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UCRL-52863

Conduction heat transfer solutions

James H. VanSant

March 1980

.:' :.! i s UHUMITEE

CONTENTS

Preface Nomenclature Introduction 1. . Steady-State Solutions Plane Surface - Steady State 1.1 1.2 2. Solids Bounded by Plane Surfaces Solids Bounded by Plane Surfaces With Internal Heating Cylindrical Surface - Steady State 2.1 2.2 3. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical Surfaces N o Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Cylindrical Surfaces With Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Spherical Surfaces N o Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Spherical Surfaces With Internal Heating 4. 5. Traveling Heat Sources 4.1 5.1 5.2 6. Traveling Heat Sources Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating Extended SurfacesWith Internal Heating .

v vii 1

1-1 1-27

2-1 2-33

Spherical Surface - Steady State 3.1 3.2 3-1 3-10 4-1 5-1 5-31

Extended Surface - Steady State

Transient Solutions Infinite Solids - Transient 6.1 6.2 7. 7.1 7.2 8. 8.1 8.2 Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating Infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating Semi-Infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Plane Surfaces N o Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Plane Surfaces With Internal Heating . . . . 6-1 6-22 7-1 7-22

Semi-Infinite Solids - Transient

Plane Surface - Transient 8-1 8-52

iii

9.

Cylindrical Surface - Transient 9.1 9.2 S o l i d s Bounded by Cylindrical Surfaces No Internal Heating S o l i d s Bounded by C y l i n d r i c a l Surfaces W i t h Internal Heating Solids Bounded by Spherical Surfaces No Internal Heating S o l i d s Bounded by Spherical Surfaces With Internal Heating Change of PhasePlane Interface . . , ' . . . . . 9-1 9-24

10.

Spherical Surface - Transient 10.1 10.2 10-1 10-19 n-i 11-13 12-1 F-i 13-1 14-1 15-1 16-1 17-1 . 16-1 R-l

11.

Change of Phase 11.1 11.2 Change of PhaseNonplanar Interface Traveling Boundaries

12.

Traveling Boundaries 12.1

Figures and Tables for Solutions Miscellaneous Data 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. References Mathematical Functions Roots of Some Characteristic Equations Constants and Conversion Factors Convection Coefficients Contact C o e f f i c i e n t s Thermal Properties

iv

PREFACE

This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. Engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines should find this material useful, particularly those who design thermal sys tems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. Having this kind of material available can save time and effort in reaching design decisions. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other cate gories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to aach problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given Problem so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions.

solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equa tions, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. lem solutions are included. specific problems. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correla tions, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. Property data were taken from some of Only the latest publications relating to the particular properties listed. the international system of units (SI) is used. Some discussion

Also, some example prob

This material may give the user a review, or ever

some insight, on the phenomenology of heat conduction and its applicability tc

Consistency in nomenclature and terminology is used throughout, making this text more readable than a collection of different references. Also, dimensionless parameters are frequently used to generalize the applicability of the solutions and to permit easier evaluation of the effects of problem conditions. Even though some of the equational solutions are lengthy and include several different mathematical functions, this should not pose a formidable task for most users. to perform. functions. Modern computers can make complicated calculations easy Even many electronic calculators can be used to compute complex If, however, these tools are not available, one can resort to hand The table of mathematical functions and constants would be

computing methods.

useful in this case. Heat conduction has been studied extensively, and the number of published solutions is large. in this text. In fact, there are many solutions that are not included For example, some solutions are found by a specific computa

tional process that cannot be described briefly. Moreover, new solutions are constantly appearing in technical journals and reports. Nevertheless, this collection contains most of the published solutions. The differential equations and boundary-condition equations for heat flow are identical in form to those for other phenomena such as electrical fields, fluid flow, and mass diffusion. This similarity gives additional utility to This practice is pre the heat conduction solutions. The user needs only identify equivalence of conditions and terms when selecting a proper solution. and mass transfer. A search for particular solutions has frequently been a tedious and dif ficult task. Too often, countless hours have been spent in searching for a problem solution. siderable effort. Locating and obtaining a proper reference can require con Also, it is frequently necessary to study a theoretical In so doing, there are This text scribed in many texts on applied mathematics, electrical theory, heat transfer,

development in order to find the applicable solution. should help alleviate some of these problems.

sometimes misinterpretations which lead to erroneous results.

Science gives us information for reaching new frontiers in technology. It is, thus, appropriate to give something back. a small contribution. James H. VanSant I hope this text is at least

VI

NOMENCLATURE A b c = = = 2 A r e a , ro Time constant, s S p e c i f i c heat, J/kg* C Diameter, depth, m

C = Circumference, m d, D = h k = = Heat transfer c o e f f i c i e n t , W/m C Thermal conductivity, W/m* C " hC/kA, m"" V Length, m
1

m = q q" =
1

d, L =

2 Heat flux r a t e , W/m 2 = Heat flux i n x , y , z d i r e c t i o n s , W/m = Volumetric heating r a t e , W/m Radius, m Temperature, C, K

%,' %.> <3_ Q =

Heat transfer r a t e , W

r, R = t, T = Y =

V e l o c i t y , m/s = Cartesian coordinates, m 2 Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y , k/pc, m / s C

w = Width, m x, y , z , a = B = Y = Y = A = e =

Temperature c o e f f i c i e n t , Heat of evaporation, J/kg

Latent heat of f u s i o n , J/kg Difference Emissivity for thermal radiation ( a c t u a l heat transferred) ) transferred without fins) (actual heat transferred ^ infi i conductivity f i n s )
h e a t t T a R S t s c t f r o m n t e

. ... ,_. n = Fin e f f e c t i v e n e s s , . _. . < = f i n errectiveness, p p a a = = = D e n s i t y , kg/m 2 " ax, m V

( h e a f c

-2 -4 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, W/m *K Time, s

T =

Jf = Radiation configurationemissivity factor

vii

DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS Bi Bf Fo = = Biot modulus Bi Fo = = hi/k

Bi B

v h'
r
*v

hx/pcJ,

P o

Fo

2 = Fourier modulus = at/X * , Fo = Modified Fourier modulus Gr = = = = Grashof number Kirpichev number Nusselt number = = gSAtH /v = q./kAt hd/k = = Ki

l/(:

Ki

v
d

N u , Nu

*\,

Pd

Predvoditelev modulus

*v
R
d

Po = Pomerantsev modulus Pr == Prandtl number = v/a = = = Radius ratio = Length ratio Width ratio = = = r/r = Reynolds number = x/SL y/w z/5.

2 bS, /a 2 q'"H /kAt

R e , Re X Y Z

vd/V

= Length ratio

MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS exp Ei erf erfc i erfc I J K Y P r n n


n

= =

Exponential function Exponential integral = Complementary error function = Complementary error function integral

= Error function

= Modified Bessel function of the first kind = Bessel function of the first kind = = = = = Modified Bessel function of the second kind Natural log Bessel function of the second kind Legendre polynomial of the first kind Gamma function

n &n n

viii

INTRODUCTION

1.

HEAT CONDUCTION

Energy i n t h e form o f h e a t has been used by man e v e r s i n c e he began

walking on t h i s earth. existence.

Moreover, the transfer of heat i s e s s e n t i a l t o our very

Not only do our own physiological functions require some form of The importance of the thermal sciences i n the t o t a l

heat t r a n s f e r , but so do most l i f e - s u s t a i n i n g processes of nature and many mancontrolled a c t i v i t i e s . sphere of science can, t h u s , hardly be disputed. Conduction i s one of the three principal heat transfer modes, the others being convection and r a d i a t i o n . I t i s customarily distinguished as being an energy d i f f u s i o n process i n materials which do not contain molecular convection. Kinetic energy i s exchanged between molecules r e s u l t i n g in a net transfer between regions of d i f f e r e n t energy l e v e l s , t h e s e energy l e v e l s are commonly c a l l e d temperature. P a r t i c u l a r l y , heat conduction i n metals i s mainly a t t r i In f l u i d s , the e l a s t i c impact of molecules buted t o the motion of free e l e c t r o n s and i n s o l i d e l e c t r i c a l i n s u l a t o r s to the l o n g i t u d i n a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of atoms. i s considered as the heat conduction process. The process of heat transfer i n materials has been studied for many centuries. Even early Greek philosophers, such as Lucretius (c. 98-55 B . C . ) , Much l a t e r , the meditated on the subject and recorded their c o n c l u s i o n s .

famous mathematical p h y s i c i s t , Joseph B. J. Fourier (1768-1830), developed a mathematical expression that became the basis of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l heat conduc tion s o l u t i o n s . He postulated that a l o c a l heat f l u x rate in a material i s proportional to the l o c a l temperature gradient i n the direction of heat flow:

where g^ i s the heat flow i n the x-direction per unit area as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. l a . constant:
*X=-K!X, (2,

Material properties are accounted for by including a p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y

/{///ft

I
at
-*

dx * (a)

(b)

FIG. 1.

I l l u s t r a t i o n of heat flow and temperature gradient.

there the constant k i s c a l l e d thermal conductivity. .ncluded to s a t i s f y the second law of thermodynamics.)

(The minus sign must be This equation i s For

a i l e d Fourier's law for heterogeneous i s o t r o p i c continua. A simpler form of Fourier's law i s for homogeneous i s o t r o p i c continua. md insulated edges as shown in Fig. 1. area A, and thermal conductivity k. The plate has a width Ax, surface example, consider a p l a t e of t h i s of type material having isothermal surfaces The heat flow in the p l a t e i s expressed as

(t

Qx = -kA ]

2 - V
Ax

(3)

Chis expression becomes Eg. (2) when Ax diminishes to zero.

fx lim At . 3t A %. ~ Ax+O Ax " 3x


= = K = K

(4)

The heat flux q i s presumed to have both magnitude and d i r e c t i o n . Lt can be given as a v e c t o r , g which i s normal to an isothermal surface. example, i n Cartesian coordinates

Thus, For

q = q i +
x

*z

(5)

where i , j , k are unit vectors in the x-, y-, and z-directions, respectively. Since Eq. (4) defines q^ = -k3t/3x, and similarly qy = -k3t/3y, q = -k3t/3z, we can state
z

q = -k (i3t/3x + j3t/3y + k3t/3z) i = -kVt .

(6) (7)

In anisotropic continua the direction of the heat flux vector i s not necessarily normal to an isothermal surface. Example materials are crystals, laminates, and oriented fiber composites. In such materials we may assume each component of the heat flux vector to be linearly dependent on a l l com ponents of the temperature gradient at a point. The vector form of Fourier's law for heterogeneous anisotropic continua becomes q = -K Vt , (8)

where K i s the conductivity tensor; the components of this tensor are called the conductivity coefficients. In Cartesian form, Eq. (8) i s

* - -("ll x
S ' -( 21 fe / 3t ' ^ 3 1 3x
k

+ k

12
*22 ft

*13 H)
+ k

23 l l )

< >

3t 32 3y

3t\ 33 Szj *

To compute heat flow by Fourier's law, a thermal conductivity value i s needed. I t can be estimated fran theoretical predictions for some ideal materials, but mostly, i t i s determined by measurement and Fourier's law, Eq. (2* -. As illustrated in Fig. 2, thermal conductivity can have a large range, which depends on materials and temperature. For example, copper at 20 K has a thermal conductivity of approximately 1000 Wm K and diatomaceous / * earth at 200 K has a conductivity of 0.05 W/m'K. Consequently, heat flow in materials can have a very large range, depending on a combined effect of temperature gradient and material property. Thermal properties of some selected materials are given in Section IS.
3

1000

1
Copper

100

Lead

10

. Fused quartz
a

c o u

I-

-Teflon

' Diatomaceous earth 0.1

0.01

_L
600 800 1000 TemperatureK

200

400

J 1200

L 1400

FIG. 2. Thermal conductivity of some selected solids.

2.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF HEAT CONDUCTION Solutions to heat conduction problems are usually found by some mathe

matical technique which begins with a differential equation of the temperature field. The^appropriate equation should include all energy sources and sinks Also, the equation should be expressed in pertinent to a particular problem. spherical.

terms of a convenient coordinate system such as rectangular, cylindrical, or Then analytical or differencing methods can be used to solve for temperature or heat flow. A common method for deriving the generalized differential equation for heat conduction is to apply the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) to a volume element in a selected coordinate system. By accounting for all the thermal energy transferred through the element faces, the change of internal energy and thermal sources or sinks in the element, and by letting the element dimensions approach zero, the differential equation can be derived. This procedure is typified by the following heat energy accounting of the rectangular solid element shown in Fig. 3. The net heat flow through six faces is

"net

x+Ax

*y ~ ^ + A y

z ~ z+Az

'

(10)

FIG. 3.

Coordinate systems for heat conduction equations:

(a) rectangular,

(b) cylindrical, (c) spherical.

where t y p i c a l l y

= -AyAz

Q = -AxAz y

Ml'

= -AxAy

and k , k , and k are d i r e c t i o n a l c o n d u c t i v i t i e s . x' y z An increase in internal energy of the element i s represented by

A I = AxAyAzpc | ^

(11)

where t is the mean temperature of the element, p is the material density, and c is its specific heat. Internal energy sources can be expressed as QUI
= q

tii AyA
Ax

(12)

where q" ' is the unit volume source rate. Examples of internal heating in materials are joule, nuclear, or radiation heating. Summing these energies in accordance with the energy conservation law yields

For the limits Ax, Ay, Az - 0, we obtain


BCL.
q

3 t p c

3T

3x

3qy 3 q 3y 3z
z

t i 4 >

where .
q

3t x 3x '

y " " y 3y '

q = - k -5 . ^z z oz

Using Eg. (14) as a general differential equation, we can derive the following specific equations. 2.1 Rectangular Coordinate System For isotropic heterogeneous media 3t 3x 3_/
3X

D c p c

3t\ 3_/ i t \ ^ i _ / 3t\ 3 / 3y \ Syj 3z \ 3 /


+ K K X / Z>

+ q

"

( 1 5 )

For isotropic homogeneous media this becomes 3t _ k_ 3 t , 3 t ^ 3 t l + ^ 3 T " pc 3x 3y 3z J pc


2 2 2
2 2 2

= art +

. pc

(16)

When q'" = 0 , Eq. (16) becomes Fourier's equation. In steady-state conditions, 3t/3x = 0 and Eg. (16) becomes the Poisson equation. When q ' " = 3t/3x = 0, Eg. (16) reduces to the Laplace equation. Nonisotropic materials, such as laminates, can have directionally sensitive properties. For such materials the conduction differential equation in two dimensions is expressed in the following form: 2 pc || = ( k cos B + k sin B ) ^-| + l k sin B + 1^ cos B )
2 2 2 2 ? n ?

2 ~

2 + (k -k )(sin B)y - + q'" ,


2 c T 1 y

(17)

-X

FIG. 4. Coordinate system for a nonisotropic medium.

where k_ and k are directional thermal conductivities, and 3 is the angle of laminations as indicated in Fig. 4. When the geometrical axes of the nonisotropic material are oriented with the principal axes of the thermal conductivities, then Eg. (17) simplifies to the form of Eq. (14)

n
p c

a?

4 * *4+*-' 3x 3y
2 2

(18)

2.2

Cylindrical Coordinate System Rectangular coordinates can be transformed into cylindrical coordinates

by the relations x = r cos 9, y = r sin 9, and z = z. The partial differential equations (15) and (16) transformed to cylindrical coordinates are thus

P c

37 7 37 (

rk

3?) 7 3 9 \
+

39 ) 3l ( 37)
+ k

(19)

t _ (&
T

i &
r 8 r

i_ i*t . aft\

3^1
p c

(20)

r ae

a.V

For nonisotropic materials with the conductivity and geometry axes aligned as in Eq. (18) the differential equation is

P 3?"r

3rl 3r)

+ r 2 3 e

k Z 3 z

(21)

2.3

Spherical Coordinate System A transformation from rectangular t o spherical coordinates can be accom

plished by s u b s t i t u t i n g the r e l a t i o n s x = r s i n i|i cos ij>, y = r s i n ty s i n and z = cos \|i into Eqs. (15) and (16), which y i e l d the partial d i f f e r e n t i a l equations for i s o t r o p i c heterogeneous and homogeneous m a t e r i a l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

3t 1 3 / 2 . 3t\ 1 3 /. 3 t \ P 37 - ~2 3T( 37) * 2 . 2 ^ 36 ( 39 j


A r k k s n

IV (
r sin 1
r
2 8

J L

k sin

^ If) '"
' <?"
* "

+ q

(22)

ty

at
*

/a t

2 at
E 3 t

1
r
2 2

3 t
2

3t\

" "W

sin * 36

tan * * )

The d i f f e r e n t i a l equation for nonisotropic materials with aligned conductivity and geometric axes i s

3t . r 3 t
3 T r

d)
2

3 t ,
2

*Sl r
2

3
8

. ,., 3t
. (24)

PC j r = 7

+ -5*-=

5- + - ^

JT. s i n \p 55- + q'

3r

s i n i| 3<|)

sin * *

**

3.

SPECIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Some defining equations can have implied assumptions and boundary

conditions. of s o l u t i o n . equations. 3.1

They are u s u a l l y employed i n s p e c i a l cases to simplify the method However, F o u r i e r ' s law i s the b a s i s for deriving t h e s e s p e c i a l

Combined Conduction-Convection Thin materials having r e l a t i v e l y high thermal conductivity have very

small l a t e r a l temperature gradients. d i f f e r e n t i a l element. thin solid.

If the surfaces are c o n v e c t i v e l y heated

or c o o l e d , the convection condition becomes part of a heat accounting on a Referring t o Fig. 3 , l e t Az be the t h i c k n e s s b of a On the surface z and z + Az, the s o l i d has a convection boundary

described by q = h (t - t ) , where t . i s the convection f l u i d temperature. 9

Applying the same principles used to develop the general equations for rectangular coordinate systems should result in

/ S<*-v- fc( lf)


equation is
+ t ,M+ k

+2

,i,+

fc( ij)-

(25)

If the geometry is a thin rod of circumference C, the appropriate

p{f r < * - f > - f c ( i i ) 3.2 Moving heat sources The general heat conduction Eq. (15) can also be used for moving heat sources, but a simpler quasi-steady-state equation can be derived by coordinate transformation.

