from the hard, dried roots, "harina de maca." Maca flour (powder) is a relatively inexpensive bulk commodity, much like wheat flour or potato flour. In Peru, maca flour is used in baking as a flour base and a flavoring. There are many companies who sell raw maca flour as a bulk supplement, however maca is not eaten raw in its native territory, and can cause gastric problems unless it is cooked. The supplement industry uses both the dry roots and maca flour for different types of processing and concentrated extracts. An internet query will show dozens of different extracts

Lepidium meyenii available, each touting a particular efficaciousness for a traditional use or health claim. Another common form is maca which has undergone gelatinization. This is an extrusion process which separates and removes the tough fiber from the roots using gentle heat and pressure, it is sometimes used on other vegetables with a tough fiber matrix. Raw maca is difficult to digest due to its thick fibers and goitrogen content. Gelatinization was developed for maca specifically to mimic the activity of cooking, and to allow gentler digestion. Gelatinized maca is employed mainly for therapeutic and supplement purposes, but can also be used like maca flour as a flavor in cooking. Available also is a freeze-dried maca juice, which is a juice squeezed from the macerated fresh root, and subsequently freeze-dried high in the Andes.[4]

62

Health effects
Maca is consumed as food for humans and livestock, suggesting any risk from consumption is rather minimal. It is considered as safe to eat as any other vegetable food. However, maca does contain glucosinolates, which can cause goiters when high consumption is combined with a diet low in iodine. This being said, darker colored maca roots (red, purple, black) contain significant amounts of natural iodine, a 10-gram serving of dried maca generally containing 52g of iodine.[1] Though this is common in other foods with high levels of glucosinolate, it is uncertain if maca consumption can cause or worsen a goiter.[17] Maca has been shown to reduce enlarged prostate glands in rats.[5][18][19] Small-scale clinical trials performed in men have shown that maca extracts can heighten libido and improve semen quality.[20][21] A small double-blind, randomized, parallel group dose-finding pilot study has shown that Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.[22] A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 56 subjects found that Maca has no effect on sex hormone levels in men, including LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OH progesterone, testosterone or estradiol.[23] In addition, maca has been shown to increase mating behavior in male mice and rats.[24] A recent review states "Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume."[19]

Notes
[1] Taylor LG (2005). The healing power of rainforest herbs: a guide to understanding and using herbal medicinals. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers. ISBN0-7570-0144-0. [2] USDA PLANTS database. Accessed 2008/11/23: http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ java/ profile?symbol=LEME19 [3] Black, Jerome; 2000 "Nomenclature of Maca: Lepidium peruvianum or Lepidium meyenii?" [4] Skyfield Tropical: Free Online Botanical Encyclopedia "http:/ / www. skyfieldtropical. com/ encyclopedia/ maca/ " Maca (lepidium peruvianum): Botanical Characteristics [5] Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, et al. (2005). "Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats". Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-3-5. PMC548136. PMID15661081. [6] http:/ / www. rain-tree. com/ maca. htm [7] Kilham, Christopher (2000). Tales from the Medicine Trail: Tracking Down the Health Secrets of Shamans, Herbalists, Mystics, Yogis, and Other Healers. [Emmaus PA]: Rodale Press. ISBN1-57954-185-2. [8] Valentova, K.; Ulrichova J. (2003). "Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases". Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palack, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 147 (2): 11930. PMID15037892. [9] Chacn de Popovici, G (1997). La importancia de Lepidium peruvianum ("Maca") en la alimentacion y salud del ser humano y animal 2,000 anos antes y desputes del Cristo y en el siglo XXI.. Lima: Servicios Grficos "ROMERO". [10] Piacente, Sonia; Carbone, V., Plaza, A., Zampelli, A. & Pizza, C. (2002). "Investigation of the Tuber Constituents of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (20): 56215625. doi:10.1021/jf020280x. PMID12236688. [11] Zhao J, Muhammad I, Dunbar DC, Mustafa J, Khan IA (February 2005). "New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (3): 6903. doi:10.1021/jf048529t. PMID15686421. [12] Muhammad, I; Zhao J., Dunbar D.C. & Khan I.A. (2002). "Constituents of Lepidium meyenii 'maca'". Phytochemistry 59 (1): 105110. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00395-8. PMID11754952. [13] Hermann, M, Bernet T. " The transition of maca from neglect to market prominence: Lessons for improving use strategies and market chains of minor crops. (http:/ / www. bioversityinternational. org/ fileadmin/ bioversity/ publications/ pdfs/ 1318. pdf?cache=1242647248)" Agricultural Biodiversity and Livelihoods Discussion Papers 1. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, 101 p., 2009.

Lepidium meyenii
[14] Cam, Sergio."http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090130151135/ http:/ / chakarunas. com/ chke-historical. htm" Maca in Early Peruvian Records [15] "Maca Root" (http:/ / www. ptnsa. com/ Ptnsa3. htm). . Retrieved 2007-05-24. [16] Downie, Andrew. " On a Remote Path to Cures (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 01/ 01/ business/ worldbusiness/ 01hunter. html?em& ex=1199422800& en=e6d28805e3489063& ei=5087 )" New York Times. January 1, 2008. [17] "Maca" (http:/ / www. pccnaturalmarkets. com/ health/ Herb/ . Maca. htm). . Retrieved 2007-05-24. [18] Gasco, M.; Villegas L., Yucra S., Rubio J. & Gonzales GF. (2007). "Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate". Phytomedicine 14 (7-8): 460. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.12.003. PMID17289361. [19] Gonzales GF, Gonzales C, Gonzales-Castaeda C (December 2009). "Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science". Forsch Komplementmed 16 (6): 37380. doi:10.1159/000264618. PMID20090350. [20] Gonzales, GF.; Cordova A., Vega K., Chung A., Villena A., Gonez C. & Castillo S. (2002). "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men". Andrologia 34 (6): 36772. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00519.x. PMID12472620. [21] Gonzales, GF; Cordova A., Gonzales C., Chung A., Vega K. & Villena A. (2001). "Lepidium meyenii (maca) improved semen parameters in adult men". Asian Journal of Andrology 3 (4): 3013. PMID11753476. [22] Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G, et al. (2008). "A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction". CNS Neurosci Ther 14 (3): 18291. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00052.x. PMID18801111. [23] Gonzales GF, Crdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Gez C (Jan 2003). "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men" (http:/ / joe. endocrinology-journals. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=12525260). J Endocrinol. 176 (1): 1638. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1760163. PMID12525260. . For this reason, maca is a common ingredient in sexual herbal supplements like Semenax. [24] Zheng, BL.; He, K., Kim, CH., Rogers, L., Shao, Y., Huang, ZY., Lu, Y., Yan, SJ., Qien, LC. & Zheng, QY. (2000). "Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats". Urology 55 (4): 598602. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(99)00549-X. PMID10736519.

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External links
What is Maca Used for Today? at NYU Medical Center (http://www.med.nyu.edu/patientcare/library/article. html?ChunkIID=104590) The Truth About Maca (http://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/features/ the-truth-about-maca?ecd=wnl_men_012511)

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List of food origins


Food origins play a role in nutrition and sustainability as foods with common geological origins have a greater tendency to survive and be valued by the locals. Importance in food therapy is also involved, as allergies to certain foods can be attributed to race. In this way it's a part of the local food movement. An example would be lactose intolerance among Polynesians and Native Americans who were not accustomed to breeding cattle as much as Europeans. Combined with seasonal cooking, food origins can be used in predicting the tendency of ingredients to work well together, like wine and cheese or rice and tofu. Some foods have a tendency to develop with predominant civilizations like Chinese herbs in Asia and fertile crescent agriculture in the middle east. Many culinary fruits have global origins, especially berries, more so than vegetables. Fowl are also common on many different continents, like geese and ducks. Different variations of vegetables can be found on different continents, like yams in Africa and Potatoes in South America. Another example would be walnuts in Europe and pecans in North America.

America
Corn, beans and squash were domesticated in Mesoamerica around 3500 BCE. Potatoes and manioc were domesticated in South America. In what is now the eastern United States, Native Americans domesticated sunflower, sumpweed and goosefoot around 2500 BCE.[1]

Various squashes such as Turban, Sweet Dumpling, Carnival, Gold Acorn, Delicata, Buttercup and Golden Nugget.

Ancient American Crops[2]


Cereals Pseudocereals Pulses Fiber Roots and Tubers Fruits Maize (corn), maygrass, and little barley Amaranth, quinoa, erect knotweed, sumpweed, and sunflowers Common beans, tepary beans, scarlet runner beans, lima beans, and peanuts Cotton, yucca, and agave Jicama, manioc (cassava), potatoes, sweet potatoes, oca, mashua, ulloco, arrowroot, yacon, leren, and groundnuts

Tomatoes, chili peppers, avocados, cranberries, blueberries, huckleberries, cherimoyas, papayas, pawpaws, passionfruits, pineapples and strawberries Squashes turkey, bison, muscovy ducks, dogs and guinea pigs

Melons Meat and poultry Nuts Other

Peanuts, black walnuts, shagbark hickory, pecans and hickory nuts Chocolate, Canna, tobacco, Chicle, rubber, maple syrup, birch syrup and vanilla

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Timeline of American Crop Cultivation[3]


Date Crops Location Central America Mexico Mexico

7000BC Maize 5000BC Cotton 4800BC Squash Chili Peppers Avocados Amaranth

4000BC Maize Central America Common Bean 4000BC Ground Nut 2000BC Sunflowers Beans South America

North America
Domestic turkey Pumpkin Black Walnut, Pecans Maple syrup Echinacea

Fruits of North American origin


Canada, Mexico, and the United States are home to a surprising number of edible plants; however, only three are commercially grown/known on a global scale (grapes, cranberries, and blueberries.) Many of the fruits below are still eaten locally as they have been for centuries and others are generating renewed interest by eco-friendly gardeners (less need for bug control) and chefs alike. American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca; Vitaceae) and American-European hybrids are grown where grape (Vitis vinifera) is not hardy and are used as rootstocks American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum; Berberidaceae) American plum (Prunus americana; Rosaceae American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana; Ebenaceae): Traditional for desserts and as dried fruit. Beach Plum (Prunus maritima; Rosaceae) Black cherry (Prunus serotina; Rosaceae very popular flavoring for pies, jams, and sweets. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis or Rubus leucodermis; Rosaceae) Blueberry (Vaccinium, sect. Cyanococcus; Ericaceae) [4] Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea; Elaeagnaceae), which grows wild in the prairies of Canada Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana; Rosaceae) Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco; Chrysobalanaceae) Concord grape[4] Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus; Ericaceae)[4] False-mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum; Sapotaceae) Florida Strangler Fig (Ficus aurea; Moraceae) Ground Plum (Astragalus caryocarpus; Fabaceae), also called Ground-plum milk-vetch Eastern May Hawthorn (Crataegus aestivalis; Rosaceae, better known as mayhaw.) Huckleberry

List of food origins Maypop (Passiflora incarnata; Passifloraceae), traditionally a summer treat. Pawpaw (Asimina triloba; Annonaceae), not to be confused with Papaya (Carica papaya; Caricaceae), which is called pawpaw in some English dialects) Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.,; Cactaceae) used as both a fruit and vegetable depending on part of plant. Red mulberry (Morus rubra; Moraceae) Pigeon plum (Coccoloba diversifolia; Polygonaceae) Salal berry (Gaultheria shallon; Ericaceae) Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis; Rosaceae) Saskatoonberry (Amelanchier alnifolia, Rosaceae Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) Southern crabapple (Malus angustifolia; Rosaceae) Strawberry Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus; Rosaceae) Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia; Rosaceae)

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Pacific North West


Provisionally, this is primarily southern Coast Salish, though much is in common with Coast Salish overall. Anthropogenic grasslands were maintained. The south Coast Salish may have had more vegetables and land game than people farther north or on the outer coast. Salmon and other fish were staples in this area. There was kakanee, a freshwater fish in the Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish watersheds. Shellfish were abundant. Butter clams, horse clams, and cockles were dried for trade. Hunting was specialized; professions were probably sea hunters, land hunters, fowlers. Water fowl were captured on moonless nights using strategic flares. The managed grasslands not only provided game habitat, but vegetable sprouts, roots, bulbs, berries, and nuts were foraged from them as well as found wild. The most important were probably bracken and camas; wapato especially for the Duwamish. Many, many varieties of berries were foraged; some were harvested with comblike devices not reportedly used elsewhere. Acorns were relished but were not widely available. Regional tribes went in autumn to the Nisqually Flats (Nisqually plains) to harvest them.[5] Indeed, the region was so abundant that the southern Puget Sound as a whole had one of the only sedentary hunter-gatherer societies that has ever existed.

