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# Lecture 2 Lecture 2

## Modeling of Dynamic Systems Modeling of Dynamic Systems

Electrical Engineering Department
University of Indonesia
Lecturer:
Aries Subiantoro
The Control Design Cycle The Control Design Cycle
The Control Design Cycle The Control Design Cycle
1. Establish control goals
2. Identify the variables to
control
3. Write the specifications
for the variables
4. Establish system
configuration (sensors+
actuator+process+
controller hardware)
5. Obtain a model of the
process+actuator+sensor
6. Determine controller
7. Optimize the
parameters and analyze
the controlled systems
performance
Performance specs met
Performance does
not meet the specs
Summary: Given a model of the system
to be controlled (process, sensors,
actuators) and design goals, find a
controller or determine that none exists
Modeling and Simulation Modeling and Simulation
m Model types: ODE, PDE, state machines,
hybrid
m Modeling approaches:
q Physics based (white box)
q Input-output models (black box)
m Linear systems
m Simulation
m Modeling uncertainty
Dynamic Models Dynamic Models
m Energy Domain:
m Electric Circuit
m Mechanical Systems
m Electromechanical Systems
m Heat and Flow Systems
mTo make progress on the control system design
problem, it is first necessary to gain an
understanding of how the process operates. This
understanding is typically expressed in the form of
a mathematical model.
Dynamic Models Dynamic Models
Dynamic Models Dynamic Models
The power of a mathematical model lies in the fact
that it can be simulated in hypothetical situations,
be subject to states that would be dangerous in
reality, and it can be used as a basis for
synthesizing controllers.
Modelling of Systems Modelling of Systems
m Classical Control
m based on continuous time systems
m takes system differential equation and
using Laplace Transforms models system
as a transfer function
m Note that it is essential to be familiar with
Laplace Transforms
Modelling of Systems Modelling of Systems
m Modern Control
m usually based on discrete time systems
m transfer function approach (z transform)
m or state space (time domain ) approach
m This subject is primarily concerned with
classical control.
Linear vs Non Linear vs Non--Linear Modelling Linear Modelling
m In this course we will assume we are dealing
with Linear Time Invariant systems
q Linear
superposition holds
q Time Invariant
system dynamics as described by system
differential equation does not change with
time
Linear vs Non Linear vs Non--Linear Modelling Linear Modelling
l Note that with non-linear systems we can
often linearise the system about a certain
operating point and apply the theory we will
develop in this course.
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
mThe study of differential equations of the type
described above is a rich and interesting subject.
Of all the methods available for studying linear
differential equations, one particularly useful tool is
provided by Laplace Transforms.
Definition of the Transform Definition of the Transform
l Consider a continuous time signal y(t); 0 t <
. The Laplace transform pair associated with
y(t) is defined as
mA key result concerns the transform of the
derivative of a function:
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Table 2.1
Laplace transform table
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Table 2.2
Laplace
transform theorems
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l We start from the differential equation relating
system output to input , take the Laplace
transform of the D.E. and rearrange to get the
ratio of the L.T. of the output to the L.T. of the
input.
l Note in so doing we are employing the
derivative property of the L.T.
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l Recall derivative property of L.T.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 ) (
0 ) (
2
2
2
f sf s F s t f
dt
d
L
f s sF t f
dt
d
L
&

'

'

## Linear vs Non Linear vs Non--Linear Modelling Linear Modelling

l Note that with non-linear systems we can
often linearise the system about a certain
operating point and apply the theory we will
develop in this course.
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l We start from the differential equation relating
system output to input , take the Laplace
transform of the D.E. and rearrange to get the
ratio of the L.T. of the output to the L.T. of the
input.
l Note in so doing we are employing the
derivative property of the L.T.
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l Recall derivative property of L.T.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 ) (
0 ) (
2
2
2
f sf s F s t f
dt
d
L
f s sF t f
dt
d
L
&

'

'

## Transfer Functions Transfer Functions

l
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( )
s
s X s sX s X s
s
L
x x x x x
f s s F s t f
dt
d
L
n
k
k k n n
n
n
3
5 2
3
3 that Noting
0 0 , 0 0 , 3 5 2
of Transform Laplace he consider t example an As
0 ) (
general In
2
1
1
+ +

+ +

'