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26

If the coordinates are relative to the traveling For example,

source, the temperature distributions appear to be stationary.

if a point source of strength Q is moving at a velocity U parallel to the x-axis, the transformation would be x = x' + U T , where x' is the x-direction distance from the source. By substitution in Eq. (16) we can obtain

I F ('fc-Vfc(|*)*fc ( * ) . & -.
The applicable equation for a moving source in a thin rod that is convectively cooled is

^IXTV^IXT^"^ !it-v
for a particular problem solution. 4. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

<>

28

The moving source strength is accounted for in the boundary conditions

Solutions to heat conduction problems require statements of conditions. For general solutions there must be given at least a definition of the solu tion region, such as infinite, semi-infinite, quarter-infinite, finite, etc. Additionally, limits can be specified for any of these regions. 10

If s p e c i f i c solutions are needed, then complete conditions must be defined. They could include, for example, i n i t i a l , i n t e r n a l , and surface Other conditions might include property d e f i n i t i o n s . Whether conditions.

deriving a solution or searching for e x i s t i n g s o l u t i o n s , one must decide which conditions are applicable to the problem and how they can be s u i t a b l y expressed. 4.1 I n i t i a l Condition Unsteady-state problems must have an initial condition defined. surface conditions could have initial values. Mostly,

this implies a temperature distribution at x = 0 but, also, internal or A problem solution for x = 0 depends, of course, on whatever is specified at x = 0. 4.2 Surface Conditions The most commonly employed surface conditions i n heat conduction problems are prescribed surface convection, temperature, heat flux, or radiation. bined radiation and convection. It is even acceptable to prescribe two of *.hes3 for the same surface, such as com Other surface conditions could include phase change, a b l a t i o n , chemical r e a c t i o n s , or mass transfer fror a porous s o l i d . 4.2.1 Convection boundary Conduction and convection heat transfer r a t e s on a surface are equated t o s a t i s f y continuity of heat f l u x according t o Newton's law:

-k

at h '
3 x

( x

T )

= h [ t ( x , T) - t ]
b f

(29)

where t_ is the temperature of the convection fluid, and x. is the boundary location. The convection coefficient h must be determined from suitable sources that give predicted values satisfying the conditions of the fluid. (Some correlations of convection coefficients are given in Section 16.) The method for defining h can vary depending on the type of convection or the methods prescribed by those researchers who have supplied values for the coefficient. However, h is usually defined as

11

TABLE 1. Sample convection coefficient values. Fluid Air Air Air Steam Oil Water Water Liquid helium Steam Liquid metal Steam Water Condition Free convection on v e r t i c a l plates Forced convection on p l a t e s Forced flow i n tubes Forced flow in tubes Forced flow in tubes Forced flow in tubes Nucleate boiling Nucleate boiling Film condensation Forced flow i n tubes Dropwise condensation Forced convection b o i l i n g h, W/nT-K 10 100 200 300 500 2,000 5,000 8,000 10,000 20,000 50,000 100,000

t(K ? ) - t
b T

'

( 3 0

>

where t t

can be given as = [ t <x , x, - t j + t


B b

(31)

and where 3 1, and t^ is the temperature outside the thermal boundary layer of the fluid. In this respect, one must take care to use the proper fluid temperature and convection coefficient. Some typical order-of-magnitude values for the convection coefficient h are given in Table 1. 4.2.2 Surface temperature Of all boundary conditions, this is probably the simplest in a mathematical sense. and time. It can be variable or constant with respect to position In the real sense, it is very difficult to achieve a prescribed

surface temperature, but it can be closely approached by imposing a relatively high convection rate.

12

4.2.3

Heat flux Fourier's law defines the flux on a boundary by


3t(x ,T)
b

" ~3x

<

3 2 )

An adiabatic surface can be defined by either setting q in Eq. (32) or h in Eq. (29) to zero. Inversely, if the solid's temperature di.stribution has been solved, then Eq. (32) can be used to determine the surface heat flux. Understandably, heat flux can be, in particular cases, time and position dependent. 4.2.4 Thermal radiation Heat transfer from an opaque surface by radiation can be expressed as

41 a*\vT 4(x , T) - T*J = -k V


b s

3 t (

T )

(33)

where a is the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation constant, J " is the combined * configuration-emissivity factor for inuiltiple-surface radiation exchange, and T is the sink or source temperature for radiation. Because Eq. (33) is a nonlinear expression, it is frequently difficult to find exact solutions to problems with this condition. A common method for dealing with radiation problems is to treat the radiation boundary as a convection boundary. write 3t(x , T ) - k ^ where h
r

According to Eq. (29) we can

h [ t ( x , x) - t j
r b

(34)

= o y [ T ( x , x) + T ] [T (x , T) + T* J .
b b

Using this method means that T(x. , T) must first be estimated in order to compute a value of h . After a value for T(x. , T) has been computed from the problem solution, then the estimated value for h can be improved. This, of course, becomes an iterative process. 13

4.3 4.3.1

Interface Conditions Contact Two contacting s o l i d s , either similar of dissimilar, w i l l almost always

have some interface thermal resistance to heat flow between them. contacting surfaces.

The

magnitude of t h i s r e s i s t a n c e can depend g r e a t l y on the condition of the two Properties that can e f f e c t the surface condition include Since there c l e a n l i n e s s , roughness, waviness, y i e l d s t r e n g t h , contact pressure, and the thermal c o n d u c t i v i t i e s of the s o l i d s and i n t e r s t i t u a i f l u i d . t h e o r e t i c a l l y predict i t s value. frequently used. i n Section 17. The generally accepted d e f i n i t i o n of the contact c o e f f i c i e n t is are so many influences on the contact thermal resistance, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to Consequently, experimental r e s u l t s are Some representative values of the inverse thermal contact

r e s i s t a n c e , commonly referred to as the thermal contact c o e f f i c i e n t , are given

o-A^

'

( 3 5 )

where q i s the steady heat flux corresponding to a f i c t i t i o u s temperature gradient i n each s o l i d to the contact c e n t e r l i n e . were in perfect contact. 4.3.2 Phase change

interface This temperature

temperature drop of At. defined by extrapolating the v i r t u a l l i n e a r drop, which i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Fig. 5, would diminish to zero i f the interfaces

Other interface conditions include those caused by endothermic reactions such as melting, s o l i d i f i c a t i o n , sublimation, vaporization, and chemical dissociation. A statement of an interface reaction condition defines the difference of heat flux across the i n t e r f a c e . r e a c t i o n i s given i n the form 3t (x ) a t (x )
Yp2

If the i n t e r f a c e which separates two phases

of a material i s l o c a t e d at x - x . , the heat balance for a phase change

dx

h -hr~ - h ~^r- = * r
14

<>

36

Length -* FIG. 5. Illustration of interface contact between solids.

whece y is the latent heat or chemical heat capacity, and subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the two phases. 5.0 5.1 Solutions Extending solutions A solution can be retrieved after identifying a problem by boundary conditions, geometry, and other pertinent data. Usually, a temperature solution is given, but heat flow can be derived from the temperature

15

distribution by using Fourier's law, i.e. Eq. (2). If cumulative heat flow is required, a time and surface integration of local heat flux is necessary.

where n is the direction normal to the surface s. Steady-state solutions can be considered as the infinite-time condition for unsteady-state solutions. That is, problems which have a time-asymptotic solution exhibit steady-state solutions for x * <*>. Thus, steady-state solutions can be derived from transient solutions. A steady surface temperature condition can be implied from a convection boundary condition. temperature. For h * , the surface temperature approaches the fluid Therefore, a solution which includes a convection boundary can be

transformed into a constant temperature boundary solution by solving for the implied limiting case. 5.2 Dimen&'ionless parameters Grouping particular variables yields dimensionless numbers that can be useful. Symbolically, they can shorten an eguational expression. But, they can also give insight to the behavior of heat transfer in a particular problem. One very useful parameter is the Biot number, Bi = ht/k. which results from convection boundary conditions. for Bi > 1, conduction is highest resistance to heat transfer, Bi < 1, convection is highest resistance to heat transfer, Bi 1, the solid behaves like k = . This number is a dimensionless time value, 2 Another dimensionless parameter is the Fourier number, Fo = crr/S. , which is found in transient solutions. but it is also considered an indicator of the degree of thermal penetration 2 into a solid. Since crt/S. = (kTAt/)/(pc8.Ai.;. it is proportional to the ratio of conduction heat transferred to thermal capacity. Fo value implies approaching thermal equilibrium. Thus, an increasing This parameter is proportional to the ratio of Thus, we could say that the conduction resistance to the convection resistance.

16

The product of Bi and Fo numbers yields the parameter Bf = ht/pc& which occurs in transient problems having a convection boundary. instead of conduction as in the Fourier number. Solutions to problems having an internal heat source q ' " usually have a dimensionless heating parameter called the Pomerantsev modulus po = q"'Jl /kAt.
2

This is also a

dimensionless time parameter, but it is based on convection heat transfer

This number is a ratio of internal heating to heat

conduction rates. Large values of Po imply large temperature differences will occur in the solid. The parameter Fo = 1/2S&Z semi-infinite solids. When time dependent boundary conditions have a time constant, the solution will frequently include a dimensionless group called the Predvoditelev modulus, Pd = bfl, /d, where b is the inverse time constant. Small values of Pd imply a slow changing condition. temperature. 5.3 5.3.1 Example Problems Steady heat-transfer in a pipe wall Hot water flows at 0.5 m/s in a 2.5 cm i.d., 2.66 cm o.d. smooth copper pipe. The pipe is horizontal in still air and covered with a 1-cm layer of For a 65C water temperature and 20C air polystyrene foam insulation. in case 2.1.2 is It signifies: the ratio of the change rate of the boundary condition to the change rate of the solid is a form of the reciprocal of the Fourier

number and occurs in many solutions for transient temperatures in

temperature, estimate the heat loss rate per unit length. The solution given

2ir ( t q =
r

t )
2

. 1 . 2 ^ 1 . 3 _ 1 _ 1 -. In + ; Jin + + r h l 2 2 l l 3 3
A r k r r h r h

17

From the problem d e s c r i p t i o n t


x

= 65C

t . = 20C 4 r. = 1.25 cm r k k
h

= 1.33 cm = 400 W/m-C (from Table 18.1) = 0.038 W/mC (from Table 18.2)
5 0 , 9

r , = 2.33 cm
x

hd/k = 0.0155 P r ' R e l


=

(from S e c t . 16.1) Pr' Re - ) l


a t 6 5 5 0 9

^water/ ^
= 6 5 9

2 1

water ' Pr = 2.73 Re = 2pvr]/n p = 980 kg/m v = 0.5 m/s


J

/ *

>

p = 4.3 x 10" Re = h
h

kg/m's
= M 4 8 8

2(980)(0.5)(0.0125) 4.3 x 10

= (0.659/0.025)(0.0155)(2.73)" (28 4 8 8 )
= ( k

0 , 9

= 6895 W/(m -C)

air

/ 2 r

l^a* ) * /*
0c

1 1

(from S e c t . 16.8)

air Pr = 0.71

0 2 5

w m

Gr = g B ( t 4

t )(2r )W
3 3 - 1

g = 9.8 m/s B = 1/T


4

= 1/293 K
6

V = 1 6 . 5 5 x 10"
G a

m /s
3 =

(9.8) ( 0 . 0 4 6 6 ) (0.71) (293) (16.55 x l O ' V

C = 1.14, m = 1/7 (from Table 16.3) h


3

= (0.025/0.0466) (1.14) ( 8 7 7 4 )

1//7

= 2.24 W/m C

1 /1.33\ . 1 400 (1^5 ) 0^38


n +

la

2n(65-20) /2.33V (l^2) (0.0125) (6895) 2ir(45)

(0.233)(2.24)

8.33 W/m

1.55 x 1 0 " + 14.76 + 0.012 + 19.16

18

^-u
h
3

2nr h
3

8.33 = 271(0.0233) (2.24)

25.4"C

Using this new estimate of (t. - t.), we can recalculate h,. = 2.24 (25.4)
1/7

= 3.56 W/m *C,

q = 10.54 W/m. Additional iterations on h, would little improve this result. Note that the copper tube and water film have a small effect on the results because they present little resistance to heat transfer by comparison to the insulation and air film. 5.3.2 Transient heat conduction in a slab A billet of 304 stainless steel measuring 2 x 2 x 0.1 m thick and having a uniform temperature of 30 C is heated by sudden immersion into a 450C molten salt bath. The mean convection coefficient is 350 W/m C. Determine the time required for the center temperature of the billet to reach 400C. The solution is found in the solution table (case 8.1.8 and Fig 8.4a):

t - t. r_

400 - 450 = 0.119 30 - 450

From Table 18.1 k = 21 W/mC -6 2, a = 7 x 10 m /s


#

h.t

k hi

21 (350)(0.05)

= 1.2 .

From Fig. 8.4a OTA _


= 2

=3.4,
2 2 =

3.4& _ ( 3 . 4 H 0 . 0 5 )
a

7 x 10"

19

5.3.3

Transient heat conduction in a semi-infinite plate

For the conditions given in 5.3.2, find the temperature at 0.05 m from the end and sides of the billet. The solution is found in case 7.1.21 and Fig. 9.4a for a semi-infinite plate.

hVax

35oV(7x 10~ ) (1214)


1.2
0.05

V
W i V r

= 0.27

2^/ca

2V(7 x 1 0 ) (1214)

- 6

S(X) = 1 - 0.45 = 0.55 (from Fig. 7.-)

~ t

= P(Fo) S(X) = (0.119) (0.55)

=0.066

t = (0.066>(30 - 450) + 450 = 423C 5.3.4 Extended surface steady-state heat transfer

A 160 C uniform-temperature copper plate has a long rectangular rib brazed to it. All surfaces are convectively cooled by 30 C air having a convection coefficient of 53 W/(m C ) . The rib is yellow brass extending 4 cm from the flat surface and 2 cm wide. Estimate the additional heat loss from the flat surface caused by the rib. The solution for temperature distribution in the rib is given in Case 1.1.17.

\l

*^\

T
b

t
20

t-J _

Bi cos ( X X ) i x c o s h [ X ( B - Y)j + Bi s i n h [ X ( B - Y)l}


n n n n 2 2

t1 " t

^ cos (X ) ( B i + X + Bi) fx cosh (X B) + Bi sinh (X B)"l n=l n n Ln n n J (characteristic equation)

tan (X ) = Bi

B = b/a = 4/1 = 4 X = x/a, Y = y/a


B i =

Ir

t53

i3o*
2

01>

0 ,

0 4

(k v a l u e

f r o m T a b l e

18

1)

From Table 14.1 X


x

= 0.0632, X

= 3.1429, X

= 6.2838, X

= 9.4252, Xg = 12.5667,

Heat loss without the rib attached would be q = hA (t - t ) = 53 (0.02)(160 - 30) = 138 W/m .
x f

The additional heat loss is thus Aq = 666 - 138 = 528 W/m . 5.3.5 Rectangular fin heat transfer Use the straight rectangular fin solution to estimate heat loss from the rib described in 5.3.4. The solution is found in Case 5.1.4 and Fig. 5.2.

\ k a " V(130M0.01>

'

3 8 5

= 0.04 + 0.01 = 0.05 m c mfc = 0.3193 c

tanh {mSLj_
ml c

t a n h

( 0

3 1 9 3 )

0.3193
f

q = 2h(a + b) ( ^ - t )(|) = 2(53) (0.05) (130) (0.968) = 667 W/m

21

5.3.6

Semi-infinite plate heat transfer

Find an equation for the heat transfer rate through the edge of the semiinfinite plate described in case 1.1.5 with f(x) = t . Using the given temperature solution and Eqs. (2) and (37) we can find the heat transfer in the following manner:

. 3t

k ..
(t

. . 3T

.
W h e r e T

fc m

" l

fc

_ k

37 " I 2 " V 3? '

t~^t

9Y|Y = Q ~ Z
n=l

S i n

^"^C ~

c o s

(n7r

G
00

Y|Y = o / ^XIY = o ^
oo

= 2 k ( t

2 " Vi

It,

s i n

^^C

c o s

t)]^

go
2 n

= 2k(t - t ) 2 , El - costfflT)] = J k ( t - t ) 2 , J ' n=l an n=l


2 2 L

- 1 3 ' '

22

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.1 19, p. 3-103 Description Convectively heated and cooled plate.
h

Solution

i i - V
+ 1 + (hj/h )
2

( t

Bi t - t.

B^ + 1
Bi x
+ 1 +

-h,,t. 2''2

fc 2

-h

(-
H

1.1.2

19, p. 3-103

The composite p l a t e .

{t

o - V
1 0

] (w /k + 1/IK) + l/h
i

k,

n-2 n-1
* * ^
M ^ ^

i-1 Temp i n the j t h l a y e r :

V ^ V i^^wA/

V o-

Vi-1 \i-1

Mi'S.
fc fc

j-l ^ j ~ 0 _ ifl t - t " n 0

H /^
i

+ l / h ) + {x^/kj
i

+ (l/h )
0

J > 1

J
i=l

a /k
i

+ l/h ) + (l/h )
0

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.3 1, p. 138 Solution l-v 2 m
A
fc fc

Description Plate with temperature dependent conductivity, k = k + B (t - t ) .


x

rv

<ww^

- h - i H v - vf 2

2f

fc

= <k. + k , ) / 2

\*~~\
,J, 1.1.4 2 , p . 221 Porous p l a t e with i n t e r n a l f l u i d flow. 0. t i x t , x = 6.
x 2

t - t, "0
fc

- o
fc

f c

= expT-

vX

P = Porosity.

t fc

0
fc

exp (fx)

2 - l " "~f? " ]

, _ <^ x <^ 0

u.t ,k ,p ,c
0 f f

M*

Mean temp:

V ^
P = porosity
S

= | ^ [1 - *p >] , 0 < X < 5


p

* k M _ TJX" 5 * = k (1 - P) (1 - P) ' ""f ~


p f

(See F i g .

1.1)

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Semi-infinite plate. t = t , x a 0, H, y > 0. t = f(x), 0 > x > A, y = 0.
:

Case No. References 1.1.5 2, p. 122 9, p. 164

Solution

t - t = 2 2 _ exp(-rarY) s i n (mrX)
x

n=l V x F o r (x) = t s
2

1 f ff (X) - t "| sin (mrX)dX


i

-t = f(x>
I
UJ

t -t

n=l
1.1.6 3 P- 2 5 0 Rectangular semi-infinite rod.
r

<=
l

,,

+ n L

t = t , x = 0. t = t_ on other surfaces.
x

^ - 2 2
"
t 5

V- ^

XJ

e x p

( X x / w ) + (X x/Jl)
n m

n=0 m=0

X X nm x cos (X_) cos (\ ID) n

X = (2n + 1 ) , \ = (2m + 1)^n 2 m 2


n

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Beating. Case Ho. References 1.1.7 2, p . 130

Description Rectangulac i n f i n i t e rod. t P j U ) , 0 < i < I , y = 0. t = F - ( x ) ,. 0 < x < &, y = w o s x * * . y = w. t = G (x) , x = 0, 0 < y < w.
x

Solution
t a t

i
2

u*

'in

4v
.
S l n

*l

t * G , ( x ) , x = A, 0 < y < w.

Y sinh (airc/L) Z sinh (iw/i.) n=l sinh

._,,
( n l t X L )

(X) s i n (mtx)dx

II
t = F (x)
1

-2
2

[fo - ')]
S i n ( r t I t X L )

sinh (niF/L)

n=l

i
'ft

I V >

< n 1 t X ) f l X

w t = G,(v)-

i
I t = G (y)
2

*1II "

n=l

f^u ilSffi sinh (nir/L)

s i n (iffy) |

G,(X) s i n (nTTY)dY

t = F (x)
2

n=l L = l/w

s i n (niTX) 2 1 " ~ n=l


2

ncosh
2 2 1

F ^ x ) = F ( x ) = t , G (y) = G (y) = t

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.8 Description Solution

2 , p . 147 Thin rectangular p l a t e , t = t , x = 0, 0 < y < x.


Q

t - t

t = t , 0 < x < l,
Q Q

0. w.

V = 2 y

sinh [(Bi + n i r L ) \ ] & 2 2 2 1.1

.
s i n

. .
( n i r Y )

t = t , 0 < x < ,, y h t
r

~L sinh [(Bi + n V l . V J

t = G(y), x = Si, 0 < y < w.


