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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Structural and functional unit of all living things New cells arise from already existing cells Cells contain information that instructs growth. This information can be passed onto new cells.

There are two main types of microscopes: Light and Electron Electron Micrographs- shown in colour LIGHT Uses beam of light Magnification = x1500 Resolution = 200 nm Wide range of specimens can be used Samples are fairly quick + easy to prepare Cheaper and safer Limited resolution Limited magnification ELECTRON Transmission Electron Microscope Scanning Electron (TEM) Microscope (SEM) Uses electromagnets to focus beam Scan beam of electrons of electrons across specimen Denser parts of specimen absorb Beam bounces off surface more electrons creating contrast of specimen Can only be used on thin specimens Produces 3D image Produces 2D image Magnification = x100,000 Magnification = x500,000 Resolution = 5 nm (lower) Resolution = 0.2 nm Advantages Can produce coloured images Better resolution Better magnification Disadvantages Must be used in a vacuum (no air)electrons are absorbed by molecules in air Expensive Training is required Natural colours cant be seen Dangerous- kills living cells

MAGNIFICATION: SIZE The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself Magnification = Image size Actual size

For light microscope: Overall magnification = objective lens X eyepiece lens

MEASUREMENTS: MICROMETRE = m NANOMETRE = nm 1 cm 10, 000 m 1 cm 10, 000, 000 nm 1 mm 1000 m 1 mm 1, 000, 000 nm 1 m 1000 nm LIMITS OF RESOLUTION: Human eye = 100 nm Light microscope = 200 nm Electron microscope = 0.20 nm Cell surface membrane = 10 nm Ribosome = 20 nm Virus = 40 100 nm

RESOLUTION: DETAIL The ability to distinguish between two separate points


Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


STAINING: Used to have better visualisation of cells under a microscope Used because some cell components are transparent ACETIC ORCEIN- stains DNA dark red GENETIAN VIOLET- stains bacterial cell walls IODINE- stains starch granules METHYLENE BLUE/EOSIN- used for light microscope Specimen dipped in METAL like lead (metal ions scatter electrons to contrast)- used for electron microscope SECTIONING: Sections of tissue need to be cut into thin slices Allows beam of light to pass through section of tissue Specimens are embedded in wax Makes it easier to identify tissue

ORGANELLE Nucleus STRUCTURE Largest organelle with: Chromatin Nuclear envelope (double membrane) Nuclear pore (holes) Nucleolus FUNCTION Chromatin made from protein and DNA Controls cell activities Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes Start process of cell division

Cell Wall Cell Surface Membrane

Made of cellulose Rigid, protective barrier Made of lipids and proteins


Jelly-like substance

Supports cell Protects against mechanical damage Controls movement of substances in and out of cells Has receptor molecules that allows it to respond to chemicals (hormones) separate cell contents from outside the cell separate cell components from the cytoplasm In cell recognition and signalling To hold some components of metabolic pathways in place In regulating the transport of materials in and out of cells Eukaryotic cells= contains organelles Prokaryotic cells= contains enzymes needed for metabolic reactions.


Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport Mitochondrion Ribosome


ATP produced during aerobic respiration ATP is universal carrier energy

Double membrane Cristae (folded) Matrix (central part)

Consist of two subunits (large and small) Found in cytoplasm Attached to Rough ER

Protein synthesis occur Coded information (mRNA) is used to assemble protein from amino acid

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Cisternae (flattened membrane bound sacs) Rough- ribosomes present on outer surfaces of membranes Smooth- lacks ribosomes on its surface

Studded with ribosomes Folds and processes proteins made at ribosome Provides pathway for transport of materials through cell (proteins) Synthesis and processes lipids Synthesis, stores and transports carbohydrates Receives and modifies proteins from ER Packages modified protein into vesicles to be transported Makes lysosomes Produces secretory enzymes Transports substances in and out cell Formed at Golgi apparatus, ER, cell surface membrane Contains digestive enzymes to break down materials Can be used to digest invading cells Releases enzymes to outside of cell Contains membrane bound proteins needed for respiration Exchange DNA easily and quickly between eukaryotic cells Used in genetic engineering Transfers DNA to other cells Helps cells to stick to one another Protects bacterium from other cells

Stack of membrane bound sacs Small fluid sac in cytoplasm with membrane Round organelle surrounded by membrane Tightly-folded area of the cell membrane Small circle of DNA

Golgi Apparatus Vesicle




Pilus (Pili) Capsule

Hair-like structures Made of protein


Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport Cilia


Microtubules allow cilia to move Movement is used by cell to move substances along cell surface

Flagellum (undulipodia)

Small, hair-like structures Have ring of 9 pairs of protein microtubules inside Have 2 pairs of microtubules in the middle Like cilia, but longer Stick out from cell surface membrane Have 2 microtubules in centre Have 9 around the edge

Microtubules contract to make flagellum move Used like outboard motors to propel cells forward (e.g. when sperm cell swims)


Only found in animal cell Small, hollow cylinders Contains ring of microtubules

Produces spindle fibres for mitosis Involves in separation of chromosomes (cell division) Involved in formation of microtubules that make up cytoskeleton of cell Chlorophyll molecules present Site for photosynthesis Grana- carries out light dependent stage of photosynthesis



Double membrane Thylakoid (flattened membrane sac) Grana (stack of thylakoids) Lamella (thin, flat pieces of thylakoids) Filled with cell sap

Keeps plant supported, rigid and turgid produces enzymes to destroy bacteria

PROTEIN PRODUCTION: This is an example division of labour.


