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Technical Training


Apparel Manufacturing Home Textiles Denim Manufacturing Training

Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter
Cost Control

1 2 3 4

Supervisor challenge

Quality Control

Line Balancing

Chapter 5
Work Measurement

Chapter 6
Operators Training

Chapter 7
Work Procedure and product Integrity

Chapter 1

Supervisor Challenge

1) Attitude 2) Terminology 3) Machine knowledge 4) Types of stitch

The following are few definitions of attitude. Someones learned opinion or manner towards something Or It is a tendency to respond positively or negatively to an idea, object, or person Or A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun"

Importance of Attitude
What is more Important? The Right Attitudes or the Right Skills?
For years the corporate world has been asking for people with good skills and work experience. However, the rules have changed. Employers now are focusing on how they can recruit the right employees, retain them and motivate them to achieve their maximum potential.

What is an Attitude?
An attitude is a mental position, a feeling or an emotional response to your environment that causes you to value certain experiences, people and activities and causes you to devalue others. It is a passion, a world view you have that was formed by genetics and your life experiences. You see the world through the window of your attitude.

Why Learn About Attitudes?

Building a positive attitude toward yourself and others starts with understanding your own attitudes and how they impel you into action. People often lack the words to articulate why they do what they do or why they feel the way they feel. When applying the principles of DISC (Behaviors, the How) plus Attitudes (the Why) individuals will understand why they make the decisions they make and why conflicts can arise. They will see why others view the world differently and value different things in life. Attitudes will open an individual's eyes to a new understanding of themselves and the people around them.

The Six Attitudes

Theoretical - A passion for the discovery of truth. The aim in life for a theoretical person is knowledge for knowledge sake. Utilitarian - A passion to gain return on investment of time, resources and talent. Aesthetic - A passion to experience the impressions of the world; and achieve form and harmony and balance in all areas of life. Social - A passion to eliminate hate and conflict in the world and to assist others in becoming all they can be. Individualistic - A passion to achieve position and to use that position to affect and influence others. Traditional - A passion to seek out and pursue the higher meaning of life and achieve a system for living.

Benefits of Understanding Attitudes

Understand your own drives and passion. Be able to recognize others' attitudes and be able to see the world through their eyes. Communicate with others according to their attitude, you will powerfully motivate them to action. Appreciate the differences in each of us, learning to value positively instead of judging negatively. Understand the causes of conflict and be able to diffuse the situation. Experience a power of communication beyond what you ever thought possible.

Attitudes - The Missing Link

Every organization spends time and money on employee training and employee development. Understanding attitudes will develop employees' knowledge about themselves and how to communicate with others. Understanding why people do what they do opens up a whole new level of understanding and communicating. When employees learn where other employees are coming from they begin to see each others' behavior from a different viewpoint. Every employer should know the "how" and the "why" of every employee. DISC (Behaviors, the How) plus Attitudes (the Why) leads to powerful communication, understanding and decision making for your life.

What a Right Attitude Requires

A right attitude requires from every member of an organization. identifying cost-saving opportunities improving productivity reducing turnover curbing absenteeism strengthening supervision evaluating customer-service issues assessing training needs streamlining communication benchmarking the organization's progress in relation to the industry gauging employees' understanding of, and agreement with, the company mission

Skills Required For Right and Productive Attitude

These skills con be divided into six groups.

1) Basic Skills
Developed capacities that facilitate learning or the more rapid acquisition of knowledge Basic skills can be further categories as;

a)Active Learning Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. b) Active listening Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. c) Critical Thinking Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. d) Learning Strategies Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things. e)Mathematics Using mathematics to solve problems.

g) Monitoring Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action. h) Reading Comprehension Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. i)Science Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems. j) Speaking Talking to others to convey information effectively k) Writing Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

2) Complex Problem Solving Skills

Developed capacities used to solve novel, ill-defined problems in complex, real-world settings a)Complex Problem Solving Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

3) Resource Management Skills

Developed capacities used to allocate resources efficiently

a)Management of Financial Resources Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures. b)Management of Material Resources Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work. c) Management of Personnel Resources Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. d) Time Management Managing one's own time and the time of others.

4) Social Skills
Developed capacities used to work with people to achieve goals

a)Coordination Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.

b) Instructing Teaching others how to do something. c) Negotiation Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences. d)Persuasion Persuading others to change their minds or behavior. e)Service Orientation Actively looking for ways to help people. f)Social Perceptiveness Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.

5) System Skills
Developed capacities used to understand, monitor, and improve socio-technical systems a) Judgment and Decision Making Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. b) Systems Analysis Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes. c) Systems Evaluation Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.

6) Technical Skills
Developed capacities used to design, set-up, operate, and correct malfunctions involving application of machines or technological systems

a)Equipment Maintenance Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed. b) Equipment Selection determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.

c) Installation Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications. d)Operation and Control Controlling operations of equipment or systems.

f) Operation Monitoring watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine are working properly. e) Operations Analysis Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design. f) Programming Writing computer programs for various purposes. g)Quality Control Analysis Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance h) Repairing Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools. i)Technology Design Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs. j) Troubleshooting determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.


Cutting Room Terms
Band knife: Bias Cut: Body: An endless blade vertical knife around which the work is moved over a large working table To cut on the bias is to cut at an angle to both warp and weft of the cloth

Collective term for al the pattern pieces required to make one garment (Hence a 3 body marker contains all pattern pieces for 3 garments) Bundle of cutwork is prepared according to size, color and quantities

Bundle Preparation:

Bundle Ticket:

These tickets identify each bundle and in them selves play an important roll in production planning and control for the sewing and finishing section. The Ticket themselves can be in alpha-numeric form or bar-coded, and in both cases they can be computer generated.

Buffering: Cut Planning: Damage:

The space allowance made between parts in a CAD lay plan to accommodate cutting of adjacent pattern pieces The process of converting customer order into factory order or cuts A clothe fault, usually donated by a string inserted by the cloth manufacturer

Drill Hole: End Loss: One-Way Spreading:

A hole in a middle of a fabric part to add location of small parts like pockets into larger parts The cloth at the end of a lay not covered by the marker Spreading in such a way that the face side of each ply faces the same way. This requires a cut across the cloth at the end of each ply Spreading in such a way that the cloth is alternatively faces up and faces down

Face-to-Face Spreading:



The operation use to establish the dimensions of the pattern pieces for all sizes of garments in a model using one size as a base.


A completed set of fabric plies spread ready for cutting

Marker: A complete layout of all the pattern pieces needed for a specified number of garments Marker Making: The positioning of the entire pattern pieces for a given number of garments in a minimum length and width (process can be manual, interactive with a computer or automatic using a computer) The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan created. Formula for marker efficiency: Area of patterns in the marker plan Total area of the marker plan X 100%

Marker Plan Efficiency:

Marking Rules:

The set of rules used by the marker maker to ensure that cut work is of the desired standard

Notch: A small cut into a fabric part to add alignment of parts at the sewing machine Pattern Piece: Ply: One fabric layer Any screen image or paper are called representing a garment part, e.g. in scarf set, 2 panels, 2 loops and 1 scarf

Recut: A component part containing a damage, which is cut manually from spare fabric, shade matched to the original Remnant: Roll Lay Planning: A left over from spreading a role The allocation of fabric rolls to selected marker to optimized fabric utilization, minimize remnant loss and minimize losses due to fabric faults The outer edges of a piece of woven cloth, usually of different weave from the middle The visible and unacceptable difference in color between two fabric pieces or parts This operation ensures that component cut from different shades of the same colors do not get mixed-up during the assembly process. Every component for one garment is marked with a unique number, usually printed on a small ticket, which is stuck on the component

Selvedge: Shading: Shade Marking:


Splice: The overlap of two layers of clothe in the same ply either in the start of a new piece or at the place where a damage has been cut out Spreading: The process of laying out fabric in plies ready for cutting

String: A piece of colored string or plastic placed on the selvedge of a piece of cloth opposite of a serious defect Tight Marker: It is an efficient arrangement of pieces resulting in a high percentage of fabric used, thus a high degree of marker efficiency

Warp: Yarn that runs length wise in a piece of woven clothe Weft: Yarn that runs width wise in a piece of woven clothe The clothe at the sides of a lay not covered by a marker

Width Loss:

Sewing Room Terms

Back Tacking: Bar Tacking: Bias: Reverse sewing at the beginning or end of a seam for reinforcement A reinforcement by means of repeated stitches. Used in clothing at the point of strain. E.g.: button holes, seam ends.

