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12 GLOSSRIO

A seguir, um resumido glossrio de termos utilizados no ambiente de posicionamento por satlite. DTK Desired Track (Rota Desejada) Curso de bssola entre os pontos de origem e destino. DMG Declinao Magntica DGPS Differential GPS (GPS Diferencial) Sistema constitudo de receptores, softwares e acessrios especializados que permitem posicionamentos mais precisos por meio de correes obtidas em uma base de coordenadas conhecidas, onde se fixa um dos receptores. DOP Dilution of Position (Diluio da posio) Erros causados pela m distribuio espacial dos Satlites. DST Distncia Distncia de sua posio ao destino. Datum (Referncia de mapa ) Sistema de elipside local que possibilita uma melhor determinao da posio em uma regio de interesse, com base no sistema de referncia global. As coordenadas de posio, em mapas, diferem de um datum para outro. A identificao do datum de mapas normalmente encontrada na legenda do mapa. Se voc no tiver certeza de qual datum utilizar no GPS, configure o aparelho para o WGS84. Efemrides Dados que permitem calcular a posio e velocidade dos satlites no cu. O receptor utiliza as efemrides para calcular tambm a distncia precisa do receptor GPS at o satlite. EPE Estimated Position Error (Erro Posicional Estimado) ETA Estimated Time to Arrival (Horrio Estimado de Chegada) Horrio de chegada a um destino na rota e velocidade terrestre atuais. ETE Estimated Time Enroute (Tempo Estimado da Rota) Tempo restante at o destino na rota e velocidade atuais.(Uso martimo) GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System Sistema de navegao russo equivalente ao GPS. Grid (Grade) Sistema de coordenadas que projeta a terra sobre uma superfcie plana, usando zonas quadradas para medir as posies. Formatos UTM/UPS e Maidenhead so sistemas de grade. GS Ground Speed (Velocidade Terrestre) Velocidade em que voc est viajando em relao a posio terrestre. HDG Heading (Direo) Direo para qual voc est olhando, definido como um ngulo em relao ao norte. Latitude

ngulo vertical formado no centro do Geide entre os planos do Equador e a vertical que contm sua posio, varia de 0 a 90 Norte ou de 0 a -90 Sul. Longitude ngulo horizontal formado tambm no centro do Geide entre um meridiano, que passa no limbo do telescpio do Observatrio de Greenwich e o meridiano que passa pela nossa posio. A Longitude varia de 0 (Greenwich) a +180 para Leste e de 0 a -180 para Oeste indo at uma linha no oceano Pacfico que denominamos antimeridiano de Greenwich. LMK Landmark (Marco) Localizao salva na memria da unidade que obtida pela entrada de dados, edio de dados, dados calculados ou salvando a posio atual. Utilizado para criar rotas. Mesmo que waypoint. Navigation (Navegao) Processo de viajar de um lugar para outro e saber onde voc esta em relao ao curso desejado. NMEA National Marines Eletronic Association Organizao profissional que define e mantm os formatos seriais padro utilizados por equipamentos eletrnicos de navegao martima e interface de computadores. Norte magntico A direo relativa a uma bssola magntica. Norte verdadeiro Direo para o Plo Norte a partir da posio do observador. A direo norte em qualquer meridiano geogrfico. Posio (Position) Localizao exata baseada no sistema de coordenadas geogrficas. Perna de Rota O mesmo que segmento de rota . 34 Perna Ativa O mesmo que segmento ativo. SPD Velocidade terrestre (O mesmo que SOG) Velocidade na qual o receptor est se movendo. Segmento ativo O segmento de uma rota atualmente sendo percorrido. Segmento de rota O segmento de uma rota que tem um Waypoint de partida (FROM) e um waypoint de destino (TO). A rota pode consistir de um ou mais segmentos. Uma rota que v do waypoint A para o waypoint B para o waypoint C para o waypoint D tem trs segmentos sendo que o primeiro segmento vai do waypoint A at o waypoint B. SOG Velocidade terrestre (Termo Martimo : o mesmo que SPD) Velocidade na qual o receptor est se movendo. TRK Track (Rota) Direo do movimento relativo a uma posio terrestre. TRN Turn (Manobra) Graus ou direo em que voc deve manobrar.