1) DNA contains instructions to make proteins (e.g. hormones) 2) Instructions in DNA are copied into molecule called mRNA 3) mRNA molecules leaves nucleus via nuclear pore and attaches to ribosome 4) Ribosome is attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum 5) Instructions are read and ribosome uses a code to assemble protein 6) Assembled protein in rough ER is pinched off into vesicle and transported to Golgi apparatus 4|Page

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


7) Proteins are then packaged and modified 8) Protein is packaged into vesicle 9) Then moves out of cell surface membrane to be secreted out CYTOSKELETON: A NETWORK OF PROTEINS THAT KEEP CELLS STABLE BY PROVIDING AN INTERNAL FRAMEWORK 1) Microtubules and microfilaments support the organelles keeping them in position 2) Help strengthen the cell and maintain its shape 3) Responsible for the transport of materials within the cell 4) Help the cell to move. E.g. the movement of cilia and flagella is caused by the protein filaments. (in sperm cell, cytoskeleton propels the whole cell to move)

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS: PROKARYOTES & DISEASE: Staphylococcus Auerus MRSA (Methicillin- resistance staphylococcus auerus) Resistance is coded on the plasmid and so bacteria can easily pass on resistance to each other Prokaryotes are useful to humans: Food production e.g. yoghurt Vitamin K- digestion in mammalian intestines Skin bacteria- help keep out harmful bacteria Sewage treatment and recycling- uses bacteria to break down waste products

EUKARYOTES Larger cells (2- 200 m diameter) Have true nucleus DNA is linear Membrane bound organelles No cell wall, cellulose (in plant cells) Larger ribosomes Mitochondrion

PROKARYOTES Smaller cells (less than 2 m diameter) No nucleus free in cytoplasm DNA is circular (loop)- plasmid Only one cell surface membrane Cell wall made of peptidoglycan Smaller ribosomes Mesosome

FUNCTIONS: 1) To separate cell contents from outside the cell 2) To separate cell components from the cytoplasm 5|Page

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


3) In cell recognition and signalling 4) To hold some components of metabolic pathways in place 5) In regulating the transport of materials in and out of cells To fragile and simple to carry out all functions Many other components are needed to enable functions of membrane

STRUCTURE: Phosphate head (Polar) Backbone Cholesterol Tail (Non- polar) Fatty acid chain

Membrane consist of arranged phospholipids Head is hydrophilic- attracts water Tail is hydrophobic- repels water Molecules arrange themselves into a bilayer- the heads face outwards on either side of the membrane Centre of bilayer is hydrophobic so membrane doesnt allow water-soluble substances through it

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL: FLUID: Lipid bilayer that is constantly moving. Membrane is the consistency of olive oil at body temperature MOSAIC: Protein molecules that are embedded and span the bilayer 10 nm wide MEMBRANES AND TEMPERATURE: Enzymes and co-enzymes attached to membrane E.g. thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts Cristae in mitochondrion Increasing temperature increases kinetic energy of molecule- move faster This makes membranes leaky- allow substances that wouldnt normally enter or leave cell do so


Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport Phospholipids



Allow lipid-soluble substances to enter and leave the cell Prevent water-soluble substance entering and leaving cell Give membrane fluidity Channel (intrinsic): Span the phospholipid bilayer from one side to another Allow movement of substances across membrane Molecules of sugars e.g. glucose are too large and too hydrophobic to pass directly through Carrier: Actively transport substances across membrane (requires ATP ) Act as receptor sites for molecules to bind to protein, so cell response can be carried out Function as enzymes Provide structural support Provides stability (eukaryotic cells) Reduces lateral movement of phospholipids- makes barrier complete Makes membranes less fluid and more rigid Prevents leakage of water and dissolved ions from cell Act as recognition sites for hormones Act as receptor in cell binding Act as antigens allowing cells to recognise one another Act as receptors for cell signalling, cell binding and cell recognition Help maintain stability of membrane




COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALLING: CELL SIGNALLING: 1) Cells communicate messages to each other 2) Cell releases a messenger molecule (hormone) 3) Then travels to another cell 4) Hormone is detected by cell because it binds to a complementary receptor 5) E.g. cytokines HORMONE RECEPTORS: 1) Proteins act as receptors for messenger molecules 2) Have specific bonding sites for specific hormone 3) Transmission of receptor is via reversible binding of hormone to receptor 4) E.g. insulin RECEPTOR DRUGS: 1) Drugs work by binding to receptors in cell membranes 2) Triggers a response or blocks receptor and prevents it from working 3) E.g. beta blockers= slow heart rate down, schizophrenia drugs= affect brain VIRUSES: 1) Enter by binding with receptors on cell surface membrane they normally bind to hosts signalling molecule 2) HIV can enter cell of human immune system. Has a shape that mimics cell signals that attach to t-lymphocytes 7|Page

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


POISONS: 1) Bacteria known as Clostridium Buctucinium 2) Releases protein that binds receptors on muscle cells 3) Result = paralysis IMPERMEABILITY OF CELL MEMBRANES: Cell surface membrane is impermeable to most molecules Theyre not soluble and therefore cannot pass through phospholipid layer Small, non-polar substances- can pass through simple (passive) diffusion Large substances- can enter by facilitated diffusion through carrier proteins Polar (charged) substances- can pass by facilitated diffusion through channel proteins


Molecules have kinetic energy A passive process- no energy is needed Diffuses down a concentration gradient When molecules have evened out, they are evenly distributed They still move around but theres no net movement RATE OF DIFFUSION: TEMPERATURE: Increasing the temperature increases kinetic energy- movement of diffusion increases CONCENTRATION GRADIENT: The higher it is the faster the rate of diffusion SURFACE AREA: The larger the surface area the more rate of diffusion THICKNESS OF MEMBRANE: Thinner membrane- faster rate of diffusion (shorter the distance particles have to travel) SIZE OF MOLECULES: Smaller molecules diffuse quickly than larger ones MOVEMENT FACILITATED DIFFUSION: This is when large or charged molecules cant diffuse directly through membrane e.g. glucose, amino acids Doesnt need energy Moves down a concentration gradient Diffuses through: CARRIER PROTEIN Correct molecule attaches to carrier Protein changes shape Then releases molecule to opposite side of membrane CHANNEL PROTEIN Shaped only to allow specific molecule through Different proteins facilitate diffusion of different charged particles 8|Page

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Requires ATP to make process active Involves carrier proteins Proteins act as pumps- which are complementary Molecule attaches to carrier protein and protein changes shape, then moves molecule across membrane releasing it to ONE side Active Transport: Carries large or charged molecules Carries molecules against concentration gradient Carries molecules at faster + efficient rate Can diffuse through lipid bilayer DIFFERENCES:

ACTIVE TRANSPORT Unidirectional (one way) Uses ATP for energy Specific for certain molecules Faster than simple diffusion Against concentration gradient

FACILITATED DIFFUSION Both directions Passive process- no energy needed General: non-specific Go at same speed as diffusion Down a concentration gradient


WATER POTENTIAL- The measurement of tendency of water molecules to diffuse from one place to another Highest water potential of pure water = ZERO As water potential DECREASES value becomes more NEGATIVE Measurement of water potential is kilopascals (kPa)

HYPOTONIC: Less concentration Higher water potential Net movement is INTO cell HYPERTONIC: High concentration Lower water potential Net movement is OUT of cell ISOTONIC: Same concentration Same water potential Net movement is IN and OUT of cell ANIMAL CELL:

HAEMOLYSED: Solution has higher water potential Net movement of water is INTO cell Cell BURSTS

CRENATED: Solution has lower water potential Net movement of water is OUT cell Cell SHRINKS

EQUAL AMOUNT: Solution has same water potential Water molecules pass IN 9|Page and OUT of cell Cell STAYS THE SAME

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport PLANT CELL:


TURGID: Solution has higher water potential Net movement of water is INTO cell Vacuole + cytoplasm PUSH against cell wall

PLASMOLYSED: Solution has lower water potential Net movement of water is OUT of cell Cytoplasm + membrane PULL away from cell wall

FLACCID: Solution has same water potential Net movement of water is IN and OUT of cell Cell STAYS THE SAME

BULK TRANSPORT: EXOPINOCYTOSIS- movement of liquid substances OUT of cells ENDOPINOCYTOSIS- movement of liquid substances INTO cells EXOPHAGOCYTOSIS- movement of solid substances OUT of cells ENDOPHAGOCYTOSIS- movement of solid substances into cells EXOCYTOSIS: Movement of substances out of cells Some substances produced by cell need to be released from cell Vesicles containing these substances pinch off from sacs of Golgi apparatus and move towards cell surface membrane Vesicles fuse with cell surface membrane and release their contents outside of cell Some substances arent released outside- instead theyre inserted straight into cell surface membrane

ENDOCYTOSIS: Movement of substances into cells Some molecules are too large to be taken into a cell by carrier proteins Instead a cell can surround a substance with as section of its cell surface membrane Membrane then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell containing the ingested substance Some cells take larger objects like white blood cells (phagocytes) etc.

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport



Interphase- DNA replicates Mitosis- Nuclear divides and chromatids separate Cytokinesis- Cytoplasm divides or cleaves Growth phase- Each new cell grows to full size

New daughter cells form from parent cells in a series of events called the CELL CYCLE. Daughter cells must be able to carry out the same functions as the parent cells Chromosomes contain one molecule of DNA each, which contain specific lengths if DNA called genes Daughter cells produced need identical copies of all the instructions o Human cells= 46 chromosomes (gametes= 23) o Onion cells= 12 o Chimpanzees= 48 o Dogs= 78 o Fern= 1000

G1- First growth stage, this includes making new proteins and organelles S- Synthesis where each chromosome is duplicated so that each has two chromatids The cell checks itself after this stage to ensure it has two copies of each chromosome, if not, the cell cycle stops G2- Second growth stage, the enlargement of the developing cell. There is another checkpoint next where the cell checks its progress M- The nuclear division (mitosis) where the cell eventually divides. The line at the end of mitosis is cytokenesis (cleavage of cytoplasm).

MITOSIS: MITOSIS= A PROCESS OF NUCLEAR DIVISION WHERE TWO GENETICALLY IDENTICAL NUCLEI ARE FORMED FROM ONE PARENT CELL NUCLEUS ROLE: To make genetically identical cells For growth of multi-cellular organisms For sexual reproduction To replace cells To repair damaged cells

Some organisms reproduce asexually by mitosis, such as plants, fungi and bacteria

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport STAGES:


INTERPHASE: All 46 chromosomes have been replicated Two centrioles at opposite ends of the cell DNA is copied and checked for any errors that may have occurred during copying If errors are detected at this stage, the cell may kill itself This prevents mutation in DNA being passed on Biosynthesis takes place- making more molecules

STAGE 1: PROPHASE Chromosomes supercoil (shorten and thicken) Consist of a pair of sister chromatids Daughter centrioles begin to move around the cell Centrioles move completely round to opposite poles Each centriole begins to make a spindle Nuclear envelope breaks down

STAGE 2: METAPHASE Chromosomes moves to equator (central region of spindle) and align themselves Chromosome attaches to spindle Spindle locks onto centromere of each chromosome

STAGE 3: ANAPHASE Centromere splits Chromatid has own chromosomes Spindle fibres shorten Then pull chromatids further apart to opposite poles of cell Has a V-shaped appearance Animal and plant cells:

STAGE 4: TELOPHASE New nuclear envelope reforms to create two new nuclear Spindle breaks down and disappears and chromosomes uncoil again Cell then splits into two, so that two daughter cells have a nucleus and are genetically identical This splitting action is called cyokenesis.

Animals Plants

Which cells can divide by Which structures are Cytokenesis mitosis? involved? Most cells Centrioles Cell surface membrane rips in Only meristem cells No centrioles. Tubulin Cytokenesis begins with the threads are made in formation of a cell plate at cytoplasm the equator

YEAST CELLS: Reproduce asexually by budding by mitosis 12 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Offspring produced are genetically identical to parent cell 1. A bud forms at the surface of the cell 2. The cell undergoes interphase- the DNA and organelles are replicated ready for the cell to divide 3. The cell begins to undergo mitosis 4. Nuclear division is complete- the budding cell contains a nucleus that has an identical copy of the parent cells DNA 5. The bud separates off from the parent cell, producing a new, genetically identical yeast cell