0

x j [G(Y) - t ] s i n
Q

(fflTV) dY

at z at

6. 0. Bi < ( h + h )i./k6, x 2

h ,t
2

L - Jl/w

in

Z.I-' j
t 1.1.9 4 , p . 41
Q

t = G<y)

hjj.tnJ
fc

I n f i n i t e rectangular rod i n a semi-infinite solid.

i^o R~
1

- An f 3 . 5 ( d + k / h ) ]

/7777&777777777777777777777777
d

JL

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinitely long thin plate in a semi-infinite solid.
n , t

Case No. References 1.1.10 4, p. 41

Solution Vertical plate: ... . . k<t

1
d

0.42/

i^k)
( t

l "V d .. , ,0.24 - ' < w < "


5

Horizontal plate:
1
Q s :
k

ii
i

i "

fc

n>

fl

/A

i
WB l

2 \_ '_
0

o.5<<12

1
1.1.11 4, p. 43

w/

Thin rectangular plate on the surface of a semi-infinite solid.

Q=

kwir(t - t ) // \ ( b)
M A n

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Thin rectangular plate in an infinite solid. 2irwk(t - t ) in

Case Ho. References 1.1.12 4, p. 44

Solution

Q= -

m
1

T "

1.1.13

5, p. 54

Rectangular parallelpiped with Wall thickness of &.

= P ( d w + db + wb) + 2.16(d + w + b) + 1.2<5J(t - tj_


2

= total heat flow through six walls

T
i Ll _', _ i

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution 2irk(t 2 9 =

Case No. References 1.1.14 4, p. 37

Description Infinite hollow square rod. It


h

t )
x

l.OBw
2 r

Tlk
2 h

l 0

h , t
2

1.1.15 T

9, p. 166

Rectangular i n f i n i t e rod. t = f ( x ) , 0 < x < a, y = 0. t t, 0 < x < a, y = b. = a , 0 < y < b . t = t , , x 0 , 0 < y < b. t = t , , x

t - t = Y n=l 1 A 2 I

A s i n (mix) sinh j (1 - Y) ( ^ Y l coaech


n

0&\

[f (X) - O

s i n (nirX)dX , L =

l/v

V
- x f(x) I

For:

f(X) = t .

l ^ i -

- 1 ^ n=l

} s i n (nnx, sinh [(1 - V, * ) ] cosecn ( * ) , n = 1, 3, 5, 7

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.16 9, p. 167 Description Rectangular infinite rod. t = f (x), 0 < x < I, y = 0. a a 0, 0 < x < I, y = w. = 0, x = 0, 0 < y < w. x V
w

Solution ^ t - t
f

(Bi

+ X ) cos (X X) cosh [*(1 - Y)WX ] [(Bi


2 +

= 2 nTl X * ) B i ] c o s h <XW,
+ n

j"f (X) - t / 1 cos (X X)dX

/
X tan (X ) = Bi , Bi = hfc/k , W = w/Jt n n

<y

/
i

y y y

t = f (X)

^ !

For:
fc

f(x) = t, ~
= 2 Bi

-f l" f
fc

fc

cos (X X) cosh [(1 - *)WA ]


fl n

fc

, n=l

1 Bi \

+ P J + Bi n/

cos (X ) cosh n

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description = 0,


f

Case No. References 1.1.17

Solution

9, p. 168 Case 1.1.16 with q

y = w , Q-x<J!.is replaced by convection boundary h,t .

~ t - t
f

(Bi

+ X*J cos (A X){X cosh [X (W - Y)] + Bi sinh [\ (W - Y}]}


n n n n

= 2

[(Bi

+ X ) + Bil{X cosh (X W) + Bi sinh <\,W)}


n R

X
i
'0

1 [f(X) - t "| cos (X X)dX


f n

X tan (X ) = Bi , Bi = hJL/k , W = w/Jl n n For: t - t


fc

f(x) = t ^ ^ . Bi cos (
fc x n x

)U
2

cosh [X (W - Y)] + Bi sinh [X <W - Y)]}


n n n n n

l "

~^ cos (X >r^Bi + XM + Bi"J[X cosh (XW) + Bi sinh (^ W)]


n

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 1.1.16 with t = t ,

Case No. References 1.1.18 9 , p . 166

Solution

y a w, 0 < x < . (Bi -*


2

t - t. 2

"i B
2Bi

+ X ) cos (X X) sinh fX ( - Y)"| W r *" " x I [f (X) - t ] cos (X X)dX *


f n

"

* : j + Bij sinh (XW)


n

X tan (X ) = Bi , Bi = hH/k# W = w/S, n n For: f(x) = t , : cos (X X) sinh TX ( - Yfl W n L n J

P
fc

l" f

fc

\ r(
n=l L\

2 Bi

x)
n/

n +

Bi

cos (X ) sinh (X W) n n

1.1.19

9, p. 169

Case 1.1.16 with t t , y = 0, 0 < x < I.


x

t = t , y = w, 0 < x < S,. t - t.. ^


>
f

cos (XX) {sinh f X W - Jf)"| - sinh (X Y) (t

- t )/<t_ n

t.)}

t x

- = 2 B i

=-^

2 n

n=l

[^Bi

+ X ) + B i l cos (X ) sinh <XW)

X tan (X ) = Bi , W w/X, = n n

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.20 Description
z

Solution " 0 t, - t "0


c

9, p. 178 Rectangular parallelpiped. t t, , x = 0 , 0 <"y < w ,


1

0 < z < d t = t ,x 0 < z < d Remaining


2

. = & , 0 < y < w , . surfaces at t .


Q

1 6 V V fsinh (L - LX) + T sinh (LX)] sin (mtY) sin (nmZ) _2Z Z <nm) sinh (L) ' T n=l m=l T m = 1, 3/ 5, n = 1, 3, 5, = (nirVw) + (Jim/d) ,
2 0 t l 2 2

z = z/d

T = (t - t ) / (

- t)
Q

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Rectangular parallelpiped. t = t , x = 0 ,


t

Case No. References 1.1.21 9, p. 179

Solution

-w < y < +w t = t
2

-d < z < +d .

, x = i. ,

-w < y < +w , -d < z < +d . Remaining surfaces convec t i o n boundary with h , t , . t - t. t


fc

Jl> -, _ . _, z _ x " ** ~ n=l X tan (X ) = Bi, n n L


2 2 2 2

~ Tsinh (L r-i i sinn ^L, - - X) +v TTsinh (LX)3J c COS(X Y) cos (B Z) a.) sinn tidw o s JA XJ cos IP zj x ^ n TO _ , , cos (X ) cos <B ) Tx + B i + Bil^B + B i D + Bi D^sinh (h) fx BilZe m=i n m |_ n J\ m /
22 2 2 2 2 2

B
2

tan (B ) = Bi D, m m D = d/w,
f

Bi = hw/k Y = y/w

= X & /w + B / V d ,
2

X = x/i.,

Z = z/d , T = ( t

- ^ / ( ^ ~ t )

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesMo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.22 Description Solution

9, p. 180 Case 1.1.21 except t = t , x = 0 , -w < y < +w , -c < z < +c . Remaining faces are correction boundaries with h,t .
oa
oo

~ f t, - t. *
1

fc

fc

. _.2

[A sinh (L - LX) + L cosh (L - LX)] cos L * Bi sin [A Bi [ Bi sinh A


2 2

(X Y) cos (B Z)

2 . 2, 2* Z . n=l jn=l
2

(L) + L cosh (L)] NM cos (X ) cos < B )

A = /w , N = X + B i + Bi , M = & + B i C n i n
2

+ BiC.

,3

, L , D , X , Y , Z, and Bi are defined in

case 1.1.21 1.1.23 2, p. 175 Infinite plate with cylindrical heat source. Case 2.2.10

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e s t r i p with stepped temp boundary, t - t . y - 0 . - < x < + . t = t , y = w , x > 0 .
fl 1

Case No. References 1.1.24 9, p. 428

Solution

t = t k = k =

, y = w , x < 0 .

k , , 0 < y < w , x < 0 k , 0 < y < v x > 0


f

h
m
w >
k

*, .
*.
k

fc

"o
t, t
n

fc

i
i

= y

2 [ V l> - ^
*
( k

fc

f (-1)" sin
n=l
n

(mtY)exp(-mtx) , X > 0

2>

2
fc

{
,f*

"

- l

fc

= y X = x/w , Y = y/w

sin (nirY)exp(nTTX) , X < 0

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.25 Description Solution

9, p. 452 Heated planes on a semi-infinite medium. t = t , x < -I , y = 0 t = t ,x>.+J,,y-0 a = 0 , -I < x < +8, , > y = 0 .
x 2

Q J -l (^
= COSh

lti

,_

Xi

< x < -a

"1

~*

1.1.26

9, p. 453 Heated parallel planes in an infinite medium. t = t,,x>.O y = s.


f

Heat flow from bottom side of semi-infinite plane: C = k [(Xj/s) + (1/TI)J (tj^ - t ) , 0 < x < x .
2 x

t = t

, - < x +
tl

Heat flow from top side of semi-infinite plane: Q = ^[(irxj/s) + l] (^ - t ) , 0 < x <
2 XjL

Yt
i 1 r
X

+oo +oo

Ix

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Description Infinite right-angle cocnec. t t x > 0 , y 0 .
l f

Case No. References 1.1.27 9, p. 454

Solution 2 .
w
2 W ; L

2\
2

t = t

0 , y > 0 .
2

nw

^ wJ

it

4 W l

ttj.,

x > W^ , y = w j , y >

. . For , | t a n " ( ) ( t , - t_) , 0 < x < x, , 0 < y < y, l \ 2/ 1


w w 1

t tj , i ^
X

I w
0

*1

w. = w_ = w

x. = y

= x:

I *

1 ,

-K

1.1.28

9, p. 462

A wedge with stepped surface temp, t = t , 0 < r < r ,


x Q

t - t t
2

l +

/* s i n X p l n { r / r ) ] cosh(A6)d\
0

- t

" 2

? jj,

\ cosh

(\e )
Q

e = e .
0

t = t

, r < r
r

. 9 = e

*?

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.29 Solution

Description Semi-infinite strip with convection boundary.


x =0 y =0

15

Convection boundary at y =0 .

\ exp(-miY) s i n (mix) C* 22 . ' f- l n=l mr + (n IT / B I ) Heat transfer into strip at y = 0:


fc fc

1. 3 , 5,

k(t1

-s^.fi...i.....
"' " n=l n + (n TT/Bi)

See Tables 1.2a and 1.2b. h, t * = w


f

1.1.30

88 27

Periodic strip heated plate q^Wjy) = 0, on 2b wide strips. t(w,y) t , on (2a - b) wide strips spaced 2a on centers. -y = 2a- b

See Fig. 1.6a and b for values of maximum differences on y = 0 surface, i.e. Ct(0,a) - t(0,0)J = At . and heat transfer.

-y = b
r
*'

-y = -b t, h
f

y= -2a+ b

-w-

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Keating. Case No. References 1.1.31 28 Description Case 1.1.30 except Q = surface heat flux on (2a - b) wide strips spaced 2a on centers. t(x, y) - t k L - j. (1
f

Solution . BiX) + 2j

Qa

Bi

^ sin (rotB) cos (raiY) cosh (nirX) + sinh ( f r ) flXJ /. 2~T id T n=l n sinh (nnw) + cosh (miW)

']

B = b/a , Bi = ha/k W w/a , X = x/a , Y = y/a . See Pig. 1.7 for values of T = t(0 , a) - t(0 , 0),
1.1.32
i 10

29

Spot insulated infinite plate with constant temp on one face and convection boundary with an insulating spot on the other. h,t
f

See Fig. 1.9 for values of 0(r/w,z/w) = [t(r , z) - t ]/Tt<< , w) - t 1 at r = 0 , z = w


f f

T777?77m \
w
? r

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.33 32

Description Infinite plate containing an insulating strip. t = t , - < x < < * > , y = w. t = t , - < x < , y = -w
0 0 1 Q

Solution

0 , 0 < x < A , y

= 0.
U

t<x , y) - t, ' *' 0 _ 1 . i_ t

-l f

VI F

fy
i

2i"l + cosh CTT(2X - L)1


p =

cos T2TTY)]}

1 + c o s h (TTL)

T TH
1.1.34 19, p. 3-110
x x h

G =
F o r L * < :

2 sinh Cu(2X - L)3sin (21TY) 1 + cosh (TTL)

F = 2 cos (2irY)exp(-2TTX) - 1 , 6 = 2 X = x/w , Y = y/w , L = V w Infinite thin plate with heated circular hole. t = t , r = r . 1' 1
t t

sin <2TTY)exp(-2TrX)-l ,

~ *.
fc

K (Br/6)
0

fc

3" " V V
x

5 )

, r > r , , t ^ = {t + H t ) / ( 1 + H), H = B i / B i
2 x

B = -VBi + B i

if
h, t
2 2

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.35 Description k5(t - t j q
Q

Solution K (Br/5) 2v{Bi /S) K^Brj/S) '


1

19, Case 1.1.34 with t. p. 3-110 replaced by a heat source of strength g.

>

B and t_ defined in case 1.1.34 , 1.1.36 19, Case 1.1.34 with h = 0. p. 3-111 t - t
t

x =

3 ~

fc

i (Br/6) I (Br,/6) '


Q n

>

B given in case 1.1.34 . 1.1.37


i

60 19, p. 3-123

Infinite plate with wall cuts as shown. Heat flow normal to cuts,
q

See Table 1.3 for conductance data K/K uncut" K = ka/fi, uncut Q =K t - t
x 2

Section 1.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 1.1.37.1 84

Description Infinite medium with single and multiple insulating cuts. Case 1.1.37, cut (c), with only one cut.

Solution See Ref. 84 for temperature and heat flow solutions.

1.1.38

61 19, p. 3-124

Conductance:
it

USL - d ) / a ] + (d/b) + (4/ir) In tsec


Q = K t
x

(TT/2)[1

- (b/a)]J

- t

1.1.39 I ro

62 19, p. 3-126

Infinite rib on an infinite plate with convection. t = t , x = /2 , y > A .


w

See Pig. 1.10 for temp at x = 0 , y > 0 _

to

t = t

, x > |fi/2| , y = I .

Convection boundary at y = 0
5

tfr
t ;n
f

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.1.40 79 Description Finite plate with centered hole.
+

Solution

k(t,

V ^(f)
_2w 2TT \TTr/_

/X

1*1 U

I iFH
1.1.41
i

79

Tube centered in a finite plate.

2irk(t

-eftw/d C

r<

_L

T IT-K H T
w

1.00 1.25 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00


00

0.1658 0.0793 0.0356 0.0075 0.0016 0.0003 , 1.4 x 10


0

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Beating. Case No. References 1.1.42 79 Solution 2nMt,

Description Tube in a multi-sided infinite solid.

V
C{n)
/ 1 0 o E n = 3

n = No. sides
r

l * 2 '

n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
00

C<n) 0.5696 0.270B 0.1606 0.1067 0.0761 0.0570 0.0442 0.0354 0

1.1.43
l

79

Infinite square pipe.


q =

2uk(t 1

t )
2 w / d

T
1.1.44 87

0.93 In (w/d) - 0.0502 ' 2nk(t 1

'

t )
2

0.785 Jin (w/d)

, w/d < 1.4

Partially adiabatic rectangular rod with an isothermal hole.

q - Sk(t - t ) See Fig. 1.11 for values of S.


x Q

.r/vwyyyy.

W/W//7?

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

in

Section 1.1. Solids Bounded by Plane surfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

i M

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.2.1 1, p. 169 Description Infinite plate, t = t , x = 0 .
x fc fc

Solution -l

= X + PO X(l - X)

t = t

, x = , .

i to

h-H
1.2.2 4, p. 50 I n f i n i t e p l a t e with convection boundaries. t - t _ 1 - PO (1/Bi + 1) ?_ _ 2 Po_ Po 2 t - t 1 + Bi + H Bi Bi.^1 + Po(l/Bi + 1/2)] (1 - X)
+ + + 2 2

V i

1 + Bi
_h .t,
2

+ H

H = h /h
2

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.2.3 3, p. 130 Description Infinite plate with temperature dependent conductivity. k = k + 0<t - t ) .
f f

Solution (t - t j k
q'-'L

4^ = jr-l Vl
+
2

2B(l-X ,]

B = Bq>"L /2k^ See Fig. 1.2.


k(t) V-7J-i^U-U
i
00

_h,t

1.2.4

Z, p. 215

Infinite plate with temperature dependent internal heating, t = t , x = H , q'" = q " + P(t - t )
Q Q

(t - t ) k
0 q

cos (VPOg X)
- l
3

...,t2
Po
&

*
2

cos CVPOg)

= 6Jl /k

Mean temp:
q"'(t) k
( t

m-V

q'"l

Pol

,i

t a n

****$

Section 1.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with radiation heating, t = t , x = 0 ,
q' = qYe*
Y X

Case No. References 1.2.5 2, p. 217

Solution (t - t )lCY
Q

l - yxe "Y _-YX

q = radiation energy flux. Y = mean radiation absorption coeff.

i to

V-_^

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 1.2.6 2, p. 223 Solution

Description Porous plate with internal fluid flow. P = Porosity.

r ^ = jr- L -

J+x,o<x<
, <X <

(See Fig 1.3) q"\k .


p P

u,Vk ,p ,c
f f

^ - i - U - V
^ Mean temp: P

V:_h._|(. . . S i
i

&

^(v^M
r
2

\ P

p.ucA *P ~ k (1 - P) ' h
=

P k ( 1 - P) '
f f

u c &

_ q'"Jj.(l - P) P uc
f

Section 1.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description


Pl 1
e

Case No. References 1.2.7

Solution

2, p. 227 Porous plate with internal fluid flow and temperature dependent internal heating, t = t , x = l,
2

Bt + 1
2

6t + 1 -

e 7^1 *
E ^t
2

+1

) -

l^(*Jl
2

E \fit + 1

" V

,\

q ' " = q j " d + Bt), P = Porosity.


q'"(t)

E = e
D

Dl

- e
2 + ( 2 > 2
PO

"-V'W
i
to

v [ v - BP = v - [ v - e?
I
2 2 , a po 2

Btj_-

<1 -

) ( 6 t

2 +

1 }

' * oSp ~
p

f c

E* - EC = 1.2.8 3 , p . 220 Rectangular rod. t = t , x = b , - a < y < + a.


Q 2 V

p.ucS,

- De \
2

; .

p )

, Po = - - - i /fcj
q B

) - 2

t = t , - b < x < +b, y = a .


Q

q--a ^ ( - 1 ) " cosh [_(2n + D^XJ cos I (2n + 1 ) | Y | (2n + D j l cosh [{2n + 1 ) | B 1

VA

^ft
^ ,

n=0

See F i g . 1 . 4 , Table 1 . 1 . Y = y / a , X = x / a , B = b/a

Section 1. 2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Solution

Case No. References 1.2.9 3, p. 469

Description Infinite triangular bar. t = t , x = y.


Q

(t - t )k
0

= - (X - * > In (J)
2 2

t = t

, x = I. X = y/8,

Section 1.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References 1.2.10

Description
CO GO

Solution cos (XX) cos (X Y) n m


X A +

2, p. 197 Infinite rectangular rod with temperature dependent internal heating. [" = q,J"(i + 0t). t = t , x = b, - a < y < +a t = t , - b < x < +b, y = a
Q

< - y *
ve + t
n

4Po

S I J^L
n=lm=l

Vm[ n

( m

/ A

)-

P O

B]

X = 2ir{2n - 1) n

, X = 2ir(2m - 1 ) m

X = x/b , Y = y/a , POg = qj'-abS/k , A = a/b See Fig 1.5 ,

^
q"'<t)

A
^
1.2.11 9, p . 171 I n f i n i t e rectangular rod with convection boundary. k k (t - t )'k , - = ^7 + ^-(l - X) - 4 2 Bi = conductivity i n x - d i r . q"'a 1 = conductivity i n y - d i r . s i n (X ) cos (X X) cosh (X AY) In' *n n
1 X

n[ n

2 X

(2X

n>] [ ( J 5 B ^ )
r

< V
2

(AX

n>]

X tan (x ) = B i
n n

B ^ = t^a/k^ B i

= h a/k
2

V i

b ^W

x / b

'

Y / a

'

b / a

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References 1.2.12

Description (t t )U
p

Solution

9, p. 423 Infinite plate with point source, t = t , z - 0 , l.


