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‘Unique to Corinth: Illuminating epigraphic evidence on St. Paul's World’

Tiberius Claudius Dinippus

TI CLAVDIO-P-F FAB DINIPPO IIVIR IIVIR QVINQ AVGVR SACERDOTI VICTORIAE BRITANN TRIB MIL LEG VI ANNONAE CVRATORI AGONOTHETE NERONEON CAESAREON ET ISTHMION ET CAESAREON TRIBVLES TRIBVS ATIAE

Tiberius Claudius Dinippus, son of Publius, who was magistrate, magistrate of the fifth year, priest, priest of the Britannic Victory, Military Tribune of Legion VI, Chief Engineer, [3 times] Curator of the Grain Supply, President of the Neronean Caesarea and of the Isthmian and Caesarean Games members of the Tribe of Atia. 1

Gaius Julius Spartiaticus

C IVLIO LACONIS F EVRYCLIS N FAB SAPARTIATICO PROCVRATORI CAESARIS ET AVGVSTAE AGRIPPINAE TRIB MIL EQVO PUBLICO EXORDNATO A DIVO CLAVDIO FLAM DIVI IVLI PONTIF IIVIR QVINQ ITER AGONOTHETE ISTHMION ET CAESE SEBATION ARCHIERI DOMUS AUG IN PERPETVVM PRIMO ACHAEON OB VIRTVTEM EIVS ET ANIMOSAM SUSISSIMAMQVE ERGA DOMVM DIVINAM ET ERGA COLONIAM NOSTR MVNIFICIENTIAM TRIBVLES TRIBVS CALPVRNIAE PATRONO

Gaius Julius Spartiaticus, son of Laco, grandson of Eurycles, of the Fabian tribe, procurator of Caesar and the Augusta Agrippina, military tribune, decorated with the public horse by the deified Claudius, flamen of the Deified Julius, magistrate of the fifth year twice (quinquennial duovir iter.), president of the Isthmian and Caesarean Sebastean games, high priest for life of the Augustan house, the first of the Achaeans to hold this office on account of his excellence and unsparing and

1 A.B. West, Corinth: the Inscriptions 1896-1926, Vol. VIII, Part 2 No. 87 see 12 others erected by other Tribes nos. 88-92 and J.H. Kent, Corinth: the Inscriptions 1926-1950, Vol. VIII, Part III, Nos. 158-163 and includes a plinth for a statue which is on site. All others have ‘3 times curator annonae’ including the plinth.

most lavish generosity both to the divine family (domus divina) 2 and to our colony:

the tribesmen of the Calpurnian tribe [set up this statue] for their patron. 3

Regilla, wife of Herodus Atticus

JRhgilla~ todja[galma. Fuh;n dj ejcavraxe tecneivth~ Pasan swfrosuvnhn ej~ livqon ajramevnhn. jAttiko;~ jHrwvdh~ mevga~ w[pasen, e[xoco~ a[llwn pantoih~ ajreth~ eij~ ajrron eijkomeno~ o{n povsin jEllhvnwn e[lacen perivbwton aJpavntwn prevssona d; au\tepavin a[nqo~ jAcaiavdo~. JRhgilla hJ boulhv se Tuvchn wJ~ eijlavskousa Eijkona pro;~ temevni sthvsato lainevhn.

This is a statue of Regilla. An artist carved the figure which has translated all modesty in stone. It was given by great Herodus Atticus, pre-eminent above others, who had attained the peak of every kind of virtue, whom she took as her husband, Herodus, famous among Hellenes and furthermore a son [of Greece] greater than them all, the flower of Achaia. O Regilla, the Council, as if hailing you Tyche (the goddess, Fortune) has set up the marble statue before Tyche’s sanctuary.

Iunia Theodora 4

1. A decree of the federal assembly of the Lycian cities

[Edoxe Lukivwn tw'i ª koinw'º i. jEpei; Iouniva Qeodwvra katoi< kou'sa ejn Korivnqwi gunh;i kalh; kai; ajgaqh;i kai; eu[nou" tw'i e[qnei dia; panto;" ejndeivknutai th;n uJpe;r tou'e[qnou" spoudh;n

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kai; filoteimivan kai; toi'" kaq j e{na Lukivwn kai; koinw'" a{pasin sumpaqw'" diakeimevnhi pleivstou" te tw'n hJgoumevnwn fivlou" kateskeuvaken tw'i e[qnei, sunlambanomevnhi peri; pavntwn tw'n mavlista dihkovntwn a{pasi Lukivoi", diav te h|" tevqeitai diaqhvkh" ejndevdeiktai th;n eij" to;

