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The Organizing Process • He knows when people are concerned or feel

Isabelita M. Samaniego MD threatened, their desire to listen increases.

• His most powerful tool is a question
Session Objectives • He should always acknowledge the audience
• Definition of terms values & norms
• Define the key elements of community • Factors that Enhance the ability of the
organizing. communicator
• Enumerate the approaches of Community
Organizing The Persons:
• Explain the communication strategies • Prestige
• Describe the seven stages of community • Attractiveness
organizing • Role
• Likeness to audience
Definition • Credibility
Community Organizing is about modifying the • Don’t argue from the self interest perspective
attitudes & behaviors of people, not as individuals but • Be candid as much as possible – some degree
as members of the group to : of disclosure is helpful
a) Improve a social or health condition
• It’s okay to identify your biases
b) Alter a social or health structure
c) Enhance social relationships to bring about a • Don’t use response that sound rehearsed
greater capacity by the group to address • Anticipate difficult questions & think through
common social & health problems. responses

Community Organizing is about having a broad, About the Message:

representative cross section of the community working • How you frame the issue also determines the
together to identify & address common (health ) effectiveness of the communication
problems that it defines as real & important. • An effective communicator will determine the
audience concern & attitude about the issue &
Community Organizing is about people creating then shape a message to address the factors
social change. • Messages that acknowledge both sides of an
issue are more convincing to those with a less
Key Elements of Community Organizing favorable initial attitude.
The four P’s • Avoid a strong appeal to fear the audience will
People think you are over reacting or they may
Problem become immobilized.
Participation • If you use fear , follow with specific actions that
Process & power the audience can to do reduce the threat .
• Avoid attacking your audience , or it will get
Approaches to Community Organizing defensive & discount your presentation .
Process Approach • When possible , it is helpful to start your
• People are organized to facilitate: response by agreeing with some elements of
o Communication the other person’s remarks / question.
o Education • A soft sell is usually most effective
o Hope • Try to illuminate the issue of agreement &
o Awareness outline possible solutions rather than
o Sense of Community intensifying the points of disagreement
• Use facts, figures & feelings to back up your
• By working together, the group learns how to
address common health problems & achieve
• Humanize the exchange
specific objectives.
• Use local examples
Power Approach
About the Audience:
• People are organized to acquire & demonstrate
• Audiences sometimes listen to, understand &
respond to messages
• The threat or use of power helps to influence
• People listen to people with whom they agree,
specific individuals to correct
o Specific problems however when they disagree with the
presenter , they attempt to minimize or avoid
o Create systems change
the importance of the message & discredit the
o Resolve conflicts
o Communication Strategies
• Do not start with “ You may not agree…” for
you may loose the audience as it silently
About the Presenter: ( Organizer)
prepares counter arguments .
• An effective communicator uses personal
• People’s desire to develop counter arguments
experiences-his/ her own to & those of the
can be reduced if you present a mild dose of
audience to build bridges of understanding
the opposing views along with your arguments.
• People understand only in terms of their own towards a desired change , & who have the
experiences, hence you need to communicate ability to create the change.
within the experience of your target audience.  Identify people – opponents – who will stand in
• When we can’t find an experience to facilitate the way of the desired change & who have the
understanding with another party , we must ability to make or prevent the desired change.
create an experience for that party.  Spotting Potential Indigenous Leaders
• Make sure to address the underlying factors &
Core Group Formation
concerns that are revealed when someone
This is the laying down of the foundation of a strong
makes a statement or ask a question
organization , brought about by bringing together
• You can increase an audience commitment by
several indigenous leaders to exchange knowledge and
asking them to take a public stand –i.e a show
insights towards a deeper understanding of the
of hands to support.
dynamics of the community.
• It is helpful to start any presentation with a
joke , a story , or a quote . Make sure it is Setting up of an Organization
matched to your audience & your message. After Core Group Formation:
Set up Purok organization – elect leaders
1. Getting Started Necessary ground work must be done by the
The Organizer must: indigenous leaders and organizers to prepare for
 Be invited by the community , its leadership community meetings.
 Help to highlight frustrations & raise issues
 Cultivate hope for a better way Targeting Supporters
 Instill a desire for change Asses who is most affected by this issue
 Be seen as a winner Asses who has the potential to help you create the
desired change.
 Demonstrate stick-to –itiveness
 Help the community see why this effort is
Targeting Issues
important from it’s perspective
Convert private troubles into public issues
 Help people feel they have the power to make Select an issue that people can get excited about.
the necessary changes Define what change you want to see occur.
 Help develop a core group of concerned Select an issue that is winnable
citizens informal & formal community leaders
2. Targeting Issues & Setting Priorities Targeting Opponents
Targeting – the need for organizers & community – Asses who has the power to stop or hinder the desired
change organizations to identify & select specific change.
issues & individuals they desire to affect an action or
development .
3. Mobilization and Training
With the assistance of the Organizer & core group of Goal: Build people’s self confidence and develop their
community members , the host community must: collective spirit .These activities must include
 Identify important issues & commonly held assessment & reflection sessions including team
problems building.
 Define desired changes
 Rank problems & set priorities Activities- must address the felt needs of the
 Develop shred vision for problem solution community tap local & external resources in the
Understand that controversy is part of creating change
– w/o controversy people may not be energized enough All sectors should be involved and their different roles
to act. A controversial issue is redundancy. clarified.