MEIOSIS: When two gametes join together at fertilisation to form zygote. The zygote then divides and develops into a new organism The cells have the full number of chromosomes to start with, but the cells that are formed have half the number The 1st meiotic division is a reduction division, where there are two daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the nucleus of the parent cell. The cells are haploid The chromosomes arrange themselves into homologous pairs (pairs of chromosomes that have same genes, but different versions of it called alleles The 2nd meiotic division is when two haploid daughter cells divide and form 4 daughter haploid cells The cells are genetically different and have different combination. Importance of meiosis: During fertilisation, the chromosomes of each cell combine The zygote receives full diploid set of chromosomes, but inherits a new combination of genes from the parents The new individual inherit characteristics from both parents, rather than one


CELL SPECIALISATION= CELLS BECOME SPECIALISED TO CARRY OUT PARTICULAR ROLE/FUNCTION Cells can differentiate in a number of ways: Number of a particular organelle changes Size/Shape of the cell changes Content of the cell changes (for some) Cell differentiation is an irreversible process CELL ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD CELL) STRUCTURE FUNCTION (RED Packed with haemoglobin HB bind reversibly with oxygen to carry (Hb) it around body 13 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport







Biconcave disc (concave on Provides an increased surface area for both sides of the cell) exchange; and makes it more flexible to pass through narrow capillaries No nucleus Allows for more space for haemoglobin Granual cytoplasm due to Allows the breakdown of ingested many lysosomes pathogens Lobed nucleus Gives cell greater flexibility to make movement easier Undulipodium Rapid undulation gives the cell propulsion for movement Acrosome (with hydrolytic Breaks down the outer coating of the enzymes) egg cell Haploid cell (only has half Means that the full complement is the chromosomes of an restored after fusion with the egg adult) Many mitochondria Produce ATP for movement Large numbers of Capture a lot of sunlight for chloroplasts photosynthesis Chloroplasts circulate Minimalises the heat damage to around cell organelles Tall, thin and long in shape Means there are fewer cell walls for the sunlight to pass through Long hair-like projection Increases cell surface area, allowing for a more rapid absorption rate of water Thin permeable cell wall for entry of water and ions Cells that line the stomata Pores in the surface for leaf is used for gas exchange Thin outer walls and thickened inner walls force them to bend outwards to open stomata- allows gaseous exchange

TISSUES AND ORGANS: Organelles Tissue Organ System Organism s TISSUES: A collection of cells that are the same or have similar functions e.g. xylem and phloem in plants, epithelial and nervous tissues in animals. ORGANS: A collection of tissues working together to carry out a specific functions e.g. leaves of plants, liver in animal. ORGAN SYSTEM: A number of organs working together to make up a system to carry out a life function e.g. excretory system, reproductive system. Cells CILIA EPITHELIUM: Layer of cells covered in cilia Column shaped cells Found on surfaces where things need to moved- in trachea, bronchi, bronchiole Produces mucus and14 | P aitg e moves

SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TISSUE: Single layer of flat cells lignin a surface Form thin walls- provides short diffusion pathways Found in many places like the alveoli in the lungs Held in place by a basement membrane made from collagen + glycoproteins Basement membrane attaches epithelial cells to connective tissue

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


PHOLEM TISSUE: Made of sieve cells + companion cells Arranged in tubes Each sieve cell has end walls with holes in them, so sap can move easily. The end walls are called sieve plates EXCHANGE SURFACES AND Companion cells are metabolically active- vital for movement of substances

XYLEM TISSUE: Cambium tissue made of meristem cells Transports water around Supports plant Contains xylem vessel cells + parenchyma cells Meristem cells- small, long BREATHING and have lignin



Adaptation of lungs for exchange:

Large surface area- for molecules to diffuse through. This increases rate of diffusion (alveoli) Permeable barrier- for oxygen and carbon dioxide to be easily diffused Thin barrier- which reduces diffusion distance (alveoli, capillary wall is one cell thick) Maintain steep concentration gradient- having fresh supply of molecules to keep concentration high and removal of required molecules to keep concentration low Ventilation: INHALING (INSPIRATION) Diaphragm contracts and flattens External intercostals muscles contract to raise ribs Volume of chest cavity increases Pressure in chest cavity drops below atmospheric pressure Air moves into lungs An active process- requires energy EXHALING (EXPIRATION) Diaphragm relaxes External intercostals muscles relax and ribs fall Volume of chest cavity decreases Pressure in chest cavity increases Air moves out of lungs A passive process- doesnt require energy 1. 2. 3. 4.

Tissues In The Lungs:

The Lungs: The trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are airways that allow passage of air into the lungs and out again. To be effective, they need to be: Large to allow sufficient air to flow without obstruction 15 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Divided into smaller airways to deliver air to the alveoli Strong enough to prevent collapse when air pressure is low Flexible to allow movement Stretchable and re-coil to allow changes in volume

The trachea, bronchi and bronchiole: Trachea and bronchi have similar structure- only differ in size Both have thick walls, cartilage (layer of glandular tissue, connective tissue, elastic fibres, smooth muscle and blood vessels- loose tissue) Trachea- C shape cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and cilia epithelium Bronchi- narrower, less regular cartilage, smooth muscle, elastic fibres, goblet cells and cilia epithelium Bronchioles- narrower than trachea and bronchi Larger bronchiole have cartilage, smaller ones dont Wall is made of smooth muscle and elastic fibres They have cluster of alveoli (air sacs) attached to them Function of each role: TISSUE Cartilage FUNCTION Supports trachea and bronchi Prevents collapse when air pressure is low Strong but allows flexibility Allows oesophagus to expand during swallowing Can contract to constrict airway Makes lumen of airway narrower Can cause allergic response- asthma When muscle contracts, reduces diameter of lumen Provides re-coil when smooth muscle relaxes This helps to dilate (widen) the airway Secret mucus to trap particles Move in synchronised pattern to move mucus up the airway

Smooth Muscle

Elastic Fibres

Goblet Cells Cilia Epithelium

Measuring Lung Capacity:

1. 2. 3. 4. TIDAL VOLUME- Volume of air in each breath, usually 0.4 dm VITAL CAPACITY- Maximum volume of air that is breathed in and out BREATHING RATE- How many breaths taken, usually in a minute OXYGEN UPTAKE- The rate at which a person uses up oxygendm per minute 5. RESIDUAL VOLUME- Volume of air that always remains in lungs, even after biggest exhalation 6. DEAD SPACE- Air in bronchioles, bronchi and trachea- no gas exchange between this air and blood