An oblique direction to wrap and weft. True bias is at an angle of 45 degree from both warp and weft. A cut at an oblique angle to warp and weft. Also know as cutting on the cross A stitch (either by hand or machine) which does not go right through the cloth A form of enclosed pleats achieved by double folding cloth alternatively in opposite directions.

Bias Cut: Blind Stitch: Box Pleat:

Bundle: A number of similar garment parts temporarily kept together for convenience of handling CMT: An abbreviations of Cut, Make and Trim. A branch of trade in which a contractor is supplied with material only to produce garments for a principal

Conventional Bundle System:A production System in which bundle passes from storage to an operator and then back to storage for allocation to the next operation Dart: A wedge shape removes from the surface area of a garment by stitching or alternatively by cutting and stitching



The manipulation of an additional amount of one of the material into a seam in order to create fullness

Fabric: An alternate name for cloth. Face Side: The side of the fabric intended to be shown whilst in wear

Felling: The operation of over-sewing a piece of material by its edge (raw or turned in) upon the body material. Blind stitch machines are used for many felling operations French Seam: Fusible Interlining: A seam with in a seam. Two pieces of fabric sewn together, folded over, and sewn again so that the edges are concealed An interlining which has been treated so that it adheres to other fabrics by the application of heat and pressure

Fusing: The action of bonding a fusible interlining to a garment piece by the action of heat and pressure Grain: The direction of the warp of a fabric Cutting straight grain cutting with the grain. Cross Grain across the grain Off Grain See Bias Gusset: A piece of fabric inserted to strengthen or enlarge a garment Hem: A fold edge produced by turning in the raw edge and securing it

In Lay: An extra seam allowance in side the garment for letting out if required or for strength at a given position Lay-Felled Seam: A seam formed with the edge of both plies of fabric concealed by inter-lapping. Two or more row of stitches secure the turned pieces of fabric

Ligne: A standard measure, equal to 1/40 th of an inch, by which button and ribbons are, measured E.g. a 10 Ligne button is one quarter of an inch in diameter. Lock stitch: A stitch form by an upper or needle thread or threads and a lower bobbin thread interlaced together. In a correctly balanced stitch the threads usually interlaced mid way between the top and bottom surfaces of the material being stitched


A fibrous surface produced on a fabric or felt in which part of the fiber is raised from the basic structure

Neatening: Finishing a cut edge to prevent fraying. Various methods include: turning in the edge, over-edging, Taping, etc. Notches: Small cuts made in the edges of garment parts which are used as guides during garment assembly


Off Shade: Over-edging: Overlock Seam:

A variation from a established consistent color normally arising from a defect in dyeing either yarns or fabric The uses of the over-edge stitch either by hand or machine which binds the edge to avoid fraying A seam in which two or more edges of fabric are joined together, over-sewn and edge-trimmed in one operation, with over-edge stitches having two or more threads


A surface effect on a fabric formed by tufts or loops of yarn, introduced into the fabric for the purpose, that stand up from the body of the cloth material folds introduced to allow for expansion or to provide style features Automatic sewing following a predetermined profile e.g. by a jig or cams. A production System in which bundles pass from one operator to the next with some work in hand at each operation. The operations are laid out in sequence with the required number of machines for approximate balance allocated to each Production of a raised padded effect by stitching or other means on two layers of material sandwiching wadding, kapok etc. The stitching may be in parallel rows or to a pattern


Profile Stitching: Progressive Bundle System:


Seam: Line of joining between two or more pieces of fabric. PLAIN SEAM A seam formed by a row of stitching joining together two pieces of material, their face sides together. Seam Allowance: A predetermine amount of material between the edge of component parts of the garment and the seam line; usually between 1 and 2 cm. Also called seam margin The pulling away of fabric from a seam under tension Joining together the component parts of garment at a given distance from the edge of the material When used without qualification this term refers to the longitudinal edges a textile fabric, which are formed during manufacture in such a way that the component threads are interlaced to prevent them from raveling or fraying The number of stitches per unit length of seam A part of a garment, which is made separately as a unit before it, is joined to the main garment Exposed stitching normally sewn at a uniform distance from a seam. Mainly used for style or decorative effect

Seam Slippage: Seaming: Selvedge:

Stitch Density/(SPI): Sub-Assembly: Top Stitching:


Trims: A wide variety of garment components including such items as canvas, linings, buttons, twist, silk, zip and others Under pressing: The pressing operation carried out during manufacturer of the garment; usually seam opening but fusing is included, as is first edge pressing Designing and making a work place to enable an operator to work more efficiently

Workplace Engineering:

Machine Knowledge
Sewing Machine Parts


A casing which houses and provides mounting points for the moving parts inside. It includes the sewing head and pars housing the mechanism for transferring mechanical. Motion to the parts of the mechanism contained in the machine bed. The arm is normally the upper visible part of the machine above the material being sewn.

The part of the sewing machine below the material being sewn. It consists of a casing which houses and provides mounting point for moving parts inside.

Flat Bed
A type of bed which provides a flat unbroken surface with the table in which it is mounted.

A sewing machine attachment which folds material as it is sewn into the desire configuration.

Knee Lifter
A lever under the sewing machine table which when operator by the machinists knee lifts the presser foot.

A stitch-formatting part which usually carries the under thread on some types of sewing machine.

A thin shaft of drawn steel wire used for sewing pointed at one or both ends with an eye or a hook for thread or yarn.

Needle Positional
A device on a sewing machine which ensures that the needle will stop automatically either in or out of the fabric as required.

Presser Foot
A section of pressure device on the sewing machine which ensure in conjunction with throat plate and feed dog, an even flow of material and correct loop formation.

A small tube with or without flanges on to which is wound the under-thread of a lock stitch machine. The spool is held in the spool case underneath the throat plate.

What is a sewing machine needle? It is a slender strand of wire, shaped to precision that delivers thread to the machine to create a stitch. Sewing machine needles have become more sophisticated because of new sewing threads and novel fabrics available in the marketplace. Needles are found in various sizes, with different shapes and with more than one needle on a single crossbar


Parts of a needle
The key features of a standard machine needle are called out below. Their configuration varies from needle type to type.

Top of needle that inserts into machine; most often has round front and flat back, which seats needle in right position.

Body of needle below shank. Shaft thickness determines needle size.

Front groove
Slit above needle eye, should be large enough to "cradle" thread for smooth stitches.

Needle tip that bobbin-hook and form needle types. penetrates fabric to pass thread to stitch. Shape of point varies among

Indentation at back of skipped stitches by more easily. A shorter machine. needle. A long scarf helps eliminate allowing bobbin hook to loop thread scarf requires a more perfectly timed

Hole in end of needle size and type through which thread passes. Needle determine size and shape of eye.

The parts of a diagram

needle are shown by following


Types of needles
Sewing-machine needles are grouped into three broad categories.


1) Standard Needles
2) Decorative Needles 3) Special- Purpose Needles

Standard needles

The configuration of these needles is based on the particular fabric to be sewn. Universal needle Uses: Safest needle choice for most fabrics. Configuration: Has slightly rounded point and elongated scarf to enable almost foolproof meeting of needle and bobbin hook. Troubleshooting: When fabric is not medium-weight woven, consider needle specifically suited to fabric. For example, size 18 universal needle works on heavy denim, but size 18 jeans needle works better. Ballpoint and stretch needles Uses: Ballpoint needle for heavier, looser sweater knits; stretch needle for highly elastic fabrics, like Spandex, or Lycra. Configuration: Both have rounded points that penetrate between fabric threads rather than pierce them. (Stretch-needle point is slightly less rounded than ballpoint.) Troubleshooting: Test-stitch knits with ballpoint, stretch, and universal needles to see which doesn't cut yarn and yields best results. If ballpoint skips stitches, try stretch needle. Leather needle Uses: Excellent for sewing natural leather. Configuration: Has slight cutting point (almost like an arrowhead). Troubleshooting: On synthetic leather, unless it's very heavy synthetic, cuts rather than pierces stitch hole and can tear leather. Most synthetic leathers require Microtex or sharp needle.

Microtex and sharp needles Uses: Sewing micro fiber, silk, synthetic leather; precisely stitching edges; and heirloom sewing. Configuration: Has an acute point. Troubleshooting: Essentially trouble-free, but fabric may require a Teflon, roller, or even/dual-feed presser foot.


Denim (jeans) needle Uses: For heavyweight denim, duck, canvas, upholstery fabrics, artificial leather, and vinyl. Configuration: Has deeper scarf, acute point, and modified shaft to sew without pushing fabric down into needle-plate hole. Goes through fabric and meets bobbin hook better on dense woven fabrics. Troubleshooting: If stitches skip when sewing very heavy fabrics, try larger needle and sew more slowly or walk needle through fabric (by turning hand crank).