Central America
Amaranth Vanilla Corn Peanuts Squash Tomatoes Tobacco Agave Lima Beans

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South America
Sweet Potatoes Chocolate Cacao Strawberries Alpacas Cat's Claw Pineapple Potatoes Quinoa Tomato Oca Papalisa Peanut Madagascar bean French bean

Europe
Atlantic, North Europe
Meat Pork Goose Herring Fruit Raspberry Blackcurrant Vegetables Angelica Parsnips Turnip Mustard Radish Rapeseed Damsons
Viking Age expeditions (blue line): depicting the immense breadth of their voyages through most of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, the Arctic and North America

Other Vinegar

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Continental
Meat Horse Salt Atanasovsko Salt Wieliczka Salt Baskunchak Salt Grain Rye Herbs Caraway Tarragon Dill
Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the eighth-eleventh centuries shown in orange.

Mediterranean
There was a great deal of commerce between the provinces of the Roman Empire, all the regions of the empire became interdependent with one another, some provinces specialized in the production of grain, others in wine and others in olive oil, depending on the soil type. Columella writes in his Res Rustica, Soil that is heavy, chalky, and wet is not unsuited to the growing for winter wheat and spelt. Barley tolerates no place except one that is loose and dry.[6] Pliny the Elder writes extensively about agriculture from books XII to XIX, in fact XVIII is The Natural History of Grain. [7] Some crops grown on Roman farms include wheat, barley, millet, pea, broad bean, lentil, flax, sesame, chickpea, hemp, turnip, olives, pear, apples, figs, and plums. Others in the Mediterranean include: Beets Broccoli Cauliflower Cabbage Kale Kohlrabi Brussels sprouts Walnuts Fennel Catnip (nepeta) Caper Centaurium

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Mediterranean and subtropical fruits


Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean: Black mulberry (Morus nigra; Moraceae) Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas; Cornaceae) Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; Arecaceae) Fig (Ficus spp. Moraceae) Grape, called raisin, sultana, or currant when it is dried. (Vitis spp.; Vitaceae) Jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus; Rhamnaceae) Olive (Olea europea; Oleaceae) Pomegranate (Punica granatum; Punicaceae)
Grapes

Sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus. Moraceae) also called old world sycomore or just sycomore.

Minoans
The Minoans raised cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, and grew wheat, barley, vetch, and chickpeas, they also cultivated grapes, figs, and olives, and grew poppies, for poppy seed and perhaps opium. The Minoans domesticated bees, and adopted pomegranates and quinces from the Near East. They developed Mediterranean polyculture.[8] There's also evidence of orchard farming (i.e., figs, olives and grapes).[9]

Africa
Yams Watermelon The first instances of domestication of plants for agricultural purposes in Africa occurred in the Sahel region circa 5000 BCE, when sorghum and African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) began to be cultivated. Around this time, and in the same region, the small Guineafowl were domesticated. Around 4000 BCE the climate of the Sahara and the Sahel started to Helmeted Guinea Fowl in tall grass. become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink rather significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more humid climate of West Africa.[10] The most famous crop domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands is coffee. In addition, khat, ensete, noog, teff and finger millet were also domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands. Crops domesticated in the Sahel region include sorghum and pearl millet. The Kola nut, extracts from which became an ingredient in Coca Cola, was first domesticated in West Africa. Other crops domesticated in West Africa include African rice, African yams, black-eyed peas and the oil palm.[1]

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Middle East
Neolithic founder crops
The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and (later) Europe. They consist of flax, three cereals and four pulses, and are the first known domesticated plants in the world. Although domesticated rye (Secale cereale) occurs in the final Epi-Palaeolithic strata at Tell Abu Hureyra (the earliest instance of a domesticated plant species), it was an insignificant in the Neolithic Period of southwest Asia and only became common with the spread of farming into northern Europe several millennia later. Cereals and Pseudocereals Emmer (Triticum dicoccum, descended from the wild T. dicoccoides) Einkorn (Triticum monococcum, descended from the wild T. boeoticum) Barley (Hordeum vulgare/sativum, descended from the wild H. spontaneum) Oats Wheat Sesame Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
Fertile Crescent, often seen as the birth place of civilization.

Vegetables Pulses Lentil (Lens culinaris) Pea (Pisum sativum) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia)

Other Lettuce Radishes Onions Leeks Carrots Parsley Cucumbers

List of food origins Other Flax (Linum usitatissimum) Mustard Vinegar

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Asia
Chicken Shiitake Mushrooms Yams Eggplant Azuki bean

Tibetan plateau Barley

North Asia
Blackcurrant Korean Peninsula Barley Millet Wheat Legumes

Fruits of Asian origin


Some fruits native to Asia or of Asian Origin. Arhat (Siraitia grosvenorii; Cucurbitaceae) Also called longevity fruit Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) Che (Cudrania tricuspidata; Moraceae) Also called Cudrania, Chinese Mulberry, Cudrang, Mandarin Melon Berry, Silkworm Thorn, zhe Durian (Durio spp; Malvaceae) Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora ovata; Elaeagnaceae family) Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia arguta; Actinidiaceae family) Kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia spp.; Actinidiaceae) Mock Strawberry or Indian Strawberry (Potentilla indica; Rosaceae) Lanzones (Lansium domesticum; Meliaceae family) Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris Roxb. Anacardiaceae) Longan (Dimocarpus longan; Sapindaceae family) Lychee (Litchi chinensis; Sapindaceae family) Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana; Clusiaceae family) Nungu (Borassus flabellifer; Arecaceae) Peach Persimmon (aka Sharon Fruit) (Diospyros kaki; Ebenaceae) Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum; Sapindaceae family) Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum; Polygonaceae) Sageretia (Sageretia theezans; Rhamnaceae) Also called Mock Buckthorn

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Indus Valley
Around 7000 BC, sesame, eggplant, and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley.[11] By 3000 BC, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India.[12]

Polynesia
Alpinia galanga Casuarina

Australia
Macademia nuts Aniseed myrtle Eucalyptus Fruits of Australian origin Although the fruits of Australia were eaten for thousands of years as bushfood by Aboriginal people, they have only been recently recognized for their culinary qualities by non-indigenous people. Many are regarded for their piquancy and spice-like qualities for use in cooking and preserves. Some Australian fruits also have exceptional nutritional qualities, including high vitamin C and other antioxidants. Atherton Raspberry (Rubus probus; Rosaceae) Black Apple (Planchonella australis; Sapotaceae) Blue tongue (Melastoma affine; Melastomataceae) Bolwarra (Eupomatia laurina; Eupomatiaceae) Burdekin Plum (Pleiogynium timorense; Anacardiaceae) Broad-leaf Bramble (Rubus hillii; Rosaceae) Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides; Myrtaceae) Cluster fig (Ficus racemosa; Moraceae) Common apple-berry (Billardiera scandens; Pittosporaceae) Conkerberry (Carissa lanceolata; Apocynaceae) Davidson's plum (Davidsonia spp.; Cunoniaceae) Desert fig (Ficus platypoda; Moraceae) Desert lime (Citrus glauca; Rutaceae) Doubah (Marsdenia australis; Apocynaceae) Emu Apple (Owenia acidula; Meliaceae) Fibrous Satinash (Syzygium fibrosum; Myrtaceae) Finger Lime (Citrus australasica; Rutaceae) Illawarra Plum (Podocarpus elatus; Podocarpaceae) Little gooseberry tree (Buachanania arborescens; Anacardiaceae) Kakadu lime (Citrus gracilis; Rutaceae) Kutjera (Solanum centrale; Solanaceae) Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana; Combretaceae) Karkalla (Carpobrotus rossii; Aizoaceae) Lady apple (Syzygium suborbiculare; Myrtaceae) Lemon aspen (Acronychia acidula; Rutaceae)

Midyim (Austromyrtus dulcis; Myrtaceae) Mountain pepper (Tasmannia spp.; Winteraceae ) Muntries (Kunzea pomifera; Myrtaceae)

List of food origins Native Cherry (Exocarpus cupressiformis; Santalaceae) Native currant (Acrotriche depressa; Ericaceae) Native gooseberry (Physalis minima; Solanaceae) Pigface (Carpobrotus glaucescens; Aizoaceae) Pink-flowered Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius; Rosaceae) Purple apple-berry (Billarderia longiflora; Pittosporaceae) Quandong (Santalum acuminatum; Elaeocarpaceae) Riberry (Syzygium luehmannii; Myrtaceae) Rose-leaf Bramble (Rubus rosifolius; Rosaceae) Rose myrtle (Archirhodomyrtus beckleri; Myrtaceae) Sandpaper Fig (Ficus coronata; Moraceae) Small-leaf tamarind (Diploglottis campbellii; Sapindaceae) Snow berry (Gaultheria hispida; Ericaceae) Sweet apple-berry (Billarderia cymosa; Pittosporaceae) Tanjong (Mimusops elengi; Sapindaceae) White aspen (Acronychia oblongifolia; Rutaceae) Wild orange (Capparis mitchellii; Capparaceae)

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Wongi (Manilkara kaukii; Sapotaceae) Yellow plum (Ximenia americana; Olacaceae) Zig Zag Vine (Melodurum leichhardtii; Annonaceae)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: Norton Press. ISBN0-393-31755-2. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, p. 126. Gardening History Timeline: From Ancient Times to the 20th Century (http:/ / www. gardendigest. com/ timegl. htm) "Cranberries: America's Native Fruit" (http:/ / www. bellybytes. com/ recipes/ cranberries. shtml). Belly Bytes. . Retrieved 2009-01-04. "Cranberries are as American as apple pie - in fact, even more so, for cranberries are one of only three major native North American fruits (Concord grapes and blueberries being the others). Long before the Pilgrims arrived in 1620, the North American Indians combined crushed cranberries with dried deer meat and melted fat to make pemmican - a food that would keep for a long time." [5] Suttle, Wayne P.; Lane, Barbara (1990-08-20). "South Coast Salish". In Sturtevant, William C.. Handbook of North American Indians. 7. Northwest coast. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. pp.485500. ISBN 0-16-020390-2 (v. 7). [6] Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, On Agriculture (Res Rustica), (Loeb Classical Library), Book II page 145 [7] http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Plin. + Nat. + toc [8] However, it has been doubted recently that the systematic exploitation within a Polyculture model was employed at Crete (Hamilakis, Y (2007) (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ journal/ 119953774/ abstract?CRETRY=1& SRETRY=0) [9] Sherratt, A. (1981) Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution [10] O'Brien, Patrick K. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp.22-23 [11] Diamond 1997, p.100 [12] "Curry, Spice & All Things Nice: Dawn of History" (http:/ / www. menumagazine. co. uk/ book/ dawnofhistory. html). .

Panax pseudoginseng

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Panax pseudoginseng
Notoginseng Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Subgenus: Section: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Panax Panax Pseudoginseng P. pseudoginseng Binomial name Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Subspecies

P. pseudoginseng ssp. himalaicus P. pseudoginseng ssp. pseudoginseng P. pseudoginseng Wall. ssp. japonicus Hara [1]

Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax . The scientific names for the plant commonly used are either Panax notoginseng or Panax pseudoginseng. It is most commonly referred to as Notoginseng. The herb is also referred to as pseudoginseng, and in Chinese it is called (Tinq), Tienchi ginseng, San qi or Sanchi, three-seven root, and Mountain paint . Notoginseng belongs to the same scientific genus, Panax, as Asian ginseng . In Latin, the word panax means "cure-all," and the family of ginseng plants is one of the most well known herbs. Panax pseudoginseng is not an adaptogen like the better known Panax species, but it is famous as a hemostatic herb that both invigorates and builds blood. Notoginseng grows naturally in China and Japan. The herb is a perennial with dark green leaves branching from a stem with a red cluster of berries in the middle. It is both cultivated and gathered from wild forests, with wild plants being the most valuable. The Chinese refer to it as "three-seven root" because the plant has three branches with seven leaves each. It is also said that the root should be harvested between three and seven years after planting it. It is classified in Chinese medicine as warm in nature, sweet and slightly bitter in taste, and nontoxic. The dose in decoction for clinical use is 5-10 g. It can be ground to powder for swallowing directly or taking mixed with water: the dose in that case is usually is 1-3grams.[2] In the Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, 1596 A.D.) it is stated: "On account of the fact that sanqi is a herb belonging to the blood phase of the yang ming and jue yin meridians, it can treat all diseases of the blood." Notoginseng is a herb that has been used in China quite extensively since the end of the 19th century.[3] It has acquired a very favorable reputation for treatment of blood disorders, including blood stasis, bleeding, and blood deficiency. It is the largest ingredient in (Yunnan Bai Yao), a famous hemostatic proprietary herbal remedy that was notably carried by the Viet Cong to deal with wounds during the Vietnam war.