Q

i n (fflTZ) s i n n=l
R

(mtB)K (ffliR)
0

Source of strength Q is located at r. , 9 , b.

= J2 [** l " l
, Z = z/H

2 r r

COS

(9

" l ]

M'P>
1

B = b/l

1.2.13

29

Spot insulated i n f i n i t e plate. Insulated on one side and an insulating spot with convection boundary on the other. h,t

Solutions of f"t{r , z) - t ~|/ft(o , w) - t " = 6(r/w , z/w) J


L f J L f J

a t r = 0 , z = 0 , w are given i n P i g . 1.8.

4z

77777777777777777777777777,

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

at

Section 1.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e hollow cylinder. 2Trk(t 0

Case No. References 2.1.1 4, p. 37

Solution t)
L

fcn U , / ^ ) + (V&i.) + (VBi >


0

-"o^o

t - t t. - t

In ( r / r )
Q Q

~ Jin ( r . / r ,
0

(1/Bi
n

+ (1/Bo^

B i . = h . r . / k , Bi = h r / k l l l 0 0 0 2.1.2 19, p.3-107 The composite c y l i n d e r .


q =

* n - V
n-1 /
r

(t

i=l

"

" '

i=l

th

Temp in the j t h l a y e r :

- 1 , 1 j-l

h [i

\ i /
n-1 .
ln

i iJ
+

j
n

Vi)

jj

r j > 1

j L.

(HJS

y _i_

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating Description 2Trk(t i

Case No. References 2.1.3

Solution t )
f

3, p. 121 Insulated tubes. 9 =

An

See Fig. 2 . 1

(*H
= k/h.

Max heat l o s s occurs when t

V
to

2.1.4

1, p. 138

Infinite cylinder with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, k 3(t k


Q +

q =

S-n ( r /
Q

V
2

k = k k = k
i

at r .
Q

V-

(t

-v
*0
k

0
=

at

t^

Vi
+ k

^K fcn(r /r)
0

(t

JlnUg/r^

m "

( k

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.5 Description
00

Solution , .n [n
A c o s

2, p. 148 Cylindrical surface in an infinite medium, t = f ($) , r = r


r

t - t.

2# \~)
27T

^^

+ B

s i n

{ n

* ]'

>

cos {nif) d(|) , =ijf


n

[f<4-tj (n<|>)d$>

n=? 2.1.6 3, p . 226 Infinite cylinder with specified surface temperature,


t - f($), r = r .
n

f
R [a

[^+>-^]sin
cos (n((i) + b s i n (n^H

uu

t = a

+ ^ n=l
21T

t=f(#)

a_ = r n

-if
I 7 '0 T I '0
t
Q

/ 0 2TT

f(<ld<t>

f (<!>) c o s (n<j>)d<t>

b_ = $ I t = f W ) , r = r For f(<))) =
[0

M>) s i n (n<t>)di|>

, 0 < <> < T j T , Tt < <> < 21T )

n=l

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindcical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description


CO

Case No. References 2.1.7

Solution

3, p. 228 Infinite cylinder with specified surface heat flux, q = f (*) , r = r .


n

t - t,

= a + 2* \
2ir V>
m

c o s

W
a =

b n

s i n

WH
: / f((j)) cos (ni)))d(|)

aih /

* * ' n
21

) d

irh(l i n/Bi)

<3

n q

irh(l + n/Bi)

J I

f(d>; s i n (w|>)d<t>

F o r

s i n (()>) , 0 < <)> < IT , TT < 4 > < 2ir

(t-tyh

J.

R s i n ((}))

2 V _

, ,2n
B

cos (2mr)
( 4 n

2C1

(1/Bi)] " * 2 ,

2 _^

+ ( 2 n / B i )

-]

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description s;


t

Case Mo. References 2.1.8

Solution fit R " sin (n<{J [f (>) - t ] sin (n<|>)d<t>


Q

2, p. 133 Infinite half-cylinder with specified surface temperature. t = t , $ - 0 and IT. t = f ($) , r - r .
n

fc 0

=f Z

For f (<p) = t : t -t

t = f(#

"1

" n=l
1 #

For f ($) = t

sin ( ) 4)

I
fc

l "

r- = R sin (1) - ; ^ 0 n=l


fc n

; R" sin (ntf>)


n

2.1.9

3, p . 230 Cylindrical shell section with specified surface heat flux and temperature, t = t. , r = r.. q = f (<|0 , r = r .
Q

t - t. + a

n (R) + n=l A u ^
0

*J \*f
n

- ^"J

cos (X^)

/ X n nl 0
n X R n + R

-X \ 0
n

2r
=

A J [ <> "
f fc

i]

C O S

<V

) d

X = mt/(t> , R = r / r
0

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.10 Description > Solution u/2
R 2

2, p. 148 Infinite quarter cylinder, t = t , <> = 0 and TT/2. | t = f() , r =r . *


Q Q

' V f l
fc

"

s i n

(2n)<t>

[ l
J

t m

_t

o]

s i n (2n<j>)d<)>

n=l For f(<|>) = t . : fc

t = f(0)-j<

0
=

-1

2R s i n (2dl

tT^T:

t a r i

X-K

2.1.11

2, p. 133

F i n i t e cylinder with two surface temperatures, t - t , z = 0.


L

t = t t = t

, r = r .
Q

sinh (X Z)J(X R) t - tl , V """ ^ " ' " O n ' t , - t " " Z X sinh (XL) J (X 2 1 _. n n i. n n=l
u u 1 J

, z = I. For t
2

0 V ' = f (r) ,

z / r

'

r / r

'

A / r

r - sinh [\ Z)J (A R)
Q n = 1

/ J
Q

t - t, r sinh (X^J^X^

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t -t , _!9_


= x Q

Case No. References 2.1.12

Solution

3, p. 253 Case 2.1.11 with t = t


1

, r = 0 , r = t. = r ,0<(|)<ii.
Q Q

1 V W ' sn V> i
nI (X R )
0 n 0

t = t , r t = t
Q

t - t TT Z n=l

, r = r

, TT < <) < 2ir. |

II '
n=l m=l X n
fc

I (X R) sin (X Z) sin ( < m| nml (X R) n n 0

= rnr, R = r/A , z = z/Jl

2.1.13
KJ i

3, p. 234 Semi-infinite rod with variable end temperature, t = f (r) , z = 0.


t = fc

" 0"2

fc

o '

"'V
A

=1 n=l

nW
1

e X p

' n
Q

Z )

2 J R[f(R) - t ]J (X R)dR
0 n

=
J

n Z = z/r If (r) = t ,
t
Q 0

i<V
n n

, J (X ) . 0 , X > 0

fc

. V

e x

- n >V n

l" o"

-A

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case Ho. References 2.1.14

3, p. 234 Case 2.1.13 with t = t. , z = 0, and convection boundary h , t at r = r. t - t^ V = 2 t - t ~ n=l


x f B i J

( X

R )

e x p

( - X

Z )

a* + B i } J.tt ) n o n
2

n 1

O n

2.1.15

3, p. 238

Infinite rod with a traveling boundary between two temperature zones, t = t - r = r , z < 0.
lf Q

V^rI n=l
t - t

[-<vT .
P , 2

/2

t = t , r = r , z > 0.
2 Q

Velocity of boundary (z = 0) = v.

exp [J] + [l + < V

1 / 2

]'

<

'

bi

fc

l -

fc

2 n=l

[x

c v w ^ Vi V
2 1/2 n

exp [|l - [l + ( X / P ) ] ) p z], Z > 0 . Z = / r , P = vr /a, J (A ) = 0


Z 0 Q

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No, References 2.1.16 3, p. 238

Description Finite rod with band heating, q = 0, z = + b. TS Convection boundary at r = r ,


Q

Solution

t - t ^s

~ "f

L
+ 2

V n=l

( X

L ) I

0
n

( X

P R )

( X

Z )

Vk = H
A n

1 AjBi I(X P) + V > W > ]

-b < z < +b. Surface heating (q ) at r = r.,

-8. < z < +8, .


2b

= MI, Bi = hr/Jc, L = V b , z = z/b o


Q Q

R = r/r , p = r /b

ro I

*nz
U-2I8^ Heating band
2.1.17 4, p. 37 t = t , r = r .
2 2

I
2irk(t - t )
2 x

Eccentric hollow cylinder, q =

t = t^,

r = r .

In

V(R + 1) V(R + D
2

S - s

V(R - l ) - S - V(R - D
:

R = r

/ r 2

l' S = s/

r i

See Ref. 80 for other solutions to eccentric cylinder.

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.18 4 , p . 39 Description Pipe in s e m i - i n f i n i t e s o l i d . d > 4r,
h ,t
2 2

Solution
2 l T k

1 ^ 2 " l>

fc

dr-teH-i;-^
h

i i

*S

A
x

k '
2

to
I

2.1.19

4 , p . 40

Row of pipes i n semiinfinite solid.


h .t
2

5^
2

A n

^tF^il
n B l

27ik(t - t )
2 x

, for one pipe .

?3p
d

w>
k

.
B l

Wu

1
s I s

Vl i -

2 2 "~F'

n D

d - 1

*Lv\

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.20 4, p. 40 Description Row of pipes in a wall.
n

Solution 4vrk(t 2

t )
x

77777777777777777777777777777? h r
B i B i

BV* ['D

Slnh

t^])]
D

, for each pipe .

hd

l=-P' 2=^ =I

to I

2.1.21

4, p. 38

Two pipes in a semiinfinite solid.

2irk(t
q

- t )
Q

i =

I*

z, = 1

2>

" ^ U /

fc

fc

^S

2
+

M 1- <V

= iln

(-:) - ^ ^ f ^S?! ^)

For q,, interchange indices 1 and 2

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution q = 4r k(t - t ^
fl 2

Case No. References 2.1.22

Description

4, p. 43 Circular disk-on the 9, p. 215 surface of a semi-infinite solid.

t = v z * -.
t_

t , - t, 2 1 i "I k

iiii_ = 2 -i
I T
sin

[(R-l^ + I ^ + t c H + l ) * ! ] ^

j^fe
2.1.23 4, p. 44

z = zA

Circular disk in an infinite solid. t = t - z + .


f

q = 8r k(t
0

- t )
x

<2

f. ^ .|
k

1
2.1.24 4, p. 42

Circular ring in a semiinfinite solid.

4^r (
2

t l

An
k

*H

?
2r,

-n

ft) '(^J
+ Jin

- t ) 4r
Q

, r

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Vertical cylinder in a semi-infinite solid. 2D l&n
0

Case No. References 2.1.25 4, p. 42

Solution Bi, \ irr k( 0 t l

M
//////S/S/V/A d

H^)]
r

t )
Q

D = d/r

to I

1
2.1.26 9, p. 216 Two semi-infinite regions of different conductivities connected by a c i r c u l a r disk. t = t , z + +.
Q

t - t
fc

21c,

"

fc

'

T ( k

t q
z

= tjy z - - . = 0, r > r , z = 0.
Q

x s i n- 1 [(R - I ,
2 +

Zf

/2

* [(R + I ,

2 +

Z ]

1 / 2

\. z < o .

Z 4
fc

2k,

i~ o x sin

fc

= 1 -

lK^ + k )
2

w/w/mss. maw///,:

[(R - I )
( J 1 2 1 +

2 +

Z ]
2

l / 2 +

[<R + I ) )

2 +

Z ] /
Q

. z < o

g = [4r k k /(k

k ,](t 0

t l

, Z = /r
Z

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.27 9, p. 218, 69 Description F i n i t e cylinder with: t = f ( r ) , z = 0 , 0 < r < r 0" t = t , z = I, 0 < r < r .
Q Q

Solution J V& )
0 n

sinh (CI - Z ] U )
n

t - t, 0

2u n=l

sinh (LA ) si'

Convection boundary at r = r , 0 < z < A,


fl

with h,

2X 2 n
0

"

(Bi + \ \ )J

(A

J^ pW " t ]0
0
J + Q n

( R X

, d R

L = /r . Bi = hr /k, X J' (XJ


0 0

Bi J (X ) = 0, X

> 0

For f(r) = t :
x

t - t,
fc

J (EX ) sinh (CI - Z ] U )


n n n

i" o "

fc

( i
B

2 +

x ) (X
J n

n=l \ 2.1.28 9, p. 219 Case 2.1.27 with t = f(r), z = 0, 0 < r < r . Remaining surfaces convection boundaries h, t_.
fc

n/ 0 n

) sinh (LX ) n

" 0= 2
n=l

n 0 n>
X cosh (CI - Z]LX ) + Bi sinh (CI - Z]LX ) X cosh (LX ) + Bi sinh (LX ) n n n

(RX

C , X , L, and Bi are defined in case 2 . 1 . 2 7 . n n

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.29 Description = , . _, > ^, I (rarR) l (mrR)
Q n

Solution r
sin ( m r z )

9, p. 220 Case 2.1.27 with t = f(z).

r = r , 0 < z < &. t- t =2 t = t , z = 0, %, 0 < r < r . n=l


Q Q

1 i^v
r,

J [ < > ~ o]
.
Z

fc

sin

<

nlTZ)dz

R = c/l

2.1.30

9, p. 221 Case 2.1.27 with t (z),

, _, . _. ,
COS (X

. _ , _.T ,

*
Q

<.

* *
Q

, V [n

2)

H
2 n
n

Bl

s i n (X

n> W * ]
I ( R )

r = r , 0 < z < H. Remaining surfaces convection boundaries h, t..

t- t =2 n=l
x/\

7~^ l S,
Bl
n

+ X

2Bl

TT ' S,) 0 n 0
&

"O T

1 f { Z ) [ X cos (X Z) + B i s i n (X Z)]! f(Z)lX cos (X Z) + Bi s i n (X ZlldZ


n

t a n (X ) = (2X B i ) / ( X n n x > n
0

+ Bii? ) , X > 0, R = r/8. t. n

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal HeatingDescription (t - t )k


Q

Case No. References 2.1.31

Solution

9, p. 220 Finite cylinder with strip heating and cooling, q q q q


r r

<-, (-l) i (mnR)


0

s i n (nnrb/S,) s i n (nnrZ)

= - q ^ r = r , S. > z > & - b.


Q

T o < o
2l fR 1

= 0, r = r , % - b > z > -A + b.
Q

- -tq^ r - r , -* + b > > -A.


Q

m = 2n + 1, R = r/2Jl, Z = z/2A, B = b/2&

= 0, z = 1, t = t .
Q Q Q

t = t , z = 0, 0 < r < r . q o i
jUIUHUltA/ / / / / / / / / / / /

\
7T7777777777frr7777frrrm.

l.\.yi

9, p. 220 Finite hollow cylinder with: t = f {z)


Q r

00

r = r
Q /

i r

0 < z < %.

t - t

=2 y n=l

|T sin (raiz) / *
0 0

[f (Z) - t J sin (mrZ)dZ


Q

t = t , r = r 0 < z < ,. t = t , z = 0 and i, r. < r < r .


Q Q

"0
Q 0 Q

F F

= I (mrR) K (niTR ) - K (nnR) I (mrR )


0

= I (HITR^ ^(mrRg) - K (mrR ) I^rniR^


1 i

R = r/A

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 2.1.32 with q
r = c,
t

Case Mo. References 2.1.33 9, p. 221

Solution = f(z),
i
CD 1

0 < z < H.

Remaining surfaces at t .

= - H ^ - sin (mrz) / n=l

f (Z) sin (mrz)dz

F defined in case 2.1.32 F = Ij^mm^ K (niTR ) + K^mrR^


x 0 0

I (MTR )
0 0

For f (z) = q . , w < z < (SL - w) i = 0,0<z<wand(Jl~w)<z<2,: (t - t )k p s = > cos (nirw) sin (rnrz), n = 1,3,5, V * n F, n=l 1
2

W = w/

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.34 9, p. 222 Description Case 2.1.32 with t = f (r), z = 0, ri. < r < r . , - - - *oRemaining surfaces at t .
n Q fc

Solution 2 j2 2
T

""~ n"o T
1

fc

n=l

[ 0<V - 0< nV]


Q Q n

S i n h

(LX

n>

x / [Rf<R) - t ] 0 (RX )dR

u {X ) = 0, X > o, R = r / r
Q n R

i f

z = z/, L = A / ^

V 2.1.35 9 , p . 222 Case 2 . 1 . 3 2 with t = f ( z ) , r = r . , 0 < z a< -& ,. . u Remaining surfaces convection boundary with h, t , .
i t f t

( R A

n> = V ^ n *

0 Vo' " V*nV


n n

( R X

n>

t - t f " =' 2 Z
_ u < : ,

n=l 1

2
J

[X

fl

cos (X Z) + Bi s i n (X Z)]G(R,n) r'~2 [}n .2


+

2 B l

71 JlJ

G (

n )

x / [f(Z) - t"|["X
f

cos (X Z) + B i

&

s i n (X Z)] dz

'o

ta., (Xj = 2X B (xJ - BijJ), X > 0


n V n

6(R.n) = W C W W
+ K

-Bl K (X a )]
a 0 n 0 + B i I

(RX

n>[ nWV

0 nV]

( X

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description S e m i - i n f i n i t e cylinder with: t = f ( z ) , r = r , z > 0.
Q

Case No. References 2.1.36 9, p . 223

Solution

Jn(*& )

t - t
Q

t = t

Q /

z = 0, 0 < r < r .

n=l

1 J7(TT / [
*
n J

f(Z)

-tol"*

-V n >

+X

exp (-X Z + X Z)dZ n n

'0.\ >0.z
n

=z/r

2.1.37

9 , p . 223

Case 2 . 1 . 3 6 with t = f ( z ) , r = r , z > 0.


Q

t -

Convection cooling at z = 0 with h, t _ .

^1 w - / [
n=l
X n J

JnO&J

f(z)

-^

exp (-X Z + X Z) n n

0 exp (-X Z - X Z)jdZ

J (X ) = 0 ,
0 n

X >0
n

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution (t


L

Case No. References 2.1.38

Description - t ))c

9, p. 223 Finite cylinder with heated disks on ends. q


z

= ^ r z = 0, i, 0 < r < r

^^~
0

= - 5 A^i ^hdr [v-v w > I V V "


n

{mrR,)
n 7 T

ir

Remaining surfaces i n s u l a t e d . - K^nirRg) I ^ m r R ^ ] , n = 1, 3 , 5, 'A


<ii
Y

W////////A

Ys

R = r /% t m,0 = m = mean temp, over region 0 < r < r. t . = mean temp, over region 0 < r < r
r

T i lo

3 = 0
i r

z = A

'//,
to

V.

o 2.1.39

J
9 , p . 224 Case 2 . 1 . 3 2 with t = t ^ z = 0 and JL, r. < r < r . t = f ( z ) , r = r , 0 < z < l.
Q

t -

t ( J

= 2

V 1 > s i n (mtZ) n=l '0


2

f [ < > " o]s i n


f Z fc

(nirZ)dZ

= 0, r = r . , 0 < z < I.
/-t = f(r)

F F
2

= Ij^mm.) K (mtR) + K (nirR.) I (rorR) = \ Km*.


x

z=S

K (raiR ) + ^(niTRj) I <mtR )


0 0 0 0

+
f

R = t/l,

z = z/l

\/////7///////// ///////////////,

V/Aj I O '

,* <

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e cylinder i n an i n f i n i t e medium having a l i n e a r temp gradient. At large distances from cylinder, t = t z.
f l

Case No. References 2.1.40 9, p. 426

Solution

fc 0

W v
<i
Z = z/r
r

Z, 0 < r < r.