Handicap/self-threading needle Uses: Enables easier threading for sewers with vision problems. Configuration: Universal needle with slip-in threading slot at the eye. Troubleshooting: Always pull sewn piece back away from needle before cutting thread so needle doesn't unthread. Needle works well on woven fabrics, but may occasionally snag knits, so test-sew to check for fabric and needle compatibility.

Decorative needles

The configuration is designed to wed thread to fabric for surface embellishment. Topstitching needle Uses: Topstitching. Configuration: Has extra-acute point, extra-large eye, and large groove for heavy thread. Troubleshooting: Use smallest size needle that accommodates your thread to avoid punching large holes in fabric. Embroidery needle Uses: Machine embroidering or embellishing with decorative thread. Configuration: Has light point (neither sharp nor ballpoint) and enlarged eye to keep decorative threads from shredding or breaking, and prevent skipped stitches. Troubleshooting: If thread still shreds on dense or heavily stitched design, use larger size needle or Metallica needle.

Metallic (Metafile and Metallica) needle Uses: Sewing with decorative metallic threads. Configuration: Has universal or standard point; large, elongated eye; and large groove to allow fragile metallic and synthetic filament threads to flow smoothly. Troubleshooting: Metallic threads are very sensitive to problems in machine: Tiniest burr on thread path or needle can cause problems.

Quilting (stippling) needle Uses: Piecing, quilting, and stippling. Configuration: Has special tapered shaft to prevent damaging fabrics when stitching multiple layers. Troubleshooting: Move fabric smoothly without pulling on needle when free-motion stitching to prevent breaking needle.


Special-purpose needles

These needles are used only with front-to-back threading machines with zigzag features. Make sure your throat-plate needle hole is wide enough to accommodate needle's width, and zigzag width function is set at zero to prevent sideways movement.

Hemstitch (wing) needle Uses: Hemstitching or heirloom embroidery on linen and batiste. Configuration: Has fins on sides of shank to create holes as you sew. Troubleshooting: Stitch is more effective when needle returns to same needle hole more than once. If needle pushes fabric into needle hole, put stabilizer under fabric.

Twin (double) needle Uses: Topstitching, pin tucking, and decorative stitching. Configuration: Two needles on single shaft produce two rows of stitches. Measurement between needles ranges from 1.6mm to 6mm, and needles come with universal, stretch, embroidery, denim, and Metallica points. Troubleshooting: Be sure throat plate allows for distance between needles.

Triple needle Uses: Same uses as for double needle. Configuration: Cross bar on single shaft connects three needles to sew three stitching rows. Comes with universal point in 2.5mm and 3mm widths. Troubleshooting: Same as for double needle.

Spring needle Uses: Free-motion stitching with dropped feed dogs. Configuration: Has wire spring above point to prevent fabrics from riding up onto needle, eliminating need for presser foot. Troubleshooting: Before using, practice free-motion stitching with heavy regular needle, paper, and dropped feed dogs. Don't pull paper/fabric; instead gently guide it through stitching. Wear safety glasses for free-motion work, since needles often break.

Feed mechanism
A mechanism for repeatedly moving material being stitched from one stitch position to next.


Feed Dog
The toothed mechanism of a sewing machine which is moved to convey the material being stitched the desired distance between needle penetrations.

Feed Types
The following are the types and sub-types of feed system.

1) Drop feed or Regular Feed.

* * * * Incorporates a feed dog. The most common feed system. Also called four-motion feed dog or four-motion drop feed. Motion includes a "drop" below the surface of the material. A movement toward the position in which feed will begin. A "rise" into the material. Lastly, a motion feeding the material.

2) Needle feed or Walking Needle

* Needle enters goods and remains in the goods while moving perpendicular to the needles' normal direction of travel, thereby feeding the goods, or assisting in feeding the goods. * Can assist in preventing upper, middle, and lower layers of material from slipping in relation to each other. * Does not necessarily require pressure against the planar surfaces of the material to feed, and can be used where material should not be marked by the action of a feed dog and/or upper feed. * Is often used in conjunction with drop feed and/or with upper feed

a) Upper pivot needle feed.

* The needle bar, which carries the needle, is held in a frame, and its motion is pivoted from a point on the frame farthest from (or far from) the needle. * The needle will enter the goods at a leading angle from the centerline of needle travel, and will exit the goods at a trailing angle from the centerline of needle travel. In other words, the needle enters the goods at a certain angle and exits at a different angle. This would seem to disrupt the material and the stitching process, but in practice it does not.

b) Central pivot needle feed.

* The needle bar, which carries the needle, is held in a frame, and its motion is pivoted from a point near the middle of the frame. * The needle will enter the goods at a greater leading angle from the centerline of needle travel than with the upper pivot system described above, and will exit the goods at an equally great trailing angle from the centerline of needle travel that it entered with. In other words, the needle enters the goods at a certain angle and exits at a different angle. This would seem to disrupt the material and the stitching process, but in practice it does not, except with thicker or heavier goods. * There is less momentum of the needle bar frame in motion than with the upper pivot system, and higher stitching speeds can be reached.


Parallel drive needle feed.

* The needle bar, which carries the needle, is held in a frame, and its motion is always parallel in relation to its prior and successive movements. It remains perpendicular to the material at all times. For example, if the needle enters the goods at 90 degrees to the materials' surface, the needle will remain at 90 degrees through its travel, and will exit at the same 90 degree angle. * It is the type of needle feed suitable for stitching the heaviest and thickest of materials.


* The mechanism involved in a parallel drive makes for a more expensive unit and will generally have a slower stitching speed.

* * * *

Wheel feed.
A rotary wheel with a movement in the direction of feed. Incorporates a friction surface or clamping surface that feeds or assists in feeding the Has either an intermittent motion or a continuous motion. Continuous motion wheel feed must work in unison with a needle feed goods.

* * *

Upper and lower wheel feed.

Wheel feed system where upper and lower wheels are both driven. The material is fed between the wheels. There is positive feeding pressures both the top and bottom of the material at the same time.


Rotary feed. Upper feed.


* Mechanical foot or bit, with teeth or friction surface or a smooth surface, that transports or assists in the transport of material. Often a foot working in unison with a drop feed. * Has a directional movement in which the material is fed. * May push downwards into the material to capture material between itself and another feed component or against the bed or a plate on the bed

b) Vibrating presser foot.

* A foot with teeth or friction surface or a smooth surface, that transports or assists in the transport of material. * Has a vibrating motion forward with the feeding process and backward with the return stroke. * Is the only top foot or is paired with a presser foot. * Usually incorporates a lifting motion with the backward stroke. This allows the foot to clear the material and to drop relatively straight down onto any raised or uneven portion of the material without interference. * Commonly called a walking foot, feeding foot, or top feed.

c) Alternating presser feet.

* A pair of feet that alternately press against the material. While one foot is pressing against or feeding the material, the other foot is raised clear of the material. The positions then alternate. * One foot is typically a vibrating presser foot while the other foot is typically a rising and descending presser foot. The vibrating foot will feed or assist in feeding while the rising and descending foot will hold the material down between feeding motions. * The rising and descending foot is often called a lifting presser foot.

d) Top feed.
* Any type of upper feed

e) Jump foot.
* * A vibrating presser foot whose forward and backward motions are not driven, but spring loaded. will usually incorporate a lifting motion on the return stroke

f) Walking foot.
* A vibrating presser foot with a lifting motion on the backward (return) stroke. * Often part of an alternating presser foot assembly and commonly used in conjunction with compound feed or a drop feed.



Spring action walking foot.

Same as jump foot.

h) Driven walking foot

* A vibrating presser foot whose forward (feeding) motion only or both forward and return motions are driven by a direct connection to linkage.

I) Wheel feed.
* * * * A rotary wheel with a movement in the direction of feed. Incorporates a friction surface or clamping surface that feeds or assists in feeding the goods. Has either an intermittent motion or a continuous motion. Continuous motion wheel feed must work in unison with a needle feed.

5) Reverse feed.
* * The ability to feed material opposite of a machines' normal direction of feed. The reverse stitch length may be capable of providing as long of a stitch length as the forward feed does, or it may be limited to providing an average reverse stitch length or a maximum reverse stitch length shorter than the forward feed stitch length. * The ability of the reverse feed to feed material may be equal to or less than the ability of the forward feed to feed material.