TTG Tempo para chegada Medida de quanto tempo ainda demora para chegada ao destino. TTG baseado na velocidade em que voc se move em direo ao destino e a distncia remanescente. UTM Universal Transverse Mercator Sistema de coordenadas de grade que projeta as sees globais sobre uma superfcie plana para medir a posio em zonas especificas. UTC Coordenada de tempo universal. Antigamente conhecido como Tempo Mdio de Greenwich (GMT). VMG Velocity Made Good (Velocidade Utilizada) Componente da velocidade que vai em direo ao destino. Waypoint (Ponto do Caminho) Localizao especfica que foi salva na memria do receptor GPS. XTK Cross Track Error (Erro de Desvio de Rota) Distncia que voc esta do curso desejado em qualquer direo. XTE Cross Track Error (Uso martimo, o mesmo que XTK) Distncia esquerda ou direita que voc est fora da linha de curso. A linha de curso uma linha reta entre sua posio atual e o destino. As tecnologias do GPS, SIGs, geoprocessamento e sensoriamento remoto tm desenvolvido termos tcnicos peculiares. A seguir apresentado um glossrio dos termos, definies e descries mais comuns nestas disciplinas. Embora muitos termos aqui relacionados no tenham sido utilizados na presente apostila, eles podem ser eventualmente teis. A Aerotriangulation (phototriangulation) Processo complexo e vital para a fotogrametria que envolve controle de extenses verticais e horizontais tal que medidas de ngulos e/ou distncias em sobreposies fotogrficas so relacionadas a uma soluo espacial usando princpios de perspectivas de fotografias. Aerotriangulao consiste de uma extenso matemtica de vetores/ngulos de um padro triangular de pontos de referncia conhecidos na ou prximo a rea designada no terreno de modo que 3 pontos do tringulo do terreno e 3 pontos do tringulo visto da cmara fotogrfica sejam anlogos. Almanac Data (Dados de Almanaque ou simplesmente Almanaque) Conjunto de parmetros sobre a constelao de satlites, incluindo localizao e estado dos mesmos, transmitidos para o seu receptor GPS. Os dados de almanaque devem ser adquiridos antes de iniciar a navegao GPS. Altitude Elevao atual acima do nvel do mar. Ambiguity (Ambiguidade) Nmero inteiro de comprimento de onda das portadoras (L1 ou L2) desde o satlite at o receptor. Este nmero obtido quando estiver sito computado o nmero de ciclos por meio de processamento da fase da onda portadora.