Cylinder, conductivity = k . Medium conductivity = k .

o^ 'J

r > r

t z
n

i to

2.1.41

9, p . 434

Sector of a c y l i n d e r , t

t - t

1
=

2 .
tan

-1

sin

(u8/9 )
0

0 < r <r ,
Q

e = o, 9 r= t

r ?

Isinh ITT- J,n(l

K*-]

0 < 6 < 9

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical S u r f a c e s N o Internal Heating. Description T w o infinite cylinders in an infinite medium. 2irk(t - t )
1 2

Case N o . References 2.1.42 9, p . 451

Solution

q = cosh R =

(*hiH
2

r ]

/ r , S = s/r
2

to to

2.1.43

9, p . 462

Spot heated semi-infinite solid, q


z

00

= q , 0 < r < r , z = 0 .
Q Q 0

(t - t)k = r q

q = 0, r > r , z = 0 . t = t,r>0 z-*->.


z f

oo

exp

(-XZ)J (XR)J (X)^|Q 1

1 1

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite cylinder with two internal holes. t = t ,r= r .
Q Q

Case No. References 2.1.44 73

Solution q = Sk(t

S = shape factor See Fig. 2.6

t = t., hole surface . hole radius = X .

i
IO

2.1.45

79

Infinite cylinder with multiple internal holes.

Znkf^ - t )
2

q = Jin

n = No. holes

-M^

, r

< r

l f

n > 1

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution


T.wtv^ t )
2

Case No. References 2.1.46 79

Description Ellipsoidal pipe,

9=
t,

In

/ 2 *

2\

2.1.47

79

Ellipsoid with a constant temperature slot.

2nk(t

- t)
2

n ,

(***)

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Off-center tube row in an infinite | plate. 2TTk(t - t )
x 2

Case No. References 2.1.48 79

Solution

q =

/6

(a/2d)\

uu

4T&
to

9 (a/d) =
2

exp itrs(n + | V / 2 d

cos [(2n f l ) f f a / 2 d ]

n=l (0) ire 3 e 30


a

00
9

2 (0) =

exp

n=l

= 1 + V n=l

exp (iirsn /2d)

= i + 2 n=l

(~l)

exp (iTrsn /2d)

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description

Case No. References

Solution
2TTk(t - t )
1 2

2.1.49

79

Single off-center tube in an infinite plate.

-Hfrh-

T~f
XJ
2

XyJ

to
i
CO

2.1.50

79

Tube centered in a finite plate.


;

2irk(tj_ - t )
2

i =

Jin \irr ^

2w

W-M

Section 2.1.

Solids Boundedjby Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Heat flow between two pipes in an insulated infinite plate.
2

Case No. References 2.1.51 79

Solution 2-nMt! - t ) q =

^^mmmmm^
M
i

ia + J n r i

(i)

2.1.52

79

Tube in a semi-infinite plate.

2Trk(t - t )
x 2

2w I)2rU-

Virr/

f^^^^W
2.1.53 79 Ellipsoid in an infinite medium.
Q =

rVl 4TT

- a /b

M^ - t )
2 2 2

arctanh (Vl - a / b )

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Ellipsoidal shell. Solution 4irk(t, Q = arctanh (c/b.,) - arctanh (c/b )

Case No. References 2.1.54 79

V
2

c = \ b - a = \ b - a.
x x

l M

2.1.55

79

Rod in an infinite medium. t ; x, y , z


2

4-irkt^ - t )
2

An (2/r)

' T < 0-1 l

,A
2.1.56 79
2

2i-

37

\k
Q = ck(t
x

Short cylinder i n an i n f i n i t e medium. t = t ; x, y, z + .

- t )
2

ML
0

0.25
0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0

Zl
2r
2-

10.42 12.11 14.97 19.87 27.84

Section 2.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.1.5? 79 Descc iption Toroidal ring in an infinite medium. t = t 2 K y z-K.
; t t

Solution
4TT

k(t

- t )
2

in Gtjzj

' l 2

/E

>

2.1.58
I

79

Thin flat ring in an infinite medium. t = t x,y,z->=.


2 ;

4ifk(t

-t )

2.1.59

79

Two parallel rods in an infinite medium.

SirM^ - t )
2

s > 5r

k
t,_/

28

3*

_ i
For p a r a l l e l s t r i p s of width 2w, use r = w/2 .

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Description Two aligned rods in an infinite medium. 4TTk(t - t )
1 2

Case No. References 2.1.60 79

Solution

s - 2% > 5r

22-

*7
2.1.61 79
M
i

]t C
Parallel disks in an infinite medium.

For aligned strips of width 2w, use r = w/2

taM^ - t )
2

, s > 5r 2[I - arctan (r/s) |

H
2.1.62 86 Infinite cylinder with symmetric isothermal caps.

kiKtj - t )
2

q - 2 In C2{1 + cos 9 ) / s i n 6]

Section 2.1. Case No.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

to i
UJ

Section 2.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References 2.2.1 4, 51

Description Infinite cylinder with convection boundary.

Solution

7 ^ - * " "1
q'"
E

2.2.2
i

4, 51

Hollow infinite cylinder with with convection boundary on outside surface.

(t - t )k

= 0, r = r

q'-rj

1 (lit ~ l ] ~
r/r
if

+ l

R 2

+ 2 R

l n

< |

R)

Bi = hr /k
Q

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.3 4, 51 Description Hollow infinite cylinder with convection cooled inside surface. q = 0, r = t..
r

Solution (t - t )k
f

\2

f2
1 +

q- "

I M *
r

" lliiK" ]

i-R

+ 2o

An

<>

R = r/r., Bi = hr./k

2.2.4

?., p. 189

Infinite cylinder with temperature dependent heat source.


fc =

Bt + 1
e t

R )

. ,,, 2.

J(VPO-)
g t

.
J ( V g 5

V
=

r = r

0
Mean temp:

...

q^"(i + gt) .

+ 1

2 l

i^

Max temp:

et
K

+i

max 5t +

o '

* (VK:>
0

See Fig. 2.2 .

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.5 Description Solution

2, p. 189 Case 2.2.4 with: t = t , r = r


Q Q l

0 < < < TT. > |


fc

t _ _ l
o
+ t

V 5 ! '
J <VP5;>
0

2
n

V
= 1

sin n6

n ^
n

>

t = t.
q

r = r

Q f

ir <|> 2TT. .

J (VPo^)

...

q ^ ( i + gt)

n = 1, 3, 5,
p

f$

= & q

r o

in

in

2.2.6

2, pg 191 Case 2.2.4 with convection boundary.

Bt + 1 0t + l
f

J Q " ^ * )

'
VPOT

Po

fJ = ^ " r

2^0/Po^) Mean temp: 3t


Q +

l VP^|_J (VP5;)
0

_-!!i vp^)J
Ji(

See Ref. 85 for nonuniform convection boundary solution.

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.7 Description Solution

2, p . 193 Infinite hollow cylinder with temperature dependent heat source.

^H[
3t
B =
J

<VP5~)

3'

Y (VPc"R.) (&t + l) - o " " 0 " i '


n L

(0t + 1)
n

J (VPS;R)
0

T(3t

+ i)
J ( V g 5

[(St. + l) o

g i

"

J (VP5;)
0

Y (VPO;R)
0

o i

(R

V55

3
r

o
R

( V 1

V - V " ^
r / r

VV^>

to I
CJ at

3 = ^ o " o '
.

o
(l - R * ) In (1/R) 1/2
2

2.2.8

2, p. 194 Infinite hollow cylinder with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, t = t, r = r..
fc

. .

...
1

(t - t )K
r

q ' " r 5 = -\^


p

(1 - R ) An(5Q

3
0

2P0"

(k)

_1 Po,

"V "V
0 0

P o = q ' " r 3 A , R = r/r


0

k = k [l + B(t = t >].

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.9 Description Solution

6, p. 272 Electrically heated wire with temperature dependent thermal and electrical conductivities.

- f [8-6
k

+B

16 J)
R = 1

* V 0'
k k

r= r
= 1

eO u \
k

t to t - o e e O = 1 + 3 (t - ) .
/ k e t()

/ k

( t

to

= thermal conductivity

I = electrical conductivity t E = voltage drop over length L

2.2.10

2, p. 175

Cylindrical heat source in an infinite plate. t - t, r + - .

t - %> KQCRBJ /kW " 2IT Bkj^CB] q' See F i g . 2 . 3 B = r^l^


+ h^)/kw

\ \-t. ,h
2

h
2

**

Vl
h
1

* 2 2
+

fc

q' = heating rate in cylindrical source

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description

Case No. References

Solution

2.2.11

9, p. 224 Finite cylinder with steady surface temperature. t = t , z = 0 and A, 0 < r < r . t = t , r = r , 0 < z < SL.
Q Q Q

I^V"
q'"4 2

Z^ Z
2

" ti " o<V

bl
3

4_ V

V
3l

n T r R )

sin (mr2) ,

r -3a. ^
CD

n = 1, 3, 5, . . . Z = z/A, R = t/Z

2.2.12

9, p. 224 Finite hollow t = t , r = r t = t , z = 0 q =0, r = r


0 n

cylinder. , 0 < z < &. and %, t < r < t .,0<z<&.


i

( t

^ V * _ z^ z
2

4_ V

sin (rnrZ) . _1

q"a

,3 L
n=l

_3

F'

n = 1, 3 5,

F = ij^tmrRJK.CmrR) + I (nnR)K (mrR ) F = ij^tn^JKjjtmiRjj) + ^(miR^K^mtR^


2

z = z/l,

R = t/%

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Case 2.2.11 with
( t

Case No. References 2.2.13 9, p. 224

Solution " V qitijj


4

COB [(VPQ>2 - VPQZJ] po cos (VPo/2)

q'" "%"[}

+ 3(t- t )]
Q

I_ Po

<

n 1 l Z

4. v

0 n

_ _ l
nX

nti
X
2

VW n
- Po, Po = q : " e A / k , Z = z/%,
2

= (2n + 1 ) T T

R =

r/

2.2.14

9 , p . 423

F i n i t e cylinder with l i n e heat source. t = t , r = r , 0 < ss < H.


Q 0

( t - t Vk
n

q'
0

=r

> cos (imrB) s i n (imrz)

^ m-1 S

t " t , 0 < r < r , z = 0,

I.
i _ (imrR)

Line source of strength q' per unit length i s l o c a t e d a t r , 9 . , b < z < I - b .

n=0 *0

2 TirTFn^O^n^ ^ - V^V V^V]


x E
n

11

c o s f n t f - 6^

. 0 < R<

:z_

j_.

E = 1 i f n = 0, E = 2 i f n > 0, m = 2m - 1 n n B = b/Jl, R = r / , Z = z / For R. < R < R interchange R for R


t

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.15 Description , . . .. 0

Solution = - > sin (nmZ) sin (muZ^ m=l I (irniR)


4

9, p. 423 Case 2.2.14 with a point source of strength Q located at r. 8^, z^ .


f

"
x

2 ^ijsagrfn^^n'"^ - ^o"*^^] *n 0'


n=0 y cos|"n(9 - 9 )J , 0 < R < R . "
x Q

f 2.2.16 9, p. 423 Infinite cylinder with point source of strength Q. t - t , r - r . Source located at t \ .
0 0 v

For R < R < R , interchange R for R . R o /A, Z = z/, E = 1 if n = 0, E = 2 if n > 0 n n


E

(t - t )kr 0
=

" 2? , n=^"
c o s

n < 9

" 1 1
e

y
0

*P<- l l >

J n

( X

n
J

R )

V W
w 2

z = 0

h-z
? W
=

\>
'
Z B Z A

*[K>- fi ]
0

0'

R = r A

Section 2,2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.17 16 Description Hollow cylinder with temperature dependent heating and thermal conductivity.
fc B

Solution Solution by numerical method . See Fig. 2.4 for values of t at r = r. .


I

V "V
r

Pi " " <V 0>'


For a = b = 0: 0 i'"t) l
c c n n

" V 0
, 1 . /

at

V 0'
1

b r

%" Q

/bt

q
k

= 0, r - r .
Q

*V
Q q

r a

V
Q b 0

.2

" -<i"r t - 0. k = k
to I

'0

+ a(t - t). - t),

(Eq. (5) i n F i g . 2.4)

q... = ^ M + ( t

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Triangular arrayed cylindrical cooling surfaces in an infinite solid.
t

Case No. References 2.2.18 64

Solution

(t - t ) k
0

to (R)

q'"s

' V

r= r

See Table 2.1 for values of A. . See Fig. 2.5 for t values , max S = s/r , R = r/r
0 Q

0\QJZ

o
q

I "'
Equilateral triangular array

^>z?mfz
i .
T

^.^c^WlB

" P # i VI $ I \ 'A m
:o

^; i -JA

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Triangular arrayed cylindrical cooling surfaces in an infinite solid. (t - t )k
0

Case No. References 2.2.18 64

Solution yj
IT

Sn (R)

q'"s

- \W- *]

0*

j-x

i f1 - (H -
m a x

Table 2.1 for values of A. Pig. 2.5 for t s A r R - r/r


0 Q

values .

Equilateral triangular array

1 , , . ._,

_-*'

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 2.2.19 64 Description Case 2.2.18 with a square array of holes. Solution

, 2 7 <*> - life) " U ) J q'"s


1>D

an

o efe
-|2r |~0

j=i See Table 2.2 for values of 6. See Fig. 2.5 for t values, max

|-2s--| Square array

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Eccentric, hollow, infinite cylinder. Solution See Ref. 67 for eguational solution.

Case No. References 2.2.20 67

to i

2.2.21

73

Cylinder cooled by ring of internal holes.

See Ref. 73 for max temperatures.

Insulated surface

Section 2.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

Section 2.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

10 i

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description

Case No. References

Solution 4nr k(t - t ) - 1 + (tp/rj) ( k / h ^ ) + k/h r


0 i Q 0

3.1.1.

4, p. 37

Spherical shell.
Q -

(r^)

t - t *i " - 0n -i
fc

<r /r) - 1 <*,/'> - 1 + ( r 0/ r ,i) ( k / r ," i. ) + k/rh 0 ^O'l 0 " i h '


0 n / w v / i (

u
l

3.1.2

92

Composite sphere.

< i - V

fc

n-1

y i_/i

L_\

v _J^

*A"i *i*J rjh

_ _ ^

, D > 1

Si"*!

t. = local temperature in j

layer

Section 3.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 3.1.3 If p. 139 Description Sphere with temperaturedependent thermal conductivity. t t t t .
1 ( t

Solution 4Trr k (t. 0 m l


n

V
+ k

<V i>
k

fc =

V
Q

r = r

0'
Q

m = <0

i>

/ 2

k - k + B(t - t ) .

V V
k

% h
k

fc

( r

/ r

1 }

u I

to

3.1.4

2, p. 137

Sphere with variable surface temperature, t = f(9), r = r .


Q

t a ^^ V n=0

r n P n(cos 9)

f(fl)

IT

2n 2r r

f (9) P (cos 9) sin 9 d9


n

o 1

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 3.1.4 with: t * t , 0 < 9 < TT/2
0

Case No. References 3.1.5 2, p. 137

Solution

t = o, ir/2 < e < T . i 3.1.6 2, p. 137 Spherical shell with specified surface temperatures.
fc

32
R

R 5

V
+

D )

'

2n l_ 2n l
R +

fc

"V

r = r

0 = 1 ( I) (^H-l-!)
TV

n+

(")

lCOS

9)

t a f(8), r = r. .
ui i
U>

x I R = r/r.

P^(cos 9)[f (cos fl) - 1] sin 6 d6

t = f(fi)

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Sphere in a semi-infinite solid.
h Q =

Case Mo. References 3.1.7 4, p. 41

Solution 4nr k{t - t )


0

i 1 + 2 [ ( d / r ) + (1/Bi)]
Q

y//,y//////////////,

;i

Bi = hr/k 0'

MS
I

3.1.8

4 , p . 43

Hemisphere in the surface of a semi-infinite s o l i d .

Q = 2irr k(t
Q

- t.)

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Sphere in an infinite medium having linear temp gradient, nor large distances from sphere t = t.z. Sphere conductivity is k, and medium conductivity is
k

Case No. References 3.1.9 9, p. 423

Solution

t T

o " 2k + kj a 0 < R < 1, 8 - z/r


Q

3 k

= [

R +

(R)

(2k + k ^ J cos 9, R > l


Q

o.

A,

3.1.10

59 19, _ \ in p. 3-111

Irradiated spherical thin shell. < _ = source heat flux I s T B sink temp . s a = absorptivity .

See Fig. 3.1 for T/T' .

aG

l \V 2

+ X

/ .

^S.

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Sphere in an infinite medium. t t, r * - .
f

Case Ho. References 3.1.11 79

Solution Q = 4TT ' Q M ^ " * *


2

3.1.12

79

Two spheres separated a large distance in an infinite medium.

4nk (^ - t )
2

2(1 - r/s)

> 5r

for s > 2r, error 1%

0 QE

Section 3.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Two spheres separated a small distance (see cane 3.1.12) in an infinite medium.
Q =

Case No. References 3.1.13 79

Solution ^ ^ _ ^
+ r / s + ( r / s )

( r / s )

2 ( r / g )

<

+ 3( r / s )

J, 2r < s < 5s

3.1.14

79

Two spheres of different radii in an infinite medium.

irMtj - t )
2

- 2r_/s

s > 5r

(r / )
2 9

1 - (t / ^'
2

3 ^
r H
s

2r,

wsejM';''-3&!*W

-No intecnal Heating. ,!. Solids Bounded by Spherical Surfaces. Section 3

Section 3.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

W i

Section 3.2.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Spherical s h e l l with s p e c i f i e d i n s i d e surface heat f l u x .
fc a

Case No. References 3.2.1

Solution t - t ) k
Q

q'"r.
6<3, RR 0
R

<J< i i'

RR

V
= q

0 '
r

i'

'

R = r/r

3.2.2

1, p . 190

Sphere with temperature dependent heating, t - t , r


Q

<t *0

t0 ) 3
n , p

1 sin

(RVPO) _ j_ . 1
L

_
o

&

.
r

2.. y
k

sin (V5o)
= 1 0
fc

r. 0 * + 3(t L

t )
0

t - t,
R ,
2

Po = 0

'max ~

sin

(TTR)

,/=-

(t

max - V

ypo s i n (VPO)

Section 3.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 3.2.3 6, p . 274 Description Sphere with nuclear type heating,
fc

Solution (t - t . ) k *0

"V

r = r

0'

, -

^f0 .1 [ - A - ffu - .,]

3.2.4

9, p. 232 Solid sphere with convection boundary.

f ~ = &. - R + (2/Bi)] q'-'r?


6

See Ref. 85 for nonuniform convection boundary solution.

