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Chapter 2.1 Notes

- This book, Introduction to Real Analysis by Bartle and Sherbert, approaches the real number system by an algebraic point of view, which means it considers it as a complete ordered eld instead of constructing the set from a primitive set. - Based on this approach, the system of real numbers is a eld with respect to addition and multiplication. The basic properties of real numbers or any eld is known as eld axioms. x Algebraic Properties of R: On the set R of real numbers there are two binary operations, denoted by + and called addition and multiplication, respectively. These operations satisfy the following properties: (A1) a + b = b + a, a, b R (commutative property of addition) (A2) a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c, a, b, c R (associative property of addition) (A3) 0 R s.t. 0 + a = a and a + 0 = aa R (existence of a zero element) (A4) For each a R, (a) R s.t. a + (a) = 0 and (a) + a = 0 (existence of negative elements) (M1) ab = ba a, b R (commutative property of multiplication) (M2) a (b c) = (a b) c , a, b, c R (commutative property of addition) (M3) 1 R distinct from 0 s.t. 1 a = a and a 1 = a a R (existence of unit element) 1 1 1 (M4) For each a = 0 R, a R s.t. a a = 1 and a a = 1. (existence of reciprocals) (D) a (b + c) = (a b) + (a c) and (b + c) a = (b a) + (c a) a, b, c R (distributive property of multiplication over addition)
1 Theorem 2.1: If a = 0 and b R s.t. a b = 1, then b = a .

Proof of Theorem 2.1: Let a = 0 and b R s.t ab = 1. This implies that b = 1b by M3. We can, 1 1 1 1 1 thus, say that b = a b b = ( a a)b b = ( a )(ab) b = a 1 b = a by M4, M2, substituting a b = 1 into the formula, and using M3 respectively. 1 Hence, b = a . Q.E.D.

- We will now cover the order properties of R, which refer to the notions of positivity and inequalities between real numbers. 1

x The Order Properties of R: There is a nonempty subset P of R, called the positive real numbers, that satises the following properties: (i) If a, b P, then a + b P. (ii) If a, b P, then a b P. (iii) If a R, then exactly one of the following holds: a P, a = 0, a P. x Denition 2.1.1: Let a, b R. (a) If a b P, we write a > b or b < a. (b) If a b P {0}, we write a b or b a. Homework Assignment #1 Theorem 2.1.7: Let a, b, c R. (a) If a > b and b > c, then a > c. (b) If a > b, then a + c > b + c. (c) If a > b and c > 0, then c a > c b. If a > b and c < 0, then c a < c b. Proof of Theorem 2.1.7: Let a, b, c R. Now we will proceed to prove (a). Let a > b and b > c. This implies that a b P and b c P by 2.1.6.a. Since a b P and b c P, we know that (a b) + (b c) P by 2.1.5.ii. Furthermore, (a b) + (b c) a + (b + b) c a + 0 c a c, which means that a c P by 2.1.5. Hence a > c since a c P. We will now proceed to prove (b). Let a > b. This implies that a b P. Since a b P, we can say that a b a + 0 b a + 0 + (b) a + (c + (c)) + (b) (a + c) (b + c), which implies that (a + c) (b + c) P. Thus a + c > b + c. We will now proceed to prove (c). We will prove the rst case. Let a > b and c > 0. Thus, we can say that a b P and c P. Since a b P and c P, c (a b) P by 2.1.5.ii, which means that c (a b) c (a + (b)) (c a) + (c (b)) (c a) (c b). This implies that (c a) (c b) P. Since we have (c a) (c b), we can conclude that c a > c b when c > 0. On the other hand, to prove the second case of (c), let a > b and c < 0. Thus, we can say that a b P and c P since c < 0. Since a b P and c P, (c) (a b) P by 2.1.5.ii, which means that (c) (a b) (c)(a+(b)) ((c)a)+((c)(b)) (ca)+(cb) (cb)(ca). This implies that (c b) (c a) P. Since we have (c b) (c a), we can conclude that c a < c b when c < 0. Q.E.D.

Theorem 2.1.8: 2

(a) If a R and a = 0, then a2 > 0. (b) 1 > 0. (c) If n N, then n > 0. Theorem 2.1.9 If a R is such that 0 a < Theorem 2.1.10 If ab > 0, then either (i) a > 0 and b > 0, or (ii) a < 0 and b < 0. Corollary 2.1.11 If ab < 0, then either (i) a < 0 and b > 0, or (ii) a > 0 and b < 0.

, > 0, then a = 0.