Anti-Spoofing (AS) Anti-fraude Processo de criptografia da sequncia de modulao do Cdigo-P de modo que o cdigo no pode ser replicado por usurios no autorizados. Quando criptografado o Cdigo-P denominado Cdigo-Y. Atomic clock Um relgio cuja frequncia mantida usando ondas eletromagnticas que so emitidas ou absorvidas na transio de partculas atmicas entre estados de energia. A frequncia de uma transio atmica muito precisa, resultando em relgios muito estveis. Um relgio de csio tem um erro de cerca de 1 segundo em um milho de anos. Por motivo de melhor confiabilidade, 35 os satlites tm mais de 1 relgio atmico. Os satlites GPS tm relgios de rubdio e de csio. A Esto de Controle Principal usa relgios de csio e um relgio maser de hidrognio. B Baseline ( Linha-base) Distncia entre dois receptores ou duas antenas receptoras dos sinais dos satlites. Bearing BRG (Direo) Direo da bssola para um determinado destino a partir de sua posio. Bipolar biphase shift key (BPSK) (mudana de fase bipolar) Tcnica de modulao usada nos satlites GPS. Neste mtodo, uma transmisso binria resulta em modulao de 180 da fasse da onda. C Cadastral survey (pesquisa cadastral) Coleta de dados alfanumricos, tambm conhecidos como atributos, ralacionados aos elementos ou feies cartogrficas. No caso de uma rodovia, por exemplo, os atributos poderiam ser: nome da rodovia; tipo do leito (asfalto, terra), pista dupla ou simples, velocidade mxima permitida, etc. A coleta dos dados pode ser feita diretamente no aparelho GPS se este tiver teclado e software apropriados para esta finalidade, caso contrrio a coleta feita em formulrios e posteriormente georreferenciados em um SIG. Carrier frequency (frequncia da portadora) Frequncia bsica de um sinal no modulado. Os sinais de navegao dos satlites GPS condizidos pelas portadoras L1 e L2 tm frequncias de 1.575,42 Mhz e de 1227,6 Mhz respectivamente. Carrier phase (fase da portadora) A frao de um ciclo da onda portadora, geralmente expresso em graus, onde 360 corresponde a um ciclo completo. Fase da portadora pode tambm significar o nmero completo de ciclos mais uma frao de um ciclo. No caso do GPS, um receptor especializado pode determinar o nmero de ciclos desde o satlite at o receptor, por meio de processo cumulativo da fase da portadora, processo este conhecido como Doppler integrado.

C/A (clear acquisition) Code Consiste de uma sequncia de 1023 bits (0 ou 1) que repete a cada milisegundo. Cada satlite transmite uma nica sequncia de 1023-bits que permite ao receptor identific-lo entre todos os satlites. O cdigo C/A modula apenas a frequncia da portadora L1. O cdigo C/A possibilita ao receptor uma rpida localizao do satlite. Channel (canal) Na terminologia GPS se refere ao hardware que permite ao receptor detectar, comunicar e rastrear continuamente o sinal de um satlite. A maioria dos receptores GPS, especialmente os de navegao, tem 12 canais que permitem restreio de at 12 satlites ao mesmo tempo. Course Made Good CMG (Curso Utilizado) Direo da bssola da posio "active from" (seu ponto de origem) para o ponto atual. Course To Steer CTS Direo para manobra. A direo que em que voc deveria estar viajando para retornar ao curso correto em direo ao destino. COG Curso terrestre (Uso martimo : O mesmo que HDG) Direo em que o receptor est se movendo. COG pode ser mostrado com valores de Norte verdadeiro ou magntico. Coordenadas Uma descrio numrica ou alfanumrica nica de sua posio. Circular Error Probable (CEP) Raio de um circulo, centrado na posio verdadeira, dentro do qual 50% das solues de posicionamento caem. O CEP til para acurcia horizontal. Constellation Refere constelao de satlites GPS em rbita. Veja captulo Segmentos do GPS Conventional Terrestrial System (CTS) Sistema de referncia padronizado com origem no centro de massa do planeta. Isto necessrio para permitir medidas geodsicas e clculos cumputacionais. Cycle slip Perda da contagem dos ciclos da portadora quando est sendo medida pelo receptor GPS. A interferncia atmosfrica ou outras formas de interferncia causam o cycle slip. (Veja carrier phase). D Differential GPS (DGPS) Tcnica pela qual dados de um receptor em uma localizao conhecida so usados para corrigir dados de um receptor em uma 36 localizao desconhecida. Correes diferenciais podem se aplicadas em tempo real (veja RTCM SC-104 formato) ou por psprocessamento. O posicionamento diferencial muito mais preciso que o posicionamento padro. Dilution of Precision (DOP)

