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Proceedings of the Regional Engineering Postgraduate Conference 2009 20-21 October 2009

Benefits of Opting Precast Wall Panels for Residential Building

Mst. Sadia Mahzabin, R. Hamid, A. K. Rashid Department of Civil & Structural Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, ABSTRACT In building industry, the design stage is the main activity concerned in the production process. The construction of Industrialized Building System (IBS) structure should target a limited number of components. This paper presents a comparison between conventional and IBS design of a residential two stories building in terms of material cost. Fully prefabricated construction method has been adopted in the production of IBS components of wall panels. Auto Cad 2004 and Esteem Plus 6.2 have been used to model and design the building for conventional method respectively according to the British Standard BS81101985. In both cases, the properties of concrete, steel and the loads were constant. A total of 10 different section panel sizes have been proposed to complete the production of IBS design method ranging from 600 mm to 3600 mm. This study concludes that the adoption of this precast wall panels technique reduces about 35% of the material cost in the construction of two stories residential buildings. Key words: Industrialized Building System (IBS), precast concrete, design, construction 1 INTRODUCTION

According to the definition by construction industry development board Malaysia (CIDB), IBS design is the building systems in which structural components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, transported, and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works (CIDB Malaysia, 2001). For the low income people the Ministry has launched two pilot projects on housing programmes in two major cities namely Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Since then many projects, particularly in the construction of bridges, drains and other infrastructure utilizes IBS extensively. Other famous examples are the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC) (Rahman & Omar, 2006). Thanoon & Jafar 2004 developed an efficient 21 different interlocking hollow block model. Using the IBS had seen as the alternatives that can greatly reduce construction time compare to the conventional method (Abraham Warszawski, 1999). Badir & Kadir 2002 presented a survey conducted on IBS construction companies and IBS technology in Malaysia, existing problem and constraints associated with these technologies. The construction of IBS building should starts with the production of the IBS component (Marsono & Tap, 2006). In this paper the proposed IBS method precast concrete wall panels are used to build the main structure of the building. Pre-fabricated or pre-cast structural components were installed piece by piece, with minimum used of materials, while the conventional building uses more materials to complete the construction, formwork fabrication, reinforcement bar or steel cage fabrication, formwork installation, reinforcement bar installation, concrete placement, and formwork dismantle, etc. The objective of this study is to identify the different types of pre-cast concrete wall panels in IBS and their benefits for the construction of residential buildings.


There are three steps in carrying out this feasibility study. The steps are modelling using Auto Cad 2004 software, designing conventional design using Esteem Plus6.2 software and finally opting for precast wall panels design in IBS method. Therefore, a comparison between the work breakdown structure between a typical building construction using conventional construction method and the other using IBS components for the proposed conceptual building will be further analyzed. 2.1 Modelling Auto Cad 2004 is used to model the layout plan of the two stories residential building and application of IBS components. With the collected data, a model is developed to obtain the optimum production line set up with limited number of wall panels. The model designed is two stories reinforced concrete residential building which has the size of 16.5 m length 9.6 m width and the height of both stories are 3.0m. Figure 1 (a) and (b) show the plan of the building.



Figure 1 Plan of the Building (a) Ground Floor (b) First Floor 2.2 Conventional Design

The building is designed by conventional method using Esteem Plus 6.2 according to British Standard (BS 8110, 1985). The design process of the construction for the conventional building is obtained. Based on the design activities and processes, the cost of construction is recorded. The plan view for ground floor and 3D frame element of the building are shown in Figure 2 (a) and (b). For slab design the total number of sections considered is thirteen, unless that number is redefined with the parameter. From the design, the required top and bottom reinforcement are calculated and stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing. Beam design includes both flexure and shear checking.



Figure 2 (a) Plan View of Ground Floor (b) 3D Frame Element of the Building For beam action, all active beam loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes and location of critical sections are determined. From the critical moment values, the required positive and negative bar pattern is developed with cut off lengths calculated to include required development length. Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the ends. All active loading are tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produced maximum reinforcement is called the critical load and is displayed. The reinforcement details following BS 8110-1985 is determined, with the user having control on the effective length in each direction by using the length factors. 2.3 IBS Design IBS design proposes some changes to the overall architectural designs and layouts. This newly developed design concept provides a more conducive and relaxed living environment for the residents. The IBS design opts for standard IBS components, replacing the conventional buildings that have been used over many years. Figure 3, shows the structural overview of the proposed conceptual building (view as per level only).

Figure 3 The Structural Over View of the IBS Design In order to achieve a feasible IBS system, the aspect of standardization should be incorporated in designing the system. The standardization in this study includes the use of standard wall sizes. Standardization of components may be incorporated to reduce the cost of manufacturing. Instead of using the usual cast-in-situ construction method, precast wall panels are used in the IBS precast method. Table 1 shows the minimum number of different type of wall used in the assembly of the proposed conceptual IBS building.

