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Name: Masroor Ahmed ID: Bc040400087 Session: Fall 2004

Date of Final Report 21/ 05/08 to 21/06/2008

Virtual University of Pakistan

Dep. of Mass communication


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[Type text] Internship report is essential part of BS mass communication degree program. Internship provides complete practical knowledge of the areas we passed through our course work. Itmakes us aware of the practical and technical requirement in the field. I a m g r a t e f u l t o A l m i g h t y ALLAH w h o s e b l e s s i n g s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n s o u r c e s o f encouragement for me and who gave me the ability to complete this task. I wish,our h e a r t i e s t t h a n k s t o m y p a r e n t s w h o e n c o u r a g e d m e a t e v e r y s t a g e o f l i f e a n d remembered me in their prayers. I can never turn down their efforts they put forward for my bright and prosperous future. May ALLAH almighty rendered them with affection and forgiveness in this life and afterward. I am also thankful to Avt Khyber staff for giving allotting me internship in t h e i r channel. This not only helped me in my gaining practical experience but also explored my course work skills in such an esteemed environment. I am also thankful Mr. Hassan Khan Head of current News and affairs .who helped me w h e n e v e r I a s k h i m a b o u t a n y t h i n g . H e h a s g i v e n m e a l o t o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e period of my internship. Mr.Ilyas, Mr. Mohammad Tahir khan, Mr.Arbab, Mr. Shabir,M r . K i s m a t , M r . R a h i m s h a h M r . S a l e e m a n d M r . N a e e m - U l l a h a l s o h e l p e d m e a n d supervised me on daily basis.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Avt Khyber news channel is a news channel and all its operations are based on providingthe audience with information, news, entertainment and educating them.I n t h i s i n t e r n s h i p r e p o r t I h a v e d e s c r i b e a b o u t t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e A v t K h y b e r n e w s channel in detail. This report highlights how a news channel works, how it is managedand controlled.T h e d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e c h a n n e l h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s w e l l , w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m collection of news to disseminating of news or the final broadcast.In simple a full summary of the whole process that how the news is made from where

[Type text] itcomes from and how it is collected and who collects it ,to whom it is forwarded ,where itr e a c h e s , h o w i t i s t r e a t e d , w h a t a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s o f n e w s , t h r o u gh w h a t process it passes in to its final shape and up to the final broadcast has been included inthis report.I have divided my internship report in six segments as it is two months therefore I have tospend a week or two so that I may grab all the process that takes place in the organizationwith open mind.In the report I have described about the different offices that look after the daily work andoperations of the news channel.I have write-down about the different departments which are works throughout 24 hoursin different shifts mainly in shift of three to bring about news for the audience.The way in which the channel works is also explained in the report, who supervises thenewsroom how the news is treated in news room, and how it is transmitted to the generalor desired public.

I got training in the Avt Khyber in different departments or section which helped me incatching the overall process of the practical life work experience.The report focus on areas where I did my internship, the different branches and differenta r e a s o f w o r k a s s i gn e d t o m e h a s b e e n t h e m a i n f o c u s o f t h e r e p o r t . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t departments range from news room to transmission. With marketing, finance and HR working side by side to them.Th e h i e r a r c h i c a l c h a r t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s a l s o b e e n e m b e d d e d i n t h e r e p o r t w h i c h clarifies about how the process of communication between the different levels of theoverall network of the channel goes on.The working environment and the behavior of the personnel in the organized have also been described in detail.I c a m e a c r o s s s o m e f i n d i n g s t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n s h i p r e p o r t h a v e s t a t e d m y recommendations for improvements and some changes that may be helpful for t h e organization in having good communication in the organization.Each and every thing that I have learnt and admired is in the report hope that this reportwill clarify a normal person about what actually a news channel constitutes and how itoperates in the market.I h a v e p u t

[Type text] f o r w a r d s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t f o r a v t K h y b e r n e w s communication between organization members and its sections.

TABLE OF CONTENTS a. Title and Introduction of the Student.........ib. Dedication.........iic. Acknowledgment ..........iiid. Executive Summary......iv e. Photocopy of the internship certificate ...... vf. Photocopy of the Evaluation Certificate .....viii g. Table of contents .........ix h. List of illustrations .......xi1. Introduction of the sector. .......12. Overview of the organization.... .....42.1 Brief history... .. .42.2 Organizational hierarchy chart..82.3 Nature

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of the organization ....96. 2.4 Competitors .....103. Organizational structure .. ...113.1 Main offices .............................................................113.2 Comments on the organizational structure ...144. Branches where I got training and did my internship ....154.1 News room .. .154.2 Monitoring.... .194.3 NLE .. 214.4 News production234.5 News studio.......................30
4.5 Transmission cell...314.6 Starting and ending dates of internship.....315. Assigned projects 315.1 Production of news. 315.2 News writing .... .315.3 Editing and sub editing...355.4 Reporting ....... .376. Observation and finings397. Conclusion and recommendation for improvement .418. Resources and sources used.. .44

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION 1. INTEL SET map...62. Organization hierarchy chart..83. News room. ...164. Production room format....42

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1 . I N T R O D U C T I O N O F T H E S E C T O R The media sector is a huge sector with diverse applications and workings. The mediasector is composed of various operations ranging from collection, composing, marketing,and gathering, dissemination, financing, broadcasting, publishing of information, for the betterment and educating, informing the public at large.The media sector consists of various mediums through which all these operations arecarried out on instant basis. The broadcast media, the print media, radio, online and inshort traditional and nontraditional media. Media sector serves the greater interest of public at large. The media sector is governing by large organization and groups with professional expertise and skills. These skills and professionalism is then transferred in tosuch high level of success that in terns establishes the public opinion.The media sector can be defined as comprising the creation, modification, transfer anddistribution of media content for the purpose of mass consumption, where:

Media content c o m p r i s e s a r t , r e p o r t s o f f a c t s , a n d e x p r e s s i o n s o f i d e a s o r opinions in a form that allows these to be consumed independently (in time or in place) from their creation.