Medida da geometria receptor-satlite. A DOP relaciona a acuracia estatstica das medidas do GPS com a acurcia estatstica da geometria. A Diluio da Preciso Geomtrica (GDOP) composta composta de Diluio da Preciso do Tempo (TDOP) e da Diluio da Preciso da Posio (PDOP), que so compostas de Diluio da Preciso Horizontal (HDOP) e Diluio da Preciso Vertical (VDOP). Doppler shift um deslocamento de frequncia similar ao que ocorre em equipamentos de udio (som), exceto que o Doppler shit ocorre no espectro eletro-magntico, onde uma aparente mudana na freqncia do sinal ocorre quando o transmissor e receptor so aproximados ou afastados um do outro. Double difference (Veja single difference). Diferena aritmtica da fase da portadora medida simultaneamente por um par de receptors que estejam recebendo dados de um mesmo par de satlites. A single differences so obtidas por cada receptor de cada satlite; estas diferenas subtradas, o que essencialmente deleta os erros de relgio dos satlites e do receptor. TRADUZIDO AT AQUI E Earth Centered, Earth Fixed (ECEF) A Cartesian coordinate system centered at the earth's center of mass. The Z-axis is aligned with the earth's mean spin axis. The X-axis is aligned with the zero meridian. The Y-axis is 90 degrees west of the X-axis, forming a right-handed coordinate system. Elevation mask An adjustable feature of GPS receivers that specifies that a satellite must be at least a specified number of degrees above the horizon before the signals from the satellite are to be used. Satellites at low elevation angles (five degrees or less) have lower signal strengths and are more prone to loss of lock thus causing noisy solutions. Ellipsoid of revolution (often referred to simply as ellipsoid) A mathematical representation of the earth that is an ellipse that is rotated about its minor axis. An ellipsoid is an equipotential surface of a rotating, homogeneous body. Various ellipsoid models have been determined to approximate the geoid in local areas and in a global sense. GPS uses the WGS84 earth model which is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid. Ephemeris (plural: ephemeredes) A set of parameters used by a GPS receiver to predict the location of a GPS satellite and its clock behavior. Each GPS satellite contains and transmits ephemeris data its own orbit and clock. Ephemeris data is more accurate than the almanac data but is applicable over a short time frame (four to six hours). Ephemeris data is transmitted b the satellite every 30 seconds. (See almanac).

F Firmware The electronic heart of a receiver, where coded instructions relating to receiver function, and (sometimes) data processing algorithms, are embedded as integral portions of the internal circuitry. Frequency The number of times that a periodic event occurs per unit of time. For GPS, frequency usually refers to the radio frequency, in Hz, of either of two basic carriers transmitted by each satellite (see L1 & L2). G Geodetic coordinates A coordinate system whose elements are latitude, longitude and geodetic height. The latitude is an angle based on the perpendicular to the ellipsoid. Longitude is the angle measured in the XY plane (see ECEF). Geodetic datum (horizontal datum) A specifically oriented ellipsoid typically defined by eight parameters which establish its dimensions, define its center with respect to Earth's center of mass and specify its orientation in relation to the Earth's average spin axis and Greenwich reference meridian. Geodetic height (ellipsoidal height) The height of a point above an ellipsoidal surface. The difference between a point's geodetic height and its orthometric height equals the geoidal height. 37 Geoid The equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits mean sea level. Geoids currently in use are GEOID84 and GEOID90. Geoidal height (geoidal separation; undulation) The height of a point on the geoid above the ellipsoid measured along a perpendicular to the ellipsoid. Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) The Russian version of GPS. GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Global Navigation Satellite System. A global navigation satellite system transmits ranging signals that are used for positioning and navigation any where around the globe; on land, in the air or at sea. The US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the upcoming European GALILEO system are examples of GNSS. GPS week GPS time started at Saturday/Sunday midnight, January 6, 1980. The GPS week is the number of whole weeks since GPS time zero. Gravity A force that is the vector sum of gravitational attraction of the various masses within the planet (gravitation) plus the centrifugal