6) Clamp feed.
* A clamp or clamps from above the material and pressing downward, effectively holding the material between itself and the machine bed or a clamp or clamps above and below the material, holding the material firmly between the upper and lower clamps. * The clamp or clamp set is driven by linkage. * The linkage moves the clamp and material under the needle as the stitches are being formed. * The movement of the clamp and material can be in any direction or follow any pattern provided for in the linkage drive mechanism

6) Puller feed.
* * * * * * Usually accomplished by feed rolls; "rollers". Material passes between rolls, between upper roll and bed, or between lower roll and presser foot. A feed roll is mechanically driven to transport the material. Where material passes between two rolls, the second roll may also be driven. Commonly used in association with any other feed system. Generally suitable for straight runs or large radius curves only.

7) Combination feeds. a) Upper and lower feed.

* A combination of any upper feed system and a feed dog or drop feed. * The term "walking foot" (see "Upper feed" heading above) is often used to mean a vibrating presser foot in combination with compound feed, or in conjunction with a drop feed.


b) Compound feed.
* * A combination of needle feed and drop feed. The term is often used erroneously to indicate any combination of feed systems

c) Other combination feeds.

* Any combination of feed systems, within current engineering ability, may be utilized.

8) Unison feed.
* This term is used in two different ways. * One usage of this term is its application to any of two or more feed systems working in combination. * A second usage of this term is to describe the uncommon feed system of a vibrating presser foot or alternating presser feet, along with needle feed, and a drop feed or feed dog, working in combination, but operating from a one-piece frame. The frame extends from the presser foot/needle feed mechanism, through the machine casting, to the drop feed/feed dog. This is the only system, when in good repair, where it is impossible for the upper and lower feed mechanisms to become out of synchronization. All other feed systems are synchronized by linkage or by electronic control.

Types of stitch
In simplest way a stitch can be define as a link or loop or knot made by drawing a threaded needle through a fabric.

Types of Stitch.
There are two basic types of stitch. 1) lock Stitch 2) Chain Stitch

Lock Stitch
In this type of stitch a combination of a needle and a bobbin is used to form a stitch. The formation of lock stitch is shown by following figure.


The formation of lock stitch can be further by the following figure.

The formation of a stitch begins when the needle penetrates the fabric and descends to its lowest point

The bobbin hook then slides by the needle's scarf, catching the upper thread, and carries it around the bobbin and bobbin thread


The thread is then pulled up into the fabric, completing the stitch.

Chain Stitch
In this type of stitch a combination of a needle and a looper is used to form a stitch. The formation of chain stitch can be shown by the following figure.

Other types of stitch

Beside lock stitch and chain stitch there are several other types of stitch which are basically originated from chain stitch or lock stitch. Here we introducing the different types of stitches defined by ISO

ISO# 101 Chainstitch

Stitch formed by a needle thread passing through the material and interloping with itself on the underside of the seam with the assistance of a spreader.

ISO# 103 Blindstitch

Stitch is formed with one needle thread which interlopes with itself on the top surface of the material. The thread passes through the top ply and horizontally through portions of the bottom ply without penetrating the full depth.

ISO# 301 Lockstitch:

Stitch formed by a needle thread passing through the material and interlocking with a bobbin thread with the threads meeting in the center of the seam. Stitch looks the same on the top as well as the bottom.

ISO# 301 Twin Needle Lockstitch

Same s 301 except that two rows of stitch are formed. Typical needle spacing is 1/4" but the machines are available from 3/16" up to 1".

ISO# 304 Zig Zag


Stitch is formed with a needle and bobbin thread that are set in the center of the seam and form a symmetrical zig zag pattern. Also used to identify barracking and lockstitch button sewing and buttonholing.

ISO# 401 Chainstitch

Stitch formed by 1 needle thread passing through the material and interloped with 1 looper thread that is set on the underside of the seam.

ISO# 401 Twin Needle Chainstitch

Stitch formed by 2 needle threads passing through the material and interloped with 2 looper threads, forming 2 independent rows of stitch set on the underside of the seam.

ISO# 406 Bottom Coverstitch

Stitch formed by 2 needle threads passing through the material and interloping with 1 looper thread with the stitch set on the underside of the seam. Looper thread interloped between needle threads, providing seam coverage on the bottom side.

ISO# 407 Bottom Coverstitch

Stitch formed by 3 needle threads passing through the material and interlacing with 1 looper thread with the stitch set on the underside of the seam. Looper thread is interlooped between needle threads, providing seam coverage on the bottom side only.

ISO# 503 Overedge

Stitch formed by 1 needle thread and 1 looper thread forming a purl on the edge of the seam. For Serging or Blindhemming only.

ISO# 504 Overedge

Stitch formed by 1 needle thread and 2 looper threads forming a purl on the edge of the seam. For Overedge Seaming and Serging.

ISO# 505 Overedge

Stitch formed by 1 needle thread and 2 looper threads forming a double purl on the edge of the seam. For Serging only.

ISO# 512 Overedge

Stitch formed with 2 needle threads and 2 looper threads with the looper threads forming a purl on the edge of the seam. 512-right needle only enters the upper looper loop. This stitch type will not chain-off as well as the 514 Stitch.

ISO# 514 Overedge

Stitch formed with 2 needle threads and 2 looper threads with the looper threads forming a purl on the edge of the seam. 514-both needles enter the upper looper loop. Preferred over the 512 Stitch because it chains-off better.

ISO# 516 Safety Stitch

5-thread safety stitch. Combination stitch consisting of a single-needle chainstitch (401) and a 3-thread overedge stitch (504) that are formed simultaneously.

ISO# 602 Coverstitch


Stitch is formed with 2-needle threads, a top cover thread and a bottom looper thread.

ISO# 605 Coverstitch

Stitch is formed with 3-needle threads, a top cover thread and a bottom looper thread.

ISO# 607 Coverstitch

Stitch is formed with 4-needle threads, a top cover thread and a bottom looper thread. Preferred over 606 stitch because the machine is easier to maintain.

Chapter 2

Quality control
1) Quality Control 2) Supervisor Role 3) Key quality issue 4) Inspection procedure 5) Handling defective work


Quality Control
Objective: Reduce the number of defects created by operators in your section. Quality control
You depend on other to meet your quality goals. Your company contracts to deliver proper quality on schedule at a certain cost. Defects force repairs to be made and repairs raise the cost of manufacturing. Poor quality = lost profits.

The supervisors role

Quality specification allows a tolerance. Three reasons for bad quality work are: The operator was not properly trained. The operator occasionally gets careless and makes a mistake. The operator is habitually careless.

All operators should be able to: Recognize acceptable and unacceptable quality Fix mistakes Avoid mistakes

People are more likely to be careless if no one checks their work. Since supervisor act first to identify and correct quality problems, quality inspectors only reinforce what the supervisor is doing.

Key quality issues

Most operators can learn to sew fast enough to make production and meet quality standards. Supervisors can improve the quality of the work by: Identifying operators who try to sew too fast to control quality. Making a conscious effort to emphasize quality and production equally. Holding operators accountable for the quality of their work, and by applying these standards consistently to operators, regardless of their performance levels. Making the section accountable for the quality of work produced.


Being consistent about standards for good or bad quality.

Inspection procedure
The supervisor uncovers and solves quality problems. The supervisor checks each operators quality daily. Quality checks are regular but not predictable. Checks are made at the operators machine. During the random inspection, ten garments are usually checked. The supervisors keep a record of quality inspections. Key points fro inspecting are Schedule your time so you get to everyone. Use your records to identify operators who need special attention. Be sure machine is in good condition so they dont cause problem. Be familiar with quality specification, and ask if you dont know.

Button Sampling Exercise

To determine the number of dark colored button in a box of exactly 100 buttons.

On each attempt, with all buttons in box, shake box vigrously, then draw out a random 10 buttons. Record number of dark button found. Attempt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total estimate of dark buttons in box. No. Button Selected 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 No. dark Button

Handling Defective Work


When returning defective work to an operator;

Point out the defect to operator knows what is wrong, how to fix it and how to avoid
repeating it. Show that you are agreeing with the quality inspector. Criticize the work not operator. When the repairs are needed, tell the operator right away, but have the repairs made at the least disruptive time

Chapter 3

Line balancing
1) Why Balancing 2) Balancing Rules 3) Balancing Numbers 4) Balancing Practices


Line Balancing
Why Do We Balance?
The step by step method is easy to learn and help the section run more smoothly. Many reasons exist for balancing including : Company presidents 9 and other leaders) like the way balancing reduce the operating costs. Operators like the way balancing allow them to have steady work (people do not like to be sent home). Supervisors like the way balancing let the section operate smoothly with some problems. A big reason for balancing is that it helps keep our prices low so we keep our customers.