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7. INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME- How much more air can be breathed in and above normal tidal volume when you take in a big breath 8. EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME- How much more air can be breathed out and above amount that is breathed in tidal volume breath Spirometers: Can be used to investigate breathing 1) Has an oxygen-filled chamber with a moveable lid 2) Person breathes through a tube connected to the oxygen chamber 3) As person breathes in and out, lid of chamber moves up and down 4) Movements are recorded by pen attached to lid of chamber- which writes on rotating drum, creating a spirometer trace 5) Soda lime in the tube the person breathes into absorbs the carbon dioxide TOTAL VOLUME OF GAS DECREASES OVER TIME BECAUSE AIR THAT IS BREATHED OUT IS A MISTURE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE. THE CARBON DIOXIDE IS ABSORBED BY


Circulatory System:
TRANSPORT- THE MOVEMENT OF OXYGEN, NUTRIENTS, HORMONES, WASTE + HEAT AROUND THE BODY Surface area to volume ratio: Factors that affect transport systems: Size Surface area to volume ratio Level of activity 17 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Features of a good transport system: 1) FLUID- To carry nutrients and oxygen around the body (blood) 2) PUMP- To create pressure that will push fluid around (heart) 3) EXCHANGE SURFACE- To enable oxygen and nutrients to enter blood and leave it where its needed 4) TUBES- To carry blood 5) TWO CIRCUITS- One to pick up oxygen and another to deliver oxygen to tissues Singled cell organisms: small organisms can exchange molecules across their outer surfaces. They have a large surface area to volume ratio Large multi-cellular organisms: smaller surface area to volume ratio. This means that the outer surface isnt large enough to allow substances to diffuse in Single and double circulatory systems: In a single circulatory system, blood only passes through the heart once In a double circulatory system, blood only passes through the heart twice In fish, the heart pumps blood to the gills, then through the rest of the body and back to the heart in a single circuit.


In mammals, the heart is divided down the middle in double circuits. The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary system) and from the lungs it travels to the left side of the heart and pumps blood to the rest of the body (systemic system).



MAMMAL (DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM) Heart can increase blood pressure after its passed through lungs This means blood flows more quickly to body tissues Systemic circulation can carry blood at higher pressure than pulmonary circulation Blood pressure mustnt be too high in pulmonary circulation, or it may damage capillaries Are active Maintain body temperature Require lots of energy

Blood pressure is reduced as blood passes through tiny capillaries of gills This means it will flow slowly to rest of body This limits the rate at which oxygen and nutrients are delivered to respiring tissues Are not active Do not maintain body temperature So need less energy

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM In invertebrates (e.g. insects), blood isnt held within vessels always Its free to circulate the body cavity Only works for insects because theyre small Cannot contain any pressure, blood pressure is low, blood flow is slow, not directed to particular organs and wouldnt meet demand of large animals CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM In vertebrates (e.g. fish & mammals), blood is never released into the body cavity Blood circulates through series of blood vessels- artery, vein, capillary Blood can be pumped under pressure, blood flows quickly, can be directed to specific organs More responsive to changes in demand by increasing pressure to carry more oxygen Dilate vessels and constrict flow to other organs

The Heart:
The mammalian heart is a muscular double pump made of thick cardiac muscle The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body There are four chambers: the main two are the ventricles and the other two are the atria Coronary arteries lay over the heart= supply the heart with fresh blood + (glucose & oxygen)

Deoxygenated blood flows from vena cava into right atrium. (pulmonary artery) Oxygenated blood flows from lungs to pulmonary vein into left atrium Valves in aorta are called semi-lunar valves- prevent backflow Valve separating right atria from right ventricles is tricuspid valve Valve separating left atria from left ventricle is bicuspid valve Both called atrioventricular valves Blood flows from atria through the atrioventricular valves and into ventricles below. The AV valves are pocket tissues which fill with blood and shut when the ventricles contract, ensuring blood flows upwards into the arteries, not back into the atria Inside the ventricles are tendinous cords, which attach valves to the wall of the ventricle, preventing the valves from turning inside out 19 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


The ventricular septum is a wall of muscle separating ventricles: this ensures the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood on either side of the heart DOESNT MIX.

Thickness of chamber walls depends on their function: The more WORK a heart chamber has to do, the more MUSCLE it needs- so the THICKER its wall is 1. ATRIA WALLS= Thin (only need to push blood into the ventricles- no high pressure needed) 2. LEFT VENTRICLE= Thickest (pumps blood all around body- need high pressure as it pushes blood further) 3. RIGHT VENTRICLE= Next thickest (pumps blood to lungs) The Cardiac Cycle: CARDIAC CYCLE- THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS IN ONE HEARTBEAT.

Atrial systole


Ventricle systole

Consists of alternate contraction of chambers = SYSTOLE (atrial and ventricular) relaxations = DIASTOLE

-Both atria contract -Atria fills with blood, which decreases volume & increases pressure -Higher pressure in atria causes atrioventricular valves to open, allowing blood to flow into ventricles - Blood flows from: atria ventricles

-Both ventricles contract -Pressure is higher in ventricle than atria, so atrioventricular valves close to prevent backflow -High pressure in ventricles opens the semi lunar valves -Blood flows from: ventricles atria

-Ventricle and atria both relax, increasing their volume and decreasing their pressure -Higher pressure in pulmonary artery and aorta causes semi lunar valves to close, preventing backflow -Blood flows from: veins atria ventricles

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


The graph below shows the pressure changes of the left atrium, left ventricle and aorta in one heartbeat The sound of the heart: The lub-dup sound made by the heart is made by the valves closing: The 1st sound lub, is made by the atrioventricular vlaves closing as the ventricles contract The 2nd sound dup, is the semi-lunar valves closing as the ventricles relax.

