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The Maculate Muse

OBSCENE LANGUAGE IN ATTIC COMEDY


SECOND EDITION

Jeffrey Henderson

New York Oxford Oxford University Press 1991

Oxford University Press


Oxford New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Petaling Jaya Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town Melbourne Auckland and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan

Copyright 1975 by Yale University 1991 by Jeffrey Henderson


Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016-4314 First published by Yale University Press First Oxford University Press edition 1991 First issued in paperback 1991 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission of Oxford University Press Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Henderson, Jeffrey. The maculate muse : obscene language in Attic comedy / Jeffrey Henderson.2nd ed., 1st Oxford University Press ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 0-19-506684-7 ISBN 0-19-506685-5 (pbk.) 1. Greek drama (Comedy)History and criticism. 2. Words, Obscene, in literature. 3. Greek language-Obscene words. 4. Scatology in literature. 5. Sex in literature. 6. SexTerminology. I. Title. PA3166.H4 1991 882'.0109-dc20 90-42489

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper

Contents

Introduction, xiii Abbreviations, xvii 1. 2. 3. 4. Obscene Language and the Development of Attic Comedy, 1 Varieties of Obscene Expression: An Overview, 30 The Dramatic Function of Obscenity in the Plays of Aristophanes, 56 The Sexual Organs, 108 The Male Organs, 108 Proper and Euphemistic Words, 112 Agricultural Terminology, 117 Phallic Implements, 120 Testicles, 124 Animals, 126 Miscellaneous, 129 The Female Organs, 130 Euphemistic Terminology, 133 Agricultural Terminology, 134 Gates and Passageways, 137 Rings and Circles, 138 Holes, Pits, and Hollows, 139 Sea Animals, 142 Cookery, 142 Foods, 144 Secreta Muliebria, 145 Miscellaneous, 146 -Birds, 147 Split or Crack, 147 Proper Names, 147 Other Erogenous Bodily Parts, 148 5. Sexual Congress, 151 Euphemistic Expressions, 154 Nautical Terminology, 161 Agricultural Terminology, 166 Metaphors from Sport, 169

xii

Contents Hitting and Piercing, 170 Miscellaneous, 173 Burning, 177 and K , 178 Kissing, 181 Feliatio, 183 Cunnilingus, 185

6.

Scatological Humor, 187 Xezein, 187 Scatophagy and Related Humor, 192 Urination, 194 , 195 The Hindquarters, 199

7.

Homosexuality, 204 Pathics, 209 Pathic K , 213 Active Pederasty, 215 Effeminacy, 219 Autoerotic Behavior, 220

Appendix, 223 Bibliography, 229 Addenda, Corrigenda, Retractanda, 240 Index of Specially Discussed Passages, 253 Index of Greek Words, 255 General Index, 265