Section 3.2.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solid sphere in an infinite medium. k = k, 0 < r < t
Q Q

Case Ho. References 3.2.5 9, p. 232

Solution

<* ~ *J n
i.. 2 0 0
r q

= id 6

- R

+ 2/Bi + 2k /k.), 0 1
n

0 < R < 1

k = kj_ r > c .
f Q

(t - t )k
Q
2

q... = J " , 0 < r < r .


q (

= 1/3R, r > r

g " ' = 0, r > r .


Q

<3n"r 0 0 Bi = hr /k
Q

h = contact coefficient at r = r t = t, r > .


0

Section 3.2.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SucCacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

Section 3.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description Traveling line heat source in .-..,_ ,.j an infinite solid. t t
Q f

Case N o . References 4.1.1 2, p . 189 9, p . 267


r

Solution

fc - (-S>o(s^^)
v = velocity of line source q' = heating rate in line per unit length

x -

oo.

v * .

4.1.2

2 , p . 291

Traveling line heat source in an infinite plate,


t = t
Q

( t

- V

/ vxx

I > 1 + 2 , /v \ V T 7 - 1 I

x * <*>, y - oo.

v = velocity of line source q' = heating rate of line

T
w
t'o-"a .h-,^
n

fI

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description Traveling plane heat source in an infinite medium,
t = t , x . *
fl

Case No. References 4.1.3 2, p. 286

Solution (t - t)kv . v

(t - t )kv
0

1, x 0 q" = heating rate of the plane

4.1.4

1, p. 352 ' "


p

Traveling point heat source in an infinite solid, t * t


Qf

fc

" . k 4n

fc

e x p
e x p

L <*
L

Y>1
J

g'/kr

2a

r - . * g' = heating rate of the point

^i

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description Traveling plane source in an infinite rod. t = t , x * .


0

Case No. References 4.1.5 9, p. 268

Solution

q"
2

AU

e x p

2a hC/kA)
1/2

U = (v + 4a
t .h
0

X
x v

v = velocity of source q' = heating rate of source C = circumference of rod A = cross-sectional area

i u>

4.1,6

9, p. 268

Traveling point source on the surface of an infinite plate and no surface loss,
t = t , r * .
fl

'^^ - k . * i ^ [ - a r / D
n=l cos (2|p)exp{vx/2a) r 2 2 ^ 2 = x + y
v = source velocity in x-direction q' = heating rate of point source

''''''jdr. ,%

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Soucces. Description Traveling line source on the surface of an infinite plate with no surface losses, t = t , x . *
Q

Case No. References 4.1.7 9, p . 268

Solution

(t - t )vwk
0

g'a

1 + N n=l

cos(mrz/w) (1 - N) exp(vx/2a)

N = [ l + (2afflr/vw) ] /,

1/2

TV
4.1.8 9, p. 269

^<m
a

v = source velocity in the x-direction g' = heating rate of source

Traveling infinite strip source on the surface of surface losses, t = t , x + .


Q

<= - v
q'a

f c v

2 r*
" TT I "'x-B

+B

exp (X)K [(Z + X )


Q

1/2

]dX

no semi-infinite solid with no

X = vx/2a, z = vz/2a, B = bv/2a See Fig. 4.1

thW/A

v = strip velocity in the x-direction q' = heating rate of strip

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description Traveling i n f i n i t e s t r i p source on a s e m i - i n f i n i t e s o l i d with convection boundary. t = t,


f

Case No. References 4.1.9 30

Solution ( t ( x , z ) - t )kirv
f

X+L

2aq

Vz^T
X-L
00

x * , and z . TH exp (HZ) T / T exp (H T ) e r f c (Z/2T + Ht)


2 : 2

Source = q

x { e r f [ ( X + L)/ar + T ] - erf[(X - L)/2T + t 3 } d t


m
i

v = v e l o c i t y of s t r i p H = 2ah/kv, L = vZ/2a, See F i g . 4 . 2 . x = vx/2a, z = vz/2a

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Solution

Case No. References 4.1.10 30

Description Traveling band source on an infinite cylinder with convection cooling.

(t - t )irk
f

T + V
y R

sin (n6) exp [-W(l - R ) / l ]

n=l

/w cos {w Fo - r4 - [W(l - R)/V2] - IT/4 } + Bi cos Cw Fo - n6 - W(l - R ) / V 2 ] \ >> V


Source = q,
0

nfW + B i
W = r "Vno)/a

+ V2 W Bi)

a) = rotation speed of source


i en

26 = angular width of source See Fig. 4.3 a and b.

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description

Case No. References

Solution (t - t )2nr k
f n

4.1.11

34

Infinite cylinder with moving ring heat source on i t s surface.


.h.t, ,-t(z,r,t)

- 2n

n
+

W>
X
+

(Nu /4)
2

W
g

exp(fV^e /16) x;) V(Pe /16) \2


+ 2

+ for < 0 - for C > 0 * ** , R = r/r 0

Nu = 2hr /k, Pe - 2vr /a, X, = NU J ( X j = 2X a.(X ) On n 1 n See Figs. 4.4 a and b.


n n

-J

Section 4.1. Traveling Heat Sources. Case No. References 4.1.12 34 Description Infinite cylinder with a moving ring heat source on its inner surface.
X

Solution

{t - t ) 2 T r r . k
f

n=l\ I
J (X

J ( ^ R) V n '
n

iV

^(XJJ)

*0 ( * -) ' V
n
1

t(z.r.t)

n[ l nV W
2
2

- W WV]
,
2 n

fiinB~neat source"

^ [ W V W " WVW].
C / r
L

-
2 J

A
n n

. " _ exp ( P e / 4 ) V ( P e / 1 6 ) + X V(Pe /16) +X


2

i OB

+ for? < 0 - for > 0

[ww - ww] w
\ - "I {[WV W - WVW]*
+

[WWV " WWo^n)

-f[WW " WW]


R = r / r . , Nu = 2 h r . / k , Pe = 2 v r . / a , C =
i'
i
Z + OT

i' ' *

r. l

See F i g s . 4 . 5 a and b .

Section 4.1.

Traveling Heat Sources. Description Infinite cylinder traveling through temperature zones. Solution

Case No. References 4.1.13 70

Temperature solution given in source Ref. 70.

r Z.
4.1.14 7i

h,.t.

z.

h ,t
2

* , ' / >

Zone boundary

Traveling plane source in a thin rod with change of phase.

Temperature solution given in source Ref. 71.

Melt zone

Source

4.1.15

71

Traveling plane source in an infinite medium with change of phase.

Temperature solution given in source Ref. 71.

Section 4.1. Traveling Heat Sources. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.1 Description Solution
C

1, p. 209 Infinite rod. t - t , x - 0.


Q

r exp (-mx)

t - t.

x . *

V
in I

3
Total heat l o s s : Q = VhCicA tan (ml) <t - t )
Q f t

5.1.2

7, p. 43

Finite rod, insulated end. t t . , x = 0. a " 0, x a.

. ;

z: i E
h,t
f

'

fc

S-^e

cosh Qn(& - x)] cosh (m)

See Fig. 5.1.

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.3 7, p. 43 Description Finite rod with end loss, t = t , x = 0.
Q

Solution mkA

2 )+
h /mk

tan (ml) (t o 1 + (h /mk) tan (mJl)

-h .t.
2

t - t^ r
fc

V^" ' '

o"
m =

cosh rm(8. - x)] + (h,/mk) sinh [>(, - x)] * cosh (mil) + (h /mk) sinh (mS,)

P
J 5.1.4 7, p. 44 Straight rectangular fin.
h.t
f

kA

Use m =-Jjfo

i n

c a s e

5 > 1

'

. See Fig. 5.2

tanh (m& )

< *
Recommended design criteria:

2k/hb > 5 ,

Minimum weight criteria: 2S,/b = 1.419Y2k/hb .

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight triangular fin. Solution

Case No. References 5.1.5 7, p. 52

^(z^I)
0

2h

q = V5hkb , S - kb i (2-VHa) t - t l (2-VgTc)


0

i^ziU)
, See Fig. 5.2.
0

t - c t c

o " f i (2-ca*)
0

>OTi (2Ve;)
Vb = 0 . 6 5 5 j | | ,

Optimum l/b

ratio:

5.1.6

1, p. 228 Straight fin of minimum mass,

t- t
fc fc

h(t - t )x x q'

0 " f

q" = total heat loss Profile: q. Y - 2k(*- h ( t I =


Q'
0

- v)

h(t

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight f i n of convex parabolic p r o f i l e . Solution

Case No. References 5.1.7 1 0 , p . 95

t - t -1/3V m = -V2h/kb

fw-fVF
fix)

q = kbm(t Q

t )
f

2/3

-1/3

(H (H

*
l

ST

i ^/ad"*)

/ (f )
3

raa

, See F i g . 5.2

5.1.8

1 0 , p . 175

Straight f i n of trapezoidal parabolic p r o f i l e .

t - t t

. JJ \Jl/
+

- t

f(x)=|(f)

3 =-i
q -

|Vl

4mV

- S & (t - t j " l ^0 -f 1 0 + 1 ' See F i g . 5.2

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t- t


fc

Case No. References 5.1.9

Solution ^ ( B )* (8) + 1^(3 )K (3)


0

10, p. 175 Straight fin of trapezoidal profile.

o - " VWV WW h3 0 - V f !^ !",' " W W q =


f (t 1 1 3

fc

"HCOS e
2
e

[ W W
l
( e

WV c>

3
=

V e

, I

" V^e'V^o*

IHV

WW

+ WW
- tan 9) 2 tan 9

- tan 9) 3 = 2H\ x + - ^ , B = 2H 2 tan e tan 9) 3 c = 2H ... c 2 tan 6

, H = W k sin 6,

* -* -i
0

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case Ho. References 5.1.10 7, p . 54 Description Cylindrical profile. finrectangular Q = 2Trx bkm(t - t )
b 0 f

Solution I (x m)K (x.m) - K ^ x ^ ) ^ ^ ^ ^


( x a ) R Q {x m) + ( X

B ) I Q

I^x^) ^
{x m)

m = V2h/kb t - t
fc
f

K (x m) I (rm) + ^ ( x ^ ^ f r m )
x e

0 " f ~ V'e^VV vt
1

fc

^'V^flV
, See F i g . 5.3
b o b

~ e b ]

(x

/!

)2

I ( x m ) + 0K (x m)
0

Minimum material: 5.1.11 7, p. 58


9 1

use F i g . l_
2 / 3

5.4. (5) ^BI


2 / 3

Cylindrical fintriangular

(g)

profile.
v

[i-(VV ]L V3 *
m = V2h/kb, 6= | x m,
b

, + B l

-v*
"/
\ / l
3 2

-2/3

See P i g . 5 . 5 .
L

2/3

fe)]

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo internal Heating. Solution


3 2

Case No. References 5.1.12

Description o - rkMbx / ,t
2l

10, p. 106 Cylindrical fin hyperbolic profile.


b x

t .fo/aty'-a/s'V -

^ ^ V W V ]

< - f> / \ 0 " V ~W


(t

fc

fc

I / 2

C 2/3<V 1^< > - ^ / a ^ e ' - ! ^ ' ] P ^ V W V ~ -2/3 e -l/3< b ]


I (B )I B )

1/

4o (1 - pi

1 / 2

P a / 3 < e> -2/l V " '-2/3 <V 2/3 bfl

(B

n
T*[

- - / M = V2hAbx- . B = M x f , B - f Mf , B = M X
2 b e b

3 / 2

n - (K - x ) " M/MKSITP, P = V e
e b

>3/2
J

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesMo Internal Heating. Description Cylindrical fin of minimum material.


Q =

Case No. References 5.1.13 1, p. 234

Solution

hlTX.

"T

( X

e b

/ x

2 )

( x

e b "

/ x

1 }

(t

0 " V

Profile:

, ,

h r

|3\r)

e [l/x \

"2x;

1x

1 e'

6x-

m
I
CD

5.1.14

10, p. 114 Pin finscylindrical type.

Q = j kd m tanh (mfc) ( t + =
t a n h n

t )
f

.1
J

*C *
=r

m i >

'

, m = V3h7kd

, See P i g .

5.1

^f

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Pin finsrectangular type. Depth of fin = b. Solution Same as for case 5.1.14 except ( 7 d J is replaced by (bd),

Case No. References 5.1.15 10, p. 115

. 1 ..-/F
5.1.16
m
1

C
7

10, p. 117

Pin finsconical type.


Q U =

E ^ I . ^ .
Bl I , (M)

({t

t - t.
t

nj- ^(MVx/JO
f

- t

\x

I M)
l(

, See F i g .

5.1

41,(M)

<t> = MI^M) , M = 2V2 iti&, m = "V2h/kb

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Pin finsconcave parabolic type. Solution

Case No. References 5.1.17 10, p . 119

irkb [V9 + 4M - 3j ( t 81 0
2 n

t ) -f
f

1+WgW
2 2

1 +

M" )
I (M)
Q l C

1/2

, M = V-ln/kb S.

See Fig.

5.1

5.1.18

1 0 , p. 121

Pin finsconvex parabolic type.


Q

164

0 3/4

- t

I (M)
Q

' "

3 \kb

2 *1< > M I (M)


Q

See F i g .

5.1

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite fin heated by square arrayed round rods. See Fig. 5.6 Solution

Case No. References 5.1.19 10, p. 134

m
i

*-o

5.1.20

10, p. 135

Infinite fin heated by equilateral-triangular arrayed round rods.

See F i g .

5.7

r\ V) u.

w rz
h,t
f

8n

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.21 Description Solution

10, p. 185 Straight rectangular fin with nonuniform cooling. t - t.


fc

h(x) = ( * U h ( ) .
Y a

0 ~ f " 2

fc

-Ml
1 / (

.l/(Y 2)

Y >

+ 2

\ -L.
Y+2
r

I 11 V * "" ( ) U_
t

(0)

h a

= av coeff.
h(x),t
f

Y+2 "H? (Y+l)/(Y+2)


la ] (

Y+2
V

l/(Y+2)
A

|"lY + 2)^fr, + 1 ) '

rrii"
jt+2 Y+2.

I
in I

<mJl) ^ >

+1

-(y+i)/(y+2) a

"I 5.1.22 1 0 , p . 191 Same conditions as case 5 . 1 . 2 1 with: h(x) = h. (1 + a) Ix/SL + c ) ' . ,a+l a+1 (1 + c) - c

_ 2-VY + 1 Y + 2

*fc

fc f
fc

/u^rv^wv
2(1 - n)
1

-^""^I'V

0 - f " VV [ V V W V " ^ n ' V V l ' V

-.0i-cw^ ""!!
u = 2n

(4
1 -

n \1/2
( 1 + c )

(x/a + c ) + o

'" mil d-n)/n. (l-n)/n


c

= u, y. = 0; Uj u, x i , n > , m = V2h /kb


g

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.23 Description Solution 2m8, ./ / xc\ n = , u = nVi exp(- ^ )

10, p. 187 Same conditions as case 5.1.22 with:


h ( x ) = h

r l-ae^-cx/H) I " "VS exp(c), B - nVi "aLl- (a/cf-exp'^OjJ- ^ ., integer:


n a n Q =

2iaZ[l - (a/c)Cl - exp(-c)3j * A - A


3 A

l " [ V l * " Vl *0[ n-l<


2 n+1 n l(

" n l
+ n+1

( 3 )

A = [j^rt.) - J (*)] [v . B) - Y (B)]


I
&

3 = n
w

( B )

[Vl *-Vl *] - nW]


J

4-V [ n-i

If n is not an integer: . l - *2 2(mH) {l - (a/c) CI - exp(-c)]) 3 " 4


2 A A A A

l = ["". m
n 2 n

~^nlf-"'/)
n

+ n-l ]

<S)

A = [-J (*) + iKJ^(*)][-nJ. (B) - SJi^tP)] A = J <B)[-nJ_ (#) - *J _ l]


3 n n 1 n A

( B > n

[" n *

n J

Hi-l** ]

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight fin of rectangular profile radiating to free space. t = t , x = 0. T = T , x = SL. e Space temp = 0 K. Solution

Case Ho. References 5.1.24 10, p. 205

20OGT

= B(0.3, 0.5) - B (0.3, 0.5)


u

B = complete beta function B incomplete beta function see Figs. 5.8 and 5.9

in i

U
-iH
hi-

10

OK

W,

'V' - V ' , z . T.A.


20oeir/kb 2 Optimum length: b/Z 3 = 2.486aeT /k
0

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight fin of rectangular profile radiating to
k b T

Case No. References 5.1.25 10, p. 211

Solution 1/2

Z + Z + Z + Z+ 1

5 Z

V ~

nonfree space. T = T , x = 0.
Q

\hkbZ
QVkbT
Q

5
K

1 0

T = T , x = S,. e K = incident radiation absorbed from surroundings.

, K = 20E, Z = T / T
x Q

See F i g s . 5.10 and 5.11 Optimum l e n g t h : b/SL = 2.365aeT^/k


2

>JuLl

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight trapezoidal fin radiating to nonrree space. T = T , x = 0. K , = incident radiation 2 absorbed from s u r r o u n d i n g s
T

Case No. References 5.1.26 10, p. 218

Solution See Pigs. 5.12a, 5.12b, 5.12c, and 5.12d. X = b /b = 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0 (triangular fin), e 0 K = 2 ae.

oJ
bo
r

/
J
V

5.1.27 10, p. 228

Y< 'T
Profile: f(x) =

1-x
Straight fin of least material radiating to free space. T = 0, x = 0.

J22kaeT: 1/2

or.

J2_
2aeT

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Straight fin with constant Profile: temperature gradient radiating to nonfree space. . . dT T - T J) e K S, T 1 0 10kZ (Z - l )
K JlTg(Z
x Q = 5

Case No. References 5.1.28 10, p. 230

Solution

2 |[x * fc - ] - i - =$-ftc. - ])
K

5 K

1S

dx ~

'
- 1}
K

5(Z - 1)
Q e

Z = T /T
ui I

dT dx

T ' -T o I
n

= 2 ae

z -L
5 Z ( Z - 1)
5

KjT*

K_ = incident radiation absorbed


A

e,mm

1/4 2'"l' *

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Radial fin of trapezoidal profile radiating to nonfree space. T = T , r = r.
0 0

Case No. References 5.1.29 10, p. 247

Solution Pin efficiency: (See Pigs. 5.15a-5.15Jt)

A = b /b = 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 e u

2 1 0 ' ' ' * Profile No. = K^rjj/kbg


K
x

/ K

0
' " ' "*|
r

= oe, K_ = incident radiation absorbed

-\

A
K,

l~

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description The capped c y l i n d e r , convection boundary. t = t , x = ,.


0

Case No. References 5.1.30 10, p . 275

Solution Side: t - t t - t O r cosh (mx) + sinh (mx) p . , (mr ) / I (mr )1 ~ cosh (mJl) + sinh {mi,) Tl, (mr )/I(mr )1 L l e u e J

Insulated i n s i d e s u r f a c e s . sinh (mS.) + [cosh [ml) - l ] [ l (mr ) / I (mr )1 * ~ mJl{cosh (mil) + sinh [ml) [i-finr Top: t - t t
Q f

(7)
U1 Ito
1

)/I (mr )]}


Q e

I (mr)/I (mr )
0 0 e

- t

cosh [mi.) + sinh (mfc) p ^ r a r ^ / I g t m r n

21. (mr )/I_(mr ) 1 e u e mr {cosh (mil) + sinh (nfl) p^Cmr ) / I ( m r n |


0

m = "Vh/k6, See F i g s . 5.16a, and 5.16b

- H h - i8

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution


t

Case No. References 5.1.31 10, p. 407

Description Doubly heated straight, rectangular f i n . t = t , x = 0.