Rules of Balancing
Leader (including supervisors) have responsibilities that are more important. Then carrying bundles. They should direct section balancing, but they should not carry bundles. There are two goals in balancing: Finish the most work possible. Keep two to four hours of work for each operation

There are three rules of balancing Keep at least one half hours work for each operation. Fix problems before they cause trouble Balance the section at least every four hours


We try to reach the goals, but we must follow the rules.

Balancing Numbers
Step by step balancing can be done the hard way ( recalculate every time ) or The easy way (calculates once in writing and adjusts for future change.) Calculation for the hard are presented. Balancing the easy way is really is easy, but it requires operation card, a balancing card, count card and a common sense. Average load is the amount of production an operation usually does. A average load is like appetite. Quota is the amount of production an operation must do to satisfy plant needs. A balancing card tells about average load and quota. A count card tells which is ahead average load or quota. Once you know which is ahead (average load or quota ), then you can adjust section work capacity to correct the difference. Balancing is best when differences are anticipated and prevented. Three things make balancing easier: Move operator for four or more (but not less) to avoid wasted transfer time. When balancing moves are made, only take operators from operations that are Ahead of quota. Teach operator backup jobs so more flexible balancing choices can be made.


Chapter 4

Cost control

Direct labor cost control

2) Supervisor as a Business Person 3) Off Standard Categories 4) Payroll procedures 5) Excess Cost 6) Performance reports 7) Direct Labor Cost Report


Direct Labor Cost

As a Supervisor, you manage people, plant and product. You have more control over people cost then you do over plant and product costs.

The Supervisors as a Businesspersons

Supervisors control millions of dollars of resources. Supervisors buy labor. As a controller of money, the supervisor wants to make the best possible deals.

The Supervisors as a Businesspersons

Supervisors control millions of dollars of resources. Supervisors buy labor. As a controller of money, the supervisor wants to make the best possible deals.

Off-Standard Payroll categories.

The payroll system pays for the deals we make. Murphys law (if it can go wrong, it will go wrong.) says problems will exist in manufacturing. The payroll system uses off-standard categories to pay for problems. The payroll systems goals are to treat everyone fairly.


When operators have problems that are beyond their control, they are transferred to Off-standard pay.

Payroll Procedures
The conditions for on-standard pay are: The operator is trained to do the job on piecework. The correct machine and attachments are used and running properly The operator has enough work to do to keep going steadily. Preceding work was done. The job has a piece rate.

Excess Costs
Each transfer is a deal. There is normally an excess cost associated with deals. Like scrapes in cutting room, some excess cost (waste) will always occurs.

Performance Reports
The operators earning or efficiency report is a tool to help you manage your business and make best deals possible. Operator performance reports compare performance to a quota. Makeup is a low performance problem. Makeup costs increase people costs (need more operators),plant cost (need More equipment and space) and product cost (need more fabric and time). Low performance also hurts morale, attendance and retention.

Direct labor Cost reports

The direct labor cost report is a report card on you deal-making. The cost report summaries pay for ; On-Standard work Off-Standard work Unmeasured work

The cost report measures costs in standard dollars.


Chapter 5

Work Measurement
1) Work measurement 2) Method Study 3) Time Study 4) Capacity Study 5) Follow Up Study 6) Work measurement


Work Measurement
Increase your knowledge of work measurement techniques and increase your section percent performance.

Work Measurement
Work measurement activities are an opportunity to have a pleasant experience. Your work habits influence others. Seven important points about work measurement. Make friends (or greet in already friends.) Put operators at ease. Explain what you are going to do. Learn where and how to position yourself as you work Do job dont allow distractions to interfere. Learn how to get operators to do things differently. Tell the operator when you are done and thank her.

Work measurement is the study of an operation to determine. The best method for the operation. Time required for the operation using the best method.

Work measurement is a tool to: Set the production quota for the operation. Determine the cost of producing a given product. Plans production run Evaluate the performance of individual operator.

The techniques of work measurement covered by this lesson include:


Method study Time study Capacity study Follow-up study Diagnostic Bundle by bundle Hourly

Method Study
There is usually a best method for an operation. The best method is the simplest, most efficient way to do the job. The best method may seem confusing to an operator until it become familiar. People often resist method changes change until the learn that the changes are improvements

There are two types of methods; Big methods -- choice of machines, attachments, work aids and other mechanical parts of the job. Little methodschoice of how the work is handled and the machine are controlled. In apparel industry, work handling is often 80% of the job cycle.

Good body position raises productivity. Body straight and relaxed in the chair. Back against the back of the chair Feet comfortably reaching the treadle Table at the elbow level(while seated) Left foot slightly forward of the right foot on the treadle

The most efficient motions are: Simultaneous Smooth,natural,and symmetrical


Sewing methods have dos and donts. Locate part as close to the needle as possible. Fold anything that needs folding while moving it to the machine Use simultaneous pick-ups and disposal Avoid shifting material from hand to hand Avoid regressing Sit idle while automatic machine runs. Pat each garment after disposal. Ride the knee-lift pedal while sewing. Stop while sewing unless it is essential to do so. Straighten the material that will not be sewn.



Pick up, put down, and pickup again.

These tools are used to Diagnose the performance problem Measure operator potential Set performance goals Solve problems so goals are reached

Time study
These are the steps in time study: Set correct job method Get an operator to use the correct job method Time the operator using correct job method. Grade the operator by evaluating her skill and effort. Multiply the operators actual time by grade factor to calculate the 100% time for an average person. Apply standard job allowances to allow for the times when the operator would not be at the machine sewing. Set the production quota expected of the 100% (average) operator.

A 100% operator is an average operator Who is fully trained Who is using correct method

These are the condition of time study Before making a time study, engineer ensures that conditions on the job are normal: The work flow in the operation is normal The amount of work in the section is normal The sizes of the work available are normal

These are the allowances in the time study Machine delay -- routine thread breaks, bobbin changes needle changes amount of time varies by machine Bundle changes To get and arrange a new bundle, tie and disposes a completed bundle, and process the coupon and bundle ticket Personal and fatigue routine breaks and personal time. Miscellaneous depending on company policy, other allowance may be added.

Supervisors grade the time study. Grading rules to the 100% concept. Grading consider two factors Skill -- the operator smoothness and coordination.


Effort how hard the operator works during the study.

Capacity Study
The capacity is a10- cycle study to estimate an operators production ability. If actual production and capacity are different, then follow - up studies should be made. During the capacity study, the operators average time per cycle to sew her operation is determined. we then assume the operator work at this pace all day and take full amount of lost time (machine delay ,personal & fatigue time ) provided for in the quota. We call the time left, after lost time has been deducted, the available sewing minutes. These are divided by the average time per piece to estimate production. Operators benefit from capacity studies only if the supervisor spots the wasted motions and makes suggestions and corrections. Results of every capacity study should be reviewed with the operator. Capacity Studies assumes; The capacity study work pace is maintained over the full workday The operator uses no more Then the standard allowance minutes.

Reasons why actual performance may be below the capacity. Excess machine down time Excess time changing bundles Excess break and personal time

Follow up study

The purpose of a follow up study is turning potential into actual performance. Follow up studies check on and stay with something until the results are achieved. The first step is to diagnose the problem by doing a complete bundle study. A diagnostic bundle study consists of : Sewing time Machine delay time Bundling handling time Other delays

When an operator checkout OK on the diagnostic bundle procedure, then a bundle by bundle follow up study is used. Once the problem is identified, it can be corrected. then a less intense form of follow- up can be used either hourly or two hour production check


Work Measurement goals

A supervisor can use methods, capacity studies and follow up techniques to improve the department performance. The supervisor should set realistic performance goals for each operator and the entire department. Most operators should perform to within 5% to 15% of capacity. The diagnostic bundle studies and bundle by bundle study will help increase section performance.

Chapter 6

Operator training
1) Operator training 2) Exit interview 3) Prepaying For a new operator 4) First Day at Work 5) The Rest Of The First Week 6) Starting On The Production


Operator Training
Reduce the amount of make- up cost that operator operators in your section generate.

Operator Training
Most training is done to replace the people when quit. A step by step system of training gets the best results (fastest, most efficient and least cost). There are three ways to evaluate training: Rate of success Cost per success Weeks of training

Conducting an exit interview

The best way to learn why quit occur (so future quit can be prevented) is through an exit interview. The exit interview is held privately, with supervisor listening calmly and objectively. Discuss work issues not personalities.


Did company provide what was needed for you to be successful? Were other operators were helpful when you first started here? What did others do that was especially helpful, or discouraging? What could have been done better to assist you in started this job? What can suggest that will make things better for future employs?