Panax pseudoginseng

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Chemical components
Like P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius and P. vietnamensis, notoginseng contains dammarane-type ginsenosides as the major constituents. Dammarane type ginsenosides includes 2 classifications: the 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (ppd) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (ppt) classifications. P. notoginseng contains high levels of Rb1, Rd (ppd classification) and Rg1 (ppt classification)ginsenosides. Rb1, Rd and Rg1 content of P. notoginseng is found to be higher than that of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in one study.[4] Pharmacokinetics When taken orally, ppd-type ginsenosides are mostly metabolized by intestinal bacteria to ppd monoglucoside, 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (M1). [5] In humans, M1 is detected in plasma from 7 hours after the intake of ppd-type ginsenosides and in urine from 12 hours after the intake. These findings indicate that M1 is the final metabolite of ppd-type ginsenosides. [6] M1 is referred to in some articles as IH-901 [7] , and in others as compound-K. [] Biological activities See Table below A study done on rats reported in Pharmacotherapy showed that bleeding time was reduced to half. Michael White, Pharm.D., of Hartford Hospital in Connecticut, tested the effectiveness of notoginseng on external bleeding. He and his colleagues separated the notoginseng components that could be dissolved in water, alcohol, or oil and applied them to cut rat tails: saponins in the alcohol-soluble notoginseng component decreased bleeding time by 52 percent[8] Other studies show cardiovascular healing and protection against cancer.[9][10][11] The principal dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from the roots and flower buds of Panax notoginseng were found to show potent hepatoprotective effects from injury induced by d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. [12] Taiwanese scientists studied the sensitization effect of Panax notoginseng extract and purified Saponin (Rb1) on the radiation response of an experimental tumor (KHT sarcoma) in comparison with its effects on a normal tissue (bone marrow) in mice. Panax notoginseng extract at a concentration of 0.1100mg/kg produced an increase in tumor radiosensitivity. The sensitization effect was maximal at 10mg/kg and at 30 minutes after injection. Higher doses were toxic to the bone marrow stem cells. Rb1 at a concentration 0.001 to 1mg/kg produced an increase in tumor radiosensitivity, with maximum effect at 1mg/kg. Higher doses were not toxic to the bone marrow stem cells. The differential effect on tumor suggest that further purified or synthetic versions of this extract may be useful not only in vascular-related diseases but also in cancer therapy. [13] With its high level of use- perhaps a million doses a year- few reports of apparent adverse effects have occurred, none of them related to toxicity of its herbal constituents. An article in the journal Chinese Herbal Drugs[14] Two basic types of adverse responses occurred: Two cases of esophagitis from consuming tablets without drinking enough water causing irritation or acid reflux. Nineteen allergic reactions including dermatitis, shock, purpura, blisters, or other idiosyncratic reactions. The manufacturer of the notoginseng products consumed was not known, nor was the botanical identity of the raw materials confirmed and with Chinese patent medicine where formulas and adulteration often occurs. There may be fewer occasions of idosyncratic reactions due to the herb alone.[15]

Panax pseudoginseng

76

Notes and references


[1] World Health Organization. "WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants Volume 1" (http:/ / apps. who. int/ medicinedocs/ en/ d/ Js2200e/ 19. html). . Retrieved 9 June 2009. [2] Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble (Sep 2004) [3] (http:/ / www. itmonline. org/ arts/ sanqi. htm) Subhuti Dharmananda RARE REACTIONS TO A SAFE HERB Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) [4] Shu Zhu et al (2004). "Comparative study on triterpene saponins of ginseng drugs". Planta medica 70 (7): 666677. doi:10.1055/s-2004-827192. PMID15303259. [5] Hasegawa H et al (1996). "Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria". Planta medica 62 (5): 453457. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957938. PMID8923812. [6] Tawab MA et al (2003). "Degradation of ginsenosides in humans after oral administration". Drug metabolism and disposition 31 (8): 10651071. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.8.1065. PMID12867496. [7] Oh SH et al (2004). "A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 194 (3): 221229. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2003.09.011. PMID14761678. [8] (http:/ / www. newhope. com/ nutritionsciencenews/ nsn_backs/ Dec_01/ news3. cfm) Pharmacotherapy 2001 Jul(70):773-7. [9] (http:/ / www. chinaphar. com/ 1671-4083/ 23/ 1157. pdf) Paul CHAN, G Neil THOMAS, Brian TOMLINSON. Protective effects of trilinolein extracted from Panax notoginseng against cardiovascular diseaseActa Pharmacol Sin 2002 Dec; 23 (1 2): 1157 -1162 [10] (http:/ / www. chinaphar. com/ 1671-4083/ 23/ 1157. pdf) Hemorheological effects of panax notoginseng F. L.; W. L.; R. W. Biorheology, Volume 32, Number 2, March 1995, pp. 335-336(2) [11] (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ entrez/ query. fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& list_uids=10549877& dopt=Abstract) Konoshima T, Takasaki M,and Tokuda H. Anti-carcinogenic activity of the roots of Panax notoginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Oct;22(10):1150-2. [12] Yoshikawa M et al (2003). "Structures of new dammarane-type Triterpene Saponins from the flower buds of Panax notoginseng and hepatoprotective effects of principal Ginseng Saponins". Journal of Natural Products 66 (7): 922927. doi:10.1021/np030015l. PMID12880307. [13] Chen FD et al (2001). "Sensitization of a tumor, but not normal tissue, to the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation using Panax notoginseng extract". American Journal of Chinese Medicine 29 (34): 517524. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0100054X. PMID11789595. [14] A Review of the Adverse Effects of Panax notoginseng by Yang Xingang, Lu Benqiang, and Guo Yaping)Chinese Herbal Drugs (2003; volume 25, number 3, pages 216-218. [15] (http:/ / www. itmonline. org/ arts/ sanqi. htm) Subhuti Dharmananda RARE REACTIONS TO A SAFE HERB Sanqi (Panax notoginseng)

External links
Plant For A Future Entry (http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Panax+pseudoginseng+ notoginseng#WEBREFS)

Panax vietnamensis

77

Panax vietnamensis
Panax vietnamensis Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Subfamily: Genus: Subgenus: Section: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Aralioideae Panax Panax Panax P. vietnamensis Binomial name Panax vietnamensis Ha & Grushv. ?

P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus

Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese: Sm Ngc Linh) is a species of ginseng in Nam Trung Bo and Tay Nguyen regions of Vietnam, especially in mount Ngc Linh in k T District, Kon Tum, a mountain whose name derives from the ginseng that grows there and in Tr My District of Qung Nam Province. Besides these regions, Panax vietnamensis can be found in Mount Ngc Lum Heo in Phc Lc Commune, Phc Sn District and in the Mount Ngc Am of Qung Nam Province. It grows at elevations between 1,200 and 2,100 m under the leaf canopy of jungles and in wet areas beside running water.

Growing
Tra Linh Commune, in the central Ngoc Linh Mountainarea, is considered the pioneer of ginseng growing in Vietnam. In 1979, the government of central Quang Nam Province established the Tra Linh Drug Materials Farm in Tra Linh Forest on Ngoc Linh Mountain. The farm grew the first cultivated Ngoc Linh ginseng, yet the enterprise was not properly developed until 1995, when the local department of science and technology invested in the farm. Since then, locals from Tra Linh Commune and surrounding areas, including places in central Kontum Province, have been growing the medicinal plant. The communes Mang Lung Village now has around 5,00010,000 ginseng plants between two and eight years old (ginseng is harvested at age seven), with 90 percent of local families growing the crop.[1] [2]

Panax vietnamensis

78

DNA
Panax vietnamensis is sympatric with other Panax species and has a close relationship with P. japonicus var. major and P. pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus.[3]

Medicinal uses
Ethnobotanically it is a secret medicine of the Sedang ethnic group as a miraculous, life-saving plant drug used for the treatment of many serious diseases and for enhancing body strength in long journeys in high mountains. In tests, Vietnamese ginseng extract attenuated psychological stress-induced antinociception, produced the protective effect against psychological stress-induced gastric lesions, and restored the stress-induced decrease in pentobarbital sleep to the normal level. This action was not observed on Panax ginseng extract. Vietnamese ginseng extract showed inhibitory activity on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA. This activity was concentrated to the saponin fraction and especially, major saponin, majonoside R2 exhibited the strongest activity.[4]

References
[1] Tuoi Tre 2008. Golden treasure, The Herbal Dispatch 6(8):22 (http:/ / www. mountainstate. edu/ usda/ newsletters/ PDF/ 08-2008. pdf) [2] Tuoi Tre 2008. Ginseng guardians Part II, The Herbal Dispatch 6(9):22 (http:/ / www. mountainstate. edu/ usda/ newsletters/ PDF/ 09-2008. pdf) [3] Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Qui, Tran Kim; Cai, Shaoqing; Kadota, Shigetoshi (2001). "Phylogenetic Analysis Based on 18S rRNA Gene and matK gene sequences of Panax vietnamensis and five related species". Planta Medica 67 (5): 4615. doi:10.1055/s-2001-15821. PMID11488463. [4] K. Yamasaki (2000) Bioactive saponins In Vietnamese ginseng, Panax Vietnamensis. Pharmaceutical Biology, 38:16-24. Home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp (1999-12-02) (http:/ / home. hiroshima-u. ac. jp/ shoyaku/ member/ yamasaki/ 99VGin. htm). Retrieved on 2010-11-14.

External links
"Panax vietnamensis [[H Th Dung|Ha (http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?403702)] & I.V. Grushvitzky"]. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 09-Oct-10.

Panax zingiberensis

79

Panax zingiberensis
Panax zingiberensis Conservation status

Endangered (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Apiales Araliaceae Panax P. zingiberensis Binomial name Panax zingiberensis C.Y.Wu & K.M.Feng Panax zingiberensis is a species of plant in the Araliaceae family. It is endemic to China.

Source
China Plant Specialist Group 2004. Panax zingiberensis [1]. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [2] Downloaded on 23 August 2007.

References
[1] http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org/ search/ details. php/ 46465/ all [2] http:/ / www. iucnredlist. org

Pseudostellaria heterophylla

80

Pseudostellaria heterophylla
Pseudostellaria heterophylla Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Core eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae Pseudostellaria P. heterophylla

Binomial name Pseudostellaria heterophylla Rupr. & Maxim. Pseudostellaria heterophylla, known commonly as Hai Er Shen (Chinese: , Kid Ginseng), Tai Zi Shen (Chinese: , Prince Ginseng), and false starwort, is an adaptogen in the Caryophyllaceae family that is used in Chinese medicine and herbalism to tonify the qi and generate yin fluids. It is known as the "ginseng of the lungs". The plant is a low growing plant of the pink family that is grown in Southern China in the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hubei, and Shanxi.

Ethnobotany
Hai Er Shen is a relatively recent addition to the Chung Yao Chi New Chinese Materia Medica (Chinese: ), having been officially added in 1959, based upon local and ethnic use.[1][2] It is weaker than Panax ginseng. The herb is a mild adaptogen, demulcent, an immune tonic, nutritive, and a pectoral herb. In Chinese terms it tonifies the yin. Accordingly the herb is restorative for lung damage due to excess heat or dryness including hot or dry asthma, pleurisy, bronchitis, bacterial pneumonia, wheezing, dry cough, and emphysema. Scientific research shows that this Pseudostellaria aids in protecting the mucin layer that lines the respiratory tract and functions as an immune defense system. In the form Li Gan Zi Shen Tang (Chinese: , "Regulate the Liver & Enrich the Kidneys Decoction") it is used to treat yin deficiency associated with diabetes mellitus.[3] The polysaccharide fractions have in vitro anti-tumor properties.[4] A lectin in the roots is being studied for anti HIV purposes.[5] This is a perennial herb with tubers and solitary erect stems up to 20 centimeters tall. The flower has 5 white petals, but some flowers are cleistogamous and lack petals.[6]

Pseudostellaria heterophylla

81

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] tai zi shen, radix psuedostellaria, Complementary and Alternative Healing University (http:/ / alternativehealing. org/ tai_zi_shen. htm) David Winston & Steven Maimes. ADAPTOGENS: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press, 2007. Chinese Medical Diabetes - Article (http:/ / www. chinesemedicaldiabetes. com/ articles/ articles/ article_type2_liver_kid. html) Wong CK, Leung KN, Fung KP, Choy YM (1994). "The immunostimulating activities of anti-tumor polysaccharides from Pseudostellaria heterophylla". Immunopharmacology 28 (1): 4754. PMID7928302. [5] Wang HX, Ng TB (June 2001). "A novel lectin from Pseudostellaria heterophylla roots with sequence similarity to Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor" (http:/ / linkinghub. elsevier. com/ retrieve/ pii/ S0024320501011171). Life Sci. 69 (3): 32733. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01117-1. PMID11441923. . [6] Pseudostellaria heterophylla in Flora of China @ efloras.org (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=200007059)

Salvia miltiorrhiza

82

Salvia miltiorrhiza
"Red sage" redirects here. Lantana camara (Spanish Flag) is sometimes called this although it is not a sage. Salvia miltiorrhiza