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e[qno" ajrevskeian, kalw'" de; e[con ejsti;n kai; to; e[qno" ta;" proshkouv< sa" aujth'i ajpodou'nai marturiva", dedovcqai Lukivwn tw'i koinw'i ajpo< dedevcqai kai; ejph/nevsqai Iounivan Qeodwvran stevfanovn te aujth'/ cru< sou'n, o{tan eij" qeou;" ajfivkhtai, ajpostei'lai: merimnhvsei de; oJ fronti<

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sth;" hJmw'n Sevxto" Iouvlio" kai; ejpigravyai ejpigrafh;n thvnde: Lukivwn to; koino;n Iouniva/ Qeodwvra/ ÔRwmaiva/ gunaiki; kalh'i kai; ajgaqh'i kai; eujnov< wi tw'i e[qnei.

2 For a discussion of this concept see D. Fishwick, ‘Domus Divina’, Imperial Cult in the Latin West, II. 1, ch. 4. 3 West, Corinth VIII.2 no. 68, E.M. Smallwood, Documents illustrating the Principates of Gaius, Claudius, and Nero, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967), no. 264. Spawforth, “Corinth, Argos, and the Imperial Cult,” p. 218 4 D. Pallas et al., ‘Inscriptions lyciennes trouvées à Solômos près de Corinthe’, Bulletin de correspondance héllenique 83 (1959), 496-508; SEG 18 (1962), 143 with supplements at ll. 54-55, 64-65, 74-75 by L. Robert, ‘Décret de la Confédération Lycienne à Corinthe’, Revue des études anciennes 62 (1960), 331, n. 1; 332; 326, n. 3 = Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 22 (1967), no. 232; Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 23 (1968), no. 176; contra Robert G. Klaffenbach, ‘Miscellanea epigraphica’, Klio 48 (1967), 54, n. 3 proposes krateªuvontaº at l.

55. Line 65:

the Roman East: IuniaTheodora, Claudia Metrodora and Phoebe, Benefactress of Paul,” TynB 50.2 (1999): 203-9 with amendments.

aujth;nº tªimh'sai

Translations by Dr R. Kearsley, “Women in Public Life in

It was decreed (e[doxe) by the federal assembly of the Lycians: since (ejpeiv) Iunia Theodora, living in Corinth, a good and noble woman, and devoted to the nation, continuously shows her zeal and her munificence towards the nation and (4) being full of goodwill both to individual Lycians and to all in general has gained for the nation the friendship of many of the authorities, employing her assistance in all areas which most directly interest all the Lycians; (and) by the will which she has drawn up shows her desire to (8) please the nation; it has been decreed (dedovcqai) that the nation in its turn returns to her these appropriate testimonies. The assembly of the Lycians is pleased to acknowledge and to praise of Iunia Theodora, and to send her a gold crown for the time when she will come into the presence of the gods. (12) Our agent Sextus Iulius has equally been busy seeing to the engraving of the following inscription: ‘The federal assembly of the Lycians to Iunia Theodora, a Roman, good and noble woman and devoted to the nation.’

2. A letter from the Lycian city of Myra to Corinth

Murevwn hJ boulh; kai; oJ dh'mo" Korinqivwn a[rcousi caivrein. Plei'stoi tw'n hJ<

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metevrwn gegonovte" ejn toi'" kaq j uJma'" tovpoi" ejmartuvroun Iouniva/ Leukiv< ou Qeodwvra/ th'i poleivtidi uJmw'n th;n eu[noian kai; spoudh;n h}n eijsenhvne< ktai uJpe;r aujtw'n, pronooumevnh dia; panto;" tw'n hJmetevrwn kai; para< genomevnwn eij" th;n povlin uJmw'n: hJmei'" ou\n ajpodecovmenoi aujth;n ejf j h/|

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e[cei pro;" th;n povlin eujnoiva/ e[comen ejn th'i pleivsthi katalogh'i, ejcreiv< namen de; kai; uJmei'n gravyai, o{pw" ei[dhte th;n th'" povlew" eujcaristivan.

The council and people of Myra greet the magistrates of Corinth. Many of (16) our (citizens) who travelled in your territory testified concerning a citizen of yours, Iunia Theodora, daughter of Lucius, and the devotion and zeal which she used on their behalf, occupying herself continually for our people particularly at the time of their arrival in your city; this is why, according her our approval for (20) her loyalty to the city, we hold her in the greatest esteem, and have decided at the same time to write to you as well in order that (o{pw") you may know of the gratitude of the city.