Mass consumption r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , t r a n s f e r o r distribution is undertaken without knowledge of the specific identity of the peopleto whom the content is to be made available.The meaning of each of these definitions is best understood by identifying what theyexclude.The media sector involves a process through which, first, the fruits of human creativitya r e c o n v e r t e d t o m e d i a c o n t e n t a n d , s e c o n d , t h i s m e d i a c o n t e n t i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o , a n d consumed by, an audience unconnected to its original creation. The essence of the media sector is the separation between creation and distribution, reflecting the use of the term"medium" to describe a means of communication.T h u s , a b r o a d c a s t ( w h e t h e r l i v e o r n o t ) o r a r e c o r d i n g o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o r s p e e c h , which can be consumed independently of the speech or performance itself, would bemedia content. The speech script or musical score used by the performer is potentiallymedia content, as it is capable of mass consumption; but its creation or distribution onlyf o r m s p a r t o f t h e m e d i a s e c t o r w h e r e t h i s i s u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m a s s consumption. Speech writing exclusively for the speaker's use, with no prospect of anyother distribution, is not a media activity. The media sector concerns mass consumption T h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t m e d i a b e f o r m a s s c o n s u m p t i o n e x c l u d e s v a r i o u s s o c i a l a n d commer cial exchanges where, to the extent that content is created, the audience, reader or r e c i p i e n t i s a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l o r a " c l o s e d g r o u p " . Th e s u p p l y o f v o i c e t e l e p h o n y services allows the

[Type text] transmission of audio content from one person to another, but fallsoutside the media sector due to the private nature of the communication. Similarly, inconsultancy industries, where firms take on commissions to provide bespoke advice toclients, the consumer of any content created (such as written reports) is a specific party;t h e s e s e r v i c e s t h e r e f o r e l i e o u t s i d e t h e m e d i a s e c t o r ( b u t t h i s d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e consultancy firms supplying media content as part of their business, e.g. market i n g publications).For the purpose of defining the media sector, mass consumption is not simply a matter of numbers. The actual audience or readership for some media content might be very small,whilst forms of private communication might involve a large number of people (e.g. an e-mail to a very large group of recipients) yet fall outside the media sector.The supply of media content may be restricted and controlled in various ways, but this remains within the media sector so long as the restriction is not based

on the specifici d e n t i t y o f t h e p e op l e ( or p ar t i es ) t o wh o m t h e co nt e n t i s t o b e m ad e a v a i l a b l e . Fo r instance, access to media content may be restricted through pricing arrangements, bygeographic location, or because specific equipment is needed to consume the content.Historically, the main industries within the media sector have been television and radio b r o a d c a s t i n g , t h e f i l m a n d r e c o r d e d m u s i c i n d u s t r i e s , a n d t h e p r i n t e d p r e s s ( e . g . newspaper and book publishing). Connected to these areas is the advertising industry,which cuts across all media channels. More recently, the Internet has provided a further channel through which a range of media content from text to graphical and audiovisualcontent can be distributed.I n p a r t s o f t h e m e d i a s e c t or , t h e t r a di t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n c ha n n e l s h a v e i n v o l v e d t h e transfer of content to a physical copy (e.g. through the printing of a newspaper or thec o p y i n g o f a VHS vi d e o ca s s et t e ) fo l l o we d b y a l ogi s t i c a l pr oc e s s ( e . g. d e l i v e r y o f newspapers to households, supply through high street retail). In other parts of the sector,content has been distributed through network infrastructure that was essentially devotedt o t h a t p u r p o s e , s u c h a s t e r r es t r i a l t r an s m i s s i o n n et wo r ks fo r t e l e vi s i o n a n d r a d i o broadcasting.With convergence, and more specifically digitalization, the same (digital) content is oftendistributed to consumers through a variety of distribution channels. These distributionchannels are not used exclusively by the media sector. For instance, a movie might betransmitted through a digital cable network, or downloaded from the Internet; these samen e t wo r k s a r e a l s o u s e d t o p r o vi d e s er vi c es ou t s i de t he m ed i a s e c t o r , s u c h a s vo i c e telephony services. Media sector as encompassing broad groups of supply chains thatm a p t h e or i gi n a l c r e a t i o n ( or s o u r ci n g ) of c on t e n t t o i t s fi na l ( ma s s ) co n s u mp t i o n , involving various distribution networks and logistical arrangements.

2 .



O R G A N I Z A T I O N 2.1


[Type text] The channel was launched in July 2004 with a very thorough home work done by the AVT creative team. As the aim was not to roll out a run of the mill channel but a channelw i t h a s l o g a n o f Pride of the Proud , i t b e c a m e a r e c o r d h i t e v e n d u r i n g t h e t e s t transmission phase.

Fig 2.1 Due to this immense popularity, this channel moved on to regular transmission within arecord short period of time and on to 24 hours transmission within seven months of itslaunch. The popularity of this Channel is not restricted to only the Pukhtuns of Pakistan but also of Afghanistan, Middle East, Australia and the Far East where it has capturedviewers in more than 90% Pukhtuns households.Within this short span of its history, AVT Khyber , with its main studios at Islamabad,has opened its centers with studio facilities in Peshawar, Quetta, Karachi and Dubai. Ithas its marketing offices located in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta andDubai. It has its news reporters located in all District Headquarters of NWFP, PukhtunsDistricts of Baluchistan, Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and entire Tribal Belt of NWFPi n c l u d i n g W a n a a n d S o u t h W a z i r i s t a n . I t h a s i t s B u r e a u O f f i c e s / S t i n g e r s i n K a b u l , Jalalabad, Kandahar, Herat, Mazar Sharif and Dubai. To man these offices and centers, ith a s a w o r k f o r c e o f
o v e r 2 0 0 y o u n g a n d e d u c a t e d m a l e a n d f e m a l e w o r k e r s w h o a r e working day and night to make it a success. AVT Khyber has a very talented team of programmers who produce more than 90% of t h e p r o g r a m s i n - h o u s e . I t i s a c o m p l e t e f a m i l y c h a n n e l w i t h o v e r 6 0 f r e s h p r o g r a m s including more than 30 hours of live shows produced every week ranging in durationfrom 30 minutes to 2 hours. Only few entertainment dramas are outsourced to market producers, which also is by design to encourage Pukhtuns artists in the private sector. AVT Khyber also had the distinction of devising a system of feedback for improving itscontents and programs on a continuous basis. Through a scientifically planned system of web sites and e-mails, we encourage our viewers to contact us on daily basis giving their impressions and suggestions on fresh programs. In addition, we also take live calls fromviewers in which they are encouraged to critically analyze our contents, our methods of presentations and styles of our various anchors/presenters. We hold daily de-briefing andcontinuously incorporate changes in the light of such useful comments and suggestions.This system has made the channel interactive as well as provided a sense of ownership too u r viewers. Our achievement is that our viewers now call AVT Khyber as OurChannel and we refer to it as Your Channel . AVT Khyber on can be tuned on:

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I 1 P 1 e H o C 3 S a 0 N 0 E A 0 q z n u P t y t 5 a T ( N ) e o l E a L t r S n : t y m A l : E o 5 4 l 1 0 R S 6 e T i 3 n 8 H A 8 r k 0 o T . l 3 r 5 y F i z r M

F o A M D o w n c y l a r i F : / m b e :


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Fig 2.2
MISSION STATEMENT To provide positive entertainment for the Pukhtuns while explaining t heir codes of hospitality, honor and pride in the right perspective.
BACKGROUND Pukhtuns are a unique nation mainly inhabiting the Western Frontier Regions of Pakistan,Eastern and Central Afghanistan, the Gulf States and sporadically spread over the entireglobe from Central Asia to Europe, North America, Australia and Entire Asia. They arehardworking, innovative and an extremely dynamic nation having a natural ability tostandout in any religious, ethnic or cultural group. Historically they have been extremely proud of their identity and have always been admired for their love for independence andadherence to their cultural values. Over 50 million people around the globe speak Pashto. And yet it is the only language of its size that, despite the emerging trend of local media, did not have a television channelof its own. AVT Khyber filled that vacuum.

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Fig 2.3

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NATURE OF ORGANIZATION As the nature and environment of the Avt Khyber news channel is concern I foundit very pleasant and friendly. It is a private organization with policies and workingenvironment best suited for getting best performance and outcomes. Every parta n d e v e r y o n e a t t a c h e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s h a r d w o r k i n g d e d i c a t e d a n d committed to his work and organization.Everyone in the organization works in a friendly atmosphere where everyone feelsrelax and there is boss and subordinate.Every one shares his own in this channel that I found as the mean of success of this channel.The organization where I did my internship was headed by MR. Hasan khan Headof current news and current affairs, a very renowned personality in the Pakistanimarket of media. He is a very dedicated and hardworking person with open heartto help out every person in the organization. He leads the team from front with thecandle of success. Due to his wide experience in the field of media he is able tolead the channel and its individual in the form of a team. He motivates his teamm e m b e r s a l l t h e t i m e s , w h i c h m a k e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a p l a c e t o w o r k w i t h dedication and heart.Everyone in the organization helps the other person in his/her daily work; theyoften share their work with other to help him/she out. This is the cooperationwhich this organization has the most.The
flow of communication and information in the organization is downward aswell as upward through the same line horizontally.In the upward communication the strategies are designed and sent to the level atwhich the second line of management lies they then implement and distribute themessage to the lower level which then takes it in to consideration. There existsindividual who belong to different languages such as Pashto, Urdu, as well asAfghani.T h e r e a r e m i x e d w o r k e r s f e m a l e a s w e l l a s m a l e s o p e r a t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t department with good communication and friendly environment found femaleworkers doing their job with ease and satisfaction because they dont feel anydiscrimination in the regard of being female, the environment is such that theywork happily and confidently as per my observation. 2 . 3 C O M P I T I T O R S As Avt Khyber news is a regional Pashto language channel and its operation is limited toPashto and English understanding audiences therefore there is no such compete ting forceavailable for them in the media market within Pakistan but new Pashto channels are goingto be launched soon in Pakistan which will then create complex competition betweenthese media channels.For the time being the channel is competing with other channels available in Pakistan thisis for the reason that the management want to provide full time information and currentaffairs program on Avt Khyber news to have a competition edge in the

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market.Although they are striving to get their hold on the market for providing good news and current affairs information and programs. 3. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE3.1 MAIN OFFICES The main offices of Avt Khyber news are as follow 1)Head office: Avt Khyber news with its head office in G-6/4 street no.16, house no.85, is responsiblefor the over management and core work.All the operations of Avt Khyber news is controlled in the head office, it is where thehead of Avt Khyber and Khyber news sits with its important personnel who helps him inhis planning and management.Rules and regulations are framed in the head office and then they are followed by theother bureaus or offices throughout Pakistan and out side country.The head office comprises of a bureau as well which is responsible for the current affairsand current news as well. the bureau chief is Mr. Gul Ayaz.There is a production office as well where all the production record from of different program is checked and processed by the person in charge.Th e fu r t h e r o ff i c e s t h a t c o m e s u n d e r t he s u pe r vi s i o n o f h e a d o ff i c e i s d i v i d e d i n t o different offices as given below 2 ) H u m a n R e s o u r c e o f f i ce :
Human resource office is situated in I-9/2 Islamabad 3)News and current affairs office: News and current affairs offices are situated in I-9/2 Islamabad how ever few of t h e current affairs programs are recorded in the head office.I n t h i s n e w s a n d c u r r e n t a f f a i r s o f f i c e t h e p e r s o n c o n t r o l l e r i s M r . H a s a n k h a n w h o manage the over news and current departments. he supervises the production in charge of news and current affairs as shown in hierarchy above.F o l l o w e d b y t h e P r o d u c t i o n I n c h a r g e n e w s w h o p l a n o u t s c h e d u l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t current affairs programs with which he plans out daily duties for the anchors ,editors,camera persons and producers. 4)Marketing and advertisement office Marketing and advertisement is responsible for the over all advertisement purpose for AvtKhyber news, advertisements are purchased and all the dealings related to money paid isdone in this office. 5)Senior Producers Office This office is headed by Mr Arif Qazi who is supervises the overall work of producers. hemostly deals the entertainment section. 6)IT office The IT office is headed by a IT professional who manage the over all technical, computer maintenance, network, server installation, manages Avt Khyber web site and looks after the DSL connection.