The exit interview is a quick way to learn what the departing employee disliked about work, but is used to gradually accumulate data before specific changes are made.

Exit Interview Checklist

Information on departing employee:
Name ____________________________ Operation _________________________ Length of service ___________________ Current performance level ____________ Reason given for leaving _____________

Introduction to interview
a) you are sorry she is leaving

b) you would like to take the opportunity to see if anything could make better for employee in
the future. c) You want honest response d) This interview will have no effect on receiving the final paychecks. e) This interview will have no effect on job references.

General Areas to Cover

Did company provide you with what was needed to become successful? What could we have done better? Didnt really understate quality requirements of Job. Needed more assistance here. Were other operator were helpful to you when you started? Not really. What actions on the part of other operators were helpful or discouraging? They told me Id never be able to make production quota of 1200 per day What things could have been done differently? Could have done differently? Could have spent more time learning quality points. What things would you like to see done differently? Lower the quota on band earmuffs. What suggestion for better future? Not sure.



Supervisors Summery:
1) Place more emphasis on teaching quality points. 2) Point out to the trainee that other operator are making production quota (even though they told her she couldnt. 3) Production quota okey since other operators can make it.

Preparing for a new operator

Allow enough time to be prepared for a new operators arrival. Get the mechanic to set up and check the machine before the new operator arrives. Prepare training shapes before the new operator arrives.

Sample Supervisors training Outline Operation: Band earmuffs 1) Allowed training weeks: 10 Information to be obtained form engineering data. .261min 2) 16 seconds 100 % single cycle (standard time for one complete garment without allowance 3) 1200 job quota in units per hour day Data to be calculated by supervisor. 4) .383 standard minutes per unit including allowances (460 job quota) assumes 10-minutes break per day 5) Job method: Briefly describe job method steps and key points (include sewing Distance between stops and simultaneous motions, etc) 6) Describe quality specifications for operation.


A Trainees First Day at Work

Operation Checklist Morning of First Day (20_30 minutes) Take trainee to department to briefly review her job Show trainee jobs immediately before and after her job. Introduce trainee to operator in immediate vicinity of her machine. Arrange for someone in section to accompany trainee to break and Lunch periods Starting from trainees machine conduct brief tour to point time clock rest room, break and lunch area Review with trainee how training will be conducted. Discuss Safety Precaution.

Afternoon of first Day


Take trainee on overall tour of plant, pointing out cutting and shipping functions and production flow process between In connection with work floe process, stress importance of regular attendance. Review overall training expectations with new operator.

During First Three weeks

Review Engineering Procedure and data so that trainee understands how job quota was established. Review Quality control Procedures so trainee understands how they work. Review payroll Procedures so trainee can understand how her pay is calculated

When Demonstrating. Explain the method Demonstrate at speed Demonstrate and explain slowly Invite question Have the trainee practice Step- by Step Learning builds confidence and speed more quickly than going directly to production would

The remainder of the week

Have the trainee learn the specific job method and quality procedures and quality while sewing on shapes. Let her practice but check at 10 15 minute intervals. As she improves, gradually increase the time between checks. Ensure that the trainee learn the best method. Usually after one or two days of shapes, the trainee is ready to sew real production work.

Starting On Production

When trainee is ready to start actual production, help with quality development. Recognize acceptable quality Fix mistake Avoid Mistake At first inspect 100% trainee work. Make the trainee responsible for fixing her own repairs, but dont overwhelming her Achievement goals for the trainee first week She is in control of her machine She is using correct method Her quality is reasonable and she is responsible for fixing her own mistakes. She is contributing some production


Development to Full Productivity

Teach Skill development First, Stamina development second. Skill development means using correct method and meeting quality standard while sewing within the single cycle time. Time the trainee daily on single cycles. Set reasonable stamina development goals. Start stamina development before the skill development is complete. Stamina development allows505rules.When the trainee reaches 50% Single cycle then start her 10 to 15 minute stamina runs. 10 to15 minutes runs, the start her on 30 minutes runs 30 minutes stamina runs ,then start her on 60-minutes stamina runs

Single cycle performance = target time/actual time The best way for encourage development through series of development The best way to measure process is to use a chart that records daily production and single cycle performance

The last Hurdle

Train to100 % (dont stop short of the big goal) Make sure the trainee knows you support her. A follow up technique to use is the hourly production goals When trainee succeeds, recognize her success and continue follow-up. Training is complete when trainee produces at 100% for a week. Then Gradually reduce the follow up to normal level. Hourly follow up can be used as performance reinforcement when good results have been achieved from single cycle development ant other stamina build-up techniques. In using hourly follow up approach it is necessary to: Set a performance goal for each one hour period during the day Post actual performance each hour, compare actual to goal, and adjust goals if necessary.


Chapter 7

Work Procedure And Product Integrity

1) Garment Quality

Quality Manual

3) Raw Material Evaluation 4) Specification 5) Inline quality control


6) Quality Audits Sampling Inspection 7) Recording Audit Results 8) Defects

Garment Quality
1. Front Pocket
1.1. Check Method
Untie bundle and separate right and left pockets. Check SPC (Stitch per Centimeter) NB: hem and set watch pocket attach facings 3 SPC +/-1 SPC check only top pair for SPC check facing and lining to be even at outseam/waistedge tolerance +/- 3mm check close pocket bag check edge margin attach facing check set watch pocket

Check top and bottom pair and any other 3 pairs (not consecutive) in the


bundle. Ensure that pockets are returned to their original position within bundle to ensure shade integrity. Mark up worksheet as required, pass or reject bundle. Additional points: No loose or attached thread ends. No joined seams or poor repairs.

Refer to Diagram 1.

1.2. Quality Points

1. Facing and lining to be even at waistband and outseam +/-3mm tolerance. 2. Lining to overlap facing notch +/-3mm tolerance. 3. Lining edges at waistband and fly to align +/- 3mm tolerance. 4. Close pocket safety stitch to be 6mm gauge at 3 SPC 5. Serge facing to be 6MM gauge at 3 SPC 6. Attach facing edge margin 3mm + 2mm tolerance from serge facing thread. 7. All seams to be free of skip/broken stitches or raw edges. 8. Watch pocket position: 3, 5 cm from band 3, 5 cm from outseam.




2. Back Pocket
2.1. Check Method
Select single pocket at random ensuring ability to return to exactly the same position to maintain shade integrity. Lay pocket face down and check: scallop at edge of pocket for run backs raw edges and skip stitches at hem if pre-creased, crimp lines for turn in Turn pocket face up and check: scallop shape visually

Return pocket before selecting next pocket to be checked. Check 5 pairs of pockets in the bundle. Mark up quality worksheet as required.

Refer to Diagram 2.

2.2. Quality Points

1. Hem 3 SPC, no run backs on hem 2. No skip or broken stitches. 3. If pre-creased: - clip and crimp turn in even at both sides 4. All repairs to be neat and properly finished. Refer to Diagram 3

2.3. Pocket and Decorative Specifications 1. Back Pocket Width 16,5 cm (all sizes) 2. Back Pocket Height 16, 7 cm (all sizes) To be taken on the center of the pocket.
3. No run backs at decorative, no skip or broken stitches.



2. Back Pocket

Diagram 2



6,4 mm

Cm 3,5

Center of the pocket

Cm 0,7



3. Left Fly Zipper

3.1. Check Method
Pull flys at random from bundle. Check length against template serge for skip stitches, etc zip attach for skip stitch for slider staple is firmly affixed

Return to bundle, mark up worksheet as required. Refer to

Diagram 4.

3.2. Quality Points

1. Zip tape even with top of fly +/-2 mm tolerance. 2. Slider must function smoothly. 3. Staple to be secure. 4. Top zipper position 5. Bottom zipper position 6. Stopper staple position


3. Left Fly Zipper Diagram 4

Pull flys at random from bundle.

Check length against template serge for skip stitches, etc


zip attach for skip stitch for slider staple is firmly affixed

Return to bundle, mark up worksheet as required. Refer to

Diagram 4.

3.2. Quality Points

1. Zip tape even with top of fly +/-2 mm tolerance. 2. Slider must function smoothly. 3. Staple to be secure. 4. Top zipper position 5. Bottom zipper position 6. Stopper staple position


3. Left Fly Zipper Diagram 4


2,5 cm from fly edge to zipper center. 4 Stopper staple at 1,2 cm from 6 edge

2 cm from fly edge to zipper center.


IN-LINE QUALITY CONTROL 4. Left Fly Buttonhole

4.1. Check Method
Pull flys at random from bundle. Check for length against templates buttonhole for cut, skip stitches, etc

Return to bundle and mark up quality sheet as required. Refer to Diagram 5.