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Lamiales Lamiaceae Salvia S. miltiorrhiza Binomial name Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge[1] Salvia miltiorrhiza (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dnshn), also known as red sage, Chinese sage, tan shen, or danshen, is a perennial plant in the genus Salvia, highly valued for its roots in traditional Chinese medicine.[2] Native to China and Japan, it grows at 90 to 1200 m (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' ft) elevation, preferring grassy places in forests, hillsides, and along stream banks. The specific epithet miltiorrhiza means "red juice extracted from a root".[3]

Description
S. miltiorrhiza is a deciduous perennial with branching stems that are 30 to 60 cm (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' ft) tall, with widely spaced leaves that are both simple and divided. The .3m (unknown operator: u'strong'ft) inflorescences are covered with hairs and sticky glands. Flowers grow in whorls, with light purple to lavender blue corollas that are approximately 2.5cm (unknown operator: u'strong'ft) long, with a dark purple calyx. Salvia miltiorrhiza prefers well draining soil, with about half a day of sunlight. It is hardy

Salvia miltiorrhiza to approximately 10 C (unknown operator: u'strong'F).[3] Most Salvia seeds have a higher germination rate when exposed to light, though it is not required.[4]

83

Uses
Salvia miltiorrhiza has been widely used in China and, to a lesser extent, in Japan, the United States, and other European countries for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In China, the specific clinical use is angina pectoris, hyperlipidemia, and acute ischemic stroke.[5][6][7] A patented Chinese herbal medicine has successfully completed Phase II clinical trials in the United States and will soon begin Phase III investigations, raising the possibility that it could become the first Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) product to obtain drug approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The product, Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (also referred to as Cardiotonic Pill), is produced by Tianjin Tasly Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. in Tianjin, China. It contains the extract of the root of danshen as well as extract of the root of notoginseng (Panax notoginseng; known as sanchi or tien-chi ginseng), and synthetic borneol, an active ingredient that replaces the more expensive natural borneol found in cardamom, ginger, and other spices.[8]

In traditional Chinese medicine


The outside of the taproot of Danshen, which is the part used in medicine, is red. Danshen is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating chronic renal failure.[9] The root (Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza) is used with Kudzu root (Radix Puerariae lobata) for the treatment of coronary heart disease in Chinese medicine.[10] Danshen is one of five ingredients in tangzhiqing (TZQ) used In traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes. In studies with mice and in vitro studies, TZQ and a modified formula known as TZQ-F have been shown to be effective for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.[11][12] The other ingredients of TZQ are red peony root, mulberry leaf, lotus leaf, and hawthorn leaf.[11]

Chemical constituents
An antioxidant called salvianolic acid (or salvianolic acid B) isolated from Danshen is under study for protection against cerebrovascular disorders.[9][13] Dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA are also under study for anti-cancer effects.[14][15] Tanshinone IIA is one of the most abundant constituents of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in many experimental disease models,[16][17] Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) has been widely used for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders[18] in Asian countries.[19] Tanshinone IIA might be a novel promising therapeutic agent for oxidative stress injury in neurodegenerative diseases.[20] Tanshinone IIA may improve renal dysfunction associated with chronic kidney disease.[21] Tan IIA was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats.[22]

Pharmacological mechanisms
Results from animal and human studies support the use of Danshen for circulatory disorders to some extent because it is known to decrease the blood's ability to clot in at least two ways. First, it limits the stickiness of blood platelets. It also decreases the production of fibrin, the threads of protein that trap blood cells to form clots. Both these effects help to improve blood circulation. In addition, chemicals in danshen may relax and widen blood vessels, especially those around the heart. In animal studies, chemicals in danshen may also have protected the inner linings of arteries from damage. Some other research suggests it may increase the force of heartbeats and slow the heart rate slightly. In animal studies, Danshen has appeared to interfere with the development of liver fibrosis the formation of scar-like fibers in the liver. Because the nonfunctioning fibers crowd out active liver tissue, liver function decreases gradually as the amount of fibrous tissue increases. Having chronic hepatitis and habitually drinking large amounts

Salvia miltiorrhiza of alcoholic beverages are the major causes of liver fibrosis, which could also result from exposure to chemicals or certain drugs. Danshen may also increase blood flow into the liver, so the length of time that potentially damaging substances stay in the liver may be reduced, also reducing the possible injury they may cause. Results from a few animal studies showed it may also protect kidney tissues from damage caused by diabetes. In China, danshen has also been studied for treating acute pancreatitis, a painful and possibly dangerous inflammation of the pancreas. [23] Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits -glucosidase activity.[24] Danshen may stop the spread of several different cancer cell types by interrupting the cell division process[25] and also by causing cancer cells to undergo cell death (apoptosis).[15] In contrast, the cerebrovascular protective effect of Salvianolic acid has been found to be due to prevention of apoptosis.[9] For HIV, chemicals in Danshen may block the effectiveness of an enzyme, HIV-1 integrase, that the virus needs to replicate.[26] Salvia may stimulate dopamine release and has protective effects against free radical-induced cell toxicity.[27][28] S. miltiorrhiza stimulates increased osteogenesis in vivo (bone cell growth).[29] Salvianolic acid B could possibly facilitate the repair of tubular epithelial structures and the regression of renal fibrosis in injured kidneys.[30]

84

Drug Interactions
Danshen has been shown to potentiate the effects of the common anticoagulation drug warfarin, leading to gross anticoagulation and bleeding complications. Dan shen should be avoided by those using warfarin.[31] Danshen causes in vitro interference when measuring digoxin levels when measured using Chemiluminescence Immunoassays (CLIA).

References
[1] "Salvia miltiorrhiza information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?402704). www.ars-grin.gov. . Retrieved 2008-03-31. [2] Tan, Benny K.-H., Boon-Huat Bay, and Yi-Zhun Zhu. 2004. Novel compounds from natural products in the new millennium: potential and challenges. Singapore: World Scientific. Page 183. [3] Clebsch, Betsy; Carol D. Barner (2003). The New Book of Salvias (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NM0iwB8GrQYC& pg=PA196). Timber Press. pp.196198. ISBN978-0-88192-560-9. . [4] Sutton, John (2004). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Salvias. Workman Publishing Company. p.123. ISBN978-0-88192-671-2. [5] Zhou, L. Zuo, Z. Chow ,MS. 2005. Danshen: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 45(12):1345-1359 [6] Wu, B. Liu, M. Zhang, S. 2007. Dan Shen agents for acute ischaemic stroke. [Update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4):CD004295; PMID 15495099] Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2):CD004295 [7] Cheng, T.O. 2007. Cardiovascular effects of Danshen. International Journal of Cardiology 121:1 (9-22 [8] Lindsay Stafford (2010). "Chinese Herbal Medicine Clears US FDA Phase II Trials" (http:/ / cms. herbalgram. org/ heg/ volume7/ 10October/ TCMproductinFDAIIItrials. html?t=1285951198). HerbalEGram 7 (10). . [9] Wang, Qing-Lan, Tao, Yan-Yan, Yuan, Ji-Li, Shen, Li, Liu, Cheng-Hai, 2010. Salvianolic acid B prevents epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through the TGF-beta1 signal transduction pathway in vivo and in vitro. BMC Cell Biology 11(31):14712121. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-11-31 abstract (http:/ / www. biomedcentral. com/ 1471-2121/ 11/ 31) [10] Chiu PY, Wong SM, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chen N, Zhou L, Zuo Z, Lam PY, Ko KM 2011. Long-term treatment with Danshen-Gegen decoction protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury via the Redox-Sensitive Protein Kinase C-/mK(ATP) pathway in rats. Rejuvenation Research 9(4) [11] Tao, W.; Deqin, Z.; Yuhong, L.; Hong, L.; Zhanbiao, L.; Chunfeng, Z.; Limin, H.; Xiumei, G. (2010). Regulation effects on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism of TZQ-F, a new kind of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 128(3):575-82 abstract (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pubmed/ 20123010). [12] Wang, W; Miura, T.; Shi, H.; Ma, D.-M.; Zhao, Q.-D.; Zhang, W.-P.; Ishihara, E.;, Masayuki, K.; Zhang, B.L.; Gao, X.M.; Zhang D.Q. Ishida, T. 2008. Effect of tangzhiqing on glucose and lipid metabolism in genetically type 2 diabetes kk-Ay mice, Journal of Health Science 54:203206 abstract (http:/ / ci. nii. ac. jp/ naid/ 110006649671/ en) [13] Liu C-L, Xie L-X, Li M, Durairajan SSK, Goto S, et al. 2007 Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Regulating PI3K/Akt Signaling. PLoS ONE 2(12): e1321. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001321 abstract (http:/ / www.

Salvia miltiorrhiza
plosone. org/ article/ info:doi/ 10. 1371/ journal. pone. 0001321) [14] Lee, W.Y.W.; Cheung, C.C.M.; Liu, K.W.K.; Fung, K.P.; Wong, J.; Lai, P.B.S.; Yeung, J.H.K. (2010). Cytotoxic effects of Tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza on Doxorubicin-resistant human liver cancer cells. Journal of Natural Products. 73(5): 854859. [15] Yoosik Yoon, Yeon-Ok Kim, Won-Kyung Jeon, Hee-Juhn Park and Hyun Jea Sung 1999. Tanshinone IIA isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE induced apoptosis in HL60 human premyelocytic leukemia cell line. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 68(13):121127. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00059-8 abstract (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6T8D-3XR2HFS-F& _user=10& _coverDate=12/ 15/ 1999& _rdoc=13& _fmt=high& _orig=browse& _srch=doc-info(#toc#5084#1999#999319998#137171#FLA#display#Volume)& _cdi=5084& _sort=d& _docanchor=& _ct=48& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=b2691f938a79a86b1a96959e0f2b7449) [16] Effects of tanshinone IIA on the hepatotoxicity and gene expression involved in alcoholic liver disease Yin H.-Q., Kim Y.-S., Choi Y.-J., Kim Y.-C., Sohn D.-H., Ryu S.-Y., Lee B.-H. Archives of Pharmacal Research 2008 31:5 (659-665) [17] Protective effect of Salvia Miltiorrhizae injection on N(G)-nitro-d-arginine induced nitric oxide deficient and oxidative damage in rat kidney You Z., Xin Y., Liu Y., Han B., Zhang L., Chen Y., Chen Y., Gu L., Gao H., Xuan Y. [Article in Press] Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 2010 [18] Tan X, Li J, Wang X, Chen N, Cai B, Wang G, Shan H, Dong D, Liu Y, Li X, Yang F, Li X, Zhang P, Li X, Yang B, Lu Y. Tanshinone IIA Protects Against Cardiac Hypertrophy via Inhibiting Calcineurin/Nfatc3 Pathway. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7:383-389. Available from http:/ / www. biolsci. org/ v07p0383. htm [19] Wang X, Wang Y, Jiang M, Zhu Y, Hu L, Fan G, Wang Y, Li X, Gao X.,"Differential cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid and tanshinone on acute myocardial infarction are mediated by unique signaling pathways." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 8; [20] Wang W., Zheng L.-L., Wang F., Hu Z.-L., Wu W.-N., Gu J., Chen J.-G. [Article in Press 2010] Tanshinone IIA attenuates neuronal damage and the impairment of long-term potentiation induced by hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Ethnopharmacology [21] Ahn Y.-M., Kim S.K., Lee S.-H., Ahn S.-Y., Kang S.W., Chung J.-H., Kim S.-D., Lee B.-C. 2010. Renoprotective effect of Tanshinone IIA, an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on rats with chronic kidney disease Phytotherapy Research 24(12):18861892) [22] Tang C., Xue H., Bai C., Fu R., Wu A. 2010. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Phytomedicine 17(14):1145-1149 [23] Xiping Z, Jie Z, Shuyun Y, Qili W, Guanghua F, Yan P"Influence of Salvia miltiorrhizae on the mesenteric lymph node of rats with severe acute pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice." Mediators Inflamm 2009;2009:675195 [24] Ma HY, Gao HY, Sun L, Huang J, Xu XM, Wu LJ.,"Constituents with -glucosidase and advanced glycation end-product formation inhibitory activities from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge." J Nat Med. 2011 Jan;65(1):37-42 [25] Su CC, Chen GW, Kang JC, Chan MH.,"Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction by Tanshinone IIA in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells." Planta Med. 2008 Jul 11; [26] Ibrahim S. Abd-Elazema, Hong S. Chenb, Robert B. Batesc and Ru Chih C. Huang 2002. Isolation of two highly potent and non-toxic inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Antiviral Research 55(1):91106. doi:10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00011-6 abstract (http:/ / linkinghub. elsevier. com/ retrieve/ pii/ S0166354202000116) [27] Chung T.-W., Koo B.-S., Kim K.-O., Jeong H.-S., Kim M.-G., Chung K.-H., Lee I.-S., Kim C.-H. 2006. Salviae Miltiorrhizae BGE Radix increases rat striatal K +-stimulated dopamine release and activates the dopamine release with protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Neurochemical Research 31:1 (109-120) [28] Protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae on oxidative stress in rats with focal cerebral ischemia Liu C., Min L.-Q., Ji Z.-S., Wang Q., Jia Y.-J., Li S.-Y. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2006 10:3 (37-39) [29] Chin A., Yang Y., Chai L., Wong R.W.K., Rabie A.-B.M. "Effects of medicinal herb salvia miltiorrhiza on osteoblastic cells in vitro", Journal of Orthopaedic Research (http:/ / onlinelibrary. wiley. com/ journal/ 10. 1002/ (ISSN)1554-527X) 2011 29:7 (1059-1063) [30] Pan RH, Xie FY, Chen HM, Xu LZ, Wu XC, Xu LL, Yao G"Salvianolic acid B reverses the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of HK-2 cells that is induced by transforming growth factor-." Arch Pharm Res. 2011 Mar;34(3):477-83 [31] Chan, T.Y. 2001. Interaction between warfarin and danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 501504. DOI 10.1345/aph.19029 abstract (http:/ / www. theannals. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 35/ 4/ 501) Retrieved on 06.08.2009