0

~
fc

exp(mx) - 2B sinh (mx)

fc

o- f
Q

t = t,
%

x = l.

= kbil

q_ = kbm |exp (mil) - 2B cosh (mS,) ( t

- t )]]

in

I /^1

M|

B =

-_-<H^V/_< cJiL,.. 2 s i n h (mi,)

ro

See F i g . 5.17

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Single T, straight, rectangular fin. t = t , x = b.


Q

Case No. References 5.1.32 10, p. 394

Solution Vertical section: t - t = Ffcosh (m x) + "V2u/v tanh ( a) sinh (rnx)l m t - t L x y x J


Q

All surfaces convectively cooled by h, t_. < = - 5 - jsinh (m b) + V2u/v tanh (ma) [cosh ( b) - l]} h m x ra..b * x y u x
v

Horizontal section:

'VL
in N

rrt

^ ^

t - 1 ,
fc

cosh (my) <y> cosh (m a)


y

0" f

fc

h = "y

F tanh (ma) * , ma F =

See Figs. 5.18a, 5.18b

cosh (m b) + yivfv

tanh (m a) sinh (m b)

m = "Vh/kv, m = Vh/ku x y

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.33 10, p. 413 Description Double T, straight, rectangular fin.
fc =

Solution Vertical sections: t - t T^rq t - t


f

V i

r
f

= ^ [ c o s h ( m ^ ) + Kj_ sinh ( m ^ ) ] , 0 <


=

< ^

A l l surfaces c o n v e c t i v e l y c o o l e d by h , t .

y^"V2[
P

O M h

^22> V V 2

t a n h

lm

y2 2
<

x sinh ( m

X x 2

2 ] '
1}

2
<

<

2 '
<b

*a

l
S i n h

%
x

J
2

f
2

+*1 " m ^ C
P P K

^ l *
je2 2

l
2 2

( C

S h

'"xlV " 1 '


2 2

l l'

a 1 f1*1

x2

%
a

J
b

1 2 Tsinh (m b ) + y]2u /v tanh (m a > m _b x2 2 x (cosh (n> b ) - 1)] , 0 < x < b


x2 2 2

Horizontal section:
u

- 1

t - t T-^E- 0 f t - t. t
Q F

cosh (m y ^ l cosh ( / , ) ' < * l < l '"yl 1


a
r u a

- t

cosh (m,y) v2-*2' F,P cosh ( m a ) ' o <*2 , < 2 y , ~ l 2


r y2 2

|> , = = tanh (m . a . ) , 0 < y . < a. yl m ^ yl 1 1 1

12 1 = > *y2 m a
y 2

p i?

tanh (m _ a _ ) , 0 < y_ < a_ y2 2 '2 2

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 5.1.33 continued

cosh (m , b,) + B sinh (m , b,) xl 1 xl 1

cosh (n b ) + V2u^7v^ tanh (m z^


x2 2 2

s i n h

(m

x2 2'
}

B = P Vv /v [sinh (i\ b ) + V2u /v tanh (m 2


2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2

x cosh (m, 2 2 ]
c

2 V u

]/ i

t a n n

^yl !

13

i to

m m

x l

= V2Vkv

lf

x 2

= "V2h/kv = V2h/ku

Ul
y l

= V2h7K^, m

y 2

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.34 2, p. 179 Solution t - t ,

Description Insulated wires adjoined on a convectively cooled plate (e.g., thermocouple wires). t = :, r - . Wire radius = r . w Wire i n s u l a t i o n thickness = <S. Wire therm, cond. = It . w I n s u l a t i o n therm, cond. = k . B = Vk~T + V F T wl w2 H = "V2(h + h )/kw

kpWthj^ + h ) ( l / h . + 6 / k ) 1/2
2 1

P l a t e therm, cond. = k .

l to lb

nMi
"2' f2
l

Section 5 . 1 .

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Composite f i n i t e rod. t = t , x = 0. t = t , x = x .


2 2

Case No. References 5.1.35 9, p . 157

Solution cosh (A) sinh (B) + H sinh (A) cosh (B) + (T /T ) sinh (Dx/x ) T^
=

sinh (D) cosh (A) + H cosh (D) sinh (A) 0 < x < x _ ^
H h C k x

A j , A_ = a r e a s . C
V

C = circumferences.
2

ft

- ^ j , B = m ^ - x), D = m ^ , T = t - t
h C k A m

I f-h,,t *\~
Ul
t

| _h ,t
2 f

=V l l lV 2 2 2 2'

l =V l l

/ k

l l'

V 2 2 2 2

/ k

1
x

P
X

T*

T ~

cosh (A) sinh (B) + H sinh (A) cosh (B) + (Tg/TJ sinh (m b - m x) sinh (D) cosh (A) + H cosh (D) sinh (A)
X. < X < X

I to

h i-*i

F^r- *

A = IILX^ B = m ( x
2

- x), D = m ( x
2

- x ), T = t - t
x

H =V 2 2 2 2 ' l l l l'

a b o v e

'

Section 5.1.

Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 5.1.35 with: q = 0, x = x_. t- t


f

Case No. References 5.1.36 9, p. 157

Solution cosh ( m ^ - nyc) cosh ( x ) cosh (ra x - m ^ ) + H sinh ( m ^ ) sinh (m x - n y ^ ) ' m


2 2 2 2

t - t.

0 < x < x (t - t )
f

cosh (m x - m x)
2 2 2 =

- t

H cosh (ra x ) cosh (m x - m ^ ) + sinh (m.^) sinh ( m ^ - m ^ ) '


1 1 2 2

X., < X < X j ,

in i

H = V h C 2 2 l l l l ' "l = V l l
2 2

/ h

/ k

l l'

2 =V 2 2 2 2

Section 5.1.

Extended S u r f a c e s N o Internal Heating. Description Concave parabolic f i n radiating t o non-free space. Solution See Fig. 5.19 for values at ( > N ,N ). J( N
c

Case N o . References 5.1.37 31

= (2eo-FA T^)/kb , N
0

= K /2ECTFT* .
2

T = T. , x = 0.
D

P = view factor.

K_ = incident absorbed radiation. Profile: f (x) = -|(1 x/l)\

ro

5.1.38

31

Convex parabolic fin radiating to non-free space. Conditions same as for case 5.1.37 except profile is: f (x) = -~ "VI - x/JL

See Fig. 5.20 for values of < > N , N J . j( N and N given in case 5.1.37. c s

5.1.39

81

Straight rectangular fin of variable conductivity, k-k |l + B ( t - t )].


0

See Kef. 81 for approximate temperature and efficiency solutions.

Section 5.1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 5.1.40 83 Description Sheet fin for square array tubes with
t

Solution
loo -loo
2 2 0

convection boundary, h t .
f f

'

J 2 K IVBT[<X - mA) + < - nA) ] Y ) n=- m=-a jaa ^0 J~ 1/2 K <RVBT) + I (RVBT) ^T ^ K [&VBT(m + n )J
n 2 2
0

01 I to

o o o o (. o4 o4
*

n=-co m=- n, m / 0 . 2n
HVBT[(A/R)
2

- IT]
400 4CO

(.
K^KV&T) - I ^ K V B I )

o o

,1/2 ^T K [A^i(m + n 3
2 2 0

n=- m = fCO ^0 "^ ^ K (RVBT) + I (R^T) J


0 0

1/2 K [AYBT(III + n 0
2 2 0

n=- m=- n, m ^ 0 . X = x/b, Y = y/b, R = r/b, Bi = hb/k, A = a/b

Section S.l. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

i to

Section 5,1. Extended SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

to

Section 5.2. Extended SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Straight, rectangular fin. q = q . x = 0.
Q ( t

Case No. References 5.2.1 10, p. 194

Solution ~ f q
Q t )

.. cosh (mx) . . , , ^ g'"b rakb = -, >. - sinh (rax) + tanh ( i , m!) q m


J 0

= 0, x = b. Optimum profile: sinh (2m&) 1 - q /hb(t 0

t )
f

I
I u>

2m

- 1/3 - q /hb(t - t )
0 0 f

' V^O

~ f

fc )

<

1 / 3

m = Y2h/kb, t = t , x = 0

5.2.2

1, p. 246 Straight infinite rod. t = t , x = 0.


Q

1 + 2 1 km (t - t )
Q f

MSB

o|/- ' f

EZ3

Section 5.2.

Extended SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References

Description

Solution

i u M

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo internal Heating. Descr iption I n f i n i t e p l a t e source. t = t , - b < x. < b,


T

Case No. References 6.1.1 9 , p . 54

Solution

= 0.

= f [erf (FO* - Po^) + erf (PO* + Fo*)] , - < x 6.1

<

00

t = t ^ b < x < - b , T = 0. See F i g .


x = ~b x * b

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Case 6.1.1 with a plate of different properties.
t

Case No. References 6.1.1.1 74, p. 424

Solution

-^-

= 1 - r^T i

(-HjHerfcp "- *-^

* erfcR " - >

1),
CO

- 1 < X < +1

. %l
0
I to

2i

J)

fc

fc

l"*/
x erfc f 1 - K ;. + K

1 +

" n=l
1 , 1 < X < -1

/x - 1 + 2nvsr^rr\
, H "
P

2 2 2

Interface temp: t - t_
fc

2K
1 + K

y
2

<-H)

n _ 1

erfc^Fo*^, X = 1

0 " ^

(1

K)

n=l

For Po. - small:


fc

2 0

"

*
fc

K "
X + K

fc

, / X - 1\ erfc/ |
\ VFO-;
2

21 2K
(i

/ erfcl
f

2 l

V^

K)
+

Section 6.1. Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 6.1.1.2 74, p. 427 Description Case 6.1.1 with a pulse source 2 of heat of strength Q J/m* a t x = 0, x = 0 t = t , - < X < <*>, T = 0. x {exp (2n - X)' 4 Fo, + exp (2n + X)' 4 Fo, -1 < X < 1 (t t )p,c b
i 1

Solution

Q 2

TTVFOTV

F o

l/

f. n=l

(t I

t^p^jb (-H)
^ y ^ { l + KJVTMPO^ ^

n-1

x exp

I^^VF:; ^
=

1 2

).

i<*<-i

P
P

l ^
k

2 2 2

l - K 1 + K
_ Fo

6.1.2

9 , p. 54

Case 6 . 1 . 1 with: t = t ( b - x ) / b , - b < x < b,


Q

t - t.co t
Q

1 - X
a

rf

x ) H^ K ) x

erf

+ F

x erf

K)

= 0.
m

t = t , b < x < - b , T = 0.

/at , + J-2~iexp

(x + b)'

+ exp

(x - b ) '

2 exp

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e rod source. t = t , |x| < d


Q r

Case No. References 6.1.3 9, p . 56

Solution t - t 1 1 5 = - = J[erf(

| y | < b,

F o

; - Fo*)

.rf (*

Fo*)]

T = 0.

t = t , | x | > d, | y | > b , T = 0.
a

x [ e r f ( F O * - Fo*^ + erf M

)]

6.1.4

3 , p . 407

i n f i n i t e cylinder source.
fc

t = t_ 1 +

00

J (XR)Y (X) - 3 (\)? (XRT1 ^


0 0 0 0

"V

<

0'
Q

'

exp(-X^Fo)

t = ^

r > r , T = 0. See F i g . 6.2

J*(X) + YJ(X)

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Spherical ,_ t = t , r t = t^, r


0

Case Ho. References 6.1.5 9, p . 55

Solution t - t ^ ^ * \ i / * *\ r ~ = r erffFo - Fo ] - erf(Fo + Fo ) t - t^ 2 \ r c) 2 \ r tJ


t Q Q

source. . . . < b, T = 0. > b, x = 0.

* \ V - j e x p ^ - F O ^ ) ] exp[(Fo * 2 Fo VT r
r

Fo^) ]

See F i g . 6.3

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Case 6.1.5 with a sphere of different thermal properties. Solution

Case No. References 6.1.5.1 74, p. 429

I I A . . i (^\hi?
fc

exp
K

r2
P
l L

P
1

P ( 1T

R)

i
J

fc

l 2 - Vl

1 .
P

AI_S x erfc/

VFOT\
x

- f A-iSM , R < i .
2V
X

W
t-t_
fc

V l ^f "
/ R

o " ^

Merfc/^^\ i laVioTi

, ,

M W
2 +

2 2

~
5

F^ "
x

erfc

\vnq.

K
e X

~ (K, - 1) (K V l f

P( 2 2 " 2

" *)* (^=

rtC

~ 2

V B

2|

1- ,
K

/
\

^7 l\ ,
j

+ K

l
1 +

2 "

2 ^

(K -D(K
2

/ . /R - 1 + 2 0 : x exp(p^Po - P R - 1 + 2 > 5 7 ^ ) e r f c / ^ _
2 x 2 2 2

~ V ! )) ' *
K
1

5 5

- ^ 1
" 2 2 2 '
P C k

K
2

-^
" V

P
X K

" 2 " 2
+

1
P
2

- Vll
X + K

V 1 '

f(+R) = f(-R) - f(+R)

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Solution

Case No. References 6.1.6 9, p. 61

Description Adjoined semi-infinite regions. t = t , x > 0, T = 0. t = t_, x < 0, T = 0.


i

t - t, - fr

= |[erf(po;) l] -<x
+ /

I
-J

6.1.7

7 , p. 89

Specified temperature distribution.


t = f ( x ) , -co < x < <*>, t

00

wJ

f (x + \a)exp(' -X )dX

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Adjoined semi-infinite regions with contact resistance, t = t , x > 0, T = 0 . t = t , x < 0, T = 0.
2

Case No. References 6.1.8 9, p. 88

Solution t -t ,

t~rt ' TTJ I


2

1 + A

e r f

K)
+ H

+ e3

*( i

x + H

f i )
X >

/4

x erfc IPO

( x

fl )]) '
+

/2

sp^q = r r ^ [
00 c k,
0

t -t ,

erf

I xl - * ( v
2 2

Po

e3

x erfc(| Fo*| + H o /2^1 , x < 0

h^
k, 1

ot2

. i l L p L , H - J&(1
k,A
2 k *

A,

6.1.9

9, p. 88

Adjoined semi-infinite regionsno contact resistance.


t = t , X > 0, T t = t , X < 0, T

t - t, -f- - ^ [ l A erf (*)]


1 2

x > 0

0. 0.

t - t

t-r^

= rir
k, a 1 2
>

e r f

(l x l)'

po

x <

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 6.1.10 9, p. 89

Description Plane source of heating between adjoined semiinfinite regions, t = t., - < x < , T = 0. ^ = q, X = 0, T > 0 = heat source strength.
k
2

Solution
( t

" V i
a

*\

<ri
k

{ t

" V 2
q

/, *,\

0 2

CT

k,
-x t.

*a

at I is

6.1.11

1, p . 341 9, p . 261

Line source of heat. t = t , 0 < r < r , X = 0.


fc

t T T T " F15

e x p

(" r j '

Fo

r > r , r
Q

+ 0

= *=' > '


0

T =

If line is a steady source of strength g :

VVT

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description t- t t


0

Case No. References 6.1.12

Solution

1, p. 342 Cylindrical shell source. t =t , < r < r , T = 0. *' r > r , T = 0.


Q t i Q 0

- t

(\

'

% ) P["( r*

ex

Fo

r')] o(

2i

F o

*\)

i =V=T

I H

6.1.13

9 , p . 247 Spherical surface a t steady temperature. t =t , r >r T = 0. t = t , r = r , T > 0.


Q f 0 0
l

t - ti 1 / * *\ t - = erfcfPo - Po I t
fc

Section 6.1. Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 6.1.14 Description t - t. i t , - t. . BI (Bi + 1)R Solution

9, p. 247 Spherical surface with convection boundary. t = t , r > r , T = 0.


t Q

j e. r f . _ ,P o , _,cj .

- Fo J _ ,

expQBi + 1)(R - 1)

(Bi + l ) F o ] e r f c | P o * - Fo*

+ (Bi + 1 ) V F O | |

6.1.15

9 , p . 248

Spherical surface with steady heat f l u x . t - t . , r = r , x = 0. q = q , r = r .


Q

(t - t.)k - = R lecfclFo*r ^ q r
Q

0
0

- Fo* )

/ * * - exp(R - 1 + F o ) e r f c f F o - F o
t r

,-Yl +VfoJ

Section 6 . 1 .

I n f i n i t e SolidsNo I n t e r n a l H e a t i n g . Description Point source. t = t.., 0 < r < r , T = 0. t - t r"* 0_ Solution

Case No. Ref _r .ices 6.1.16 1 , p . 336

i'

"

" V
T

~ "*

t.t i - t t _ o

_ ,.

fc

= co'

fc

>V

= "

" ^r^n^y

exp/- Po* j , r > r, r

6>^V

*"r / ' * ' *0'

'0

- 0

If point is a steady source of strength Q :


Q

0
r

= z-z:

expl- X Po

IdX

V 0
I

4TT Va

3 / 2

fe

"'

For T -> < > *: (t Q

tjkr 0

1
4TT

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Spherical shell source. t t., r. < r < r
I I
fc

Case No. References 6.1.17.1 1, p. 340

Solution

fc

o -

r
eXP

( R

-i) i
eXP

( R

i) i
R > R

0'

tpr-^ S ^ m
R = r/r
i

L"

4FO J " L"

4Fo J ' V 0 *

0. too' r > r , T = 0.
Q

If the shell is a steady source of strength Q.: 2,2 ( t (r - r ^ X - *>* V5- f i_ exp 4a *0' I 4ir r - / ^ X
(

exp

to

dX

For
i

: + _1 4ir

( t - t )kr

6 . 1 . 1 7 . 2 1 , p . 342 9 , p . 263

Plane s o u r c e . t = t . , -9. < x < +, T

7. t

t - tco 1 / = =- expf- t irFo \


c

, FOx*2\) , , x\ > a, a + o / '


n

t = t^, |x| > a, x = o.


If the plane i s a steady source of strength q

gA
0

wa /T A. l 72 * J x *VVr
2

e x p (

~ ^ /4a)dX

= VFO" exp(- Fo* ) - -L|^- e r f c / F o ^ A

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description


00

Case No. References 6.1.18

Solution J (XR)Y (X) - Y (XR)J (X) dX exp(- X Fo)X


2 0 Q Q 0

9, p. 335 Cylinder with steady surface temp. t = t^,


t

r > r
r

Q f

= v -v

T T

= 0.
>

J.

jJ(X) + Y*,(X)

q r

See F i g . 6.4 0 ,
(7T

_
F O )

-1/2
+

1 /FoV

/ 2

_ 1 _ _ ,
+

t 0 - 1 .i)
n

2 - i ( r j

R = 1

For Fo < 0.02


( t

- V
n t |

/R - 1 \

(R - 1 ) V F O 4R
3/2
2

(t -

) = VI

e r f c

(l?f5)
+

i e r f c (~2Vfo) _ / R - l \ ^

_ (9 - 2R - 7R ) _ ,

.2
l e r f c

5/2 32R'
D

(^Vfo)

6.1.19

9, p . 337

C y l i n d r i c a l s u r f a c e with convection boundary, t - t^ r > r , T = 0.