7 ) Fi n a n c e a n d a c c o u n t O f f i c e Finance and account offices have the main work of paying the employees their salarieswith making forecast cost for new projects. This office keeps the daily record of howmuch expenses have been carried out and how much profit will be expected from the project under way.
8)Transmission office In the transmission office the main work is to look at the t r a n s m i s s i o n n e e d s a n d requirements and check or the daily work done in the transmission room or cell.

[Type text] if there issome equipment needed in the cell ,the request is forward to the transmission officer whothen fulfill the request. Production in charge The name of the production in charge in Avt Khyber Afsfaq Ahmed.P r o d u c t i o n i n c h a r g e i s i n c h a r g e o f a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e n e w s r o o m , production room, NLE, Monitoring, news studio.He assists the producers as well in his/her daily work. He plans out schedule for their daily work. Production incharge is accountable and answerable to controller of news andcurrent affairs.He also provides every facility with in these departments.

3.2 COMMENTS ON THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE The organizational structure of Avt Khyber is so based that I can see a smooth flow of information and communication from top level management to lower level.The organization is headed by chairman Avt group who supervises the whole Avt Khyber n e w s w i t h h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s f o r h i s h e l p s u c h a s c h i e f e x e c u t i v e a n d c h i e f o f f i c e r operations. Then comes the GM technical, planning and AVCOM who do their respective jobs as the name suggests. CM marketing is incharge of all the marketing work taking place within and out side the organization.Then the head of current news and current affairs who is incharge of production inchargewith assignment editor and subeditor working under his supervision. he is the head of bureau chiefs as well.T h e n t h e p r o d u c t i o n i n c h a r g e w h o l o o k s a f t e r t h e s h i f t i n c h a r g e , a s s i gn m e n t e d i t o r , camerapersons, monitoring and anchors.The organizational structure Where is did my internship is so that Mr. Hasan Khan headof current news and current affairs leads the team with production incharge below himwhose work has been described above.Then the assignment editor leads in the newsroom with deputy assignment editor.The organizational structure is well balanced and as said information from higher level tolow level is communicated very smoothly in an effective way.

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4. PLAN OF MY INTERNSHIP PROGRAMBRANCHES WHERE I DID INTERNSHIP4.1 News room In first part of my internship I spent about two weeks in the newsroom. The person whosupervised me in newsroom was Mr. Ilyas, Mrs. Rabia and Mr.Tahir khan. In news roomI collected information about how the process of collection and dissemination of news iscarried out. By the grace of Allah I was able to gain knowledge about every process thatis carried out in the newsroom. It is the place where all the news comes in from differents o u r c e s s u c h a s r e p o r t e r s , c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , o n l i n e , f a x , t e l e p h o n e e t c T h e m a i n constituents of news room are

Network of computers connected to high speed internet connection.

Five to ten Televisions set for monitoring news.

A f a x m a c h i n e f o r g e t t i n g n e w s i t e m s f r o m d i f f e r e n t b u r e a u s , r e p o r t e r s a n d correspondents.

Telephone facility for getting calls on fresh news from reporters.

A team of Anchors.

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Fig 4.1Assignment editor with deputy assignment editor for supporting his/her work governs then e w s r o o m . A s s i g n m e n t e d i t o r a n d s o m e t i m e s d e p u t y a s s i g n m e n t e d i t o r a s s i g n t h e repo rters daily work on different beats. After covering the beats assigned they are sent tothe assignment desk where they are processed by the assignment editor and given finalshape. The news sent by the reporter is edited and correct because the reporter makes onthe spot necessary correction if it has something wrong.After this process of correction and editing the news item is sent to the composer wherethe news is composed on a computer system in a separate file where it gets saved. It is thecase with monitored news, in this process the news is collected from different televisionchannels where they provide fresh news of importance. The crew on the computer systemnotes downs the news being displayed on the monitoring TV sets. They make news storyfrom them and send it to the assignment editor where he makes necessary correction or edit it.The crews working on the computer system are sub editors they themselves make thenews story from different sources that is free of errors and credible. The same news frommonitoring after final look is sent to the composition stage, where its gets composed and

s a v e d . Ne w s i t e ms a r e a l s o s e n t t hr ou g h Fa x ma c hi n e fr o m di f f e r e nt l o c at i o ns an d b u r e a u s , t h e f a x ma c h i n e i s ac t i ve 24 hou r s a d ay . N e ws i t e ms f r o m r ep o r t e r s a n d correspondents organizations etc are received on fax machine. The news story or itemreceived on fax machine is a full story with all the editing done.The assignment editor checks such story and send it to the composition if it is of valueand importance. It is the case with news items received from telephone calls, but there issome difference between news attains from telephone call and news attain from other ways. The news story is on oral foam and the subeditor has to collect news from that person either reporter or some other source and write it down on a page, afterwards hecorrects and makes the story readable for the audience, he gives it a final shape after making it based on the rule of Inverted pyramid style of News. The news is composedand saved as well.After all this process taking place in newsroom a bundle of news items are collected. The slug of these news items are obtained and sent to the deputy assignment editor where heor she selects news based on importance and value.The news items are then selected and a rundown

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list is prepared where the news itemsare arranged in order of importance such as shown below

In the newsroom I came across a word being used for ticker news or flash news. Tickersare the news that runs down at the bottom of screen displayed in text form.These are commonly called as flash news.They are in English as well in Pashto.One of the software is used to run this ticker news called as PGS this is connected to anetwork and then directly to the transmission room where it reaches after being added toit and then refreshed.From the transmission this news ticker or flash news runs directly.D i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s a r e g i v e n o n t h e s o f t w a r e s f r o m w h e r e w e m a y t r e a t t h e n e w s a s breaking, regional, business, international

[Type text] news, sports and weather etcW h en w e c l i c k o n t h e c h e c k b o x e i t h e r b u s i n e s s o r b r e a k i n g n e w s i t i s d i s p l a y e d a s business or breaking news with its own color. 4.2 MONITORING: In the second stage of my internship program I spent one week in the monitori ngdepartment or section. As the name suggest, it a place where news is consta n t l y monitored. News from different sources is monitored and collected on different devices attach suchas TV sets with cable connection on which different foreign and national channels runs.The news that is monitored and is important to be noted is captured on software, whichsaves the footage directly on the computer system. After this VTR is some time used,VTR is a device, which is called as video tape recorder, which is connected to a computer system by the help of which news item of importance is recorded and catch in a DV.

