'
'
'
'
+ +
'
& & & &
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l In constructing transfer functions we make
the assumption that the initial conditions are
zero
l in effect this means their effects have long died
out.
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
) ( ...
) ( ...
1
1
1
1 0
1
1
1
1 0
t x b
dt
dx
b
dt
x d
b
dt
x d
b
t y a
dt
dy
a
dt
y d
a
dt
y d
a
m m
m
m
m
m
n n
n
n
n
n
+ + + +
+ + + +
LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
System differential equation
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) (
1
1
1 0
1
1
1 0
s X b s sX b s X s b s X s b
s Y a s sY a s Y s a s Y s a
m m
m m
n n
n n
+ + + +
+ + + +
LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
Taking Laplace Transforms assuming zero initial
conditions
Transfer Functions Transfer Functions
l
zeros system the as known are 0 of Roots
poles system the as known are 0 ) ( of Roots
) (
) (
...
...
) (
1
1
1 0
1
1
1 0
+ + + +
+ + + +
N(s)
s D
s D
s N
a s a s a s a
b s b s b s b
s G
n n
n n
n n
m m
LTI System
x(t)
y(t)
Hence transfer function G(s)=Y(s)/X(s)
Derivation of Transfer Derivation of Transfer
Function Function  Example Example
m Electric Circuit
m Mechanical Systems
m Electromechanical Systems
m Flow Systems
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Table 2.3
Voltagecurrent, voltagecharge, and impedance
relationships for capacitors, resistors, and inductors
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.3
RLC network
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.4
Block diagram
of series RLC electrical
network
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.11
Inverting operational
amplifier circuit
for Example 2.14
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Table 2.4
Forcevelocity, force
displacement, and
impedance translational
relationships
for springs, viscous
dampers, and mass
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.15
a. Mass, spring, and damper system;
b. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Table 2.5
Torqueangular velocity,
torqueangular
displacement,
and impedance
rotational relationships
for springs, viscous
dampers, and inertia
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.22
a. Physical system;
b. schematic; c. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.25
Threedegreesof
freedom rotational
system
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure P2.35
a. Coupling of
pantograph and
catenary;
b. simplified
representation
showing the
activecontrol
force
1997 ASME.
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure P1.9
Highspeed rail
system showing
pantograph and
catenary
1997, ASME.
Derivation of Transfer Function Derivation of Transfer Function 
Example Example
l Attitude Control of a satellite
Thrusters
Reference
Centre of
mass
Derivation of Transfer Function Derivation of Transfer Function 
Example Example
l Attitude Control of a satellite
Reference
T
dt
d
J
T
J
2
2
torque thruster the as & satellite the of
inertia of moment the as Defining
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.34
NASA flight
simulator
robot arm with
electromechanical
control system
components
Debra Lex.
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.35
DC motor:
a. schematic
12
;
b. block diagram
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise
Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.
Figure 2.36
Typical equivalent
mechanical loading on a
motor
Sistem Tangki Terhubung Sistem Tangki Terhubung
Model CE Model CE 105 105
c
Q h h g h h a
dt
dh
A
h h g h h a Q
dt
dh
A
2 1 2 1 1
2
2
2 1 2 1 1 1
1
1
2 ) ( sign
2 ) ( sign
Model Sistem Tangki Terhubung Model Sistem Tangki Terhubung
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Control system elements or subsystems are
represented by block diagrams
l Each block will contain the transfer function
for that subsystem and possibly the name of
the subsystem
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Signal flow denoted by arrows and a
description
l summing blocks sum two or more signals
with the a plus or minus sign at the
arrowhead indicating if signal is added or
subtracted
l branch points are points where signal goes
concurrently to two or more points.
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Example  Closed Loop Control System
+
s
1
5
10
+ s
1
1
+ s

controller
plant
sensor
Y(s)
U(s)
E(s)
Summing
block
Input
signal
Error signal
Output
signal
sensor
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Cascading Blocks
) (
2
s G ) (
1
s G
U(s) X(s)
Y(s)
) ( and
) ( between function transfer equivalent
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ,
) (
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
t y
t u
s U
s Y
s X
s Y
s U
s X
s G s G
s X
s Y
s G
s U
s X
s G
Block Diagrams Block Diagrams
l Cascading Blocks
) (
2
s G ) (
1
s G
U(s) X(s)
Y(s)
Can be replaced by:
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
s G s G s G
U(s)
Y(s)
Closed Loop Transfer Function Closed Loop Transfer Function
l
+

G(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s) E(s) U(s)
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
s Y s H s U
s B s U s E
s E s G s Y
+
Closed Loop Transfer Function Closed Loop Transfer Function
l
+
+
G(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s) E(s) U(s)
) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
feedback positive of case in the that Note
s H s G
s G
s G
equiv
Positive
feedback
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+

G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y(s)
U(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
To analyse this we use superposition
1. Consider set point to be zero and compute output
2. Consider disturbance to be zero and compute output
3. Add both outputs in 1 And 2 together
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+

G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
D
(s)
U(s)=0
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
1. Consider setpint U(s) to be zero and compute output
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+

G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
D
(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
0 h output wit of L.T. be ) ( let
2 1
2
s H s G s G
s G
s D
s Y
U(s) s Y
D
D
+
U(s)=0
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+

G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
U
(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)=0
U(s)
2. Consider disturbance to be zero and compute output
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
+

G
1
(s)
H(s)
B(s)
Y
U
(s)
E(s)
G
2
(s)
+
+
Disturbance D(s)=0
U(s)
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) ( ) (
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
s H s G s G
s G s G
s U
s Y
U
+
+
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
l
[ ]
0
) (
) (
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( &
1 ) ( ) ( If
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( 1
) (
) (
2 1
1
1
2 1
1
>>
>>
+
+
s D
s Y
s H s G s G
s H s G
s D s U s G
s H s G s G
s G
s Y
D
Effect of disturbance is minimised
 one advantage of a closed loop system
Closed Loop System subjected to Closed Loop System subjected to
a Disturbance a Disturbance
ll
) ( ), ( of t independen is
) (
) (
then
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( if
increases ) ( ) ( ) ( as
) (
1
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
2 1
s G s G
s U
s Y
s H s G s G
s H s G s G
s H s U
s Y
U
U
>>
1
1
]
1
1
]
1
2
1
2
1
1 2 2 2 1
1 0
form tor matrix vec In
,
s D.E.' order first two becomes D.E. order 2nd
x
x
M
D
M
k
x
x
x
M
k
x
M
D
x x x
&
&
& &
State Space Modelling State Space Modelling
l In general state space model is of the form
matrices sized ely appropriat are
tor output vec
signals input of vector &
vector state
D C, B, A,
y
Du Cx y
Equation Output
u
x Bu Ax x
Equation State
+ where &
Sensors Sensors
l Dependent on application
l Usually present in feedback path of closed
loop system
l In time constant of sensor is very small
compared with system time constants then
sensor may be represented by a simple time
constant
Sensors Sensors
q Can also be a source of noise
q Effect of noise can be amplified by any
differentiation blocks in loop
i.e.transfer function blocks of the form Ks
MATLAB MATLAB
q Widely used in the control field
q many control designs are developed in
MATLAB before converting to C or assembly
code.
Automatic conversion software exists
q available as a student edition and on the
EESE network
Homeworks Homeworks
q Nise chapter 1: 2, 3, 5, 17(a)
q Nise chapter 2: 17, 25, 29, 37, 42
Next Lecture Next Lecture
l Block diagram algebra, transient response of
LTI systems  1st, 2nd, & higher order
systems
l time domain performance measures
l significance of pole locations
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