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External links
Salvia and the History of Microcirculation Research in China (http://www.itmonline.org/arts/salvia.htm) Salvia miltiorrhiza List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases) (http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/ duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=887)

Schisandra chinensis

86

Schisandra chinensis
Schisandra chinensis

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Austrobaileyales Schisandraceae Schisandra S. chinensis Binomial name Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.[1] Synonyms

Kadsura chinensis - Turcz.[1][2] Maximowiczia chinensis - (Turcz.) Rupr.[2] Schisandra japonica - (Siebold. & Zucc. ex A. Gray.) Hance.[2]

Schisandra chinensis

87

Schisandra chinensis ( in Chinese, pinyin: w wi zi, literally "five flavor berry" which is its common name[1]) is a deciduous woody vine native to forests of Northern China and the Russian Far East. It is hardy in USDA Zone 4. The plant likes some shade with moist, well-drained soil. The species itself is dioecious, thus flowers on a female plant will only produce fruit when fertilized with pollen from a male plant. However, there is a hybrid selection titled "Eastern Prince" which has perfect flowers and is self-fertile. Gardeners should beware that seedlings of "Eastern Prince" are sometimes sold under the same name but are typically single-sex plants.

A mug of Korean omija cha (w wi zi tea), with added pine nuts

Growing information
Schizandra is native to northern and northeastern China. Cultivation requirements are thought to be similar to those of grapes.[3][4] Schisandra chinensis is hardy to US Zone 4. Plants require conditions of moderate humidity and light, together with a wet, humus-rich soil. Tens of tons of berries are used annually in Russia in the Primorsky and Khabarovsky regions for the commercial manufacture of juices, wines, extracts and sweets.

Etymology
Its Chinese name comes from the fact that its berries possess all five basic flavors: salty, sweet, sour, pungent (spicy), and bitter. Sometimes it is more specifically called bi w wi zi ((Chinese: ); literally "northern five flavor berry") to distinguish it from another traditionally medicinal schisandraceous plant Kadsura japonica that grows only in subtropical areas. Another variant of schizandra berry is that of Schisandra sphenanthera which has a similar but different biochemical profile; the Chinese pharmaceopia distinguishes between Schisandra chinensis (bi w wi zi) and Schisandra sphenanthera (nan w wi zi).[5]

Uses
General uses
Its berries are used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs. They are most often used in dried form, and boiled to make a tea. Medicinally it is used as a tonic and restorative adaptogen with notable clinically documented liver protecting effects. The primary hepatoprotective (liver protecting) and immuno-modulating constituents are the lignans schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin, which are found in the seeds of the fruit. It should not be used by pregnant women.

Schisandra chinensis China In China, a wine is made from the berries.[6] Korea In Korean the berries are known as omija (hangul: ), and the tea made from the berries is called omija cha (hangul: ); see Korean tea. Japan In Japanese, they are called gomishi (Japanese: ). The Ainu people used this plant, called repnihat, as a remedy for colds and sea-sickness.[7] Russia In 1998, Russia released a postage stamp depicting S. chinensis. photo [8] (Russian: )

88

Use in traditional Chinese medicine


In traditional Chinese medicine, Schisandra chinensis (known as wu wei zi (Chinese: )) is believed to: 1. Astringe Lung Qi and nourish the Kidneys 2. 3. 4. 5. Restrain the essence and stop Diarrhea--astringent Kidneys Arrest excessive sweating from Yin or Yang deficiency Calm the Spirit by tonification of Heart and Kidney Generate body fluids and alleviate thirst

Traditional uses in Russia


The great interest in Limonnik (Schisandra chinensis) in Russia arises from results of ethnopharmacological investigations of Russian scientists in the Far East regions where the berries and seeds were used by Nanai (Goldes or Samagir) hunters to improve night vision, as a tonic and to reduce hunger, thirst and exhaustion since it gives forces to follow a sable all the day without food.[9] "Pharmacological studies on animals have shown that Schizandra increases physical working capacity and affords a stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including heat shock, skin burn, cooling, frostbite, immobilisation, swimming under load in an atmosphere with decreased air pressure, aseptic inflammation, irradiation, and heavy metal intoxication. The phytoadaptogen exerts an effect on the central nervous, sympathetic, endocrine, immune, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal systems, on the development of experimental atherosclerosis, on blood sugar and acid-base balance, and on uterus myotonic activity."[9]

Chemistry
Two major lignans, schizandrin and gomisin A, have been shown to induce interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 , and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release by THP-1 cells. Therefore, S. Chinensis may be therapeutically beneficial in promoting the body's humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.[10] Schizandrin is one of the main dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans present in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis. In vitro biological activities including hepatoprotective, antiviral and neuroprotective effects of schizandrin and other dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans have been reported.[11] Recent studies have demonstrated that schizandrin exhibits anti-oxidative effects in mice.[12] Other chemical constituents include schisandrin B, -terpinene, bisabolene (+)-gomisin K2, gomisin S, pregomisin, schisantherin A, schicantherin B, angeloylgomisin Q, and rubrildilactione.[13]

Schisandra chinensis

89

Gallery

Fruit

Seeds

Berries

References
[1] "Schisandra chinensis information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?70678). USDA. . Retrieved 2008-02-19. [2] "Schisandra chinensis - Plants For A Future database report" (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ database/ plants. php?Schisandra+ chinensis). www.pfaf.org. . Retrieved 2008-03-10. [3] http:/ / bayflora. com/ magnoliavine. html [4] http:/ / whatcom. wsu. edu/ ag/ homehort/ plant/ Magnolia. htm [5] Difference between Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TG8-4TJ1HM5-1& _user=10& _coverDate=03/ 13/ 2009& _rdoc=1& _fmt=high& _orig=search& _origin=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1537610333& _rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=5bbf9a7c33301a7c24291dde428ecbce& searchtype=a) [6] (http:/ / www. jsfa. cn/ sql/ users/ upload/ img-200411250947561. jpg) [7] Batchelor, John; Miyabe, Kingo (1893). "Ainu economic plants". Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan (R. Meiklejohn & Co) 51: 198240. [8] http:/ / www. plantstamps. net/ stamps/ russia/ 1998_Wild_Fruits/ schisandra_chinensis_s. jpg [9] Panossian A. Wikman G. "Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: an overview of Russian research and uses in medicine. [Review]" Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 118(2):183-212, 2008 Jul 23. [10] Lin RD, Mao YW, Leu SJ, Huang CY, Lee MH.,"The immuno-regulatory effects of Schisandra chinensis and its constituents on human monocytic leukemia cells." Molecules. 2011;16(6):4836-49 [11] Kim SJ. Min HY. Lee EJ. Kim YS. Bae K. Kang SS. Lee SK. 'Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 by schizandrin, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, on T47D human breast cancer cells." Phytotherapy Research. 24(2):193-7, 2010 Feb. [12] Guo LY. Hung TM. Bae KH. Shin EM. Zhou HY. Hong YN. Kang SS. Kim HP. Kim YS.,"Anti-inflammatory effects of schisandrin isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill." European Journal of Pharmacology. 591(1-3):293-9, 2008 Sep 4.

Schisandra chinensis
[13] Xu XM, Li L, Chen M., "Studies on the chemical constituents of Schisandra pubescens". Zhong Yao Cai (http:/ / www. scimagojr. com/ journalsearch. php?q=21500& tip=sid). 2009 Sep;32(9):1399-401.

90

Further reading
Winston, David, and Steven Maimes. ADAPTOGENS: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press, 2007. (Contains a detailed monograph on S. chinensis as well as a discussion of health benefits.)

External links
Photo of dried S. chinensis berries (http://www.brion.org.tw/upload/Schisandra chinensis.JPG) Schizandra chinensis List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases) (http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/ duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=909) Wuweizi site (http://www.lnny.net/special/wuweizi/) (Chinese)

Suma root

91

Suma root
Suma root Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Core eudicots Order: Family: Genus: Species: Caryophyllales Amaranthaceae Pfaffia P. paniculata

Binomial name Pfaffia paniculata (Mart.) Kuntze Suma also called Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia paniculata syn. Hebanthe paniculata, Gomphrena paniculata, Gomphrena eriantha, Iresine erianthos, Iresine paniculata, Iresine tenuis, Pfaffia eriantha, Xeraea paniculata [1]) is the root of a rambling ground vine found in South America used traditionally as a medicine and tonic. Nicknamed "para tudo" which means "for all," suma is a traditional herbal medicine. Suma contains germanium, beta-ecdysterone, allantoin, and a group of novel phytochemical saponins called pfaffosides.

References
Vieira, Roberto F. (1999) Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in Brazil. [2] p. 152159. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. [3] ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

Notes
[1] Pfaffia paniculata (http:/ / www. rain-tree. com/ suma. htm) at Tropical Plant Database (http:/ / www. rain-tree. com/ plants. htm) [2] http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ proceedings1999/ v4-152. html [3] http:/ / www. hort. purdue. edu/ newcrop/ proceedings1999/ v4-toc. html

Withania somnifera

92

Withania somnifera
Withania somnifera

Ashvagandha plant at Talkatora Gardens, Delhi

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Solanales Solanaceae Withania W. somnifera Binomial name Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Synonyms[1]

Physalis somnifera L. Withania kansuensis Kuang & A. M. Lu Withania microphysalis Suess.

Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha,[2] Indian ginseng, or winter cherry,[2] is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar.[3] It is used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine.

Withania somnifera

93

Description
It grows as a short shrub (3575cm) with a central stem from which branches extend radially in a star pattern (stellate) and covered with a dense matte of wooly hairs (tomentose). The flowers are small and green, while the ripe fruit is orange-red and has milk-coagulating properties. The plant's long, brown, tuberous roots are used for medicinal purposes.[4]

Etymology
Ashwagandha in Sanskrit means "horse's smell" (ashwa- horse, gandha- smell), probably originating from the odour of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse. The species name somnifera means "sleep-inducing" in Latin.[5]

Cultivation
Withania somnifera is cultivated in many of the drier regions of India, such as Mandsaur District of Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Sindh, and Rajasthan.[4] It is also found in Nepal.

Climatic conditions for growth


Withania somnifera is grown as late rainy-season (kharif) crop. Semitropical areas receiving 500 to 750mm rainfall are suitable for its cultivation as a rainfed crop. If one or two winter rains are received, then root development improves. The crop requires a relatively dry season during its growing period. It can tolerate a temperature range of 20 to 38C and as low a temperature as 10C. The plant grows from sea level to an altitude of 1500 meters.

Pathology
Withania somnifera is prone to several pests and diseases. Leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata is the most prevalent disease, which is most severe in the plains of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Biodeterioration of its pharmaceutically active components during leaf spot disease has been reported.[6] Oxyrachis tarandus (a treehopper/cowbug species) feeds on the apical portions of the stem, making them rough and woody in appearance and brown in colour. The apical leaves are shed and the plant gradually dies away.[7] Carmine red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is the most prevalent pest of Withania somnifera in India.[8]

Culinary use
The berries can be used as a substitute for rennet, to coagulate milk in cheese-making.[4]

Medicinal use
The main active constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include tropine and cuscohygrine. The leaves contain the steroidal lactones, withanolides, notably withaferin A, which was the first withanolide to be isolated from W. somnifera.