The monitoring room or section consists of a network of few computers with softwaresinstalled for capturing news items. A computer system with FTP (File transfer protocol)software to receive news footages or packages from different sources.Different news organization or reporters etc sends their footages or coverings on this FTPsystem. Mostly the footages captured are sent to the NLE section where they are editedand made necessary changes so that the footage may look good to the audience.A l s o In t hi s s e c t i o n a c r e w o f s u b e d i t o r s wh o ed i t t h e ne ws fo ot a ge s or p ac k a g e s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e m o n i t or i n g s ec t i o n. In m os t ca s es r ep or t er s s en d t h e i r p a c k a g e s o r footages on DV, which requires some editing, and correction, which is also carried out, inthis section of monitoring by the sub editors.The softwares used for editing purposes are:Adobe PremiereAdobe PhotoshopU lead.3D Max. EtcIn this ministering section as I was told that we are registered with Reuters for gettingupdated footages of fresh and new events taking place all around the world. Reuters is paid on monthly basis some amount for providing this facility.This is one of the biggest sources of getting footages. Footage gets download on thesystem where the Reuters have provided them with a system composed of equipments,and a computer system with its own software through which the file is downloaded andsaved in a file or folder.
These footages are then sent to the subeditor network share folder where the sub editor for editing receives it, as the footage gets edited a Voice over is added on it. The personwho belongs to the reporting crew records the voice over. The Reuters footages also havea pre made script in English language, which is then converted or translated in to Urdu,Pashto as in AVT Khyber news case. Then we get the final shape of footage in shape of a package for displaying it in the news.This is all what I gone through in the monitoring section. 4.3 NLE (NON LINEAR EDITING) This is the section that I covered in my third week of internship in Avt Khyber news. NLE means non-linear editing. A non-linear editing system (NLE) is a video editing( N L V E ) o r a u d i o e d i t i n g ( N L A E ) s y s t e m , w h i c h c a n p e r f o r m r a n d o m a c c e s s o n t h e source material. Non-linear editing Non-linear editing for film and television post production is a modern editing methodwhich involves being able to access any frame in a video clip with the same ease as anyother. This method is similar in concept to the "cut and paste" technique used in filmediting from the beginning. However, when working with film, it is a destructive process,as the actual film negative must be cut. Non-linear, non-destructive methods began toappear with the introduction of digital video technology.Video and audio data are first captured to hard disks or other digital storage devices. Thedata is either recorded directly to the storage device or is imported from another source.Once imported they can be edited on a computer using any of a wide range of software.In non-linear editing, the original source files are not lost or modified during editing.Professional editing software records the decisions of the editor in an edit decision list

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( E D L) , wh i c h c a n b e i n t e r c h a n ged wi t h o t h e r e di t i n g t oo l s . Ma n y gen e r a t i o n s an d variations of the original source files can exist without needing to store many differentcopies, allowing for very flexible editing. It also makes it easy to change cuts and undo previous decisions simply by editing the edit decision list (without having to have thea c t u a l f i l m d a t a d u p l i c a t e d ) . L o s s o f q u a l i t y i s a l s o a v o i d e d d u e t o n o t h a v i n g t o repeatedly re-encode the data when different effects are applied.C o m p a r e d t o t h e l i n e a r me t h o d of t ap e - t o - t a p e ed i t i n g, no n - l i n ea r e di t i n g o ff e r s t h e flexibility of film editing, with random access and easy project organization. With the editdecision lists, the editor can work on low-resolution copies of the video. This makes it possible to edit both standarddefinition broadcast quality and high definition broadcastquality very quickly on normal PCs which do not have the power to do the full processingof the huge full-quality highresolution data in real-time.The costs of editing systems have dropped such that nonlinear editing tools are nowwithin the reach of home users. Some editing software can now be accessed free as weba p p l i c a t i o n s , s o m e , l i k e C i n e l e r r a ( f o c u s e d o n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l m a r k e t ) , c a n b e downloaded free of charge, and some, like Microsoft's Windows Movie Maker or AppleComputer's movie, come included with the appropriate operating system.A c om p u t e r fo r n o n - l i n e a r e d i t i n g o f vi d e o wi l l u s u al l y ha ve a vi d e o c ap t u r e c ar d t o capture analog video and/or a FireWire connection to capture digital video from a DVcamera, with its video editing software. Modern web based editing systems can takevideo directly from a camera phone over a GPRS or 3G mobile connection, and editingcan take place through a web browser interface, so strictly speaking a computer for videoediting does not require any installed hardware or software beyond a web browser and aninternet connection.Various editing tasks can then be performed on the imported video before it is exported to another medium, or MPEG encoded for transfer to a DVD.These equipments are most commonly used in NLE sections Two VCRs (video tape machines), preferably with AV (audio and video) outputs. If youd o n ' t h a v e A V o u t p u t s , y o u c a n u s e t h e R F ( a e r i al) outputs instead.

If you only have one VCR, you can use a camcorder as the second VCR.At least one video monitor , but preferably two. Professional monitors are best but youcan use televisions if necessary.Connecting cables .The tapes(s) you wish to edit and a blank tape to edit onto (this will become the master tape). 4.4 NEWS PRODUCTION

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In the fourth week of my internship program I worked in the News production section.This is one of the important sections in a news channel. Production room is the placewhere all the news production takes place. This is a task, which must be done with careand responsibility. The main constituents of news production are:

A Producer Assistant producer An editor A text writer also an editor A technical engineer