Pressure in left ventricle goes above aorta

Control of the Cardiac Cycle: MYOGENIC- CAPABILITY OF INITIATING OWN CONTRACTION & RELAXATION WITHOUT RECIEVING SIGNALS FROM NERVES SINO-ATRIAL NODE (SAN) - The hearts pacemaker. A small path of tissue that sets the rhythm of the heart by sending out regular waves of electrical excitation (activity) to atria walls PURKYNE TISSUE- Specially adapted muscle fibres that conduct the wave of excitation from the AVN (atrio-ventricular node) down the septum to the ventricles.


Atria Walls


Purkyne Tissue

Ventricular Walls

1. Process starts in sinoatrial node (SAN)- in wall of right atrium 2. SAN sends out regular waves of electrical excitation 3. Causes both walls of atria to contract at the same time- ATRIAL SYSTOLE 4. Then a band of non-conducting collagen tissue prevents waves of electrical activity from being passed directly from atria to ventricles 5. Instead, the waves are transferred from SAN to atrio-ventricular node(AVN) 6. AVN is responsible for passing waves onto purkyne tissue. But theres slight delay before- AVN reacts- to make sure ventricles contract after atria is emptied- VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE

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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


7. Purkyne tissue than carries waves of electrical activity into muscular walls of right and left ventricles 8. Causes them to contract simultaneously from bottom up.

Electrocardiograms: ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE HEART MONITORED BY ELECTRODES ON THE SKIN P, Q, R, S, T P= contraction of the atria wall T= shows diastole QRS= excitation of ventricular wall ST= beginning of ventricle (should be flat) PR= delay of AV node to allow filling of ventricles

Different types of ECG:

A normal ECG

Myocardial infarction (heart attack) ST segment is elevated

Atrial fibrillation (uncoordinated beat) P wave is unclear /missing

Ventricular hypertrophy (Thickened) S trough is deeper

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Blood Vessels:

Carries blood AWAY heart Carries oxygenated blood except pulmonary arterytakes deoxygenated blood to lungs No valves Small lumen- maintain high pressure Thick, muscular wall- contain collagen fibres for strength Elastic tissue- stretch + recoil Folded endothelium- expand Smooth muscle- to contract+ constrict artery

Carries blood TO heart- low pressure Carries deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein- takes oxygenated blood to heart Have valves- help blood flow back to heart & prevent backflow Wider lumen- ease flow of blood Very little elastic and muscle tissue

Smallest blood vessel Glucose, oxygen are exchanged Adapted for efficient diffusion Walls are only 1 cell thick- short diffusion pathway Connected to veins and arteries Has flattened endothelium and lumen

Blood and Tissue Fluid: BLOOD: Plasma proteins, carbon dioxide, oxygen, glucose, salts, fatty acids, hormones, erythrocytes (red blood cells), leucocytes (white blood cells) and platelets. TISSUE FLUID: Fatty acids, amnio cacids, hormones, salts, carbon dioxide and glucose. Role: To transport oxygen and nutrients from blood to cells and carry carbon dioxide and waste products back to the blood. How is Tissue Fluid formed? HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE- PRESSURE CREATED WHEN FLUID IS PUSHED/ FORCED OUT OF CAPILLARIES AND INTO SPACES AROUND THE CELLS 1) At the start of the capillary bed, the arteriole end, theres high pressure due to the contraction of the heart muscle. 2) This pressure is called hydrostatic pressure and it forces fluid out of the capillaries into the spaces around the capillary wall, forming tissue fluid. 3) As the fluid leaves the blood which consists of plasma with dissolved nutrients and oxygen (others are too big to be pushed out), theres a lower pressure at the end of the capillary bed near the venules. 4) The fluid surrounds body cells, so that gaseous exchange and nutrients can occur by diffusion and facilitated diffusion.

How does fluid return to the blood?

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1) Not only the hydrostatic pressure forces the fluid out, but the fluid itself has some hydrostatic pressure, which will push fluid back into capillaries 2) Both the blood and tissue contain solutes giving them a negative water potential 3) The water potential of the blood is lower than that of tissue fluid. 4) This means water re-enters into the capillaries from the tissue fluid at the venous end by osmosis. Formation of Lymph: Role: Filter and engulf bacteria + foreign material. 1) Not all the tissue fluid returns to the blood capillaries. 2) Theres excess that is drained away into the lymphatic system 3) Lymph moves towards the main lymph vessels in the chest cavity and returns to the blood, near the heart 4) Valves in the lymph vessels stop the lymph going backwards 5) Lymphocytes is produced in lymph nodes, which are swellings in the lymphatic system

Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Proteins Water Salts Glucose Fats Amino acids Oxygen Carbon dioxide

Blood Little

Tissue Fluid Very few Very few Very few Very few Very few

Lymph lymphocytes Only antibodies Very few Very few Very few

Comment RBC are too big to get through capillary walls in to tissue fluid WBC is in lymph system. Only enter tissue fluid when theres infection Only present in tissue fluid if capillaries are damaged Plasma proteins too big TF + lymph have higher water potential than blood Can move freely between TF and lymph In blood, transported as lipoproteins. Lymph has more than blood


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Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Carriage of Oxygen:
When haemoglobin takes up oxygen, it becomes oxyhaemoglobin Haemoglobin + oxygen oxyhaemoglobin Made up of 4 polypeptide chains (subunits) Each is bound to a haem (non-protein) group Haem consists of iron (Fe) ion, which can attract and hold an oxygen molecule Each haemoglobin molecule can carry four oxygen molecules Haem group has an affinity (attraction) for oxygen.

Pick up (load) O

O is high

O is low


Release (deliver) O

Haemoglobin saturation depends on the partial pressure of oxygen Partial pressure of oxygen (pO) is a measure of oxygen concentration When oxyhaemoglobin releases oxygen for aerobic respiration in cell, its called dissociation OXYGEN LOADS ONTO HAEMOGLOBIN TO FORM OXYHAEMOGLOBIN WHERE THERES HIGH pO OXYHAEMOGLOBIN UNLOADS ITS OXYGEN WHERE THERES LOW pO

Oxygen dissociation curve: Dissociation curve shows how saturated the haemoglobin (Hb) is with oxygen at partial pressure The graph is s-shaped because when haemoglobin combines with the 1st O molecules, its shape changes in a way that makes it easier for the molecules to join As the haemoglobin starts to become saturated, it gets harder for more oxygen molecules to join Where its STEEP= easy for oxygen molecules to join Where its SHALLOW= hard for oxygen molecules to join Where pO is high (in lungs), haemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen (i.e. will combine with O). So it has high saturation of oxygen Where pO is low (in respiring tissues), haemoglobin has low affinity for oxygen (i.e. will release O). So it has low saturation of oxygen

100% saturation means every (Hb) molecule is carrying maximum 4 molecules of O.