4.2. Quality Points

1. Overall length against pattern +/-2 mm tolerance. 2. Buttonholes to be straight and parallel. Buttonholes clean cut with no broken stitches. 3. Fly to lay flat with no fullness. 4. Top buttonhole position, 2, 5 cm from waistband edge (all sizes).


4. Left Fly Buttonhole Diagram 5


3,5 cm


5. Serge Left Fly

5.1. Check Method

Outside of left fly to be completely serged from top to bottom with maximum trim off of 3 mm.


Refer to Diagram 6.

5.2. Quality Points

1. No rolled edges, run-offs or raw edges. 2. Skips, breaks may be lapped in providing stitches are securely tied in. 3. Stitch gauge 6 mm 4. 3 SPC +/- 1 SPC. 5. Maximum chain off 1, 2 cm +/- 3 mm


5. Serge Left Fly Diagram 6


Correct execution of butthonhole.

Very bad execution of buttonhole. (To avoid)


Measurements Method for Jackets



Method Open the jacket completely and lay the collar flat on the table. Measure along the bottom of collar, from edge to edge.

Quality Points There should be no looseness in the collar. Do not stretch the collar


Measurements Method for Jackets



Method Lay garment flat, face up. Remove all fullness and roll-in if necessary. Measure straight across front. 3 cm under the armpit. Double for total chest measurement.


Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat; face up with waistband bottom edges even. Measure along the bottom edge of waistband, inside edge to inside edge.


Double for total waist measurement.

Quality Points
There should be no looseness in the waistband Do not stretch waistband Smooth out, do not stretch. The jacket must be measured flat on table


Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat, face up Measure along he left front placket edge from top corner to bottom edge of waistband


Quality Points
There should be no looseness on the lapel (front opening) Do not stretch the lapel.


Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat on table, face up Smooth out the left sleeve. Measure from top of sleeve to bottom edge of cuff.


Quality Points
There should be no looseness in the sleeve. Do not stretch the sleeve


Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat on table, face up.


On left sleeve, roll side seam if necessary Measure the width and the depth as show in the below picture Double for total cuff opening

Quality Points
There should be no looseness in the cuff. Do not stretch the cuff.



Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat on table, back up. Measure from bottom edge of collar to bottom edge of waistband at centre of back panel.

Quality Points
The jacket should be measured flat on table Any fullness should be removed



Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat on table, face up. Measure along the left armhole seam to the right armhole seam at 12 cm from edge of collar.

12 cm

Quality Points
The jacket should be measured flat on table Any fullness should be removed



Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay the garment flat on table, the left front panel and side seam facing up. Extend sleeve to the side. Measure from top point of armhole (shoulder fold) to bottom point of armhole, following the armhole curve, inside edge to inside edge.

Quality Points
The whole front panel must be flat on table to avoid movement of armpit.



Measurements Method for Jackets

Lay garment flat on table, face up. Measure along the left shoulder seam from bottom edge of collar to inside edge of armhole.

Quality Points
Do not stretch the seam.


Measurements General Guidelines


The procedures for the measuring of 5 pocket jeans, jackets, woven shirts, cut-offs, coverall, skirts and knit tops are listed in the following section. However, there are some general guidelines that apply to measuring most of the garments.

1. Make sure that the ruler and tape are accurate and that all graduations are well printed or engraved. 2. The work area used for measuring should be clean, well lighted and the table large enough to allow the garment to be laid out completely flat.

3. The measurement specification sheet for the style being measured should be available
at the work area for quick reference. Do not try to recall measurements or tolerances from memory.

4. The measurement work sheet should be filled in as the measurement is taken.

Using a pencil will make errors easier to correct and will avoid to have pen marks on the garments. 5. Generally the garments should be flat and smooth with all fullness removed when measurements are taken. However, it is very important that the garment is not stretched during measurement. 6. The tolerance to be applied on each of the measurements explained can be found on the measurement chart corresponding to the style being measured. 7. The reference to right and left in this method indicates the side of the garment as worn (e.g. On left leg, measure ..).


Measurements Method for Bottoms


Method A hook and a ruler permanently attached to the table should be used to measure the waist. Lay garment flat, face up with waistband top edges even so that no dipping occurs at centre. Measure along top edge of waistband, inside edge to inside edge. Double for total waist measurement.

Quality Points
There should be no looseness in the waistband Do not stretch waistband


Measurements Method for Bottoms


Lay garment flat, face up, let garment fall naturally from waist (back will sit higher than front). Measure down 16 cm from waistband (excluded). Measure from outside edge to outside edge. Double for total seat measurement.

Cm 16 - 18

Quality Points
Garment must lay smooth and flat with no hidden wrinkles or pleats on underside. Do not stretch the garment.


Measurements Method for Bottoms



Lay garment flat, face up. On the leg measure 3 cm down from crotch point Measure straight across, outside edge to outside edge. Double for total thigh measurement.

Cm 3

Quality Points
Garment must lay smooth and flat with no hidden wrinkles or pleats on underside. Do not stretch the garment.


Measurements Method for Bottoms



Lay garment flat, face up. On left leg, measure 33 cm down from the crotch point. Measure straight across, outside edge to outside edge. Double for total knee measurement.

Cm 33

Quality Points
Garment must lay smooth and flat with no hidden wrinkles or pleats on underside.


Measurements Method for Bottoms



Lay garment flat, face up. On left leg, roll side seam if necessary. Measure straight across bottom edge, outside edge to outside edge. Double for total bottom leg opening measurement.

Quality Points
There should be no looseness in the waistband Do not stretch waistband


Measurements Method for Bottoms



Lay garment flat, face up. Measure on left leg. Garment must be horizontal, with waistband at left. Measure from crotch point to bottom hem following seam line.

Quality Points
Smooth out, do not stretch Pant must be measured flat on table


Measurements Method for Bottoms



Lay garment flat, face up. Measure on left leg. Garment must be horizontal, with waistband at left. Measure from crotch point to bottom hem following seam line.

Quality Points
Smooth out, do not stretch Pant must be measured flat on table


Measurements Method for Bottoms

Method Lay garment flat; face down, with crotch point visible.


Measure in centre of double needle stitching from lower waistband edge to crotch point following the curve.

Quality Points
Follow crotch curve, do not stretch. Do not pull out straight, rise must lay smooth without looseness, but not stretched.


Measurements Method for Bottoms

Lay garment flat, face up.


Buttons to be unbuttoned and fly to be open Measure from bottom of waistband to top of bartack at crotch join

Quality Points
Garment must be flat and smooth with no wrinkles or pleats on underside.


Measurements Method for Bottoms

Lay garment flat, face up. Waistband button to be open and slider down. Measure right side of zipper from bottom waistband to top of slider.


Quality Points
Garment must be flat and smooth with no wrinkles or pleats on underside.


Measurements Method for Bottoms

Lay garment flat, face up. Measure on left pocket. For pocket width, measure from pocket edge along waistband to fabric edge of pocket facing at sideseam. For pocket depth, measure from bottom of waistband to pocket edge at sideseam.


Quality Points
Garment must be flat and smooth with no wrinkles or pleats on underside.


Measurements Method for Bottoms

Lay garment flat, face up.


Measure along top edge of watch pocket, from outside edge to outside edge.

Quality Points
Garment must be flat and smooth with no wrinkles or pleats on underside.

Product Integrity

RAW MATERIAL EVALUATION AND INSPECTION All fabrics and sundries for use in AMTEX garments must be evaluated and approved by Quality Manager together with Fabric/Sundries and Planning responsible under the supervision of Merchandising/Marketing Department.


Raw material must be inspected and evaluated for : - Visual defects - Roll length - Splicing - Roll width - Shading - Shrinkage - Weight - Any other agreed criteria

Reports are produced by Quality Manager and reported weekly to Production Director/Manager to be summarize and in case discussed with fabric and sundries supplier.

Each product should have a separate specification for : - Construction - Product Sheet - Measurement and Tolerance Each specifications should be signed off by Quality Manager, Technical Office and approved by Production Director. The Construction Specification should include drawing in addition to detailed description of operations and should highlight special features. The Construction Specification should include quality features which should be maintained. The Product Sheet should fully detail sundries, thread, label, fabrics, etc. The Measurement Procedure must be issued and maintained by the Quality Manager and the Technical Office under supervision and approved by Production Director and Operation Director. Tolerance in AMTEX will be determined by Product Integrity Department, Technical Office in collaboration with Production Director, Operation Director; taking into account market demand, customer demand and process capabilities.