force caused by the rotation of the Earth. Unit of measurement: the gal = 1 cm per m/sec2. H Hydrographic and bathymetric surveying Surveying or mapping of harbors, inlets or deep water locations. Hydrography is the study of the physical characteristics of oceans, lakes and rivers as well as the elements affecting safe navigation. Bathymetry is the measurement and study of water depths. I Ionosphere Refers to the layers of ionized air in the atmosphere extending from 70 kilometers to 700 kilometers and higher. Depending on frequency, the ionosphere can either block radio signals completely or change the propagation speed. GPS signals penetrate the ionosphere but are delayed. The ionospheric delays can be either predicted using models, though with relatively poor accuracy, or measured using two frequency receivers. J Julian date The number of days that have elapsed since 1 January 4713 B.C. in the Julian calendar. GPS time zero is defined to be midnight UTC, Saturday/Sunday, 6 January 1980 at Greenwich. The Julian date for GPS time zero is 2,444,244.5. K Kinematic surveying A method which initially solves wavelength ambiguities and retains the resulting measurements by maintaining a lock on a specific number of satellites throughout the entire surveying period. L L1 & L2 Designations of the two basic carrier frequencies transmitted by GPS satellites that contain the navigation signals. L1 is 1,575.42 Mhz and L2 is 1,227.60 Mhz. L-band A nominal portion of the microwave electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 1 to 2 Ghz. M Multipath The reception of a signal both along a direct path and along one or more reflected paths. The resulting signal results in an incorrect paseudorange measurement. The classical example of multipath is the "ghosting" that appears on television when an airplane passes overhead. Multiplexing Atechnique used in some GPS receivers to sequence the signals of two or more satellites through a single hardware channel. Multiplexing allows a receiver to track more satellites than the number of hardware channels at the cost of lower effective signal strength.

38 N Navigation messages Data modulated onto the satellite's signals. The navigation data is transmitted at 50 bits per second and contains ephemeris and clock data for that particular satellite, other data required by a receiver to compute position velocity and time and almanac data for all NAVSTAR satellites. The data is transmitted in 1500 bit frames, each requiring 30 seconds to transmit. A complete set of data to include all almanacs, timing information, ionospheric information and other data requires 12-1/2 minutes to transmit. NAVigation Satellite for Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR) Another term for GPS or sometimes used in conjunction with GPS as in "NAVSTAR GPS.". O On-the-Fly (OTF) a term used to describe the technique of resolving differential carrierphase integer ambiguities without requiring a GPS receiver to remain stationary. orbit the path a satellite takes in space. orthometric height (orthometric elevation) the height of a point above the geoid. P P-Code "precise" or "protected" code which is bi-phase shift modulated on both the L1 and L2 carrier frequencies. P-code has a 10.23MHz bit rate and, as implemented in GPS, has a period of one week. Each satellite has a unique P-code that is used to distinguish the satellite from all other GPS satellites. Photogrammetry An aerial remote sensing technique whose latest innovations employ a high-resolution aerial camera with forward motion compensation and uses GPS technology for pilot guidance over the designated photo block(s). Photogrammetry forms the baseline of many Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Land Information System (LIS) studies and endeavors. Post-processing The reduction and processing of GPS data after the data was actually collected in the field. Post-processing is usually accomplished on a computer in an office environment where appropriate software is employed to achieve optimum position solutions. Precise Positioning System (PPS) The more accurate GPS capability that is restricted to authorized, typically military, users. Pseudo-kinematic surveying A variation of the kinematic method where roughly five-minute site occupations are repeated at a minimum of once each hour. Pseudorandom noise (PRN)

