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the Filipinos were at war with the Spanish and the Americans.

Not long after th e Americans won in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine-American started. T he Philippines only wanted their independence. Writers began to produce scripts that talked about war and their anti-Spanish/anti-American feelings. There wer e hidden messages everywhere. From character names, to costumes, to love themes , to staging of the scenes and mannerisms of characters. Playwrights wrote abou t freedom and independence, oppression from America. The Sedition Act, passed on November 4, 1901, made any form of advocacy of Phili ppine independence a crime. The playwrights of the time clearly violated this and were sentenced for it. July 7, 1902 Tanikalang Guinto is first performed. The play talks about love an d oppression. Ligaya (light, spirit of independence) is forbidden to see her lo ve Kaulayaw (sweetheart, Filipino hero) by her uncle Maimbot (greedy; the Americ an government). Maimbot then gives Ligaya a golden chain which symbolizes his c ontrol over her. May 8, 1903 Hindi Aco Patay (I Am Not Dead) is presented at a local theater. Th e play talks about the love between Karangalan (honor) and Tangulan (defender, p atriot) and their opposition to Macamcam (the American government). Tangulan an d Macamcam battle it out and Tangulan dies. However, he screams out I am not dea d! The scenery then changes to a rising sun on the Katipunan flag, symbolizing f reedom. A fight breaks out in the theatre audience between the white men and th e brown men. May 10, 1903 Tanikalang Guinto is found seditious and the author is sentenced to two years in prison and is fined $2000. May 14, 1903 Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas (Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow), by Aureli o Tolentino, talks about Filipino oppressors from yesterday (the Chinese), today (the Spanish), and tomorrow (the Americans). Inangbaya (the Philippines) and h er son Tagailog (the Filipinos) conquer all of them. The scene then proceeds wi th the taking down of the American flag and stepping on it, causing another riot between the white and brown men. July 5, 1903 Hindi Aco Patays author who was in hiding is found, arrested, and se ntenced to two years in prison. Several actors from the play are arrested as wel l. The play portrays a komedya troupe in rehearsal and in production. It shows that the komedya director worries about the criticisms on thekomedya by the sarsweli sta until they bury the komedya in a coffin with the letters "R.I.P." (Rest in P eace). Si Hermogenes Ilagan ay kinilalang Ama ng Dulaang Tagalog