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MOFP1TT FUND.

-CA-UKUKMA.

JAMES KENNEDY MOFFITT

Accession

OF THE

CLASS

OF '.8*6.

THE WORDS OF JESUS

PRINTED BY

MORRISON AND OIBB LIMITED

FOR

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND co. LIMITED

NEW YORK : CHARLES SCRIBNKR'S SONS

THE WORDS OF JESUS

CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF POST-BIBLICAL JEWISH WRITINGS

AND THE AEAMAIC LANGUAGE

BY

GUSTAF DALMAN

PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIPZIG

AUTHORISED ENGLISH VERSION

D. M.

KAY, B.D., B.Sc.

PROFESSOR OP HEBREW AND ORIENTAL LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS

I. INTRODUCTION AND FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS

^mr^;

"wffiJL

EDINBURGH

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET

1902

AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE

ENGLISH EDITION.

THE work here introduced to English readers is the result

of studies which have been pursued during a long series of

years.

The aim of these studies has been to ascertain the

meaning of the words of our Lord as they must have pre-

sented themselves to the ear and mind of His Jewish hearers.

The author is well aware that the last word has not been

said on not a few important and difficult questions treated in

this volume ; but

his wishes will be

fulfilled if his work

serves to strengthen the conviction that

direction is not fruitless, and must be done

labour in

this

by many co-

workers, if Christian Theology is to be brought into more

precise relations with its historical basis.

As to

the

relation of the English translation to the

German original, I have only to add that the English version

practically forms a second edition of the work.

A number

of small errors have been corrected by the author throughout

the whole book, and the introductory part has been partly rewritten and rendered more complete. The " Messianic

Texts," which form an Appendix to the German volume, have

not been included in the English edition.

As they may be

had separately from the publisher of the German edition (J. C. Hinrichs, Leipzig), it seemed superfluous to reprint

them here.

LEIPZIG, 1st April 1902.

106511

GUSTAF H. DALMAN.

NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR

THE Translator has endeavoured to furnish a faithful version

of the German original, but is not responsible for the various

positions maintained by the author.

If the Gospel was first

announced in the Aramaic language, it is obvious that the

Greek versions of the Synoptists cannot be finally interpreted

without taking due account of the Aramaic prototype.

This

factor is introduced by Dr. Dalman's line of research, and will

be seen to contribute elements of great value in the minuter

exegesis of the Gospels.

The Translator has to thank the Eev. Professor A. E. S.

Kennedy, of Edinburgh, for the helpful interest he has taken

in the process of translation, and for correcting the second

proofs.

In rendering into English the idea of the malkuth

Yahveh (Gottesherrschaft y usually called " the Kingdom of

God "), he hopes no inconvenience will be caused by the

occasional use

of

" theocracy "

as a shorter synonym for

" Sovereignty of God."

In citing the Talmud, b. before the

name of the Tractate stands for Babylonian, j. for Jerusalem ;

a Baraitha is a tradition of the elders which did not happen

to

be incorporated in

Yehuda ha-Nasi.

the

authoritative collection of K.

vii

D. M. KAY.

CONTENTS.

Author's Preface to the English Edition

Note by the Translator

INTRODUCTION.

I. Aramaic as the

language

of the Jews

II. The literary

use of Hebrew .

.

III. The

Semitisms of the Synoptic Gospels

.

.

.

.

.

.

IV. Some Hebraisms and Aramaisms

V. Alleged proofs of a primitive Hebrew Gospel

.

VI. Testimonies in favour of a primitive Aramaic Gospel

.

.

.

VII. The Problem before us and the previous studies in the same field .

VIII. The selection of the dialect

PAGE

v

vii

1

.12

.17

20

.43

57

71

79

FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS.

I. THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD (THEOCRACY).

A. Sovereignty of Heaven, sovereignty

B. The Jewish use of the idea

C. The application of the idea of the Divine Sovereignty in the

of God, sovereignty

.

.

'.

words

of Jesus

.

1. The sovereignty of God is the subject of an announcement

2, 3. The sovereignty of God is regarded as an approaching dis-

pensation

.

.

.

.

.

.

4. The theocracy is an order of things under which men are placed

5.

The theocracy is an order of things to which men attain

6. The theocracy is a good Jewish statements concerning pre-existence

.

7.

The sovereignty of Messiah

8. Concluding discussion

Appendix A.