The P(Y) and C/A codes are pseudo-random noise sequences which modulate the navigation signals. The modulation appears to be random noise but is, in fact, predictable hence the term "pseudo"random. Use of this technique allows the use of a single frequency by all GPS satellites and also permits the satellites to broadcast a low power signal. Pseudorange The measured distance between the GPS receiver antenna and the GPS satellite. The pseudorange is approximately the geometric range biased by the offset of the receiver clock from the satellite clock. The receiver actually measures a time difference which is related to distance (range) by the speed of propagation. Q Quartz oscillator The timing device within a receiver that synchronizes the receiver's operation and maintains time for the receiver. R Ratio A measure of the precision of observations that takes into account the resolution of ambiguities and arrives at an RMS value during the processing computations. Real-time Refers to immediate, "on the spot," GPS data collection, processing and position determination (usually) within a receiver's firmware, rather than post-processing "after the fact" via a computer in an office environment. Real-time kinematic (RTK) A DGPS process where carrier-phase corrections are transmitted in real-time from a reference receiver at a known location to one or more remote "rover" receiver(s). 39 Real-Time Z(tm) Ashtech's proprietary technique that includes Carrier Phase Differential (CPD) processing. Real-Time Z features "on the fly" (OTF) ranging data acquisition and differential processing. Reference Network A series of monuments or reference points with accurately measured mutual vectors/distances that is used as a reference basis for cadastral and other types of survey. Reference Station A point (site) where crustal stability, or tidal current constants, have been determined through accurate observations, and which is then used as a standard for the comparison of simultaneous observations at one or more subordinate stations. Certain of these are known as Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS), and transmit reference data on a 24-hour basis. RINEX The Receiver-INdependent EXchange format for GPS data, which includes provisions for pseudorange, carrier-phase, and

Doppler observations. Root mean squared (RMS) A statistical measure of the scatter of computed positions about a "best fit" position solution. RMS can be applied to any random variable. RTCM SC-104 format A standard format used in the transmission of differential corrections. S Satellite Image Mapping (SIM) A product of remote sensing where discrete blocks of orbital photography are "mosaicked" into a comprehensive whole, then "geocoded" or computer-linked to specific Mercator, Lambert Conformal, or other types of projections that include a scale factor and reference geoid, with each pixel related to a specific latitude and longitude. Selective Availability (SA) The process whereby DoD "dithers" the satellite clock and/or broadcasts erroneous orbital ephemeris data to create a pseudorange error (see Standard Positioning System). Spherical Error Probable (SEP) A navigational measure of accuracy equaling the radius of a sphere, centered on the true location, inside which 50% of the computed solutions lie. (See CEP.) Sidereal Time Is defined by the hour angle of the vernal equinox. Taking the mean equinox as the reference yields true or apparent Sidereal Time. Neither Solar nor Sidereal Time are constant, since angular velocity vary due to fluctuations caused by the Earth's polar moment of inertia as exerted through tidal deformation and other mass transports. Single difference The arithmetic "differencing" of carrier phases simultaneously measured by a pair of receivers tracking the same satellite (between-receivers and satellite), or by a single receiver tracking two satellites (between-satellite and receivers); the former essentially deletes all satellite clock errors, while the latter essentially deletes all receiver errors. Software Usually refers to a set of advanced modules, such as Ashtech's PRISM II Package, that allows the user to plan efficient surveys, organize and acquire GPS data, verify and download GPS data into a computer, process and analyze the measurements, perform a network adjustment, and report/archive the final results. Spoofing The process of replicating the GPS code in such a way that the user computes incorrect position solutions. Standard Positioning System The less accurate GPS capability which is available to all. (See AntiSpoofing and Selective Availability). Static observations

A GPS survey technique that requires roughly one hour of observation, with two or more receivers observing simultaneously, and results in high accuracy's and vector measurements. T Triple difference The arithmetic difference of sequential, doubly-differenced carrierphase observations that are free of integer ambiguities, and therefore useful for determining initial, approximate coordinates of a site in relative GPS positioning, and for detecting cycle slips in carrier-phase data. (See single difference & double difference) U Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) Time as maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Because of variations in the Earth's rotation, UTC is sometimes adjusted by an integer second. The accumulation of these adjustments compared to GPS time, which runs continuously, has resulted in an 40 11 second offset between GPS time and UTC at the start of 1996. After accounting for leap seconds and using adjustments contained in the navigation message, GPS time can be related to UTC within 20 nanoseconds or better. V W WAAS Developed by the United States government, calculates the errors in the GPS signal at several monitoring stations around the country, then transmits error correction messages from geostationary satellites to GPS receivers. In addition to WAAS, two other satellite systems offer compatible correction signals, EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System) over Europe and MSAS (Multifunctional Transport Satellite-based Augmentation System) over Asia. The following resources are available for more information on WAAS and its implementation on Magellan products. World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) A set of U.S. Defense Mapping Agency parameters for determining global geometric and physical geodetic relationships. Parameters include a geocentric reference ellipsoid; a coordinate system; and a gravity field model. GPS satellite orbital information in the navigation message is referenced to WGS 84. X Y Y-Code The designation for the end result of P-Code during Anti-Spoofing (AS) activation by DoD. Y-Code tracking, civilian Several methods of obtaining valid data from encrypted Y-code are available: 1. Signal squaring (now obsolete) multiplies the signal by itself, thus deleting the carrier's code information and making