Traditional medicinal uses


In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves of W. somnifera are locally applied to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers.[4] The roots of W. somnifera are used to prepare the herbal remedy ashwagandha, which has been traditionally used to treat various symptoms and conditions.[4][9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

Withania somnifera

94

Tumour growth
Recent research in mice indicates that withaferin A has anti-metastatic activity.[15][16][17][18][19]

Alzheimer's dementia
The effect of a semipurified root extract of W. somnifera containing mostly withanolides was investigated using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The transgenic mice showed reversal of behavioral deficits and plaque load after treatment with the extract for 30 days.[20][21]

Side effects
In two published clinical trials of W. somnifera, the side effects were not significantly different from those experienced by placebo-treated individuals.[12][22] A case report implicated ashwaganda as the cause of thyrotoxicosis in a 32-year old female who had taken ashwaganada extract capsules for symptoms of chronic fatigue.[23]

References
[1] "Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal" (http:/ / www. tropicos. org/ Name/ 29600341?tab=synonyms). Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden. . Retrieved 25 Feb 2012. [2] "Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?102407). Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. . Retrieved 2011-10-29. [3] Gupta, A.; Mittal, A.; Jha, K. K.; Kumar, A. (2011). "Natures treasurer: plants acting on colon cancer" (http:/ / www. jspb. ru/ issues/ 2011/ N4/ JSPB_2011_4_217-231. pdf) (pdf). Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 7 (4): 217231. . [4] Mirjalili, M. H.; Moyano, E.; Bonfill, M.; Cusido, R. M.; Palazn, J. (2009). "Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine". Molecules 14 (7): 23732393. doi:10.3390/molecules14072373. PMID19633611. [5] Stearn, W. T. (1995). Botanical Latin: History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary (4th ed.). Timber Press. ISBN0-88192-321-4. [6] This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template:cite_doi/ _10. 1007. 2fs12088-008-0053-y_?preload=Template:Cite_doi/ preload& editintro=Template:Cite_doi/ editintro& action=edit) [7] Sharma, A.; Pati, P. K. (2011). "First report of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, as a New Host of Cowbug (Oxyrachis tarandus, Fab.) In Plains of Punjab, Northern India" (http:/ / idosi. org/ wasj/ wasj14(9)11/ 13. pdf) (pdf). World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (9): 13441346. ISSN1818-4952. . [8] Sharma, A.; Pati, P. K. (2012). "First record of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, infesting Withania somnifera in India" (http:/ / www. insectscience. org/ 12. 50/ i1536-2442-12-50. pdf) (pdf). Journal of Insect Science 12. ISSN1536-2442. . [9] Scartezzini, P.; Speroni, E. (2000). "Review on some Plants of Indian Traditional Medicine with Antioxidant Activity". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 71 (12): 2343. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00213-0. PMID10904144. [10] Ven Murthy, M. R.; Ranjekar, P. K.; Ramassamy, C.; Deshpande, M. (2010). "Scientific Basis for the Use of Indian Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Ashwagandha". Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 10 (3): 238246. PMID20528765. [11] Ahmad, M. K.; Mahdi, A. A.; Shukla, K. K.; Islam, N.; Rajender, S.; Madhukar, D.; Shankhwar, S. N.; Ahmad, S. (2010). "Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males". Fertility and Sterility 94 (3): 989996. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.046. PMID19501822. [12] Cooley, K.; Szczurko, O.; Perri, D.; Mills, E. J.; Bernhardt, B.; Zhou, Q.; Seely, D. (2009). Gagnier, Joel. ed. "Naturopathic Care for Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial ISRCTN78958974". PLoS ONE 4 (8): e6628. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006628. PMC2729375. PMID19718255. [13] "Ashwagandha" (http:/ / www. mskcc. org/ mskcc/ html/ 69127. cfm). About Herbs. New York: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. . [14] Alternative Medicine Review 5 (4). 2000.|url=http:/ / www. altmedrev. com/ publications/ 5/ 4/ 334. pdf|title=Scientific Basis for the Therapeutic Use of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): A Review|author=Lakshmi-Chandra Mishra, Betsy B. Singh, Simon Dagenais}} [15] Koduru, S.; Kumar, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Evers, M. B.; Damodaran, C. (2010). "Notch-1 inhibition by Withaferin-A: A therapeutic target against colon carcinogenesis". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 9 (1): 202210. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0771. PMC3041017. PMID20053782. [16] Thaiparambil, J. T.; Bender, L.; Ganesh, T.; Kline, E.; Patel, P.; Liu, Y.; Tighiouart, M.; Vertino, P. M. et al (2011). "Withaferin A inhibits breast cancer invasion and metastasis at sub-cytotoxic doses by inducing vimentin disassembly and serine 56 phosphorylation". International

Withania somnifera
Journal of Cancer 129 (11): 27442755. doi:10.1002/ijc.25938. PMID21538350. [17] S. Prasanna Kumar, P. Shilpa, B. P. Salimath (2009). "Withaferin A suppresses the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells via Sp1 transcription factor". Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 3 (2): 138148. [18] Mohan, R; Hammers, HJ; Bargagna-Mohan, P; Zhan, XH; Herbstritt, CJ; Ruiz, A; Zhang, L; Hanson, AD et al (2004). "Withaferin a is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis". Angiogenesis 7 (2): 11522. doi:10.1007/s10456-004-1026-3. PMID 15516832. [19] Mulabagal, V.; Subbaraju, G. V.; Rao, C. V.; Sivaramakrishna, C.; Dewitt, D. L.; Holmes, D.; Sung, B.; Aggarwal, B. B. et al (2009). "Withanolide sulfoxide from Aswagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase and tumor cell proliferation". Phytotherapy Research 23 (7): 987992. doi:10.1002/ptr.2736. PMID19152372. [20] Sehgal, N.; Gupta, A.; Valli, R. K.; Joshi, S. D.; Mills, J. T.; Hamel, E.; Khanna, P.; Jain, S. C.; Thakur, S. S.; Ravindranath, V. (2012). "Withania somnifera reverses Alzheimer's disease pathology by enhancing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in liver". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (9): 35103515. doi:10.1073/pnas.1112209109. PMID22308347. [21] Dries, D. R.; Yu, G.; Herz, J. (2012). "Extracting -amyloid from Alzheimer's Disease". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (9): 31993200. doi:10.1073/pnas.1121560109. PMC3295249. PMID22328154. [22] This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template:cite_doi/ _10. 1097. 2f01. rhu. 0000138087. 47382. 6d_?preload=Template:Cite_doi/ preload& editintro=Template:Cite_doi/ editintro& action=edit) [23] Van Der Hooft, C. S.; Hoekstra, A.; Winter, A.; De Smet, P. A.; Stricker, B. H. (2005). "Thyrotoxicosis following the Use of Ashwagandha". Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 149 (47): 26372638. PMID16355578.

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Rhodiola rosea

96

Rhodiola rosea
Rhodiola rosea

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Core eudicots Saxifragales Crassulaceae Rhodiola R. rosea Binomial name Rhodiola rosea L.[1] Synonyms Sedum rosea (L.) Scop. Sedum rhodiola DC. Rhodiola arctica Boriss. Rhodiola iremelica Boriss. Rhodiola scopolii Simonk. Sedum scopolii Simonk. , Solotoy Koren Rhodiola rosea (Golden Root, Roseroot, Aaron's Rod) is a plant in the Crassulaceae family that grows in cold regions of the world. These include much of the Arctic, the mountains of Central Asia, the Rocky Mountains, and mountainous parts of Europe, such as the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathian Mountains, Scandinavia, Iceland, Great Britain and Ireland. The perennial plant grows in areas up to 2280 meters elevation. Several shoots grow from the same thick root. Shoots reaches 5 to 35cm in height. Rhodiola rosea is dioecious having separate female and male plants.

Rhodiola rosea

97

Uses
Rhodiola rosea may be effective for improving mood and alleviating depression. Pilot studies on human subjects[2][3][4] showed that it improves physical and mental performance, and may reduce fatigue. Rhodiola rosea's effects are potentially mediated by changes in serotonin and dopamine levels due to monoamine oxidase inhibition and its influence on opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin,[5] although these specific neurochemical mechanisms have not been clearly documented with scientific studies.
Plant

Rhodiola is included among a class of plant derivatives called adaptogens which differ from chemical stimulants, such as nicotine, and do not have the same physiological effects.

In Russia and Scandinavia, Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries to cope with the cold Siberian climate and stressful life.[6] Such effects were provided with evidence in laboratory models of stress using the nematode C. elegans,[7] and in rats in which Rhodiola effectively prevented stress-induced changes in appetite, physical activity, weight gain and the estrus cycle.[8] Rhodiola has been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is called hng jng tin ().

Phytochemicals and potential health effects


The dried rhizomes contained essential oil with the main chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and straight chain aliphatic alcohols were the most abundant volatiles detected in the essential oil, and a total of 86 compounds were identified (Rohloff, 2002). Geraniol was identified as the most important rose-like odor compound besides geranyl formate, geranyl acetate, benzyl alcohol and phenylethyl alcohol. Its oxygenated metabolite Rosiridol is an aglycon of Rosiridin (Kurkin et al., 1985a; Kurkin and Zapesochnaya, 1986b) - one of the most active constituents of Rhodiola in bioassay guided fractionation of Rhodiolathe extract.[9] Rosiridin was found to inhibit monoamine oxidases A and B in vitro implying its potential beneficial effect in depression and senile dementia.[9] More than 50 polar compounds were isolated from the water alcoholic extracts, they are: monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, aryl glycosides, proanthocyanidins and other gallic acid derivatives. (Zapeschnaya, and Kurkin, 1983, 1983; Kurkin et al., 1985a; Kurkin, and Zapesochnaya, 1986a,b; Ganzera et al., 2001; Tolonen et al.,2003; Saratikov and Krasnov, 2004; Akgul et al., 2004; Ma et al.2006, Yousef et al., 2006, Ali et al.,2008; Avula et al., 2008). Rhodiola rosea contains a variety of compounds that may contribute to its effects,[10] including the class of rosavins which include rosavin, rosarin, and rosin. Several studies have suggested that the most active components are likely to be rhodioloside and tyrosol,[11] with other components being inactive when administered alone, but showing synergistic effects when a fixed combination of rhodioloside, rosavin, rosarin and rosin was used.[12] Although rosavin, rosarin, rosin and salidroside (and sometimes p-tyrosol, rhodioniside, rhodiolin and rosiridin) are among suspected active ingredients of Rhodiola rosea, these compounds are mostly polyphenols for which no physiological effect in humans is proved to

Withering flower

prevent or reduce risk of disease.[13]

Rhodiola rosea Although these phytochemicals are typically mentioned as specific to Rhodiola extracts, there are many other constituent phenolic antioxidants, including proanthocyanidins, quercetin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and kaempferol.[14][15] While animal tests have suggested a variety of beneficial effects for Rhodiola rosea extracts[16] there is scientific evidence only for depression as a benefit in humans. A clinical trial showed significant effect for a Rhodiola extract in doses of 340680mg per day in male and female patients from 18 to 70 years old with mild to moderate depression.[17] Another study also found antidepressant properties,[18] possibly via the plant's inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B.[19] Rodiola Rosea promotes the release of NO from rat penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cell and artery endothelium cell, which was correlated with the effect of Rodiola Rosea to resist senility.[20] Rhodiola rosea extract exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance, particularly the ability to concentrate in healthy subjects[3][21][2] and burnout patients with fatigue syndrome.[22] Rhodiola significantly reduced symptoms of fatigue and improved attention after four weeks of repeated administration.[22] Studies on whether Rhodiola improves physical performance have been inconclusive, with some studies showing some benefit,[23] while others show no significant difference.[24] Inhibitory activities against HIV-1 protease have also been studied.[25]

98

Dosage
Rhodiola rosea extract is mainly used in the form of capsules or a tablet, though tinctures are also available. The capsules and tablets often contain 100mg of a standardized amount of 3 percent rosavins and 0.81 percent salidroside because the naturally occurring ratio of these compounds in Rhodiola rosea root is approximately 3:1. Authentication as well as potency of golden root crude drug materials and standardized extracts thereof are carried out with validated RP-HPLC analyses to verify the content of the marker constituents salidroside, rosarin, rosavin, rosin and rosiridin.[26] However, as with many plant-based remedies, an approved dosage range in relation to the active constituents has officially not been established. In these cases, dosage recommendations of the individual manufacturers should be followed.

