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Psychology Chapter 4 Study Guide

Cameron Phillips Period 3 AP Psych, February 2012

Developmental Psychologists a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. We continue to develop, from infancy to old age

Prenatal Development and the Newborn


Stages 1. Zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. 2. Embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. 3. Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development Teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during the prenatal development and cause harm. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant womans heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions. Rooting Reflex a babys tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for a nipple. Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. We are born preferring sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. Newborns use sensory ability to learn sights, smells and sounds. Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Schema a concept of framework that organizes and interprets information. Assimilation interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schemas. Cameron Phillips 2012

Accommodation adapting ones current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information new information. Jean Piaget decided that children had different minds than adults, instead of small models of the adult brain. Described cognition development in 4 stages Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. Jean Piaget: Studied cognitive development in 4 stages Spurts of change followed by stability as they move from plateau to plateau Later proved to be more fluid Piagets Stages now proven false, or inaccurate Typical Age Range Birth to nearly 2 years Description of Stage Sensorimotor Phenomena Object

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About 2 to 6 years

About 7 to 11 years

About 12 through adulthood

Experience the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping) Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Concrete Operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations. Formal Operational Abstract reasoning

permanence Stranger anxiety

Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Conservation Mathematical transformation

Abstract logic Potential for mature moral reasoning

Criticisms of Piaget Not all people reach formal operational In favor of western culture No theory of what happens in adolescence Social and cognitive development takes place within social context [Lev Vygotsky] Conservation the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. Egocentrism in Piagets theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take anothers point of view. Theory of Mind peoples ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict. Autism a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others states of mind. Stranger Anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. Attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. Critical Period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. Cameron Phillips 2012

Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. Basic Trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. Number one achievement of infancy is attachment Childhood achievement is a sense of self o Positive sense of self leads to being more confident, independent, optimistic, assertive, and sociable. Self-Concept a sense of ones identity and personal worth Authoritarian impose rules and expect obedience Children = moody, aggressive, lack good communication Permissive submit to childrens wishes, few rules or punishment Children = impulsive, immature, fail to respect other Authoritative Demanding and responsive, leaving an open table for discussion about why Children = that are more motivated and self confident, well adjusted

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Identity Stage (approximate age) Infancy (to 1 year)

Issues Trust vs. Mistrust

Description of Task If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Word = NO! Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. <- Because their questions were responded to by being scolded. Word = Why? Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks(If they are good or average at tasks), or they feel inferior(if they are not good). Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated The middle-aged discover a sense of contribution to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult

Toddlerhood (1 to 2 years)

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Preschooler (3 to 5 years)

Initiative vs. Guilt

Elementary School (6 years)

Competence vs. Confusion (Industry vs. Inferiority)

Adolescence (teen years into 20s)

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Young adulthood (20s to early 40s)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Middle adulthood (40s to 60s)

Generality vs. Stagnation

Late adulthood (late 60s and up) Cameron Phillips 2012

Integrity vs. Despair

may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.

Adolescence
Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. Once a brief period, now widened by earlier puberty and later independence. Puberty the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Primary Sex Characteristics the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible. Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair. Menarche the first menstrual period Eriksons Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Lawrence Kohlberg sought to describe the development of moral reasoning (right vs. wrong). Erik Erikson each stage of life had its own psychological task, a crisis that needed a resolution

Identity ones sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles. When people try to have different identities in different situations, when situations overlap, discomfort can be considerable Question of Who am I doesnt get answered in adolescence and continues through turning points in adult life During early-mid teens, self esteem falls; rebounds in late teen early 20s Intimacy - in Eriksons theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood. Ready after you have a clear and comfortable sense of who you are Menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines. Alzheimers Disease: - a progressive and irreversible disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning. Cross-Sectional Study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal Study research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time. Crystallized Intelligence ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age Cameron Phillips 2012

Fluid Intelligence ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. Social Clock: the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. Albert Bandura: Developed reciprocal determinism (interaction between personality and environmental factors) Social cognitive perspective

Erik Erikson: Developed 8 stages Every stage of life had its own psychological task, a conflict that needed resolution The search for identity Harry Harlow: Studied motherly love and attachment with baby monkeys. Discovered that love attachment doesnt stem only from satisfying a need (hunger and nourishment) Comfort. Wire monkey Lawrence Kohlberg: Described the development of moral reasoning (right vs. wrong) Stages Preconvention Morality: Morality or self interest To avoid punishment and gain rewards Conventional Morality Obeying laws to maintain social order Gain social approval Post-Conventional Morality Based on universal ethical principals Hippies. Lev Vygotsky Discussed children thinking in words and using that to solve problems They think to themselves, internalizing their cultures language, relying on inner speech Mary Ainsworth

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Studied attachment differences by studying mother- infant pairs in different situations Studied how different actions from mothers evoke different attachment reactions from babies. Secure: Well adjusted, social relationship success Insecure: insatiable need for affection, shallow relationship, appear withdrawn. The Study Assess attachment style Parent + infant alone Stranger enter, talks to parent, mother leaves discreetly Baby react, stranger tries to comfort Parent greets and comforts infant Both leave, infant is alone. Styles of Attachment Secure Attachment o Baby upset when mom leaves o Happy when she returns o MOST COMMON Insecure Avoidant o Not distressed when mother leaves o Cool response when mother returns Insecure Resistant o Clingy to mother, traumatized by every stage, o Distrustful of mother o Caused by overbearing, controlling mother. Temperament: characteristic of personality, individuals manner of behavior.

Piaget Stages Stupid Piaget Creates Fuss P C F S r o o e e n r n o c m s p r a o e e l r r t i a e m

Eriksons Stages MSG IRI [Negative Components]

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