distance measurement (ranging) impossible. Carrier phase measurements can still be accomplished, although doubling the carrier frequency halves the wavelength, further weakening an already weak signal. This method required collecting data over a much longer period. 2. Cross correlation, where no local (receiver) code is generated to match the L1 & L2 encrypted Y-codes. The ionosphere "slows" the L2 Y-code slightly in respect to the L1 Y-code, hence the difference between these distances can be measured and, once known, matched and multiplied to remove the codes and leave pure carrier frequencies for measurement. This does away with the half-wavelength problem, but again results in a weakened signal that necessitates longer observation periods. 3. Code correlation & squaring. Here, the L1 & L2 Y-Codes are compared against a locally generated P-Code; the difference (the encrypting Y-code signal) is thus revealed, measured and squared so that pure carrier frequencies can be measured. Squaring once again weakens the resulting half-wavelengths of both carrier frequencies, and once again requires longer observation periods. 4. Ashtech's "Z-Technique" (see Z-Tracking(tm)). Z Z count Um nmero binrio de 29 bits consistindo a unidade fundamental de tempo GPS. Os 10 mais significativos bits contm o nmero da semana GPS, e os 19 menos significativos do a contagem do tempo da semana (TOW) em unidades de 1,5 segundos. Z-Tracking(tm) Processo patenteado pela empresa Ashtech para reduzir ou eliminar os efeitos distorcivos inseridos nas portadoras pelo DoD atravs do Atni-Spoofing (AS), mantendo o receptor sintonizado e com capacidade de rastreamento de todos os satlites disponveis. Esta tcnica encontra o Cdigo-Y na L1 e L2 contrastando contra um Cdigo-P gerado no receptor, por meio de uma correlao que expe o cdigo criptografado em cada frequncia. Uma suficiente integrao dos sinais das portadoras permite estimar o sinal binrio criptografado para a L1 e L2 e o cdigo criptografado na frequncia de cada portadora removido, permitindo que as mesmas possam ser medidas. Siglas em ingls (download do U. S. Coast Guard) Navigation Information Service Bulletin Board AE - Antenna Electronics A/D - Analog to Digital AFB - Air Force Base AFI - Automatic Fault Indication AFS - Air Force Station 41 AHRS - Attitude and Heading Reference System AIMS - Airspace Traffic Control Radar Beacon System IFF

A/J - Anti-Jamming AOC - Auxiliary Output Chip A-S - Anti-Spoofing ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit ATE - Automatic Test Equipment BCD - Binary Code Decimal BIH - Bureau International de L'Heure BIPM - International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIT - Built-In-Test BPSK - BiPhase Shift Keying C/A-code - Coarse/Acquisition-Code CADC - Central Air Data Computer CDMA - Code Division Multiplex Access CDU - Control Display Unit CEP - Circular Error Probable CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor C/No - Carrier to Noise Ratio CRPA - Controlled Radiation Pattern Antenna CSOC - Consolidated Space Operations Center CW - Continuous Wave DAC - Digital to Analog Converter dB - Decibel DGPS - Differential GPS D-Level - Depot Level DLM - Data Loader Module DLR - Data Loader Receptable DLS - Data Loader System DMA - Defense Mapping Agency DoD - Department of Defense DOP - Dilution of Precision dRMS - Distance Root Mean Square DRS - Dead Reckoning System DT& E - Development Test and Evaluation ECEF - Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed ECP - Engineering Change Proposal EDM - Electronic Distance Measurement EFIS - Electronic Flight Instrument System EM - Electro Magnetic EMCON - Emission Control ESGN - Electrically Suspended Gyro Navigator FAA - Federal Aviation Administration FMS - Foreign Military Sales FOM - Figure Of Merit FRPA - Fixed Radiation Pattern Antenna FRPA-GP - FRPA Ground Plane GaAs - Gallium Arsenide GDOP - Geometric Dilution of Precision GMT - Greenwich Mean Time GPS - Global Positioning System HDOP - Horizontal Dilution of Precision