Dried Rhodiola rosea root

A typical dosage is one or two capsules or tablets daily; one in the morning and when taking two, one in the early afternoon. Rhodiola rosea should be taken early in the day because for some it can interfere with sleep. Others can take it in the evening with no effect on sleep patterns. If a user becomes overly activated, jittery or agitated then a smaller dose with very gradual increases may be needed. It is contraindicated in excited states. The dose may be increased to 200mg three times a day if needed. A high dose is considered to be daily intakes of 1,000mg and above. Rhodiola rosea may be beneficial to increase energy and mental performance for people suffering from Hashimoto's disease. In a 2007 clinical trial from Armenia, total effective doses were in the range of 340680mg per day for people aged 18 to 70. No side effects were demonstrated at these doses in the treatment of mild to moderate depression.[27]

Rhodiola rosea

99

References
[1] "Rhodiola rosea - Plants For A Future database report" (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ user/ Plant. aspx?LatinName=Rhodiola rosea). www.pfaf.org. . Retrieved 2008-02-23. [2] Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. (Mar 2003). "A randomized trial of two different doses of Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work". Phytomedicine 10 (23): 95105. doi:10.1078/094471103321659780. PMID12725561. [3] Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H (Oct 2000). "Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatiguea double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty". Phytomedicine 7 (5): 36571. doi:10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0. PMID11081987. [4] Ha Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, et al. (Sep 2002). "[The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude]" (in Chinese). Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 25 (9): 52730. PMID12423559. [5] Gregory S. Kelly, ND, (2001). "Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen". Alternative Medicine Review 6 (3): 293302. PMID11410073. [6] http:/ / www. cbceurope. it/ images/ stories/ file/ chemical/ RhodiolaExtract. pdf [7] Wiegant FA, Surinova S, Ytsma E, Langelaar-Makkinje M, Wikman G, Post JA (Jun 2008). "Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans". Biogerontology 10 (1): 2742. doi:10.1007/s10522-008-9151-9. PMID18536978. [8] Mattioli L, Funari C, Perfumi M (May 2008). "Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats". Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford) 23 (2): 13042. doi:10.1177/0269881108089872. PMID18515456. [9] van Diermen, 2009 (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pubmed/ 19168123) Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. [10] Kucinskaite A, Briedis V, Savickas A (2004). "[Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine (http:/ / medicina. kmu. lt/ 0407/ 0407-02l. pdf)"] (in Lithuanian). Medicina (Kaunas) 40 (7): 6149. PMID15252224. . [11] Mao Y, Li Y, Yao N (Nov 2007). "Simultaneous determination of salidroside and tyrosol in extracts of Rhodiola L. by microwave assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography". J Pharm Biomed Anal 45 (3): 5105. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2007.05.031. PMID17628386. [12] Panossian A, Nikoyan N, Ohanyan N, et al. (Jan 2008). "Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats". Phytomedicine 15 (12): 8491. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.10.003. PMID18054474. [13] Boudet AM (2007). "Evolution and current status of research in phenolic compounds". Phytochemistry 68 (2224): 272235. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.06.012. PMID17643453. [14] Yousef GG, Grace MH, Cheng DM, Belolipov IV, Raskin I, Lila MA (Nov 2006). "Comparative phytochemical characterization of three Rhodiola species". Phytochemistry 67 (21): 238091. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.026. PMID16956631. [15] Liu Q, Liu ZL, Tian X (Feb 2008). "[Phenolic components from Rhodiola dumulosa]" (in Chinese). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 33 (4): 4113. PMID18533499. [16] Perfumi M, Mattioli L (Jan 2007). "Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice". Phytother Res 21 (1): 3743. doi:10.1002/ptr.2013. PMID17072830. [17] Darbinyan V, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, Malmstrm C, Panossian A (2007). "Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract in the treatment of mild to moderate depression". Nord J Psychiatry 61 (5): 3438. doi:10.1080/08039480701643290. PMID17990195. [18] Dwyer AV, Whitten DL, Hawrelak JA (March 2011). "Herbal medicines, other than St. John's Wort, in the treatment of depression: a systematic review" (http:/ / www. altmedrev. com/ publications/ 16/ 1/ 40. pdf) (PDF). Altern Med Rev 16 (1): 409. PMID21438645. . [19] van Diermen, D.; Marston, A.; Bravo, J.; Reist, M.; Carrupt, PA.; Hostettmann, K. (Mar 2009). "Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots.". J Ethnopharmacol 122 (2): 397-401. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.01.007. PMID19168123. [20] Effect of Rodiola on level of NO and NOS in cultured rats penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cell and artery endothelium cell Kong X., Shi F., Chen Y., Lu H., Yao M., Hu M. Chinese Journal of Andrology 2007 21:10 (6-11) [21] Spasov. A.A., Mandrikov, V.B., Mitonova, I.A., 2000b. The effect of Dhodaxonon psycho-physiologic and physical adaptation of students to the academic load. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 63 (1), 76-78. [22] Olsson E.M.G., von Schele B., Panossian A.G. (2009). "A randomized double-blind placebo controlled parallel group study of an extract of Rhodiola rosea roots as treatment for patients with stress related fatigue". Planta medica 75 (2): 105112. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1088346. PMID19016404. [23] De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P (Jun 2004). "Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance". Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14 (3): 298307. PMID15256690. [24] Walker TB, Altobelli SA, Caprihan A, Robergs RA (Aug 2007). "Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men". Metab Clin Exp. 56 (8): 11117. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.04.004. PMID17618958. [25] Screening of Korean plants against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease Min B.S., Bae K.H., Kim Y.H., Miyashiro H., Hattori M., Shimotohno K. Phytotherapy Research 1999 13:8 (680-682) [26] Ganzera M, Yayla Y, Khan IA (April 2001). "Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography" (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pubmed/ 11310675). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 49 (4): 4657. doi:10.1248/cpb.49.465. PMID11310675. . [27] Darbinyan, V.; Aslanyan, G.; Amroyan, E.; Gabrielyan, E.; Malmstroumlm, C.; Panossian, A. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 61, Issue 5 2007 , pages 343348.

Rhodiola rosea 29. Panossian, A., Wikman, G. 2010. Rosenroot (Roseroot): Traditional Use, Chemical Composition, Pharmacology, and Clinical Efficacy. Phytomedicine 17(5-6): 481-493. DOI 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002 30. Bozhilova, M. 2011. Salidroside content in Rhodiola rosea L., dynamics and varyability. In: Botanica Serbica 35 (1): 3-6. http://botanicaserbica.bio.bg.ac.rs/arhiva/pdf/2011_35_1_533_full.pdf

100

External links
Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (http://www.mun.ca/biology/delta/arcticf/_ca/www/crsero.htm) Science News Online, Warming to a Cold War Herb (http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070922/bob8. asp) Third Age, ThirdAge: Rhodiola rosea (http://www.thirdage.com/ebsco/files/111798.html) American Botanical Council, Rhodiola rosea: A Phytomedicinal Overview (http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/ herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=2333) Whole Health MD, Reference Library (http://www.wholehealthmd.com/ME2/dirmod. asp?sid=17E09E7CFFF640448FFB0B4FC1B7FEF0&nm=Reference+Library&type=AWHN_Supplements& mod=Supplements&mid=&id=BC6009ED692E4496AB9D44084CC3E746&tier=2) Alternative Medicine, The Herb that Came In from the Cold (http://www.alternativemedicine.com/common/ news/store_news.asp?task=store_news&SID_store_news=552& storeID=02AD61F001A74B5887D3BD11F6C28169) Plants For A Future, Rhodiola rosea Rose Root PFAF (http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhodiola+ rosea) Critical of effects on mountain sickness Wilderness Medical Society, Lack of Effect of Rhodiola on Hypoxemia and Oxidative Stress (http://www. wemjournal.org/wmsonline/?request=get-document&issn=1080-6032&volume=014&issue=01&page=0009) Swedish Medical Center, Acute Mountain Sickness (http://www.swedish.org/111650.cfm)

Further reading
Richard P. Brown, MD & Patricia L. Gerbarg with Barbara Graham. The Rhodiola Revolution" Rodale Press, 2004. A discussion of the benefits of Rhodiola rosea.

Rhodiola

101

Rhodiola
Rhodiola

Rhodiola heterodonta

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Core eudicots Saxifragales Crassulaceae Rhodiola L. Species Dozens. Included under Sedum at Wikispecies. This article is about a plant genus. For the species in this genus that is widely used in herbal medicine, see Rhodiola rosea. Rhodiola is a genus of perennial plants in the family Crassulaceae[1] that resemble Sedum and other members of the family. Like sedums, Rhodiola species are often called stonecrops. Some authors merge Rhodiola into Sedum.[2][3] Rhodiola species grow in high-altitude and other cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere.[4] Den virtuella floran gives the number of species as 36,[5] the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group gives it as 60,[1] and the Flora of China gives it as about 90, with 55 in China and 16 endemic there.[4] The USDA Plants database lists only 3 species in the United States and Canada.[6] Among the distinguishing characters of the genus are two series of stamens totaling twice the number of petals; free or nearly free petals (not joined in a tube); a stout rhizome from whose axils the flowering stems rise; and a basal rosette of leaves. This genus contains the only species of Crassulaceae that have unisexual flowers.[4][7] The Holarctic species Rhodiola rosea is used in herbal medicine. A number of species are grown as ornamentals, but growing them is difficult outside their native subarctic and alpine climates.[8]

Rhodiola The name combines the Greek rhodon, meaning rose and referring to the rose-like smell of the roots, with the Latin diminutive suffix -iola.[9]

102

Chemical composition
Rhodionin is a herbacetin rhamnoside found in Rhodiola species.[10]

Species list
Species include: Rhodiola integrifolia Rhodiola rhodantha

References
[1] Stevens, P. F. (Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since].), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. (http:/ / www. mobot. org/ MOBOT/ research/ APweb/ ), , retrieved 2009-07-26 [2] Ivey, Robert DeWitt (2003), Flowering Plants of New Mexico (Fourth ed.), RD & V Ivey, p.246, ISBN0-9612170-3-0 [3] "Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi" (http:/ / www. centerforplantconservation. org/ ASP/ CPC_ViewProfile. asp?CPCNum=7501), National Collection of Imperiled Plants, Center for Plant Conservation, 2008-01-29, , retrieved 2009-07-26 [4] Fu, Kunjun; Ohba, Hideaki; Gilbert, Michael G., "Rhodiola" (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=128370), Flora of China, 8, p.251, , retrieved 2009-07-26 [5] "Rhodiola L.: Rosenrtter" (http:/ / linnaeus. nrm. se/ flora/ di/ crassula/ rhodi/ welcome. html) (in Swedish), Den virtuella floran, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, 2000-04-18 [1997], , retrieved 2009-07-26 [6] USDA, NRCS (2009), "Rhodiola" (http:/ / plants. usda. gov/ java/ nameSearch?keywordquery=Rhodiola& mode=sciname& submit. x=0& submit. y=0), The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA: National Plant Data Center, , retrieved 2009-07-26 [7] Flora of China, 8, Crassulaceae (http:/ / www. efloras. org/ florataxon. aspx?flora_id=2& taxon_id=10225), p. 202 [8] Stephenson, Ray (1994), Sedum: Cultivated Stonecrops (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=Jo9VgQAsMtkC& pg=PA289), Timber Press, pp.289290, ISBN0-88192-238-2, , retrieved 2009-07-26 [9] Eggli, Url; Newton, Leonard E. (2004), Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=u2n5vusQ1DEC& pg=PA165& dq=Rhodiola+ integrifolia+ ornamental), Springer-Verlag, p.203, ISBN3-540-00489-0, , retrieved 2009-07-26 [10] Li, Tao; Zhang, Hao (2008), "Identification and Comparative Determination of Rhodionin in Traditional Tibetan Medicinal Plants of Fourteen Rhodiola Species by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry", Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 56 (6): 80714, doi:10.1248/cpb.56.807, PMID18520085