All new products in terms of new fabric, fits, construction, finishing must follow the Pre Production Process. All the new products must be approved before mass production can take place; this to assure the customer receives the right product. The approval is based on the following criteria : - Pattern - Grading - Construction Specifications - Measurement and Tolerance - Fit


- Fabric - Sundries appearance acceptability - Washing / Finishing - Any other standard related to a certain product Approved are signed off by : - Quality Manager - Technical Office - Sample Responsible - Production Director - Merchandising - Marketing A card is attached to the approved garments which are sent together to Production, Technical Office, Merchandising, Marketing and outsource in case used. This procedure is to be used to better monitor mass production. The Pre Production Process is handled by the Samples Responsible, Technical Office, Quality Manger with the supervisor of Production Director and Merchandising/Marketing.


In line quality control is a statistical method used to ensure quality requirements are met during the manufacturing and finishing processes. The Spreading check to include : - Correct markers/stencils - Ply high - Shade Consistency - Overlap widths - Evenness at ends and edges - Spreader's defects cut-outs The Cutting check to include : - Uniformity of cut top to bottom - Bundle numbering The statistical quality control (SQC) system is based on 105D Military Standard Sampling Plans, General Level I which gives a sample of 5 garments per bundle, pass on 0 defects, reject on 1 defect. The inspectors work to clearly defined specifications and are required to keep detailed records of all defects by operation and operator. Inspector is rotated on a regular basis to ensure flexibility in case of absence and to avoid undue familiarity with individual operators. Each manufacturing location has SQC stations. These stations define the operations and operators covered by the inspector, and allow accurate reporting by operation and section. In the event of defect, the inspector will record on a daily worksheet the operators clock number and the operation as well the nature of the reject. The bundle or garment is identified as a reject by a ticket which shows: operator, operation, defect and number of faults found. The garment or the bundle is then returned to the operator for 100% inspection. On completion of inspection and repair, the operator is required to list the total number of defect found during the check and return the garments or the bundle to the inspector for reinsertion.

Communication with supervisor and line responsible from SQC and Quality Manager is essential to ensure prompt identification of problem areas and operators. A daily and weekly report is prepared to ensure all concerned have the information available to take whatever action is necessary. Reports can be tracked either manually or through a "real time" computering system.


The S.Q.C. sewing in line control report has two formats: - The first is the daily report for use within the plant. This report gives information on individual operators as well as operations. The daily report should be used at plant level to direct attention to those problem areas identified by the report in order to maximize the impact of the resource allocated to quality improvement. By using preset repairs level, an analysis of the section repair totals will allow time to be saved by printing only those areas exceeding the preset value. - Since this is primarily an in plant report, one person should be nominated and trained in the use of relevant computer software on which the report has been based. If present report is used, they should be set by plant management at the local level in line with overall company objectives. - The second part of the report is a weekly summary on plant SQC.


All sample sizes for audits to determinate acceptability of the lot or batch are based on the American Military Standard 105 D sampling plans at 4% AQL Normal inspection will be used at the start of inspection unless otherwise directed. Normal inspection can be switched to tightened inspection when a number of consecutive rejections occur. Normal inspection can be switched to reduce inspection when there is a reject free sequence over a long period and the frequency of defects is low. Inspection Level II will normally be used, however Inspection Level I may be specified when less discrimination is needed or Inspection Level III when greater discrimination is needed. The Inspection Level determines the relationship between the lot size and sample size. - e.g.: At General Inspection Level II - Normal Inspection for a batch size of 1500 units use the lot size of 1201 - 3200, the sample size would be 125 with an acceptance of the batch with 10 defects or less and a rejection of the batch at 11 defects or more. Once the audits are complete and if the major defects do not exceed the allowable limit the Production Order can be ship. Garment containing major defects found during the audit should be repaired or seconded.


The results of the audit are to be recorded on an Audit Work Sheet. Defects should be listed by defect type. A copy of the audit worksheet and the completed measurement sheet are to be kept and available for consultation. The results of the individual audits that are conducted during the week are to be summarized on a Weekly Load Audit Report form showing the following information : - Week (AMTEX fiscal week) - Fabric Supplier - Production Order Code/Number - Product Code - Total Units


- Units Audited - Defects found - Accept/Reject (status of the load as a result of the audit) - Remarks (comments regarding the audit results or the load) The Weekly Load Audit Report form must be distributed from the Quality Manager in charge to all the Managers, Production Director, Operation Director. To ensure that auditors are properly interpreting and enforcing the quality standards, verification audits will be performed by the Production Director under the supervision of the Operation Director on a regular basis. The results of these verification audits will also be used to help determine the possible need for additional training for the auditing staff and the clarification of standards, procedures and specifications.


The quality guidelines in this section are intended for use as applicable in the Statistic Quality Control (SQC) inspection, audit, and load audit. These guidelines are not exhaustive but are intended to show the basic quality features expected by AMTEX. Any other construction features not included should be assessed using the same standards for general industrialization, fabric, sundries, cutting, sewing, pressing and dimensional aspects. Measurement: Plus measurement (above the tolerance) if more the double the allowed specified tolerance, reject for 100% re-measurement. All garments more than double the tolerance to be resized or seconded. Minus measurement (below the tolerance) if more than 1/4 inch below the tolerance, reject for 100% re-measurement. All garments still out of tolerance to be resized or seconded.

Defect Classification - General Information

The following defect classification are to be used when auditing completed products whether it be in single pairs, bundles, pallets, or load audits, and should not be confused with construction specifications. Any audited product not conforming to specification in terms of construction or sundries should be rejected and put on hold, pending decision on disposition involving the Production Director. The defect classification refers to : - General information - Parts operations - Preparation operations - Assembly - Sundries (Operation by operation classification).

Stitching General All the defects that can be repaired without seriously affecting the appearance, durability or saleable of the garment should be repaired and the garment, bundle, box, etc. returned for re-inspection. Final disposition can only be made on a case by case basis. The nature of the product will determinate the action to be taken on the categorization of the fault; in same cases it may be appropriate to repair a defect whilst others it will be necessary to second. The appearance, serviceability and durability of the garment should always be taken into account before any decision on the categorization.



Make sure that the ruler and the tape are accurate and that all graduations are well printed or engraved. The work area used for measuring should be clean, well lighted and the table large enough to allow the garment to be laid out completely flat. The measurement specification sheet for the style being measured should be available at the work area for quick reference. Do not try to recall measurements or tolerances from memory. The measurement work sheet should be filled in as the measurements are taken. Using a pencil will make errors easier to correct and will avoid to have pen marks on the garments. Generally, the garments should be flat and smooth with all fullness removed when measurement are taken. However, it's very important that the garment is not stretched during measurement. Round off measurements to the nearest 0, 5 cm as indicated in the measurement specification and then record the measurement exactly as measured. Do not change measurements to make them fall within tolerance.

Seconds: A second is a functional garment which does not meet the AMTEX quality standards due to an irreparable defect. Such a defect is generally visual or aesthetic in nature, but may also be due to serious body measurement discrepancies or component positioning inconsistencies. Guidelines: Manufacturing: Classification of a severe defect that will directly affect the appearance or wearably of the garment and may result in a customer return. Fabric : - Flaws that have potential of becoming a hole - Flaws that weaken the fabric Shading : - Any unintentionally shaded component part - Garment not within the specific shade limits Finishing : - Shine - Severe impressions, any area - Shading - Spots/Soiled - Streakiness - Abrasion Thirds A third is a non-functional product which contains a defect in workmanship or material which renders the product unusable for its designed purpose or totally unsalable as a


garment at any price. Holes are a major cause for thirds but incomplete garments also fall into this category. Guidelines: Any defective garments containing a hole, is incomplete or exhibits manufacturing, fabric or finishing/pressing defects reflecting the above description.

REPORTING AND CONSOLIDATION OF SECONDS AND THIRDS Seconds and thirds should be reported on a Production Order by Production Order basis; the information is gathered in a database and consolidated in a "Monthly Seconds Report". Thirds can be disposed off in different ways: - Destroyed - Disposed of as rags - Given to charity organizations Thirds should never be sold as garments.

PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFYNG AND REPORTING OF CUSTOMER RETURNS Customer return should be examined and the reason for return identified. When the reason renders the garment as a second or a third, then the appropriate identification procedure should be used. On identification of the cause for a customer return, this should be recorded on a Customer Returns Data. At the end of the month, the data should be consolidated into one report and forwarded to the Operation Director and Owners of the company. The report will be used in conjunction with the seconds report to identify trends, need for specification changes and other corrective and/or investigative action required.