HOW - Hand Over Word HSI - Horizontal Situation Indicator HV - Host Vehicle HQ USAF - Headquarters US Air Force ICD - Interface Control Document ICS - Initial Control System IF - Intermediate Frequency IFF - Identification Friend or Foe I-Level - Intermediate Level ILS - Instrument Landing System 42 INS - Inertial Navigation System ION - Institute of Navigation IOT& E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation IP - Instrumentation Port ITS - Intermediate Level Test Set JPO - Joint Program Office J/S - Jamming to Signal Ration JTIDS - Joint Tactical Information Distribution System L1 - GPS primary frequency, 1575.42 MHz L2 - GPS secondary frequency, 1227.6 MHz LEP - Linear Error Probable LRIP - Low Rate Initial Production LRU - Line Replaceable Unit LO - Local Oscillator mB - Millibar MCS - Master Control Station MCT - Mean Corrective Maintenance Time MHz - Megahertz MLV - Medium Launch Vehicle MmaxCT - Maximum Corrective Maintenance Time MOU - Memorandum of Understanding M/S - Meters per Second MSL - Mean Sea Level MTBF - Mean Time Between Failure MTBM - Mean Time Between Maintenance N/A - Not Applicable NAV-msg - Navigation Message NMEA - National Marine Electronics Association NOSC - Naval Ocean Systems Center NRL - Naval Research Laboratory NS - Nanosecond NSA - National Security Agency NTDS - Navy Tactical Data System NTS - Navigation Technology Satellite OBS - Omni Bearing Select OCS - Operational Control System O-Level - Organization Level OTHT - Over The Horizon Targeting PC - Personal Computer

P-Code - Precise Code PDOP - Position Dilution of Precision PLSS - Precision Location Strike System P I - Pre Planned Product Improvement PPM - Parts Per Million PPS - Precise Positioning Service PPS-SM - PPS Security Module PRN - Pseudo Random Noise PTTI - Precise Time and Time Interval PVT - Position Velocity and Time RAM - Reliability and Maintainability RCVR - Receiver RF - Radio Frequency RMS - Root Mean Square RNAV - Area Navigation RSS - Root Sum Square RT - Remote Terminal RTCA - Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCM - Ratio Technical Commission for Maritime Services S/A - Selective Availability SAMSO - Space and Missile Systems Organization SBB - Smart Buffer Box SC - Special Committee 43 SEP - Spherical Error Probable SI - International System of Units SIL - System Integration Laboratory SINS - Shipborne INS SPS - Standard Positioning Service SRU - Shop Replaceable Unit STDCDU - Standard CDU TACAN - Tactical Air Navigation TAI - International Atomic Time TBD - To Be Determined TDOP - Time Dilution of Precision TFOM - Time Figure Of Merit TTFF - Time to First Fix UE - User Equipment UERE - User Equivalent Range Error UHF - Ultra High Frequency USA - United States of America USNO - US Naval Observatory UT - Universal Time UTC - Universal Time Coordinated VDOP - Vertical Dilution of Precision VHSIC - Very High Speed Integrated Circuit VHF - Very High Frequency (VOR) Omnidirectional Range VLSIC - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit WGS-84 - World Geodetic System - 1984 YPG - Yuma Proving Ground

1 PPM - 1 Pulse Per Minute 1 PPS - 1 Pulse Per Second