3. A decree of the Lycian city of Patara

[Edoxe Patarevwn tw'/ dhvmw/. jEpei; Iouniva Qeodwvra ÔRwmaiva tw'n katoi< kousw'n ejn Korivnqw/, gunh; tw'n ejn pleivsth/ teimh'/ kaqesthkeiw'n, zw'<

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sa swfrovnw" kai; filoluvkio" ou\sa kai; ajnateqeikui'a to;n eJauth'" bivon eij" th;n pavntwn Lukivwn eujcaristivan, polla; kai; pleivstoi" tw'n hJmetev< rwn poleitw'n ejpeujergesivan parevschtai kai; to; eJauth'" megalopre< pe;" th'" yuch'" ejndeiknumevnh ejx eujnoiva" ouj dialeivpei xevnhn te eJau<

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th;n pa'sin Lukivoi" parecomevnh kai; th'/ oijkiva/ decomevnh kai; mavlista toi'" hJmetevroi" poleivtai" ouj dialeivpei uJpertiqemevnh ta;" eij" pavnta" cavri< ta", di o} kai; plei'stoi tw'n poleitw'n hJmw'n katastavnte" ejpi; th'" ejkklh< siva" diamemartuvrhkan aujth'/: kaqhvkein ou\n kai; to;n hJmevteron dh'mon

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eujcavriston o[nta ejpainevsai te th;n Iounivan kai; diamarturh'sai aujth'/ h}n e[cei para; th'/ patrivdi hJmw'n ajpodoch;n kai; eu[noian kai; o{ti parakalei' aujth;n prosepauvxein th;n eij" to;n dh'mon eu[noian, eijdui'an o{ti kai; oJ dh'mo" hJmw'n pro;" oujqe;n ejnleivyei th'" eij" aujth;n eujnoiva" kai; cavrito", pavnta de;

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pravxei ta; pro;" ajreth;n aujth'/ kai; dovxan dihvkonta: di o{, tuvch/ ajgaqh'/, dedov< cqai ejph/nevsqai aujth;n ejpi; pa'sin toi'" progegrammevnoi": i{na de; kai; aujth; Iou< niva kai; hJ Korinqivwn povli" ejpignw'/ th;n ejk th'" povlew" hJmw'n eij" aujth;n eu[< noian kai; to; gegono;" aujth'/ yhvfisma, to;n grammateva th'" boulh'" tou'de

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tou'yhfivsmato" to; ã de à ajntivgrafon sfragisavmenoi th'/ dhmosiva/ sfragei'< di pevmyasqai pro;" to;n Korinqivwn dh'mon.

It was decreed (e[doxe) by the people of Patara: since (ejpeiv) Iunia Theodora,

a Roman, living at Corinth, a woman of the greatest honour, (24) living

modestly, who is a friend of the Lycians and has dedicated her life to earning the gratitude of all the Lycians, has bestowed numerous benefits also on many of our citizens; and, revealing the generosity of her nature, she does not cease, because of her goodwill, from offering hospitality to (28) all the Lycians and receiving them in her own house and she continues particularly to act on behalf of our citizens in regard to any favour asked— so that the majority of our citizens have come before the Assembly to give testimony about her. Therefore, our people (32) in gratitude agreed to vote to commend Iunia and acknowledge her generosity to our native city and her goodwill, and to invite her to extend her loyalty to the people in the certainty that in its turn our people will not show any negligence in its devotion and gratitude to her, and (36) will do everything for the excellence and glory she deserves. This is why, with good fortune, it has been decreed

(dedovcqai) to commend her for all the aforesaid reasons, and in order that (i{na dev) Iunia herself, and the city of Corinth at the same time, may be aware of the loyalty of our city to her, and of the decree passed for her, the secretary of the council sends (40) to the people of Corinth this copy of the present decree after having sealed it with the public seal.