Appendix B. Lukel7 20f>

Luke

16

16 , Matt. II 12 '-

.

.

.

91

96

101

102

.106

110

116

128

133

134

143

II. THE FUTURE AGE, THE AGE (JEoN).

1.

Its occurrence in the words of Jesus

.

2. Origin of the expression

3. The simple 6 al&v

147

X

CONTENTS

III. ETERNAL LIFE, LIFE.

1. Its position in the discourses of Jesus .

2.

3.

4.

5.

The Jewish usage The verbs connected with it

^

The simple i]

.

The significance of the idea

.

.

.

.

IV. THE WORLD.

1.

Books in which the term is still unknown

2. The idea of the " world " in the

3. Instances of the use of the idea "

Synoptists

world "

4. The new world

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

V. "THE LORD" AS A DESIGNATION FOR GOD.

1. Not a name for God to be found in common use

2. Substitute for the Tetragrammaton (mrr)

.

VI. THE FATHER IN HEAVEN.

1. The Israelitish-Jewish usage

.

2. The usage in the language of Jesus

.

.

.

.

.

.

VII. OTHER DIVINE NAMES.

1. God(60e6s)

2. The Highest (Ofurros) .

3.

The Blessed One (6 615X0717x6?) .

4. The Power (^ Stvaiu*)

5. The Holy One (6 &yios)

6. The Merciful One (6 Ae^)

.

.

.

.

.

PAGE

.

.156

156

.

.158

.

.158

161

.

.162

.

.166

169

177

.

.

179

 

182

.

.184

.

.189

194

 

.

198

 

200

200

.

.202

204

VIII. EVASIVE OR PRECAUTIONARY MODES OF REFERRING TO GOD.

1. The Voice

2. Swearing by Heaven

3. Reward, treasures in Heaven

4. Written in Heaven

5. Before the angels, before God

6.

Bound, loosed in Heaven

7. Heaven

8.

9.

10.

11.

From Heaven

Hosanna in the highest

From on high

Use of the Passive Voice

12. Amen

13.

14.

15.

The Shechinah, the

Glory,

The Place

Concluding Statement

.

.

.

the Word

204

206

206

209

.

.

.

.

.209

 

.

.

.

.

.213

 

217

 

.

.219

 

.

'.

.

.220

 

.223

 

224

226

 

.

.

.229

 

.231

233

CONTENTS.

IX. THE SON OF MAN.

1. The linguistic

2.

3.

4.

"Son of Man

form of the

" was not a current Jewish name for the Messiah

expression

.

" Son of Man " is no empty formula

"Son of Man" is a self-appellation of Jesus used exclusively by

Himself

5.

6.

The meaning attached to the title by the Synoptists .

The sense attached by Jesus to the term "Son of man "

.

.

.

.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

X. THE SON OP GOD.

The second Psalm in Jewish literature

The title " Son of God " as applied to Jesus by other persons

The divine voice at the Baptism and the Transfiguration

Jesus' own testimony

The sense attached by the Synoptists to the title "Son of God "

.

.

.

.

1.

2.

3.

XI. CHRIST.

The term in Jewish usage

(a) Derivation and form

(&) Signification and content

(c) The idea of pre-existence

The application of the name "Messiah" to Jesus

.

.

The acknowledgment of the name "Messiah " by Jesus Himself

XII. THE SON OF DAVID.

1.

The Jewish idea of Messiah's Davidic origin

2. The Davidic descent of Jesus .

.

.

.

.

.

.

xi

PAGE

234

241

249

250

253

256

268

274

276

280

288

289

294

299

303

305

316

.319

XIII. "THE LORD" AS A DESIGNATION OF JESUS.

1.

The Jewish use of the term

2. The usage in the Synoptists

.

.

.

.

XIV. "MASTER" AS A DESIGNATION OF JESUS.

1.

2.

The Jewish use of the term

The Synoptic use of the term

INDEX FOR GREEK TERMS

.

.

.

.

CITATIONS OF THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS

PASSAGES DISCUSSED IN DETAIL

324

.

-327

331

336

.

.341

345

350

EDITIONS OF TEXTS USED.

A. APOCRYPHA.

H. B. Swete, The Old Testament in Greek, i.-iii., 1887-94.

0. F. Fritzsche, Libri apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Greece, 1871.

De Lagarde, Libri Veteris Testamenti apocryphi Syriace, 1861.

