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YES GRAMMAR - Reductions

Eskiehir YESDL/Muhammed Hoca

REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES


ngilizcede bir relative clauseu, anlamn hi bozmadan, cmle olmaktan karp szck bei biiminde ksaltabiliriz. Bu ksaltmay yapabilmek iin; who, which ve that balalarnn hemen ardndan fiille balayan ve znesi olmayan bir cmlenin gelmesi gerekmektedir.

Bir relative clause be ekilde ksaltlabilir:

REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES PRESENT PARTICIPLE (Ving) PAST PARTICIPLE(V3) BE + ADJECTIVE PHRASE BE + PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE TO + INFINITIVE

1) Present participle(Ving):
Relative clauseun yklemi active ise ksaltmada present participle kullanlr. Trkeye; the man running: koan adam the students studying: alan renciler the eagle flying: uan kartal eklinde evrilir.

Perfect Participle Phrase(having V3/active)


Yklemi active olan relative clausea past vurgusu yaplmak istenirse veya perfect tenselerden herhangi birinin yerine kullanld ifade edilmek istenirse o halde the man having run: komu olan/koan adam the students having studied: alm olan/alan renciler the eagle having flown: umu olan/uan kartal eklinde kullanlr. The students who hope to enter the university will be disappointed. The students hoping to enter the university will be disappointed. The scientist who is studying the nature of sleep loss will make important discoveries. The scientist studying the nature of sleep loss will make important discoveries. The fence which surrounded our house was made of wood. The fence surrounding our house was made of wood. The stadium that seats 50.000 spectators was completed last year. The stadium seating 50.000 spectators was completed last year. The footballer who had played at the same club for a decade quitted in 2003. The footballer having played at the same club for a decade quitted in 2003. Non-defining relative clauselarda ayn kurallar gz nnde bulundurularak ksaltma yaplabilir. Mr. Wallace, who has worked at this company for years, is very trustworthy. (non-defining) Mr. Wallace, having worked at this company for years, is very trustworthy.

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YES GRAMMAR - Reductions

Eskiehir YESDL/Muhammed Hoca

Mr. Carter, who passed his driving test, is very cheerful. (non-defining) Mr. Carter, passing his driving test, is very cheerful. Julia, who has lived in Eskiehir since last year, is content with her life. Julia, having lived in Eskiehir since last year, is content with her life. Sally, who had lost her job, was upset. Sally, having lost her job, was upset.

2) Past participle(V3):
Relative clauseun yklemi passive ya da participle adjective ise ksaltmada past participle kullanlr. Trkeye; the thief caught: yakalanan hrsz the book published: yaymlanan kitap the man awarded: terfi edilen adam the children excited about ...: heyecanl olan ocuklar(participle adjective) the car being washed: ykanan araba/ykanyor ola araba (continuous tenses) the room being painted: boyanan oda/boyanyor olan oda eklinde evrilir.

Perfect Participle Phrase(having been V3/passive)


Yklemi passive olan relative clausea past vurgusu yaplmak istenirse veya perfect tenselerden herhangi birinin yerine kullanld ifade edilmek istenirse o halde the thief having been caught: yakalanm olan/yakalanan hrsz the book having been published: yaymlanm olan/yaymlanan kitap the man having been awarded: dllendirilmi olan/dllendirilen adam the children having been excited about ...: heyecanlanm olan/heyecanl olan ocuklar eklinde kullanlr. The photographs which were published in the magazine were conspicuous. The photographs published in the magazine were conspicuous. The convict who was sentenced to death punishment fainted. The convict sentenced to death punishment fainted. The girl who is married to a tycoon is very happy. The girl married to a tycoon is very happy.(participle adjective) The match of the day which is being televised all over the world will be exciting. The match of the day being televised all over the world will be exciting.(continuous tense) The car which was being washed belongs to me. The car being washed belongs to me. Roberto, who had been declared chairperson, was crying out of happiness. Roberto, having been declared chairperson, was crying out of happiness.

3) Be + adjective phrase:
Bu blme Be + the, a(n), my, your, one gibi baz belirteleri de ekleyebiliriz. The children who were happy about the picnic were full of excitement.

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YES GRAMMAR - Reductions

Eskiehir YESDL/Muhammed Hoca

The children

happy about the picnic were full of excitement.