0% saturation means none of (Hb) molecules are carrying any O.

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Fetal vs. adult haemoglobin dissociation curve: Fetal haemoglobin picks up oxygen from mothers blood across placenta By the time mothers blood reaches placenta, oxygen saturation is decreased (because some has been used up by mothers body) For foetus to get enough oxygen to survive, its haemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen So oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve for fetal haemoglobin is to the left of curve for adult haemoglobin. Carriage of Carbon dioxide: Dissolved plasma = 5% Carbamniohaemglobin = 10% Hydrogencarbonate ions = 85% 1) Most of CO from respiring tissues diffuses into red blood cells and is combined with water to form carbonic acid, which is catalysed by enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CO + HO HCO) 2) Carbonic acid dissociates to release hydrogen ions and hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO H + HCO) 3) Hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse out of red blood cells- ions have negative charge meaning theres appositive charge inside cell as a result. 4) Therefore, chloride ions which have negative charge move into blood to balance out charges, returning it to neutral. This is called chloride shift 5) To prevent hydrogen ions causing blood to become acidic, hydrogen ions are taken up by haemoglobin to produce haemoglobinic acid 6) Increase in hydrogen ions causes oxyhaemoglobin to unload its oxygen

The Bohr Effect: As partial pressure of CO increases, hydrogen ion also increases Meaning oxyhaemoglobin release more oxygen (less oxygen is saturated) Causing haemoglobin dissociation curve to shift down and to the right This happens when there are respiring tissues in muscles (exercise)

Xylem and Phloem:
Multi-cellular plants need transport systems: Plants need transport systems to move substances to and from individual cells quickly. They need substances like water, minerals and sugars to live, but also need to get rid of waste products 26 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


Like animals, they are multi-cellular and have a small surface area : volume ratio Plants cant use direct diffusion because its too slow for exchange

Two types of tissue in transport system: 1. Xylem Tissue: Transports water and mineral ions 2. Phloem Tissue: Transports dissolved substances like sugars Theyre different in root, stem and leaf. Arrangement is determined by other functions of xylem- for support ROOT CROSS SECTION STEM CROSS SECTION LEAF CROSS SECTION

Both xylem and phloem are Both are near the outside to Form network of veins to central to support root as it provide scaffolding that support thin leaves pushes through the soil reduces bending STRUCTURE OF XYLEM TISSUE: Long, tube-like vessels Forms when cells die and end walls + contents decay- leaves long column of dead cells Thick walls made from lignin- which support xylem vessels & stops them collapsing inwards Lignin waterproofs walls of cells Lignin forms patterns in cell wall- are spirals (prevent vessel from being too rigid & allows flexibility of stem In some places, lignin leaves pores in wall of vessel called pits- allow water to move sideways Narrow tubes- water is a continuous stream Adaptation of xylem to its function: Dead cells are aligned to form a continuous column (hollow tubes) Narrow tubes so water column doesnt break easily and capillary action can be effective Pits in lignified walls to allow water to move sideways from one vessel to another Lignin patterns (spirals) allow xylem to stretch as plant grows and enables stem to bend Flow of water isnt impeded (delayed) because: There are no end walls There are no cell contents Theres no nucleus or cytoplasm Lignin thickening prevents walls from collapsing STRUCTURE OF PHLOEM TISSUE: Arranged in tubes Not used for support, only transport Contains phloem fibres, phloem parenchyma, sieve tube elements and companion cells 27 | P a g e

Unit One: Cells, Exchange and Transport


1) SIEVE TUBE ELEMENTS: Living cells from tube to transport solutes Joined end to end to form sieve tubes Sieve parts are end walls, which have holes to allow solutes to pass through They have: no nucleus, thin layer of cytoplasm, few organelles Cytoplasm of cells is connected through holes in sieve plates 2) COMPANION CELLS: Lack of nucleus and other organelles in sieve tube elements- cant survive on their own Theres a companion cell for every sieve tube element Carry out metabolic functions needed for themselves and their sieve cells-lots of mitochondria for energy of transport of solutes. Feature Cells living or dead Bordered pits present or absent Lignin present or absent Substances transported Direction of transport Xylem vessel Dead Present Present Water & minerals Up Phloem sieve tube element Living Absent Absent Solutes Down

Water Transport:
Root hair cells: Water moves in from the soil by osmosis Minerals is absorbed by active transport- using ATP for enegry Passes through the root cortex, including the endodermis to reach xylem Water is drawn down a water potential gradient Soil around roots has high water potential and leaves have lower water potential because water constantly evaporates from them Carrier protein in membranes to pump ions Large surface area, thin cell walls Movement across the root:

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Pathways of water: APOPLAST PATHWAY- Water moves along the cell walls SYMPLAST PATHWAY- Water moves through the cytoplasm VACUOLAR PATHWAY- Water moves across the cell vacuole Casparian strip: Waterproof strip on endodermal layer Blocks apoplast pathway between cortex and xylem Ensures water and dissolve nitrate ions have to take symplast pathway through cell membrane Cell membrane has transporter proteins that move nitrate ions into xylem This lowers water potential in xylem so water from cortex cells follows into xylem by osmosis How does water move up the xylem? 1) Water moves into the xylem, from the roots to the leaves by osmosis- because of root pressure at bottom of xylem forcing water up 2) Water then evaporates from the leaves at the top of the xylem-transpiration 3) This creates tension (suction), which pulls more water into the leaf (creating low pressure at top of xylem) 4) There is then cohesion force (attraction) between the water molecules in the xylem 5) There is also adhesion force of water molecules attracted to walls of xylem vessels (capillary action) 6) The water is in a continuous column called transpiration stream- water then moves up the xylem 7) Going from a higher pressure to a lower pressure TRANSPIRATION STREAM- WHEN WATER IS LOST BY TRANSPIRATION, MORE WATER IS PULLED UP THROUGH THE ROOTS AND TRANSPORTED AROUND THE PLANT