4. A letter of the Federal Assembly

to

decree in favour of Iunia Theodora

Corinth

introducing

a

second

Lukivwn to; koino;n kai; oiJ a[rconte" Korinqivwn a[rcousi, boulh'/, dhvmw/ caiv< rein. Tou'gegonovto" yhfivsmato" filanqrwvpou kai; stefanwvsew" cru<

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sw'/ stefavnw/ kai; ajnaqevsew" eijkovno" eij" ajpoqevwsin meta; th;n ª ajp º a ª l º la< gh;n Iouniva/ Qeodwvra/ katoikouvsh/ par uJmei'n ejxapestavlkamen uJmei'n to; ajn< tivgrafon sfragisavmenoi th'/ dhmosiva/ sfragei'di o{pw" e ª i[ º dht ª e º ta ª u'ta º. [Edoxe Lukivwn tw'/ koinw'/ : ejpei; Iouniva Qeodwvra katoikou'sa ejn ª Kor º ivn<

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qw/ gunh; kalh; kai; ajgaqh; kai; eu[nou" tw'/ Lukivwn e[qnei dia; pan ª to; º " ejn< devdeiktai th;n uJpe;r tou'e[qnou" spoudh;n kai; filoteimivan pa'ª si º toi'" parepidhmhvsasin ijdiwvtai" te kai; ª pr º evsbesin toi'" aj ª po º stellom ª evn º oi" uJpov te tou'e[qnou" kai; ijdiva/ kata; povlin su ª m º paqw'" diakeim ª evnh hjrev º s<

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keutai pa'sin sunkataskeuavzousa tou;" hJg ª e º movna ª " e º ujno ª ustavto º u" hJmei'n geivnesqai ajreskeuomevnh touvtoi" kata; pavnta provpon tov ª n te d º iav< docon aujth'" Sevkton Iouvlion ÔRw ª mai'º on a[ndra ajgaqo;n o[ªnºtªa kai; th'/ uJº< perballouvsh/ eujnoiva/ kratevªonta kai;º spoudh'/ pro;" to; e[qno" ª hJm º w'ª n s º toi<

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cou'nta th'/ a[nwqen Iouniva" pro;" hJma'" eujnoiva/: w|/ kata; to;n ª aujto;n º kai< ro;n pemfqhvsetai hJ ajpo; tou'e[qnou" L ª u º kivwn yhvfisma Io ª univa/ Qeodwv º ra/ e[ti de; kai; pleivstou" tw'n hJme ª tevr º wn ejkpesovnta" uJped ª evxato mega º lo< merw'", diav te h|" tevqeitai diaqhvk ª h" ejn º devd ª eik º tai th;n ª eJauth'" eu[noi º an:

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kalw'" de; e[con ejsti;n kai; to; koino; ª n hJ ª mw'n ejf oi|" ejpimevno ª usa ca. 5 eu\ º poiei'ajpodidovnai aujth'/ marturiva ª " kai; c º avrita": dedovcqai L ª ukivwn tw'/ k º oi< nw'/ ajpodedevcqai kai; ejph/nevssqai ª ejpi; pa'si º toi'" progeg ª rammevnoi" Iou º niv< an Qeodwvran ÔRwmaivan katoikou'ª san ej º n Korivnqw/ stevfanovn t ª e º aujth'/ ª cru º <

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sou'n ajpostei'lai kai; krovkou mna'" pevnte ªa}º" ªajºpoqªevsqai ejn th'/ oijkiva/ i{na ejn eJº

toivmw/ e[ch/, o{tan eij" qeou;" ajfiknh'tai, ka ª i; aujth;nº tªimh'sai eijkovni grapth'/ ej º < picruvsw/ kai; ejpigravyai ejpigrafh;n thv ª nde: Lukivwn to; koino;n kai; oiJ a[rconte" º

Iounivan Qeodwvran ÔRwmaivan katoikou'san ejn Korivnqw/ ª ejtivmhsan stefav º <

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nw/ kai; eijkovni grapth'/ ejpicruvsw/ gunai'ª ka ka º lh;n kai; ª aj º gaqh; ª n k º ai; e ª u[noun º

dia; panto;" tw'i e[qnei filostorgiva" e{neken ka ª i; ca. 10 º E IS¬L L ªca. 3-4º.

Greetings from the federal assembly of the Lycians and the Lycian magistrates to the magistrates, the council and the people of Corinth. By an honorific decree made in favour of Iunia Theodora, living among you, it is voted to grant her both the crowning with a (44) golden crown and the offering of a portrait for her deification after her death, and we have sent you a copy (of the decree) sealed with the public seal so as to inform you at the same time. It was decreed (e[doxe) by the federal assembly of the Lycians: since (ejpeiv) Iunia Theodora, living in Corinth, (48) a good and noble woman and devoted to the Lycian nation, has not ceased to show her zeal and generosity towards the nation and is full of good will to all travellers whether private individuals or ambassadors sent by the nation or by various cities, and has procured the gratitude (52) of all of us by assuring the friendship of the authorities which she seeks to win by every means, and making well-disposed her heir Sextus Iulius, a Roman, a good man also behaving with surpassing goodwill and with zeal towards our nation, imitating (56) the devotion of Iunia towards us which was mentioned above. To that man will be sent on the same occasion the decree of the Lycian nation in honour of Iunia Theodora. Since also very many of our people in exile were welcomed by her with magnificence, and that by the will she has made she shows her loyalty, it has been decreed (dedovcqai) therefore that, in its turn, (60) our assembly make testimony on her behalf