Sirach: Hebrew Text, 39 15 " 49 , 11; edition of A. E. Cowley and A. ^Neubauer,

1897 ; ed. of R. Smend, 1897.

49 12 ' 50 , 22, ed. of S. Schechter, Jew. Quart. Eev. x. (1898) 197-206.

Tdbit: Aram. Hebr. and Latin Texts, ed. of A. Neubauer, 1878.

Hebrew Texts, ed. of M. Gaster, 1897.

Supplements to Daniel: Aram. Text, ed. of M. Gaster, 1895.

B. PSEUDEPIGRAPHA.

Psalms of Solomon: ed. of H. E. Ryle and M. R. James, 1891 ; ed. of 0. v.

Gebhardt, 1895.

Book of Jubilees : translation by R. H. Charles, Jew. Quart. Rev. vi. (1894)

184 If., 710 ff. ; vii. (1895) 297 ff.

Book of Enoch: translation by G. H. Schodde, 1882 ; by R. H. Charles, 1893. Greek text, A. Lods, 1892.

Assumptio Mosis : ed. of R. H. Charles, 1897.

Apocalypse of Baruch: Syriac text of A. M. Ceriani, 1871 ; translation by R.

H. Charles, 1896.

2 Esdras: Syriac text of A. M. Ceriani, 1868.

Latin text, ed. of R. L. Bensly and M. R. James, 1895.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: Greek text of R. Sinker, 1868, 1879.

Hebrew version (Naphtali), ed. of M. Gaster, 1894. Sibylline Oracles: ed. of A. Rzach, 1891.

Testament of Abraham : ed. of M. R. James and W. E. Barnes, 1892.

Slavonic Book of Enoch: ed. of W. R. Morfill and R. H. Charles, 1896.

C. TARGUMS.

Onkelos : Sabbioneta, 1557 (in the original).

Jerusalem Targums to the Pentateuch : Venice, 1591.

Targums to the Prophets and Hagiographa : Rabbinical Bible, Veirice, 1517 ;

Venice, 1525 ; Venice, 1548 ; Basle, 1618.

Targum sheni on Esther : ed. of L. Munk, 1876 ; ed. of M. David, 1898.

XIV

EDITIONS OF TEXTS USED

D. LITERATURE ON THE LAW.

Mishna : ed. Riva di Trento, 1559 ; Mantua, 1561 ; Cambridge ( W. H. Lowe], 1883.

Tosephta : ed. Sabbioneta, 1555 ; Pasewalk (M. S. ZucJcermandel), 1881. Jerusalem Talmud : ed. Venice, 1524 ; Tractate 'Berachoth, ed. Mainz (M.

Lehmann), 1875.

Babylonian Talmud : Tractate Taanith, ed. Pesaro (c. 1511) ; Sanhedrin, Sota,

Nidda, Erubhin, Zebhachim, Menachoth, Beklioroth, Meila, Kinnim,

Middoth, Tamidh, Teharoth, ed. Venice, 1520-23.

Tractates Shebhuoth, Eduyyoth, Abhoth, Horayoth, Moed Katon, Yebha-

moth, Erakhin, Temura, Kerithuth, Nedarim, Nazir, Teharoth, ed. Venice, 1526-29.

For the whole Talmud : ed. Vienna, 1840-47 ; Varise Lectiones, R. Edbbinovicz-

H. Ehrentreu, 1867-97.

Abhoth of Rabbi Nathan : ed. Vienna (S. Schechter}, 1 887.

E. COMMENTARIES (Midrashim).

Mechilta : ed.

Constantinople, 1515 ; Vienna (/.

(M. Friedmann), 1870.

Weiss),

1865 ; Vienna

Siphra : ed. Venice, 1545 ; Vienna (J. Weiss}, 1862.

Siphre : ed. Venice, 1545 ; Vienna (J/. Friedmann}, 1864. Midrash Rabba on the Pentateuch : ed. Constantinople, 1512 ; Venice, 1545 ;

Salonica, 1593. Midrash Chamesh Megilloth : ed. Pesaro, 1519 ; Venice, 1545 ; Salonica, 1593.

Midrash on Canticles : ed. S. Schechter, Jew. Quart. Rev. vi. (1894) 672 ff. ;

vii. (1895) 145 ff., 729 ff. ; viii. (1896) 289 ff.