Cigarette which is bad for ones health should be avoided. Cigarette bad for ones health should be avoided. My house, which is bigger than yours, has a wonderful view. My house, bigger than yours, has a wonderful view. Ankara, which is the capital city of Turkey, is also a major trade center. Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, is also a major trade center. Mr. Clark, who is a farmer, has many goats. Mr. Clark, a farmer, has many goats. Fenerbahe, which is my favorite team, transfers costly footballers every year. Fenerbahe, my favorite team, transfers costly footballers every year. Cindy, who is one of my best friends, will be delighted when she opens the present. Cindy, one of my best friends, will be delighted when she opens the present.

4) Be + prepositional phrase:
The students who are in the classroom are waiting for their teacher. The students in the classroom are waiting for their teacher. The girl who is at the door will probably ask for your help. The girl at the door will probably ask for your help. The poor cat which is across the road needs feeding. The poor cat across the road needs feeding. My nightingale, which is in the cage, sings beautifully all the time. My nightingale, in the cage, sings beautifully all the time.

5) To + infinitive:
The first, the second, the third, the next, the last, the only gibi ifadelerden sonra ve superlativelerden sonra relative clause to do biiminde ksaltlabilir. zkan was the last student who handed in his project. zkan was the last (student) to hand in his project. (zkan projesini teslim eden en son renciydi.) Neil Armstrong was the first man who set foot on the moon. Neil Armstrong was the first (man) to set foot on the moon. (Neil Armstrong aya ayak basan ilk insand.) Nazan was the only student who hadnt done her homework. Nazan was the only student not to have done her homework.(perfect participle) Ali is the strongest contestant who takes part in this competition. Ali is the strongest contestant to take part in this competition. Relative clauseun yklemi passive ise ksaltmada passive infinitive to be done kullanlr. The last person that can be appointed to investigate these complaints is Mr. Jackson. The last person to be appointed to investigate these complaints is Mr. Jackson.

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YES GRAMMAR - Reductions

Eskiehir YESDL/Muhammed Hoca

It was the best route that could be followed at the time. It was the best route to be followed at the time. It was the first film that had been censored by government agencies. It was the first film to have been censored by government agencies.(perfect participle) To + infinitive biimindeki ksaltmay kabiliyet, zorunluluk, gereklilik gibi kiplik ieren sfat tamlamalarndan ve something, anything, nothing, somebody, anybody, etc. gibi szcklerden sonra kullanabiliriz. I need a friend whom I can trust. I need a friend to trust. (Gvenebileceim bir arkadaa ihtiyacm var.) A person who can kill an animal for pleasure is ruthless. A person to kill an animal for pleasure is ruthless. (Bir hayvan spor iin ldrebilen kii zalimdir.) I have much homework that I should do. I have much homework to do. (Yapmam gereken ok ev devim var.) The students are asking me many questions that must be answered. The students are asking me many questions to be answered. (renciler bana cevaplanmas gereken ok sorular soruyor.) We need to hold a meeting to discuss the measures which should be taken. We need to hold a meeting to discuss the measures to be taken. (Alnmas gereken nlemleri konumak zere bir toplant yapmamz gerekiyor.) I can recommend you something that you can read. I can recommend you something to read. (Sana okuyacak bir eyler nerebilirim.) We have nothing that we can talk about. We have nothing to talk about. To + infinitive biimindeki ksaltma will in ksaltmas olarak Trkeye ecek, acak olarak evrilir. The person who will work for us should be able to speak at least three languages fluently. The person to work for us should be able to speak at least three languages fluently. (Bizimle alacak olan kiinin en azndan dili akc bir ekilde konuabilmesi gereklidir. The question which will be asked should be difficult enough to disqualify some of the applicants. The question to be asked should be difficult enough to disqualify some of the applicants. To + infinitive ayrca ama belirtmek iin kullanlr. Bu durumda in order to / so as to / in an effort to / in an attempt to yaplar to + infinitivee eittir ve Trkeye iin olarak evrilir. To switch off, press red button. (Kapamak iin, krmz dmeye bas.) He needs to study hard in order to improve his speaking skill. (Konuma becerisini gelitirmek iin sk almaya ihtiyac var.) She got up early so as to have time to pack. (Bavulunu toplamaya zaman kalmas iin erken uyand.)

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YES GRAMMAR - Reductions

Eskiehir YESDL/Muhammed Hoca

I watched them carefully in an effort to learn more about the new recruits. He moved to a new flat in an attempt to be near his work. ngilizcede for + object + to + infinitive yaps da sklkla kullanlmaktadr. In order for him to pass the exam, he should study daily. (Onun snav gemesi iin gndelik almas gerekir.)

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