& & & &
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l In constructing transfer functions we make
the assumption that the initial conditions are
zero
l in effect this means their effects have long died
out.
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
) ( ...
) ( ...
1
1
1
1 0
1
1
1
1 0
t x b
dt
dx
b
dt
x d
b
dt
x d
b
t y a
dt
dy
a
dt
y d
a
dt
y d
a
m m
m
m
m
m
n n
n
n
n
n
+ + + +
+ + + +

LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
System differential equation
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) (
1
1
1 0
1
1
1 0
s X b s sX b s X s b s X s b
s Y a s sY a s Y s a s Y s a
m m
m m
n n
n n
+ + + +
+ + + +

LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
Taking Laplace Transforms assuming zero initial
conditions
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
zeros system the as known are 0 of Roots
poles system the as known are 0 ) ( of Roots
) (
) (
...
...
) (
1
1
1 0
1
1
1 0

+ + + +
+ + + +

N(s)
s D
s D
s N
a s a s a s a
b s b s b s b
s G
n n
n n
n n
m m
LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
Hence transfer function G(s)=Y(s)/X(s)
Derivation of Transfer Derivation of Transfer
Function Function -- Example Example
m Electric Circuit
m Mechanical Systems
m Electromechanical Systems
m Flow Systems
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Table 2.3
Voltage-current, voltage-charge, and impedance
relationships for capacitors, resistors, and inductors
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.3
RLC network
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.4
Block diagram
of series RLC electrical
network
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.11
Inverting operational
amplifier circuit
for Example 2.14
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Table 2.4
Force-velocity, force-
displacement, and
impedance translational
relationships
for springs, viscous
dampers, and mass
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.15
a. Mass, spring, and damper system;
b. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Table 2.5
Torque-angular velocity,
torque-angular
displacement,
and impedance
rotational relationships
for springs, viscous
dampers, and inertia
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.22
a. Physical system;
b. schematic; c. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.25
Three-degrees-of-
freedom rotational
system
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure P2.35
a. Coupling of
pantograph and
catenary;
b. simplified
representation
showing the
active-control
force
1997 ASME.
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure P1.9
High-speed rail
system showing
pantograph and
catenary
1997, ASME.
Derivation of Transfer Function Derivation of Transfer Function --
Example Example
l Attitude Control of a satellite

Thrusters
Reference
Centre of
mass
Derivation of Transfer Function Derivation of Transfer Function --
Example Example
l Attitude Control of a satellite
Reference

T
dt
d
J
T
J

2
2
torque thruster the as & satellite the of
inertia of moment the as Defining

## Derivation of Transfer Function Derivation of Transfer Function --

Example Example
l Attitude Control of a satellite
Reference

2
2
1
) (
) (
) (
function transfer System
) ( ) (
sides both of Transforms Laplace Taking
Js s T
s
s G
s T s Js

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.34
NASA flight
simulator
robot arm with
electromechanical
control system
components
Debra Lex.
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.35
DC motor:
a. schematic
12
;
b. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Figure 2.36
Typical equivalent
motor
Sistem Tangki Terhubung Sistem Tangki Terhubung
Model CE Model CE- -105 105
c
Q h h g h h a
dt
dh
A
h h g h h a Q
dt
dh
A

2 1 2 1 1
2
2
2 1 2 1 1 1
1
1
2 ) ( sign
2 ) ( sign
Model Sistem Tangki Terhubung Model Sistem Tangki Terhubung
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Control system elements or sub-systems are
represented by block diagrams
l Each block will contain the transfer function
for that sub-system and possibly the name of
the subsystem
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Signal flow denoted by arrows and a
description
l summing blocks sum two or more signals
with the a plus or minus sign at the
subtracted
l branch points are points where signal goes
concurrently to two or more points.
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Example - Closed Loop Control System
+
s
1
5
10
+ s
1
1
+ s
-
controller
plant
sensor
Y(s)
U(s)
E(s)
Summing
block
Input
signal
Error signal
Output
signal
sensor
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
) (
2
s G ) (
1
s G
U(s) X(s)
Y(s)
) ( and
) ( between function transfer equivalent
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ,
) (
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
t y
t u
s U
s Y
s X
s Y
s U
s X
s G s G
s X
s Y
s G
s U
s X
s G

Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
) (
2
s G ) (
1
s G
U(s) X(s)
Y(s)
Can be replaced by:
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
s G s G s G
U(s)
Y(s)
Closed Loop Transfer Function Closed Loop Transfer Function
l
+
-
G(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s) E(s) U(s)
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
s Y s H s U
s B s U s E
s E s G s Y

## Closed Loop Transfer Function Closed Loop Transfer Function

l
+
-
G(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s) E(s) U(s)
[ ]
) (
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
get we g Eliminatin
s G
s H s G
s G
s U
s Y
s Y s H s U s G s Y
E(s)
equiv

+

Closed Loop Transfer Function Closed Loop Transfer Function
l
+
+
G(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s) E(s) U(s)
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
feedback positive of case in the that Note
s H s G
s G
s G
equiv

Positive
feedback
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s)
U(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
To analyse this we use superposition
1. Consider set point to be zero and compute output
2. Consider disturbance to be zero and compute output
3. Add both outputs in 1 And 2 together
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
D
(s)
U(s)=0
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
1. Consider set-pint U(s) to be zero and compute output
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
D
(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
0 h output wit of L.T. be ) ( let
2 1
2
s H s G s G
s G
s D
s Y
U(s) s Y
D
D
+

U(s)=0
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
U
(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)=0
U(s)
2. Consider disturbance to be zero and compute output
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
U
(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)=0
U(s)
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) ( ) (
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
s H s G s G
s G s G
s U
s Y
U
+

## Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to

a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
U(s)
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+
-
G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
U(s)
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 1
1
s D s U s G
s H s G s G
s G
s Y s Y s Y
U D
+
+

+
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
[ ]
0
) (
) (
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( &
1 ) ( ) ( If
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
2 1
1
1
2 1
1

>>
>>
+
+

s D
s Y
s H s G s G
s H s G
s D s U s G
s H s G s G
s G
s Y
D
Effect of disturbance is minimised
- one advantage of a closed loop system
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
ll
) ( ), ( of t independen is
) (
) (
then
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( if
increases ) ( ) ( ) ( as
) (
1
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
2 1
s G s G
s U
s Y
s H s G s G
s H s G s G
s H s U
s Y
U
U
>>

## i.e. independent of small variations in G

1
(s),G
2
(s)
Another advantage of a closed loop system
Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Algebra
l Often control systems can be quite complex
l To adequately model and predict their
behaviour it is often desirable to reduce
system down to a simple closed loop transfer
function
l Next lecture we will look at techniques for
doing this
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling
l Time domain approach
l express system as a series of first order
differential equations
l assemble this set of first order equations into
a matrix-vector equation
l very useful in higher order systems
l will be covered in detail in EEB511
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling -- Example Example
l Spring Mass system with damping constant D
Equilibrium position
x
kx x D x M +
& & &
Mass = M
Spring constant = k
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling -- Example Example
l Spring Mass system with damping constant D
Equilibrium position
x
x t x x t x
&
) ( , ) ( states Define
2 1
Mass = M
Spring constant = k
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling -- Example Example
l
1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

2
1
2
1
1 2 2 2 1
1 0
form tor matrix vec In
,
s D.E.' order first two becomes D.E. order 2nd
x
x
M
D
M
k
x
x
x
M
k
x
M
D
x x x
&
&
& &
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling
l In general state space model is of the form
matrices sized ely appropriat are
tor output vec
signals input of vector &
vector state
D C, B, A,
y
Du Cx y
Equation Output
u
x Bu Ax x
Equation State

+ where &
Sensors Sensors
l Dependent on application
l Usually present in feedback path of closed
loop system
l In time constant of sensor is very small
compared with system time constants then
sensor may be represented by a simple time
constant
Sensors Sensors
q Can also be a source of noise
q Effect of noise can be amplified by any
differentiation blocks in loop
i.e.transfer function blocks of the form Ks
MATLAB MATLAB
q Widely used in the control field
q many control designs are developed in
MATLAB before converting to C or assembly
code.
Automatic conversion software exists
q available as a student edition and on the
EESE network
Homeworks Homeworks
q Nise chapter 1: 2, 3, 5, 17(a)
q Nise chapter 2: 17, 25, 29, 37, 42
Next Lecture Next Lecture
l Block diagram algebra, transient response of
LTI systems - 1st, 2nd, & higher order
systems
l time domain performance measures
l significance of pole locations