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Badagnani, Benlisquare, Carstor, Cuaxdon, Deli nk, Gabbe, Hesperian, KeepOpera, Look2See1, Meco, Quantumor, Robth, Sjschen, Stemonitis, Vuong Ngan Ha, 4 anonymous edits Devil's Club Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477613728 Contributors: Alynna Kasmira, Angilbas, AniMate, Asarelah, Beeblebrox, BlckKnght, BlueCanoe, CanadianLinuxUser, DanielCD, DoriSmith, Evergreen1217, FriscoKnight, Headbomb, Heah, Heathhunnicutt, Hesperian, In Defense of the Artist, IronGargoyle, Islander, JForget, JzG, Kingdon, Kobejr24, Kokot.kokotisko, Lemeyer, Leuqarte, Linguisticgeek, Luce nordica, Lyle Piratehog IV, MPF, Martpol, MrDarwin, North King, Peter Horn, Pfagerburg, Phronima, Pixeltoo, Polly, Poor Yorick, Qwertzy2, Rahulghose, Rbedmiston, RobertLeBlais, Stan Shebs, Stepa, SwisterTwister, Tainter, Tomcervenka, U-571, Unara, Wegge, WormRunner, WriterHound, Wsiegmund, Zacharyah, 79 anonymous edits Double steaming Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=483194359 Contributors: 24.4.254.xxx, Badagnani, Basilicofresco, Bejnar, Burschik, CBM, Comatose51, Conversion script, Dysmorodrepanis, Esprit15d, FiveRings, Glane23, Graham87, Hydrargyrum, Kowloonese, Longhair, Mav, Olivier, Oobopshark, Pekinensis, PierreAbbat, RJFJR, Sjschen, WOSlinker, Whkoh, 12 anonymous edits Eleutherococcus senticosus Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=487606032 Contributors: 1salam1, A-cai, Afkatk, Alexrexpvt, Alynna Kasmira, Axlq, Badagnani, Balsa10, Bobo192, Dana boomer, DanielCD, Dantelebeau, Davidbengtenglund, DrVeghead, Edgar181, El C, El3ctr0nika, Eleland, Ferengi121, First Light, Foolishben, Gaff, Halcionne, Heah, HedgeFundBob, Hesperian, Jonathan Drain, Jpsaleeby, Jusuwa, Khazar2, Kintetsubuffalo, Klausness, KnightRider, Ksvaughan2, Leo181, MPF, Mgiganteus1, Michael Bailes, Nposs, Nunquam Dormio, Ohnoitsjamie, Outriggr, Pekinensis, Qui1che, R'n'B, RDBrown, Rigadoun, Rkitko, Romistrub, Ronz, Stemonitis, TestPilot, U-571, Vectro, Vega216, VivaEmilyDavies, Wiki wiki1, WriterHound, , 77 anonymous edits Ginseng Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=492163181 Contributors: 1pixel, 1salam1, 86.** IP, Aasimar, Acroterion, Adnanzubairy, Alai, Alansohn, Allpowerful, AltaCare121, Alynna Kasmira, Amake, AmbassadorShras, Andrew Dalby, Annaapple, Apokryltaros, Arcadian, Aschwole, Auxin, Babayaga11235813, Badagnani, Ballsmyknee, Bartledan, Beeblebrox, Beetstra, BeiBeiJuliaWu, Beland, Bender235, Benlisquare, Bento00, Big Bird, Bindingtheory, Bluemoose, Bobman555, Bongwarrior, Boogaborg, BorgQueen, Boris Barowski, Borock, Bradeos Graphon, CALR, Cab88, Caeruleancentaur, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CardinalDan, Caspian blue, Ceyockey, Chadsnook, Charles Nguyen, Christian75, Citicat, Cmkeating2, Coaster7, Coconut91, Colonies Chris, Confuzion, Coppertwig, Corwin8, Crabbofix, Crispy park, Croq, Cs california, Csalsa, Curb Chain, DanielCD, DavidOaks, Dawaegel, Dean Wormer, Debresser, Deli nk, DerBorg, Diagramma Della Verita, Dino, Discospinster, Djayjp, Dockingman, Dominus, Dominus Vobisdu, Donhoraldo, Dr.frog, DrSKChoi, DragonZero, Dranorter, ESkog, Edgar181, El-Ahrairah, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Escaper27, Ethlogen, Everyking, Ewulp, Extrahitz, Fahadsadah, Feyrauth, Filll, FlyByPC, Foobaz, Foolishben, Fratrep, Frietjes, GB fan, Gail, Gaius Cornelius, Garkbit, Gene Nygaard, Geopilotwiki, Gil Dawson, Gilliam, Ginnre, Ginsing, Ginzag333, Glaurung, Gogo Dodo, Good friend100, Grammarmonger, Granateple, Grassfire, Gravix, Gwen Gale, Haiduc, Hairwizard91, HairyWombat, Heah, Herbythyme, Hesperian, HongQiGong, Hongthay, Hooters2, Hqb, Hu12, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Infopharm2, Iokseng, Ionius Mundus, Iridescent, Irishguy, Isfisk, J.delanoy, J04n, JTN, JamesStewart7, Jatlas, Jemijohn, Jerem43, Jfdwolff, Jogloran, John Nevard, Johnleemk, Jonjinx, Jpatokal, Jpsaleeby, Juliancolton, Justin W Smith, Jwgloverii, Katalaveno, Kaushal mehta, Kingpin13, Kintetsubuffalo, Kk407, Kowloonese, Kristoferb, Ksvaughan2, Kweonza, Laurusnobilis, Lavateraguy, Legoktm, Lenticel, Lesgles, Lewstherin, Lightblade, Linxbaijy, Locke9k, LyeRage, M5, MER-C, MPF, Madame Sosostris, Mailer diablo, Manokarthikeyank, Marac, Marcus-e, Marek69, Mario777Zelda, MarkkuP, Martial75, Master of the Orchalcos, Masterchilds, Materialscientist, Matth02, MatthewEHarbowy, McBrainz, McGeddon, Mconst, Melburnian, Mifter, Minkuo67, Mjunaidbabar, Mkativerata, Mongol, Moshe777, Motopower, Mywatz, N5iln, Naddy, Nasnema, Newbyguesses, Niceguyedc, Nintend06, Nipisiquit, Numbo3, ONEder Boy, Obsolete.fax, OfficeGirl, Ohnoitsjamie, Palmpilot900, Pekinensis, Pere prlpz, PeterMcBright, Peterdjones, Pharaoh of the Wizards, PhilKnight, Pickles8, Pinball22, Pinethicket, Pja123, Plovassy, Preslethe, PrestonH, Purpleturple, Pustelnik, Qui1che, Qwertzy2, Qwyrxian, Rahm Kota, Ralphbk, RandomAct, Ratman1999, Raysonho, Rdsmith4, RedWolf, Remember, Repku, Reza1615, Rgoodermote, Rich Farmbrough, Richiez, Ritchy, Rjwilmsi, Roadrunner, Robbiemuffin, Rogermw, Ronhjones, Ronz, Royalbroil, Royalguard11, Samir75, Samoht21, Santoshmaharjan, Scvarsity7, Senatorr, Shadowjams, Shrigley, Siamagoo, Singhalawap, SiobhanHansa, Sjschen, Skizzik, Skysmith, Slashme, Smalljim, Smeggysmeg, Snowolf, Sopoforic, Soporaeternus, Stebulus, SteveH37, Stonejag, Stupid2, SunCountryGuy01, Surv1v4l1st, Sverrebm, Syaifulshah, Sylent, Syntheta, Tadorne, Teammm, TenPoundHammer, The.real.monkey.d.luffy, Tiagofassoni, TimBentley, Tomchiukc, Transcendence, Transity, TrentandtheAcrobats, Trulystand700, Turzh, Una Smith, Valentinejoesmith, Vectro, Vivio Testarossa, WODUP, Wafulz, Waitak, Wayfarers43, Wbmag129, WhatamIdoing, Why Not A Duck, Wiki wiki1, Wikidenizen, Wiwaxia, Wmahan, WormRunner, WriterHound, Xpiamchris, Yakushima, Yeahsoo, Zharmad, Zoohouse, , 606 anonymous edits Ginsenoside Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=488880488 Contributors: Arcadian, Badagnani, Beetstra, Bmicomp, Bobertface, Canterbury Tail, Chris Capoccia, Confuzion, Deli nk, Deobrontanis, Edgar181, Fplay, Herbwhisperer, Icairns, Jag123, Kate, Kaushal mehta, Kupirijo, Marysunshine, Nono64, Okyea, Physchim62, Polyparadigm, Slashme, Tavilis, Temporaluser, Vtosha, Wendy258, YUL89YYZ, 73 , anonymous edits Gynostemma pentaphyllum Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=491045389 Contributors: 1salam1, Alynna Kasmira, Amatulic, Apokryltaros, Auxin, Axlq, Badagnani, CalendarWatcher, Cuaxdon, Deli nk, Dr.frog, Drdisque, EncycloPetey, Gekritzl, GreatWhiteNortherner, Herbwhisperer, HexaChord, Inge-Lyubov, Jpsaleeby, Kintetsubuffalo, Ksvaughan2, Mcofer, Megamix, Melchoir, Michael Bailes, Pekinensis, Polycarbons, Qui1che, Rjwilmsi, Rkitko, Sedola, ShahJahan, Vasi, Voytech, Wikievil666, Woohookitty, WriterHound, 47 anonymous edits Lepidium meyenii Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=491020233 Contributors: Abyssquick, Alan Rockefeller, Angr, Aschwole, Axlq, Beau, Cameron Scott, Chem-awb, ChemRR, ChrisGualtieri, DanielCD, David Legrand, Deli nk, Dets03ab, Dreamdnyc, DutchDevil, 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Fleming, Badagnani, Beetstra, Belovedfreak, Bobo192, Brad Polard, Bradtcordeiro, Burntsauce, Buybuydandavis, Cbfull, Ceyockey, Chem-awb, Cherkash, Chowbok, Chris the speller, Conti, DANK (usurped), Dakota.ryan, DanielCD, Dominic, Dr Gangrene, Dsp4, E. Sn0 =31337=, El3ctr0nika, Eugene van der Pijll, Everyking, Ezekiel2500, Finn-johs, Flakinho, Focuset, Fratrep, Fvw, Geoff918, Glorioussandwich, GranolaB, HalJor, Islander, J. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


file:Panax quinquefolius00.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Panax_quinquefolius00.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jacob Bigelow (1786-1879), text and coloured engravings file:Status TNC G3.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Status_TNC_G3.svg License: unknown Contributors: Pengo File:Americanginseng.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Americanginseng.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Drginseng File:MonkGinsengGarden.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MonkGinsengGarden.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Drginseng File:Marathonginsengberry.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Marathonginsengberry.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Drginseng File:protopanaxadiol.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Protopanaxadiol.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Edgar181 file:Dongquai cr.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dongquai_cr.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NIH File:Xi'an traditionnal medecine market (20).JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Xi'an_traditionnal_medecine_market_(20).JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Vberger File:Xi'an traditionnal medecine market (18).JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Xi'an_traditionnal_medecine_market_(18).JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Vberger File:Zh pharmacopoeia 1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zh_pharmacopoeia_1.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: user:snowyowls File:ChinesePatent-PlumFlower.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ChinesePatent-PlumFlower.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Dreamingclouds File:Seahorse Skeleton Macro 8 - edit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seahorse_Skeleton_Macro_8_-_edit.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Jon Zander (Digon3)"; 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Original uploader was Kristoferb at en.wikipedia File:Ginseng in Korea.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ginseng_in_Korea.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Caspian blue, Quadell, Tangopaso, Wmahan File:Seoul-Namdaemun.Market-ginseng.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seoul-Namdaemun.Market-ginseng.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: yarra64 (a flickr user) File:Ginsengernte in Walsrode.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ginsengernte_in_Walsrode.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: FloraFarm GmbH Katharina Lohrie Image:Ginsenoside Rg1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ginsenoside_Rg1.png License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Physchim62 File:Yes check.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yes_check.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie Image:X mark.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:X_mark.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gmaxwell file:Jiaogulan.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jiaogulan.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: bauty File:Jiaogulan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jiaogulan.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: ShahJahan file:Maca.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maca.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Bff, Gust4vo, OhanaUnited File:(1R, 3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-carboline-3-carboxylic acid.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:(1R,_3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-carboline-3-carboxylic_acid.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Nuklear Image:Squashes.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Squashes.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Californiacondor Image:Vikings-Voyages.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vikings-Voyages.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: A-giu, Chaddy, DJ Sturm, David Kernow, Electionworld, Fabartus, Glenn, Helix84, Keraunoscopia, LX, Peregrine981, Twas Now, Vihelik, Wknight94, 5 anonymous edits Image:Varangian routes.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Varangian_routes.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Briangotts, Electionworld, It Is Me Here, Mahahahaneapneap, Warburg, 3 anonymous edits Image:Close up grapes.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Close_up_grapes.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Edward, Fetchcomms, Fir0002, Lambiam, Salix, 1 anonymous edits Image:helmeted guinea fowl.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Helmeted_guinea_fowl.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Steve from washington, dc, usa Image:Map of fertile cresent.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_of_fertile_cresent.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Nafsadh file:Status iucn3.1 EN.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Status_iucn3.1_EN.svg License: unknown Contributors: Pengo, 2 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


file:Salviamiltiorrhiza.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Salviamiltiorrhiza.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: First Light (talk) file:Schisandra sinensis.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisandra_sinensis.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Doronenko 08:40, 9 April 2007 (UTC) Image:Korean.tea-Omijacha-02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Korean.tea-Omijacha-02.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: abex Image:Schisa01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisa01.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Kirkbride, J.H., Jr., C.R. Gunn, and M.J. Dallwitz Image:Schisa02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisa02.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Robert J. Gibbons Image:Schisandra chinensis berries.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisandra_chinensis_berries.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: English: Vladimir Kosolapov Image:Schisandra chinensis 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisandra_chinensis_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: English: Vladimir Kosolapov Image:Schisandra chinensis 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisandra_chinensis_2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: English: Vladimir Kosolapov Image:Schisandra chinensis 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schisandra_chinensis_3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: English: Vladimir Kosolapov file:ashvagandha.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ashvagandha.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: by . Original uploader was at en.wikipedia file:Rhodiola rosea a2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhodiola_rosea_a2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Opioa Jerzy Image:Rhodiola rosea a6.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhodiola_rosea_a6.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Opioa Jerzy Image:Rhodiola rosea a3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhodiola_rosea_a3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Opioa Jerzy Image:Rhodiolaroseadried.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhodiolaroseadried.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Badagnani file:Rhodiola heterodonta.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhodiola_heterodonta.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Michael Wolf

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/