Midrash Tanchuma: ed. Venice, 1545 ; Mantua, 1563 ; Wilna (. Buber), 1885.

Midrash on Psalms : ed. Constantinople-Salonica, 1512-15 ; Venice, 1546 ;

Wilna (S. Buber}, 1891.

Midrash on Samuel : ed.

Buber), 1893. Midrash on Proverbs : ed. Venice, 1546 ; Wilna (S. Buber}, 1893.

Pesikta : ed. Lyck (S. Buber}, 1868.

Pesikta Rabbati : ed. Vienna (M. Friedmann), 1880.

Pirke Rabbi Eliezer : ed. Venice, 1544.

Tanna de-be Eliyyahu : ed. Venice, 1598.

Yalkut Shimoni : ed. Salonica, 1521-26.

Yalkut Makiri : Yeshaya, ed. Berlin (J. Spira}, 1894.

Constantinople, 1517 ; Venice, 1546 ; Krakau (S.

F. LITURGICAL WORKS.

Siddur : Seder Rab Amram, ed. Warsaw, 1865 ; Maimonides in Mishne Tora,

ed. Venice, 1524 ; Siddur Hegyon Leb, by L. Landshuth, Konigsberg, 1845 ; Seder Abodath Yisrael, by S. Baer, Rodelheim, 1868.

Machzor, German rite : ed. Cremona, 1560; Venice, 1568; Venice, 1714-19.

Polish rite : ed. Sulzbach, 1699 ; Amsterdam, 1736. French rite : Machzor Vitry, ed. Berlin, 1893-97.

Sephardic rite : ed. Livorno, 1845-46.

Roman rite : ed. Bologna, 1541.

Romanian rite : ed. Constantinople, 1520.

Yemen rite : two manuscripts in possession of Dr. Chamizer, Leipzig, No. 1 of

the year 1659, No. 2, 16-17 century.

THE WORDS OF JESUS.

INTRODUCTION.

I. ARAMAIC AS THE LANGUAGE OF THE JEWS.

As the proof has been offered with comparative frequency of

late l showing that the " Hebraists," 2 that is, the " Hebrew "-

speaking Jews of Palestine, who formed a class distinct from

but

Aramaic, it seems superfluous to raise a fresh discussion on all

the details of this question.

Yet, while reference is made

to my " Grammatik des jiid.-pal. Aramaisch " for information on all the Aramaic expressions that occur in the New

Testament and Josephus, the most important sources of evi-

dence now involved must here be shortly summarised.

the "Hellenists,"

did not

in

reality

speak

Hebrew

1. The custom, represented

in

the second century after

Christ as very ancient, of translating into Aramaic the text

of the Hebrew Pentateuch in the synagogues of the Hebraists

of Palestine.

M. Friedmann, Onkelos und Akylas (1896), 58ff., 8 If.,

still holds fast to the traditional opinion that even Ezra had

an Aramaic version of the Tora.

In this he is mistaken.

Yet the high antiquity of the Targum custom of interpreting

About the year 200 A.D. the practice is so

is incontestable.

1 Most recently by G. Meyer, Jesu Muttersprache (1896), and Th. Zahn,

Einleitung in das Neue Testament, i. (1897) 1-24.

2 Acts 6 1 '

2

THE WORDS OF JESUS

firmly established that the Mishna does not make it a matter

for prescription, but concerns itself only with

precise determination of details (Meg. iv. 5,

7, 11).

the more

In the

third century it was recommended by Joshua ben Levi to his

sons

that one should not even in private read the text of the

Law without the traditional translation. 1

It was not practical

necessity that was the determining factor in this case, but

the inviolable custom according to which Bible text and

Targum were inseparable.

There must, however, have been

a time during which a pressing necessity created this custom,

tending to depreciate the significance of the Bible text,

a time, that is, when the Hebrew text was not understood by those who frequented the synagogues. That even written

Targums existed in

the

time of Christ may perhaps

be

concluded from the story 2 which represents Gamaliel I. as

having caused a Targum of Job to be built into the temple

while it was building, provided this Targum were written in

Aramaic and not in Greek.

Gamaliel n. also would appear

to have seen a copy of the same Targum. 3

Of course it does

not follow that such Targums were widely distributed, least

of all that every one should have had them at home ; only it

is clear that in public worship the Holy Scripture was not

This rendering,

read without the translation into Aramaic.

according to Meg. iv. 4, was required to follow each single

the

verse in the

Pentateuch, and

every

three verses in

Prophets.