Exercises (1) If a R satises a a = a, prove that either a = 0 or a = 1. (2) If x, y Q, then x + y and xy are rational numbers. (3) If x is a rational number and y is an irrational number, then x + y is an irrational number. If, in addition, x = 0, then show that xy is an irrational number. (4) Let K := {s + t 2 : s, t Q}. Show that K satises the following: (a) If x1 , x2 K, then x1 + x2 K and x1 x2 K. 1 (b) If x = 0 and x K, then x K. (5) If a, b R, show that a2 + b2 = 0 if and only if a = 0 and b = 0. Let a, b R. We will proceed to prove if a = 0 and b = 0, then a2 + b2 = 0. Let a = 0 and b = 0. Then a2 + b2 = 02 + 02 = 0 + 0 = 0. Thus, we have proven this statement. We will now proceed to prove the converse of the statement is true by proof by contradiction. Let a2 + b2 = 0 and assume a = 0 and b = 0. (6) If a R and m, n N, then am+n = am an and (am )n = amn .

2.2 Notes

- The absolute value of a real number a, denoted by | a |, is dened by a if a > 0, 0 if a = 0, or a if a < 0. Theorem 2.2.2: (a) | ab |=| a || b | a, b R. (b) | a |2 = a2 a R. (c) If c 0, then | a | c i c a c.. (d) | a | a | a | a R. Triangle Inequality: If a, b R, then | a + b || a | + | b |. Corollary: If a, b R, then (a) || a | | b || leq | a b |. (b) | a b || a | + | b |. Corollary: If a1 , a2 , ..., an are any real numbers, then 3

| a1 + a2 + ... + an | | a1 | + | a2 | +...+ | an |. Denition: Let a R and > 0. Then the -neighborhood of a is the V (a) := {x R :| x a |< }. Theorem 2.2.8: Let a R. If x belongs to the neighborhood V (a) > 0, then x = a.

2.3 Notes

Denition: Let (S = ) R. (a) The set S is said to be bounded above if u R s.t. s u s S. Each such number u is called an upper bound of S. (b) The set S is said to be bounded below if w R s.t. w u s S. Each such number w is called an lower bound of S. (c) A set is said to be bounded if it is both bounded above and bounded below. A set is said to be unbounded if it is not bounded. Denition: Let (S = ) R. (a) If S is bounded above, then a number u is said to be a supremum (or a least upper bound) of S if it satises the conditions: (1) u is an upper bound of S, and (2) if v is any upper bound of S, then u v. (b) If S is bounded below, then a number w is said to be an inmum (or a greatest lower bound) of S if it satises the conditions: (1) w is a lower bound of S, and (2) if t is any lower bound of S, then t w. 2.3.3 Lemma: A number u is the supremum of a nonempty subset S of R if and only if u satises the conditions: (1) s u s S, (2) if v < u, then s S s.t. v < s. 2.3.4 Lemma: An upper bound u of a nonempty set S R is the supremum of S i > 0 s S s.t. u < s . Suppose that > 0s S s.t. u < s . We want to show that the upper bound u of S is the supremum of S. Assume that v is an upper bound of S and v < u. Then 0 = u v > 0 and u 0 < s 0 for some s 0 S. Thus u 0 < s 0 v < s 0 . This contradicts that v is an upper bound of S. Therefore, u = sup S. Completeness Property of R: Every nonempty set of real numbers that has an upper bound also has a surpremum in R.

2.4 Notes
sup(a + S) = a+ sup S where a R and a + S = {a + s | s S}. Lemma 2.4.2: Let S R, S = : (a) If a > 0 and aS = {as : s S} then inf (aS) = a inf S, sup(aS) = a supS (b) If b < 0 and bS = {bs : s S} then inf (bS) = b supS and sup(bS) = b inf S The Archimedean Property: If x R then nx N s.t. x nx .

Lemma 2.4.1: Let S R, S = and S is bonded from above. Then:

We will proceed with a proof by contradiction. Suppose that x R s.t. x > nn N. Then x is an upper bound of N. By the completeness property of R, the set N has a supremum, so let u = sup N. Now consider u 1 < u, which implies that u 1 is not an upper bond of N. Then m N, which implies that m > u 1 u < m + 1. Since m N, we know that m + 1 N. This contradicts the fact that u is the supremum of N.
1 Corollary 1: If S = { n : n N}, then inf S = 0. 1 First, 0 < n n N. Hence 0 is a lower bound of S. > 0, n N 1 1 < n n < . Then 0 inf S n < . Then inf S = 0 by Theorem

s.t. 1 2.1.9.

Corollary 2: If t > 0, nt N s.t. 0 < Theorem: x R+ s.t x2 .

1 nt

< t.

Corollary 3: If y > 0, ny N s.t. ny 1 y ny .

Density Theorem: If x, y R and x < y, then r Q s.t. x < r < y.