 Spotting Potential Indigenous Leaders Joint plan of action.

 Comes from the poor sector of the community
and is directly engaged in economic Notes on Mobilizing an Overview
production.  Mobilization is about using the supporters
 Must posses credibility & integrity whom you have organized to influence the
 Is receptive to change opponents you have identified.
 Must have an analytical & critical mind  Timing is everything – impact is diminished if
 Must be able to communicate effectively the group enters the process too late or too
 Must be interested in the upliftment of his early.
community.  Mobilization must be seen as a tactic , building
on the next as a way to accomplish a well
Targeting Supporters & Opponents defined goal or vision .
The organizer & core group community members must  An effective campaign requires public support ,
focus on the priority issues & begin to: therefore you must design actions with general
 Identify people supporters- who are concerned public in mind.
about these issues, who are willing to work  You must be concerned about your group’s &
your oppositions images.
 Power is not only what you have & what you  is used when you cannot or choose not to
can influence , but what others think you have persuade
& think you can do.  Negotiation requires that you make a demand ,
 A threat is often more terrifying than reality. back it up with arguments & then make a
 Never go outside the experiences of your concession – a trade
group, but whenever possible , go outside the  Negotiation reflects power relationships more
experiences of the opposition. than it alters them.
 Make the opposition live up to its own rules &  The Three Phases of Negotiation
 A good tactic is one that your people will enjoy Pre Negotiation Phase:
& be comfortable using.  Establish self/ organization as a serious
 To win , you must “ keep the heat on” bit do contender
not let things drag on too long.  Determine what motivates those who are
 Always be ready to move with the flow of blocking goal achievement
events- be flexible , don’t wait until all the  Assess where those who stand in your way are
resources are lined up. Most of the time “ You most / least vulnerable.
need to do what you can with what you have.  Define what it is that you have to or trade to
overcome or neutralize the concerns or
Types of Mobilization Tactics objections of those who stand in your way. – If
 Persuasion this cannot be done shift to persuasion tactic
 Negotiation  Rehearse making the demands – define roles &
 Direct action stance , define public & private agenda ,
develop lines of arguments , anticipate
Issues for the Selection of Tactics objections , create defense & counter
 The greater the commitment of the group, the arguments, & identify potential concessions &
greater the risks the group will be willing to your bottom line .
take to achieve its desired goals.  Understand that compromise is essential in
 Always start with low risk tactics first. negotiation- not all of your demands will be
 Pick actions that are both enjoyable & winnable met.
 Tactics should fit the group’s style, history &  Begin negotiation before the power of your
culture group has peaked
 Make sure the tactics are linked together so
that they build on each other. Negotiation Phase:
 Issues for the Selection of Tactics  It is a process:
 Make sure that the selected tactics relate to :  What is said is as important as what is done
 The substance of the issue  Use questions to determine the meaning of the
opposition’s demand , to reveal the degree of
 The desired change – goal of the group
interest in specific demands , & to expose
 The culture & history of the community
items of possible tension.
 Perception & organizational composition of the
 Start with demands that are more than you
need / want.
 The available resources
 Maintain the image of responsibility- do not
 The relationship between the supporters & the make such unreasonable demands that your
opposition opponent can walk away & paint you as an
 The group’s norms. extremist or obstructionist.
 Threats must be credible to be effective- your
Persuasion resources & readiness must much your
 Involves problem solving & education. rhetorics
Information is assembled , alternatives are  Threats are often more effective than actually
examined & mutually satisfying solutions are invoking them.
selected.  Increased demonstration of group’s
 This tactic is used when there are shared commitment to demand, increases
objectives between two groups, when effectiveness of threats- w/o having to use
disagreements are modest , & when them
misunderstanding can be mediated with
improve communication &/Or by referring to a Settlement Phase
common interest:  Seek a win- win situation
 Three parts to the use of persuasion as a  Win on merits not on just power concessions
tactic: are made on merits because it is in the best
A) the presenter interest of the opposition.
B) the message  You must help opponents rationalize change
C) the audience
 A third party mediator may help offer an
opponent a way out by yielding to the prestige
of the mediator rather than the power of the
 Mobilizing Direct Action
 Social change & conflict are interrelated –  People get involve for selfish reasons & they
neither can exist without the other get involved when they feel they can make a
 Direct action embraces conflict difference.
 Direct action requires a well organized  Determine what will motivate these potential
constituency supporters.
 Direct action tactics are used to increase public  Develop a message that will meet their needs
awareness , to threaten & embarrass an & matches their perspective.
opponent & to provide glue to your movement.  Identify supporters via one on one meetings,
 Direct action helps at times to create petition drives, direct mail, rallies, canvassing ,
bargaining power. ad campaign , fairs, community meetings, etc.
 Direct action needs to conform to the  People need a group an organization to
standards of news worthiness. demonstrate power.
 Mobilizing Direct Action  The organizational structure should meet the
 Direct action helps to transform the needs of the supporters & the scope of the
complexities of the issue & associated action.
relationships so that new , simple patterns  Types of Structure for Bringing People Together
emerge good vs evil  Community Forum
 Direct action serves to dramatize a point of  Task committee
view.  Steering committee
 Block group
Some types & example of direct action:  Neighborhood association
Protest: legal disputes, marches, demonstrations,  Town meeting
rallies, vigils, petitions, teach ins , picketing  Coalition / partnership
Non cooperation : strikes, boycotts, absenteeism
 Others
(These must be widely supported to work)