Technician Electrician The equipments used in the production room are

An audio video consol A switcher VT system VDT (video tape recorder) Computer system Three to four TV setsThe process of the news production starts when the composer prompts the news items.One printed copy is given to the studio section to the anchor while the other copy is sendto the production room. The producer checks the news and rundown and asks the anchor to come and sit in the news studio for the recording of news.Th e pr od u c e r t ake s t h e r u n d o wn a n d a s ks t h e a nc h or t o r e ad t h e n ews ba s e d on t h e rundown in order so that it may be easy for the editor to grab the news items in quick timeon the software such as adobe premiere. The producer through a mike connected to theanchor guide and tells him what to do and what not.In the news production the recording starts when the producer calls the anchor on themike get ready, the anchor make himself ready after which the producer tell him standby and then Cue, with this cue the anchor starts reading out news. The producer through adevice called as console adjusts the audio. Various devices are attached to the consolesuch as anchor mike headphone, telephone line for beeper or call in between news.At t he s t a r t o f t h e n e ws t h e f i r s t t a ke i s o ft e n a Mas t e r s ho t , i n m as t er s h ot t h e who l e studio is shown with background effects. This is done by the help of a switcher attach tothe computer system. Followed by the solo shot which is then followed through all ther e c o r d i n g o f n e w s . I n t h i s t i m e t h e p r o d u c e r n o t e s d o w n t h e m i s t a k e s a n d m a k e s necessary announcements when require to the anchor. If the news read by the anchor goeswrong the producer as a mistake records it and write it on the page as take.If

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there occur a pause it is noted as a pause.If there occurs repetition of word or sentences he also note it down and if the producersthinks that the error is not that much harming he forgives re recording and corrects it inthe editing processs f he things that the mistake or the repetition is brutal he says thatanchor to correct the error in order to be error free during editing and to save time.The producer told me that time and decisionmaking is very important thing you must befollowing all the time. This is for the fact that at times we don have footage or such reportto be added in detail news we have to then thing what is the first available thing that wecan add to it may be a picture or some map that illustrate the story.There is constant pressure on the producer in the newsroom because news is poured fromthe newsroom and he gets record it in very concise time. In such situation the producer has to be patient and cool minded to handle such deadlines and pressure. And it is thecase with other mistakes. In this way the news is recorded I the production room.At times the producer asks the anchor to take a call from a reporter or correspondent on issue or news item that need explanation. This is called as Beeper.In the case of beeper a wire is plugged in the consol where the voice of the telephone or beeper is adjusted.Most important here I may say that the news recording takes place in three steps such as: OPENING OF NEWS: I n t h e o p e n i n g o f n e w s t h e a n c h o r i nt r o d u ce s hi m an d we l c o me s t h e au di e n c e f o r watching the news. Headlines: In the headline section the anchor read outs all the headlines that are written on three or four pages. Break in between news: A break is taken announcing will meet in a while after a short break. On camera news: Then comes the on camera news, in this part of recording news audiences gets the anchor visual expressions take are being displayed on camera ,the facial expression of anchor hisreading of news ,hand moments, in simple whatever the camera catches from the anchor is been recorded by the sub editor in the production room. These are simply the shortheadlines of the news item after which the details news are made. Voice over: In the voice over section of news production the detail of the news is recorded, here it is
not necessary to look at the moments or behavior or the anchor on camera, but the actualt h i n g i s t h e v o i c e a n d i t s f l u e n c y . I t i s b e c a u s e t h a t t h e d e t a i l n e w s i s v o i c e d o v e r o n footage a map, a happenings, a picture etc Closing of news: In the closing of the news the anchor thanks the audiences by saying for thank you for being with us for this bulletin, and for further news stay with us, keep watching Khyber news. TT or simply Title I came across this word from sub editor when he told me that we use TT when we want todisplay our channel id during the news broadcast. Its time duration ranges from 5 to 10seconds.The news is made based on two processes such as recorded news and live.I n t h e r e c o r d e d s e g m e n t o f n e w s t h e n e w s i s

[Type text] r e c o r d e d a s s a i d a b o v e , b u t i n t h e l i v e transmission of news the process is a little different the news anchor reads out the newsand it is sent to the transmission section from where its gets broadcast.The news gets recorded on the VTR in a DV for office and record keeping purpose.As all of the news gets record on the computer system, then comes the editing processhere we see two people working hands to hands the producer and the editor in the case of recorded news.Th e p r o d u c e r t e l l s t h e e d i t o r h o w t o a r r a n g e t h e n e w s i t e m s i n o r d e r o f r u n d o w n t h e producer can arrange the news based on his own perception of the news as well he can arrange the news other then Rundown because if he things this news is more importantthen he can tell the editor to add that one.The producer tells the editor to add either a picture, and image, footage or package; mapmay be general or simply a map, a report or such things, which illustrates the news items.In the headlines mostly small footages or sometimes maps and pictures of event took place are added, while in the main News the full detailed footages and packages with beepers are inserted.In the end the headlines are repeated in some news with the same headlines as earlier. Beeper: In the case of a beeper or telephone call live or recorded from a reporter or a politician or any other person to whom the news story relates is added his/her picture ,with a telephoneset picture with news text at bottom and reporter or anchor picture as shown below.

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Interaction: A term used as interaction in which a person other than reporter or anchor meets o r interview the concern person to whom the news item relates asks questions or gets his/her interview is somewhat different in display from the beeper or telephone call as shown below.

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Some times as the Beeper gets old means that it is recorded two three hours earlier and an e w s a n c h o r j o i n s t h e s t u d i o f o r n e w s t h e b e e p e r w h i c h i s t a k e n b y t h e o l d a n c h o r i s changed in a way that the questions asked by the previous anchor are removed and onlythe answers that are given by the reporter or person is taken as beeper. 4.5 NEWS STUDIO: The news studio is the place where all the news is recorded. This is the place where theanchor sits on a chair with a table in front for having the props and gets on with the newsreading. The studio consists of the following components such asFill lightCool light Neck mikeCamera for recording the solo image of anchor Another camera for taking the master shot at the start of the news.Teleprompter Coaxial wiresPlasma screenA computer systemThe news studio walls are covered such material so that the voice dont get interminglewith other such voices outside. The walls and the adjacent areas are covered with black coating to get a good amount of light on the camera.The operation in the studio is simple as the anchor reads the news from the teleprompter a n d i t s g e t s recorded in the production room by the help of a camera, the camera is

operated by the camera man the whole equipments in the studio are connected t o production room through coaxial wires. 4.5 TRANSIMISSION CELL In the transmission cell the main work is to air the news or programs. There is a crewcompromising of technical personals and a transmission engineer who looks after thewhole transmission process. News and programs are saved either in a DV or shared ion anetwork drive which makes them easy for the transmission cell to collect them and air them though he system that is installed in the transmission room. The transmitter in thisroom do all this work of transmitting the signals where it reaches the place where it iscollected and then again transmitted through cables line or satellite connection. 4.6 STARTING AND ENDING DATES OF INTERNSHIP I started my internship report on 21may, 2008 up to 21july, 2008. 6.7 DEPARTMENT WHERE YOU GET TRANINIG???????????????5. ASSIGNED PROJECTS5.1 Production of news:

[Type text] In the news production I worked in the night shift. I was allowed to record and producenews after one week training in the production section.