and register its gratitude for her continual benefits,

federal assembly to give honour and praise for all the above-mentioned reasons to Iunia Theodora, a Roman, living at Corinth, and to send her a crown of gold (64) and five minas of saffron to be set aside in her house in order that she may have it in readiness when she will reach the presence of the gods and to honour her with a portrait painted on a gilt background and engraved with the following inscription: ‘The federal assembly of the Lycians and the Lycian magistrates have honoured with a crown (68) and a portrait painted on a gilt background Iunia Theodora, a Roman, living at Corinth, a good and noble woman and constantly devoted to the nation by reason of her affection.’

it

pleases the Lycian

5. A decree of the Lycian city of Telmessos

[Etou" tessarokostou', ejpi; iJer(ev)w" Dionusofav ª n º ou to ª u'ca. 1-2 º A ª ca. 12-13 e[doxe º Telmhsevwn th'/ boulh'/ kai; tw'i dhvmwi, pr ª u º tavnew ª n ca. 2-3 º O ª ca. 16 º

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gnwvmh. Epi; Iouniva Qeodwvra ÔRwmaiva gunh; uJpavrcous ª a ejn pleivsth/ eujnoiv º < a/ tou'te koinou'tw'n Lukivwn kai; th'" povlew" hJmw'n po ª l º la; ª " ca. 5 eujergesiv º < a" tetevleken tw'/ te koinw'i kai; th'/ patrivd ª i hJ º mw'n, ªkatoikou'sa de; ejn th'/ Korinqivº< wn povlei tou;" parepidhmou'nta" Lukivwn kai; tw'n pol ª eitw'n hJmw'n ca. 7 devce º <

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tai th'/ ijdiva/ oijkiva/ parecomevnh aujtoi'ª " pavn º ta ªca. 23 º tw'n parageinomevnwn prostasivan ª ejn º d ª eiknumevnh ca. 17 º ijdiva" filodoxiva" kai; ejkteneiva" A ≥ ≥ ≥ O ª ca. 2-3 º AQ ª ca. 17: kalw'" º de; e[con ejsti;n kai; th;n povlin hJmw'n ajpodou'nai a ª ujth'/ th;n kaqhvkousan martu º <

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rivan, tuvch/ ajgaqh'/, dedovcqai Telm ª hs º s ª evwn º tw'ª i º dhvmw ª i ajp º o ª dedevcqai kai; ej º < ph/nh'sqai ejpi; pa'si toi'" progegrammevnoi" Iounivan Q ªe º odwvran ª th;n proge º < grammevnhn, parakalei'n te aujth;n mevnousan ejp ª i; º th'" aujth'" uJpos ª tavsew" º ajeiv tino" ajgaqou'paraitivan geivnesqai pa'sin hJmei'n eijdui'an o{t ª i kai; hJ povli" º

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hJmw'n eujcavristo" uJpavrcousa ajpodwvsi aujth'/ pavlin ta;" kaqhko ª uvsa" º marturiva".

priest, it was decreed (e[doxe)

: (72) Since

(ejpeiv) Iunia Theodora, a Roman, a benefactress of the greatest loyalty to the Lycian

for the federation and

In the fourth year, when Dionysophanes, son of

by the council and people of Telmessos, the proposal of the prytaneis

was

federation and our city has accomplished numerous

benefits

our city and, dwelling in the city of the Corinthians (76) welcomes in her own

house Lycian travellers and our citizens,

displaying her patronage of those who are present

, her according to her deserts; (80) by good fortune, it pleases the demos of Telmessos to give honour and praise for all the above reasons to the above mentioned Iunia Theodora and to invite her, living with the same intentions, to always be the author of some benefit towards us, well knowing that in return our city (84) recognises and will acknowledge the evidence of her goodwill. 5

assiduousness

supplying

of

them with everything

;

her own love of fame and

it has been decreed (dedovcqai) that our city in its turn testify to