2. The Aramaic titles for classes of the people and for

feasts attested by Josephus and the New Testament.

Of these there may be named

(Hebrew would be D^Via), " Phari-

1 Ber. 8 a ;

cf.

W. Backer, Agada der palast. Amoraer, i. 141.

That the

Targum should therefore be also "read," thus implying the possession of written

Targums, is, however, not to be inferred from the expression.

2 Sabb. 115 a ; j. Sabb. 15 C ; Tos. Sabb. xiii. 2 ; Sophr. v. 15. 8 See same passages except j. Sabb. 15 C .

4 Zahn, Einl. in d. N. Test. i. 23, maintains that the plural R t 'tfn$ lies at

INTRODUCTION

sees"; Xaavalai (Jos. Ant. ni. vii. I) = twn3 (Heb.

"Priests"; apaQdpxn*, 1 apa^d^n^ (ibid.) = Kfi Kjna (Heb.

f>han

jnan), "High

Priest"; ^do^a = Knpa (Heb.

(Heb.

"Passover"; avapdd (Ant.

m.

x.

6) = *tfmj>

" Pentecost " ;

Qpovpa ia, 2

Qpovpal = NJ'ilB

(Heb.

" Purim " ; <rd/3/3ara = Knatf (Heb. natf),

Sabbath."

rips),

3.

The use of the Aramaic language in the Temple.

In support of this is the old tradition that John Hyrcanus

heard in

speaking in the

In the

Aramaic language, j. Sot. 24 b ; cf. Ant. xm. x. 3. 3

temple, according to Shek. v. 3, vi. 5, the legends on the tokens

for the drink-offerings and on the chests in which the con- tributions of the faithful were deposited were in Aramaic.

As now given in the Mishna text, some, however, of the names

the

sanctuary a divine voice

But the use of Aramaic in the other cases is so

striking in matters of the temple service, that one must regard

are Hebrew.

it as the sole language originally used in this connection.

4. Old

official documents in

the Aramaic language.

These are, first, the " Koll concerning Fasts," a catalogue of

days on which fasting was forbidden, first compiled in the

time of the rising against the Eomans, 66-70 A.D. ; secondly, the Epistles of Gamaliel n. (about 110 A.D.) to the Jews of

Both of these were

destined for the Jewish people, and primarily, indeed, for those

South Judsea, Galilee, and Babylon.

of Palestine.

For

the "Koll concerning

Fasts,"

see my

the basis of the Greek form $api(raioi, because the ending cuoi represents a

Semitic final sound in i or ay ; and that from K?>'19 there would have been

formed $api<ras. This is not convincing ; for ^aptaas would have been unsuit-

able as the name of a party, and the Greek language forms with equal ease

Aapi<r<raios from Ad/3t<r<ra, and 'Adyvaios from 'Adyvai.

But, of course, it is

probable that the formation of the Greek $>apt<raioi depended on the frequently

Besides, the analogy of 2a5ou/ccuoi must have co-

heard plural definite N;n$.

operated, and that goes back to 'pns, definite ni*jjtt, plur. def. 'Xjjny.

1 Wellhausen, Isr. und Jiid. Gesch. 161, holds that x ava p6P r l* was the

original reading ; but it is possible that we have here one of the intentional

Grsecisms of Josephus. dpa/3<%i7s was meant to suggest apafiapxr)*. 2 $povpai is due to a reminiscence of the Greek word <f>povpd, plur. (ppovpal.

3 Cf. D&renbourg,

Essai sur 1'histoire

de la Palestine, 74 ;

Priester und der Cultus (1895), 62 f.

Euchler, Die

4

THE WORDS OF JESUS

treatise " Aramaische Dialektproben," 1-3, 32-34; cf. Jiid.

Monatschr. xli. 326, and Gramm. d. jiid.-pal. Aram. 7 f.

The

Epistles of Gamaliel given in Aram. Dialektproben are

attributed by the Palestinian Talmud Sanh. 18 d , and there-

after by Graetz, 1 Derenbourg, 2 Neubauer, 3 and Biichler, 4 to the first Gamaliel ; but this must be an error, as the four

groups of Jews alluded to (Upper and Lower Galilee, Darom

(South-west Judaea), and Babylon) point to a date after the

destruction of Jerusalem.