Table 1: Details for the Different Type of IBS Wall

Types of wall WL WW W-3 W-4 W-5 W-6 W-7 W-8 WD-1 WD-2 Length of wall (mm) 600 1800 1200 600 2400 3600 1800 3000 1800 1800 Required number of wall Ground Floor First Floor 10 11 11 16 7 7 4 5 4 7 4 3 5 2 2 5 2 7 6

All proposed wall are in same height (3000 mm) and same thickness (100 mm) taken from the design. In this design, the wall checked with self weight and roof load. The range of coordinating sizes for slab and wall panels and door and window opening are used according to the IBS Modular Design Guide (IBS Modular Design Guide, 2000). In the plain concrete wall, the reinforcement is needed only for the control of cracking. For this case the quantity of reinforcement used is 0.25% of the concrete cross-sectional area according to BS8110. Figure 4 shows ten different type of wall for the proposed of IBS design. WL is the sample of the L-section wall for the corner of the building, WW is used for wall with 900 mm window, W-3 to W-7 and W-8 are for plain walls and WD-1 and WD-2 are used for the walls with door opening. For first floor slab design the total number of sections considered is nine, unless that number is redefined with the parameter. From the design, the required top and bottom reinforcement are calculated and also stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing. Slab design includes for both flexure and shear checking, cracking and deflection check.

Figure 4 Different Type of Wall for the Proposed IBS Design


From the data analysis, in IBS proposed design for ground floor and first floor wall, a total of ten different sections is considered. From the design, for ground floor total 59 sections is required and for first floor also totals 59 sections is required. For first floor, nine different slab sections are required. The wall thickness of 100 mm and slab thickness of 125 mm is considered for the building construction. Table 2 shows the detail calculation concrete and steel quantity for all different type of wall per floor. 3.1 Material Saving Design results of quantity of concrete and steel for conventional design and IBS design is shown in Table 3. For conventional design the quantity of concrete and steel is calculated for the components of beams, columns and slabs per floor. The break wall is used for conventional design. For IBS design the quantity of concrete and steel is calculated of the slab and wall panels. The plain concrete wall is used for IBS design. Table 2: Quantity of Concrete and Steel for Wall per Floor
Types of wall WL WW W-3 W-4 W-5 W-6 W-7 W-8 WD-1 WD-2 Total Required number of wall 10 11 7 4 4 4 5 2 5 7 59 Quantity of Concrete (m3) 3.22 4.73 2.52 0.72 2.88 4.32 2.70 0.54 1.44 2.60 25.67 Quantity of Steel (Kg) 147 93 108 36 112 174 82 48 43 59 902

Table 3: Comparison of Quantity of Material between Conventional and IBS Design

Components Beam Column Slab Wall Total Conventional Design Quantity of Quantity of Steel Concrete(m3) (Kg) 12.70 2808 3.30 1847 19.50 5038 --35.50 9693 IBS Design Quantity of Quantity of Concrete(m3) Steel(Kg) ----14.62 4577 25.67 902 40.20 5479

For IBS and conventional design, the quantity of concrete is nearly the same (12% higher in IBS design), but the quantity of steel bars in IBS design is less than the conventional design. In IBS design, 5479 kg of steel bars is to be used, which means approximately half (44%) of the overall quantity of steel reinforcement is reduced. 3.3 Cost Saving

The optimum IBS design is when the building is designed without beams and column where the only components needed are the wall (acts as load-bearing wall) and precast slabs. This type of design utilizes minimum quantity of concrete and steel bar. The cost of concrete and steel is calculated based on that the cost of one m3 at RM180.00 and the cost of one kg of steel bar at RM3.50. Using these values, the total cost of materials is calculated for IBS design and conventional design. In IBS design about 35% of the material cost can reduce in the construction of two stories residential buildings. The cost of both concrete and steel and the total cost for each type of design are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Cost Of Concrete and Steel for Conventional and IBS Design
Components Beam Column Slab Wall Total Conventional Design Cost of Cost of Steel Concrete (RM) (RM) 2,268 9,828 594 6,465 3,510 17,633 --6,390 33,926 IBS Design Cost of Cost of Concrete(RM) Steel(RM) ----2,632 16,019 4,620 3,157 7,252 19,176


In this paper, a comparison between conventional and IBS design of a residential two stories building has been presented. Even though the quantity of concrete is 12% higher, but the quantity of steel is 44% lower in the IBS design compare to conventional design which reduces the overall cost. This study concludes that the use of Precast Wall Panels can reduce about 35% of the material cost in the construction of two stories residential buildings. It has also suggested 10 different types of wall to be used to design the two stories residential building, with the dimension ranges from 600 mm to 3600 mm. REFERENCES Abdul Kadir Marsono, Masine Md. Tap, Ng Soon Ching & Ahmad Mahir Makhtar. 2006. Simulation of industrialised building system components production. Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, 5 6 September 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ahmad Baharuddin Abd. Rahman & Wahid Omar. 2006. Issues and challenges in the implementation of industrialised building systems in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference. 5 6 September 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BS 8110. 1985. Structural use of concrete. British Standards Institution. London. CIDB Malaysia. 2001. Manual for assessment of industrialized building systems. CIDB, Kuala Lumpur, 2001. IBS Modular Design Guide. 2000. Implementation of modular Co-ordination in Building in Malaysia. Modular Working Group Research Division. Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Redzuan Bin Ab.Rahman. 2006. Significant usage of slab and wall form technique in industrialized building systems (ibs) for low cost high rise apartments construction. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, NOVEMBER. Waleed A. Thanoon, Mohd Saleh Jaafar, Mohd Razali Abdul Kadir, Abang Abdullah Abang Ali, D.N. Trikha & Amad M.S. Najm. 2004. Development of an innovative interlocking load bearing hollow block system in Malaysia. Construction and Building Materials 18 (2004) 445454. Warszawski, Abraham. 1999. Industrialised and automated building systems: a managerial approach. 2nd ed., London: E&FN Spon. 1999. Yuosre F. Badir, M. R. Abdul Kadir & Ahmed H. Hashim. 2002. Industrialized building systems construction in malaysia. Journal of Architectural Engineering, March 2002.