I started working as a internee producer and worked well by the grace of Allah I followed the same process as was followed by the senior producers. I worked so well that I was asked to do the production of news in night shift withfull trust. For the production I made a template for noting mistakes in the news. As given below in the recommendation section. 5.2 News writing: In the internship process I worked as writing news for the newsroom, the assignmenteditor assigned this work to me. In this part of my internship program I got training in thisregard. After training from the senior personnel in the newsroom. By the grace of Allahand hard work of the senior personal I was able to write news in the first attempt.A s I s t u d i e d i n m y c o u r s e w o r k t h a t n e w s m u s t b e s h o r t , o b j e c t i v e a n d b a s e d o n t h e inverted pyramid rule of writing, the same I was told here by the senior news writers. Thenews story is based on three main parts including:SlugLead or introBodyAnd endingThe news story on a page must be having a dateline as well byline written to specify whoactually wrote it.In the news writing part of my internship I write Pashto news and English flash newssingle line or in short form. The samples of the work done in English and Pashto news are attached below.NANGARHAR: Police and US led coalition forces attacked militants planting a roadside bomb in easternAfghanistan, killing one insurgent but also two civilians.Police fatally shot one suspect shortly before midnight Sunday and gave chase to theothers in khogyani district of nangarhat.A helicopter from the US led coalition fired at militants, but also hit a house in a village,killing a man and a young child.Abdul mahmood, a senior provincial police official said one militant and two civilianswere dead in the incident. END CONDILIZA RICE: The US secretary of state, Condoleezza rice has termed the treats of afghan presidenthamid karzai to pursue militants across the border into Pakistan as unwise.In an interviewi n W a s h i n g t o n , s h e c a l l e d f o r c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s a g a i n s t militancy.She reiterated support to the news Pakistan government and assured to continue to extendcooperation to it.The US secretary of state appreciated Pakistan role in the fight against terrorism.A n s w e r i n g t o m e d i a p e r s o n s , s h e a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a n i n d e p e n d e n t j u d i c i a r y i s important to democracy but said it is best that the issue of judiciary is w o r k e d o u t between Pakistanis (cont) ALJAZEERA: A senior cameraperson of aljazeera television network has been released from Guantanamo bae after six years.He was arrested by the US led coalition forces from Afghanistan without any charge andsent to local jail from where he was sent to Guantanamo bae.I am very happy after my release: said UllahAl jazeera television network celebrates on the release of Ullah. KOHAT :In kohat, the Taliban and local cable operators have reached a deal under which the cableoperators would be allowed to run their business but would only air news programmes.According to the deal, the cable operators will not be allowed to dun any channel other than those only airing news programmes END TIRAH: Fighting continued between two rival groups in tirah valley of Khyber agency on the thirdday today.Seven more people have been killed and nine others injured in fresh clashes, which hasraised the death toll in these clashes to forty.These clashes are continuing between the lashkar e Islam and ansarul Islam groups.Both sides are using heavy weapons against each others. ENDI also worked on the tickers or flash news system I worked with Mr. Tahir khan who isa l s o a e m p l o y e e o f B B C , N N I , h e r e a l l y w o r k e d h a r d o n m e t o g e t t o t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge about how to write news in the form of tickers.I observed his work on

[Type text] daily basis and after some time he proposed me to write ticker inhis supervision, which I did well, some examples of the news tickers that I made duringmy internship program are 1. Peshawar: 22 killed, 45 injured in a road accident.2. Mardan: Bomb Blast kills 5 on the spot including ASI.3. Mardan: blood is needed in hospitals.4. Nawaz and Zardai to meet in raiwand for talks on restoration of judges.5. Peshawar: An unidentified gunman kills 4 member of a family including 2 childrens.6. Kurrum: Tori tribe releases 44 abducted FC personals7. Kurrum; the release came immediately after talks with members of tori tribe.8. Peshawar: Provincial Govt. releases Sufi Mohammad supreme head of TNSM.9. Maulana Fazal Ullah has asked his followers to respect swat peace agreement with the NWFP government.10 .US- led coalition forces have killed 55 militants, including three top leaders, in theeastern paktika province of Afghanistan.etc 5.3 EDITING AND SUBEDITING: In the training part of internship I also worked to edit the news in the newsroom. Newswas written down by the news writers and was send to me for correction purpose.I checked the news on correctness, accuracy, spelling mistakes, and objectivity.If there were some mistake in the tense form of the news such as some news were endedin past tense, which I corrected and changed them in to present form.Such cases were very less but few of them that I noted were corrected immediately.Here I also got training in on the different softwares used for editing purposes I learntabout Photoshop and adobe premiere. I have learnt all the things related to news editing inthis period of time. I learn how to grab Adv on the system, how to cut and add differentthings on the footage. How to edit a picture, map etc.How to split the audio and video content.
How to change the audio video format.How to add voice over and many such other things that will help me in the future life inany news channel.All these I learnt and did as ii was told.Mr. sajjad and Mr.Khalid editors Avt Khyber news with whom I learnt Photoshop, adobe premiere editing softwares helped me a lot to know how to edit News.I worked on a footage being downloaded in the monitoring room, which I was told to editand add voice over of the person. I grab the DV with the help of adobe premiere softwarew h i c h t h e n s a v e d i n t o t h e s o f t w a r e a f t e r w h i c h u n l i n k t h e a u d i o a n d v i d e o b y l e f t clicking the mouse button on the footage.The next stage was of cutting which I did with ctrl + k, with this the extra parts with inthe footages were cut and the footage was then Ripple deleted due to which the remaining parts get attach.I added the voice of the person who recorded the voice for this footage on to the video.the most important thing was that I have to put add footage clip on to the words andsentence the person or anchor is speaking, so that the video and audio matches. This wasvery mind teasing task because it requires well judgment. After the addition of the voiceon the footage the file format was changed. I saved the file on the system and then take acopy of it on the DV.38