TRANSPIRATION- A CONSEQUENCE OF GAS EXCHANGE- THE LOSS OF WATER BY EVAPORATION FROM THE UPPER PART OF A PLANT (LEAVES) Water enters leaves in xylem and passes to mesophyll cells by osmosis Water evaporates from surface of cell (form water vapour) into air spaces between cells in leaf As water vapour collects, the water vapour potential rises, then water molecules diffuse out Open stomata allows gaseous exchange for photosynthesis

Three parts water moves from: OSMOSIS: From xylem to mesophyll cells EVAPORATION: From mesophyll cells to intercellular spaces DIFFUSION: From intercellular spaces out through stomata

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Transpiration stream: Roots cortex xylem mesophyll stomata Why is water movement up stem useful? Needed in leaves for photosynthesis Needed to allow cells to grow and elongate Keep cells turgid Carry minerals up plant Cool plant Factors that affect transpiration rate: FACTOR LIGHT TEMPERATURE EFFECT Lighter= faster transpiration rate because stomata open in light closes in dark, - little transpiration Higher= faster transpiration rate because evaporation is fasterincreases water potential gradient between inside +outside of leafwater diffuse out quickly Lower= faster transpiration rate. If air around plant is dry, theres higher water potential gradient Windier= faster transpiration rate- air movement blows away water molecules from stomata increasing water potential gradient Little water in soil= plant cant replace water thats lost. Water loss in plants is reduced when stomata is closed or when plants shed leaves in winter More= larger surface area, in which water vapour can be lost OF Large stomata= water vapour is lost quickly If stomata on lower surface, water vapour loss is slower Waxy cuticle= reduces evaporation from leaf surface



Potometer can be used to estimate transpiration rate: Not exact measure- actually measures water uptake Water is drawn up capillary tube and bubble movement is measured Method: 1. Cut shoot underwater to prevent air entering xylem. Cut at a slant to increase surface area needed to maximise water uptake 2. Check apparatus is full of water and has no air bubbles 3. Inset shoot into apparatus underwater to prevent air entering 4. Remove potometer from water and make sure its airtight and watertight 5. Dry leaves, allow time for shoot to acclimatise(get used to), then shut tap 6. Keep conditions constant throughout experiment 7. Record starting position of air bubble 8. Start stopwatch and record distance moved by bubble per unit time

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Xerophytic plants: E.g. cacti, pine trees and prickly pears Adapted to live in dry (arid) climates Adaptations prevent loss of water by transpiration Structure Smaller leaves (needle-shaped) Adaptation Reduces surface area of leaves- less water is lost by transpiration Densely packed spongy mesophyll Reduces cell surface area thats exposed to air. Less water is evaporated= reduced rate of water loss Thicker waxy cuticle Waterproof- reduces evaporation Closing stomata when water Reduces water loss and need for to take up water availability is low Hairs on surface Trap layer of air- reducing diffusion of water vapour out through stomata Pits containing stomata Trap air and reduce gradient in water vapour potential by diffusion Rolled up leaves Lower epidermis that isnt exposed to atmosphere- reduce water vapour potential Lower water potential in leaf cells Maintaining high salt concentration- reduces evaporation of water Marram grass- special type (lives on sand dunes)

TRANSLOCATION- MOVEMENT OF ASSIMILATES (SUGARS + OTHER CHEMICALS) THROUGHOUT THE PLANT, IN PHLOEM TISSUE Energy-requiring process that happens in phloem A part of plant(leaf) that releases sucrose into phloem is a SOURCE (produces sucrose so its photosynthetic) A part of plant (root) that removes sucrose from phloem is a SINK

How sucrose is loaded up into phloem: 1. Its loaded by an active process 2. ATP is used by companion cells to actively transport hydrogen ions out of cytoplasm into surrounding tissue. 3. This sets up a diffusion gradient and hydrogen ions diffuse back into companion cells 31 | P a g e

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4. Facilitated diffusion occurs through special cotransporter proteins, which enable hydrogen ions to bring back sucrose molecules into companion cells 5. As concentration of sucrose molecules build up inside, they diffuse into sieve tube element through numerous plasmodesmata (sucrose moves from high to low concentration) Co-transport is process of transport of molecules where two substances are attached together, so they can diffuse at the same time. Uses facilitated diffusion because sucrose molecules are large and polar. Mechanism of transport in phloem (Mass flow hypothesis): AT THE SOURCE Sucrose is actively loaded into sieve tube element and reduces water potential Water follows by osmosis and increases hydrostatic pressure in sieve tube element Water moves down sieve tube from high hydrostatic pressure at source, to low hydrostatic pressure at sink (pressure gradient) AT THE SINK Sucrose is removed from sieve tube by surrounding cells and increases water potential in sieve tube Water moves out of sieve tube by facilitated diffusion and reduces hydrostatic pressure ALONG THE PHLOEM Water enter phloem at source, moving down hydrostatic pressure gradient and leaving phloem at sink Produces flow of water carrying sucrose and assimilates along phloem- MASS FLOW Occurs in any direction- up or down plant- depending on where sugars are needed Evidence both for and against mass flow: FOR If you remove ring of bark from woody stem, a bulge forms above ring. If fluid from bulge is analysed, it will have higher concentration of sugars above ring than below- evidence that there will be downward flow of sugar If aphids (animal), pierce phloem leaving mouthparts behind and sap flows out, it will flow quicker nearer leaves than further down in stem- evidence that theres pressure gradient If metabolic inhibitor (stops ATP production) is put into phloem, translocation stops- evidence active transport is involved Theres experimental model for mass flow AGAINST Sugar travels to many different sinks, not just one with highest water potential

Sieve plates would create barrier to mass flow. Lot of pressure would be needed for solutes to get through at reasonable rate

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