Interventions : sit ins, phone ins, stand ins, 6. Mobilizing the Group to Achieve Small
interference with routine procedures Victories
 At this stage the organized group of supporters
4. Planning For Action executes the tactics to create the desired
The Organizer & core group community members change :
must:  The organizer must help the group to :
 Develop a plan of action to effectively address  Select the appropriate tactics
the presenting issues / problems  Keep the action simple & fun
 Asses the current power structures & other  Own the action
factors that create or maintain the problem.  Use tactics that will achieve small victories to
 Examine the internal & external obstacles , advance the desired change.
opportunities & resources.
 Define the targets – those who are most 7. Continuing the Process
affected by the problem , those who can help  The organizer must work with the organized
create the desired change & those who will group to:
stand in the way of the desired change.  Make sure it receive feedback
 Develop strategies for organizing the  Monitor actions
supporters into a group/ organizations to  Evaluate effectiveness of strategy on overall
address the issues & the opponents goal
 Design strategies for mobilizing the organized  Redefine actions
group to create the desired change.  Identifies new problems , priorities & strategies
 Implement revised action plan
5. Organizing a Power/ Process Structure
 Keeping Organization Active
The organizer & community members must:
 Have periodic progress reports on going
 Educate & energize the public on the target projects to keep the spark of enthusiasm
 Conduct regular social activities.
 Cultivate relationship with supporters
 Inter-visitation
 Design structural & communication links for
 Contests
addressing the identified problems , bringing
 Health fairs and / exhibits
the supporters together & implementing the
action strategies that will create the desired  Give recognition for those who have done well.
 Bring the supporters together to form a group
that will work together to create the desired
 Develop leaders to support the agenda &
implement the action plan.
 Notes on Organizing