NEWS MONITORING: In the further stage of training and internship programs I worked in the m o n i t o r i n g section. In monitoring section I worked on the FTP system where different reporters fromdifferent areas sent different footages. Different news channels also sent many timessome important news reports. I would look at the news coming in the FTP and save themi n t h e s y s t e m . A f t e r w h i c h I w o u l d s h a r e o n t h e n e t w o r k f o r e d i t i n g o r v o i c e o v e r purpose. The files would then used in the news. REPORTING: In the reporting part of my internship Mr. Saleem who is working as a reporter in AvtKhyber news with good field experience supervised me. He told me about how to reportin different situation. As most of the reporting was to be recorded and then edited andforwarded to the news room and then production room for airing. I reported an event,which took place at melody G6 Islamabad on 27

of June in which a group of protesterswere demanding the OIC summit to end the Firka wariat in the Muslim countries. Wecovered the whole event and move with the protest. I note down the main demands of the protesters on a page at least I came up a full-fledged story and on the other hand theewhole cameraman recorded protest with me. I noted the sum of people gathered for the protest with the demands and personalities who took part in the reporting process. Oncewe covered the whole protest we came back from the site and edited the protest in the N L E r o o m a s t h e t e x t t h a t I c o l l e c t e d w a s c h a n g e d i n t o a s t o r y t y p e a n d t h e n i t w a s voiced over on the footages that we captured on camera, unnecessary parts and acts werer e m o v e d a n d a p e r f e c t o b j e c t i v e , c o m p l e t e , a n d c o r r e c t

[Type text] s t o r y w a s m a d e . I t w a s t h e n transferred to the newsroom after acceptance it was sent to the production room fromwhere it was included in the news bulletin. In this way I worked as a reporter in Avt Khyber news. VOICE OVER AND VOICE OVER WRITING: During my internship period I was told to write the voice over for particular news, whichI did and then I was told to voice over it in studio. For this I practiced few minutes andthen told the assignment editor and anchor I am ready for it. After getting in to the studioI sit on the chair and attach a neck mike and headphone for getting and sending voice tothe production room. I was told to get ready as the producer announced standby I getready and then he said Cut with this I start reading the voice over text. I read it all in as m o o t h w a y s o t h a t i t m a y f i t t h e n e w s f o o t a g e . M y v o i c e o v e r g e t s r e c o r d e d o n t h e editors system in to adobe premiere software after which it was added to news. This was1 AM News. 5. OBSERVATION AND FINDINGS: As I entered Avt Khyber for the first time, which was my first day, I observed t h e organization as a professional environment for working. I was welcomed by the membersof Avt Khyber news and they told me you wouldnt have any problem in Avt Khyber News, enjoy your stay with us.Th i s r e a l l y h e l p e d m e i n g e t t i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m en t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s t h e time passed I met with almost all the peoples working with in the organization I was alsowelcome by them. I found each and every member of the organization friendly a n d cooperative. When ever and what ever I asked from any one they briefed me very welland make me understood on each and everything taking place in the organization.From GM current news and current affairs to composer and PA I get full support andappreciation, every one helped me out when ever I felt difficulty.A v t K h y b e r N e w s i s a n o r g a n s i a t i o n , t h e m e m b e r s o f w h i c h a r e h a r d w o r k i n g a n d professional in their field. They know about how to compete and be successful in the boom of media competition. They work day and night for their audiences through out thecountry and out side Pakistan. I observed that there is no boss and subordinate within theorganization. Every one share their work with other one and if any one feels difficulty or have any good point or want the other person to write the news story for him if he is busyin some other work he /she is fully welcomed. I felt the organization a perfect place tolearn and get knowledge about the media world in practical. I find out that the way thesections and individual of the organization communicate is well balanced and is wellcontrolled.This not only enables a smooth flow of information but also helps the communication process very quick to take place between them. Every person in the organization is at

every time busy in doing his work. You wouldnt find any one spare. The environment isr el ax a nd e a s y t o f e e wi t h n o p r e s s u r e . Eve r y on e wo r ks i n r e l a x mo o d ha pp i l y a nd positively.


[Type text] I had worked for two months in various departments of Avt Khyber news. By the grace of A l l a h a n d h a r d work of my supervisor and other persons I have learnt a lot of thingsrelated to the f i e l d o f m e d i a . I a m n o w a b l e t o m a k e n e w s i t e m s i n P a s h t o , U r d u a n d English, I am very thankful to the virtual university management and staff for giving mesuch high quality education, which enables made me feel easy in practical environment. Now as I have the practical experience of the media sector and its operations, so I canapply for the relevant jobs without hesitation.During the internship period I came across some recommendation which I think can andwill improve the overall performance of the employees with in the organization that is thed i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e t o d e v e l o p a f a s t m e c h a n i s m o f t r e a t i n g , capturing and editing of news. I recommend every one to be on his toes because at timesA v t K h y b e r N e w s g o t b r e a k i n g n e w s f i r s t b u t d u e t o l i t t l e w a s t a g e o f t i m e t h e o t h e r channel would aired that news within a little span of time winning the perception of theaudiences for their organization.During my internship period I recommend the production incharge to make a format for the producers on which they will note down the order of the news, with Takes.I told the production incharge that the format would help the producers to just click a tick on correct OC and VO. He really appreciated my observations and told me that I haveapproved this format and now we will follow this one to have less wastage of time inwriting the numbers and drawing lines

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Producer Name:.. NLE: In conclusion I would like to say that Avt Khyber news is full fledged channel providingits wide spread audience News, information and updates on current situation in form of current affairs.It is a prefect organization for a professional to work with in. I found it very brilliant place to learn and get knowledge in a very short span of time, I dont say that I have learnall the things and got all the knowledge but Avt Khyber News provided me with the platefoam from where I may choose any career for my future.I am very thankful to all the management and staff members of Avt Khyber news for providing me with this facility of doing internship in their esteemed organization. 8. RESOURCES AND SOURCES UDES 1. Www. Avt khyber.com2.

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