Q

^ - - 2 Si f
i "
Q fc

e x p ( - X Fo)

f
1

M
0 Q

J (XR)[XY (X) + Bi * (X)] - YgtXR^XJ^X) + Bi J (X)] [XJ^X) + Bi J ( M ] + [XY (X) + Bi Y (X)]


Q X Q 2 2

^
X

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Solution ( t - t..)k - t,)k

Case No. References 6.1.20 9, p . 338

Description C y l i n d r i c a l surface with steady heat f l u x , t = t


q
r

r > r , T = 0.
Q

For Po < 0.02: (t -

1 ~V l j Li - * *->J [jjtt) + Y*<A)]A


3

/" T

2 1 V

X R ) Y

( X )

X R ) J

( X ) d X

>

Vo
0\ H Ul

ti. ) k ,A/FO . . /R - 1 \ 3R + 1 ^=r- .2 . /R - 1 \ ^ = 2 \ - xerfc(-^ =) - - ^ VFO I e r f c ( - ^ = ) +


W

For Po
( t _

1:

V -* Vo

/4Po\
= A n p ^ f ] - 0.57722 \ R '
2

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Case 6.1.20 with two dif; erent thermal materials, t = t., r > 0, T = 0. q
r

Case No. References 6.1.20.1 74, p. 434

Solution

( t

- V i

f r

/ 2 \i o

(X

>v

A ) d A

= q r r = r , T > 0.
0 Q

J,(X)

VO

IT 1

L
XR

*\
Y

VJ 3 (2 + *") ,
X

en I

^o^f )*- o|/f ^


KJ x y x J Y

dX , R > 1

i< ' o(vf j - ^ o ^ i ^ )


(X,J

*- i

KJ

o(>/5 ) " ^ V

A ) J

i(^T

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 6.1.21 9, p. 342

Description Infinite conductivity


fc

Solution

cylinder in an infinite
fc

medium.

0 4B l " 0 " n
fc 2

fc

/" exp(-A F o ) f | , R < 1 i


2

t - ' t y r > r , T =0.


Q

t = tjl, r < r , T = 0.
Q

= P 0 1 1
0 2 1 0 X 0

/ P

A.':=!.[AJ (\) - BJ (X)]" +|^Y (^) - BY^A)] See Pig. 6.5


k,c ,/J
0 0

6.1.22

9, p. 342

Infinite conductivity cylinder with steady heat source in an infinite medium, t = t ; r > 0, T = 0.
Q

00

(t - t )k
Q

exp(-X F o ) ] ^ , M < IK

Heat rate = Q per unit length.

B and A defined in case 6.1.21. See Pig. 6.6.

k,c ,P
0

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Solution

Case No. References 6.1.23

Description

9, p. 346 Cylinder with properties


t _ fc

different from surrounding medium. t = t , r < r , T = 0.


x Q

4Y f

/,2

i.

J^Xjfj^XRJlf)
2

- Y(BXR)^T[dA
0 2

t = t , r > r , x = 0.
Q Q

x (4> + i|> )
R > 1.

i|i = Y^CXJJJJCSX) - BJ^XJJ^BX) < = yJ (X)Y (eX) - 6J (X)Y (0X) > j


1 0 O 1

e =vs^,
6.1.24 9, Point source of rectangular (t - t)4irrk

=v o

See case 6.1.4 for equxl material properties. = erfc


00

p. 402 periodic wave heating. Q(T) = 0, T < 0. Q(T) = Q, nt < T < nt 0' '"0 0 + T n = 0 , 1, 1,
n
l f

(f??) - l+ 1
2 2 2 2

exp(-TX ) exp(-X + TjX ) - exp(-X )| sin(Po*X)dX

x[l 0

tX

p(-X )]
0 < T < T,

Q(T) = 0 , n T

+ T < T < (n + 1 ) T

n = Number of cycles, t = t ,
m r

- =.

i o'

/ T

T / T

o'

Fo

* trtv^l

Q(r)

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating.

RefCase No. erences 6.1.25 9,

Description

Solution

Line source of rectangular (t - t )4irk


CO

*
= Q E i

p. 402 periodic wave heating. Same conditions as for case 6.1.24.


- 2

Q~

<"

F o

/ > <i >


2

4 T

_ 2

exp(-TA )J (Fo*A)[(l - T^expl-X )


0

- exp(-A + O^A ) + r J d A
2

/0

x[l - exp(-A )]
0 < T <T .
T

/ T

0'

T / T

0'

t /

^ o

d f

i H

6.1.26

46 19, p. 3-63

Infinite conductivity sphere in an infinite medium, t = t , r < r , T = 0.


x Q x

See Fig. 6.7

Section 6.1.

Infinite SolidsNo internal heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

Section 6.1.
, . ' ; ' .
;

Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating.


' ' >

. .

Case No. References

Description

Solution

to

Section 6.2.

Infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description Cylindrical source of heating. qui _ wi


q f

Case No. References 6.2.1 9, p. 265

Solution

(t M

o < r < r

l f

-a < z < +z,


q'"
T > 0.

> o.

_^.-/ -HHHi4)
'1 -i
J

t.)k

du, r = 0 , Z = 0

0t

= 0, r > r ,

| z | > A,
For
SL * ">i

t = t , r > 0,

(t a

|z|

> 0, X = 0.

^"t(-^-i-C-A.) 0 *1
Fo = orr/r,

t,)k

r = 0, Z = 0

to to

q'" = 0
1

6.2.2

9 , p . 347

Case 6 . 1 . 2 3 with a c y l i n d e r
fc

CO

2 1

-j
0 1

and i n t e r n a l h e a t i n g , t = t , r > 0, T = 0.
Q

" V'O _ 4
qA"r0 *0 "
2

f
2

ll - exp(-X Po )Jj {\R)J (X)dX


, 4 ^ 22 + * 2 ] [* , ,,,2T , R< 1 .

IT i

I l l

I I I

ql",

0 < r < r .
n

T >

0.

( t - V)Q - t kk
n

2 f

[ l - exp(-X F o ^ ] [J (BXR)I)) - Y (BXR)ip]dX


Q 0

R > 1. S, <f>,and I)J defined i n case 6 . 1 . 2 3 .

Section 6.2.

Infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description


Q

Case No. References 6.2.3

Solution *2 r *2 I__ ! _ L
4

9, p. 348 Sphere with internal heating (t - t )k Sphere with i n t e r n a l heating ( t - t)k . . . .. 5 i n an i n f i n i t e medium. q ' <rr j'" 0 0 t = t . , r > 0, T = 0. ... = .., 0 < r < r ,
2
2

2 R

,
e r t c

/ i _ R\ Q / l + R\ / ^ - ^ \ - 2R i e r f c ( ^ ^ r ) V Fo / \ Fo /
2

* 2 Fo 4

q"

=0, r > r ,
Q

^{"try-^^m
0 < R< 1 .

T>0.

T
B

(
V

y\ 7 F

'

i _: o ^o" o
r2

fc

, k

FO*
_ 2 R

+ Fo* i e r f c ( - | - ) l / R > 1 . Fo = 2"tfT/r


0

Section 6.2.

Infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description

Case No. References

Solution (t - t ) k
Q

6.2.4

9, p . 349

I n f i n i t e conductivity sphere in an infinite medium with contact resistance, t = t , r > 0, T = 0. q ' " = q' ", o < i < c , T > o. q " ' = 0, r > 0, x > 0.
Q Q

in

2
r

l_jh_Bi Bi

6 2 .2 it
K B

*o

o
oo

exp(Fo u )du [ u ( l + Bi) - K B i ] + [ u - K Bi u]


2 2 3

0 < R < 1. For small values of T:


a

I to 1.Pl' V 1
C k

< - V
^0

fc

K Fo

[1 - (K Bi Po)/2 + . . . J

For large values of T:


(t - t ) k
0

+ Bi Bi

3 P

K=
p

1 1

o o

Section 6.2.

Infinite SolidsWith Intt. Description

. Heating. Solution

Case No. References 6.2.5

74, p. 426 Infinite plate with internal heating in an infinite medium, t = t


Qf

1 + Po Fo, = 0.

i-rnc2
2

, ) ( _ H^

n - le j *

r <2n - 1) + x"j
u

n=l

2^sr

-Z < x < I,

t = t , a < x < -a, T = o.


m

+ 4 Po Fo,

1 ierfc [ ^ - ^ ] J\,. - 1
+4 p F i2erfc 2

< X< 1

- Tti [* (!*)
1
lq'"

(f*J)]
X 1

JULA*

K(l + H) V , n - l L
m

2 n V

V I^ - \
, 1 < X < -1

+ 4 Po Fo

i'erfc

V
K

2 ^
f(+x

)\

" hr '
P

i~rl'
1

>

= f

<~ -

x)

f(+x)

22 2

Section 6.2. Infinite SolidsWith internal heating. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Constant surface temperature, t = t. + bx, x > 0, x = 0. t = t , x = 0 , T>0. s Solution t- t / *\ h ~- = erf(Fo ] + ^T0 S 0 s For b = 0:

Case No. References 7.1.1 9, p. 61

V
s Q

_2

k(t - t ) " W

See Fig. 7.1

7.1.2

7, p. 89 Variable initial temperature, t = f (x), x > 0, T = 0. t = t , x = 0, T > 0.

' -<* * I >{-[- (^) ] - -[- H*fy


f (B) = f(x)

Section 7.1. Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.3 5, p. 80 74, p. 206 - exp( i
B x +

Description Convection boundary t = tj_, x > 0, T = 0.

Solution

t -1.
i_
fc

1 - erf

f- i

fc

K)
Bi
2 F

o )[l - erf( *
x F o

B i ^ ) ]

t ,h
f

*,

,. * = exp(aTh /tt )erfc(V5f h/k) h ( t - t.)


f

See Fig. 7.2

"i

7.1.4

2 , p . 275

Ramp surface temperature. t=t., x>0, T=0. t = t . + bT, X = 0, T _ 0. >

t - t. i - ( l + 2 Fo* ) erfc ( F O * ) - bT
2

Fo*. exp(-Fo* )

t = t, + br.

7.1.5

1, p. 258

Steady surface heat flux, t = t . , x 0, T = 0. <3 = q f x = 0, T > 0.


X Q

(t - t , ) k

i ^ - - ^ r
2
"Vf q Var"
0

*2 e r f

K)

+ e x p

K)

<* - V

, x = 0

See F i g . 7.7

Section 7 . 1 .

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Time dependent surface temperature, t t,


Q x

Case No. References 7.1.6 9, p. 62

Solution

" i / *\ T 7 - erfc(Fo > 0 < T < x


x

fc

fc

x = 0, 0 < T < t
0

t = t , X 0, X > X . t = t., X > 0, T = 0. 7.1.7 9, p. 63 Time dependent surface temperature. t = t., x > 0, x = 0. t = bT, x = 0, T > 0.

t - t.
f o +

t, - t ,
erfc

i^TTT - K ) v ^ T T
1 ^

(V T- )' >o
2 a( v
2

- (l + 2 Fo* )erfc(Fo*) - | = Fo* exp (-Fo^ )

br7.1.8 9, p. 63 Time dependent surface temperature. t = t,, x > 0, x = 0. t = bVr, x = 0, x > 0. t - t. - = expf-2 Fo* j - Vir Fo* erfc^Fo'j bx
2

bV7-

Section 7.1. Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.9 9, p. 63 Description Time dependent surface temperature.
n

Solution t - t.

bfn/2

i = A(f

)iW( ;)
PO

t = t., x > 0, T = 0. t = tj + bx ' , x = 0, T > 0. See Pig. 7.6

b' r

.n/2.

7.1.10

9, p. 64

Time dependent surface temperature, t = t., x > 0, T = 0. t = e ^ , x = 0, x > 0.

t - ti = i1 exp {- xVETS) erfc /FO* - Vbr\ bx + exp(xVbAx)erfc(Fo + Vbrl

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Convection boundary with step fluid temperature t = t . , x > 0, T = 0. t
t

Case No. References 7.1.11 9, p. 74

Solution t-t -^-- = erfc(Fo*^ - expJBi

+ ( H / 4 ) | e r f c Fo* + (H/2)| , 0 < T < T,

= t ,
x

0 < T_ T ^ <
T > T.
v

t -t

= e r f c

( x) " [ x ( / j| [ *
- exp
Q

F O

e x p

B i

H2

erfc

Po

( / )]

H 2

+ it. - ) erfc t .i 2"Va(T - T ) 1


t..h-

hVa(T - T )
n

Ol

x erfc 2Va(T - x )
0

,T > T

2KV5T

Section 7.1. Serai-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.12 9, p. 76 Description Step surface heat flux, t = t., x > 0, T = 0. g^ = q , x = 0, 0 < X < T . c^ = 0, x * 0, x > x .
Q Q Q

Solution ierfc/ * \, \ va(T - t y


2 o) T

3 = - = 2 ierf c( Fo ) - 2 V "o ^ '


1 v

-
T

See case 7.1.5 for 0 < T < x .

7.1.13
m

9, p. 76

Time dependent surface heat flux. t = t , x > 0, x = 0. = k/vSnT, x = 0, ^x


L

t - t. = 1, x = 0, 0 < x < x
fc

" i

fc

f sin (VxJJ7x) , x = 0, x > x


AT/(T-T)

-1

0 < x < T .
0

= 0, X = 0, X > X .
Q

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Time dependent surface heat flux. t = t . , x > 0, T = 0. q
x

Case No. References 7.1.14 9, p. 77

Solution

" V q V5? t
0

( t

n / 2

_ H I + n/2) , x = 0, x > 0 n
<*!)

= q T
n

n / 2

, x = 0, T > 0, *
<t_ti
0

n = - 1 , 0, 1, 2 . . .

q Var T

n72 =

2 l 4 ) n / 2 r ( 1

n / 2 ) i n + l e r f c

K)

See Pig. 7.8 for n = 2,

7.1.15

3,
p. 402

Plate and s e m i - i n f i n i t e s o l i d composite with constant


t o

surface temperature, t = t . , - b < x < <=,


T

" ^

= 0. - B erfc

t = t , x = - b , T > 0.

r<2n + l ) b - x~|j

I
2

1 J)'

-b < x < 0 ,

tt

t - t,

r f r I " "'[' " * l{> * -]

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Case 7.1.15 with: t- t /


ecfc

Case No. References 7.1.15.1 74,

Solution *\
?H

V"

n i
erf 2 F

/
F

* \

p. 409

t = t0 < x < b,
T = 0. t = t , x > b , x = 0. t = t , X = 0, T > 0. O

t-ri- -

K)

I " b * V

t, - t

(t -\[) (I I) 1
Q

H n _ 1 e r f c

n=l

(2n

"

X)

b * x ] '
o < X< 1

Fo

t-^-l- = fiT[ Z
i

erfc [ P o - F o + F o + (2n - 1)B F o J


x x b

n=l
( t
+

l - V
x

K f
e

(t

- t ) (i + x)

"

2 K * * Fo - Fo. + (1 + K) ( t x b

t)
x

Y n=l

n - 1

erfc | F O * - Fo* + 2nB Fo*J, X > 1

~ P,ck '
2 2 2

l"l l

- 1 + K '

1- K .
B

" V "

_JJ

Section 7*1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Periodic surface temperature. . t - t ^ Solution

Case No. References 7.1.16 7, p. 99

= exp ( - V J x) cos (u>x - V ^ x) ,

See Fig 7.3

t - (t-v
X = 0 , T > 0.

c o a

()'

T = maximum surface temperature TQ = period of periodic temperature a) = 2Ttn/T Maximum temp:


fc n

t = t , x > 0 , 0

t=0.

max " 0

fc

exp

(-)

J,

Time for t

max

t o reach x: , m = 0, 1, 2,

Si
fc

m
n

2 Yawnr"

Heat transferred i n t o s o l i d , T. < T < T_:


q V c t / T

0
r-r =

TI\

Tf\T
-)\

-r-rr

S ( U)T, - -r I - COS (<0T_ -

Section 7.1. Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.17 Description
fc

Solution _ ^
e x p

7, p. 106 Periodic fluid temperature.

(,^)
t

C Q S

^.- ^

(-LJj|

t =(t - ^
f> fM

iy

+ (2/HJ +

( 2 / H 2 ) ] 1 / 2

t = t , x > 0, X = 0.

< -SJ
I
(t
fc fc

ax h H = S r - , u = 2mt/x mrlt t - = "iax f l u i d temperature


fM

T- = period of p e r i o d i c f l u i d temperature Maximum temp:


M- O

exp

(-^)
2 1 / 2

fM " V

[ l + (2/H) + ( 2 / H ) ]

7.1.18

9, p . 68 Square wave surface temperature.

t - t + t,,, - 0, 2raT < x < (2m + l)x , m = 0, 1, 2, . . . t = t - t , x = 0, (2m + 1)T < x <
a 0

(2m + 2)X 0' 7.1.19 7.1.20 7.1.21 2, p. 248 Quarter-infinite solid. 2, p. 248 Eighth-infinite solid. 2, p. 248 Semi-infinite plate.

T = period of periodic temp tm = mean surface temp t_ = deviation of surface temp from t Dimensionless temperatures equal product of solution for semi-infinite solid (case 7.1.1 or 7.1.3) and solution for .infinite plate (case 8.1.6 or 8.1.7). See Figs. 9.4a and 9.4b.

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite cylinder in a semi-infinite solid. Cylinder assumed mass less. Solution Time for soil to reach steady states * C(d/D + l / B i )
D 1 , 4 4

Case No. References 7.1.22 4, p. 84

WAMMWAWM.

2,

C = 4.6 for const, cylinder temperature. C = 6.0 for const, heat flux from cylinder. The heat transferred during the time given above:

_2SL
SQ (t - t )
c f 2

1.25 = 12(d/D + V B i )
D

Temperature of cylinder = t . Initial temperature of semi-infinite solid = t. t > t . c f The time for the cylinder to return to temp t after st jady state is achieved and heating is stopped:
e

3 | = (d/D + l / B i ) ' f D
D

See Fig. 7.4 for values of f,

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description S e m i - i n f i n i t e surface heating, t = t., 0 < x < ,
-oo <

Case No. References 7.1.23 9 , p . 264

Solution (t - t ) k q Voa ~ Vn
A o

f K ) # (" )J ' * =
y

rfc

Ei

Fo 2

<

+oo, x

0.

q
q

= q, x = 0,
= 0, x = 0,

-oo < y < 0. 0 < y < +<=.

7.1.24

9, p . 264

I n f i n i t e s t r i p heated surface. t = t 0 < x < ">,


i r

(t - t ^ k

^Fo

%*

-oo < y

<

+00 ,

= 0 .

q = q , x = 0, ^x ^o

ii*_\

E i

f. /ujrfl _ /^_*f

E i

L (L^L\ '
x = 0,

- a < y < +a. q = 0, x = 0,


x

y > a, y < - a .

See F i g . 7.5

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 7.1.25 9, p. 264

Description Heating through a circular surface. " 3 <3n 0 < r < r ,


=

Solution (t - t.)k
' ^ -

= 2 /Po

ierfc

x = 0, T > 0. ^ = 0, r > r , x = 0, T > 0.


o

t = t., 0 < r < , 0 < x < , T = 0 .

ierfc [ - / + ( V M f 'r F*yl

= 0

Section 7.1. Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.26 Description Maximum temp Cinax
- tj)k

Solution

9, p. 265 Heating through a rectangular surface, t = t x >. 0, y >. 0, z > 0, T = 0 . _


if

-=

sinh

_i

(L) + L sinh " () , -w < y < +w, " frll -w


-i. < z < +1,

_i x

/i\"

V
Average temp:

-w < y < +w,

x = 0.

- i < z < +a, x = o,


IYI

T > 0. g^ = 0, x = 0

> w h i > *
2 . 3/2 ] | *--^ J I, -w < y < +w, -A < z + A, x = 0.
J

T > 0.
i

L = S,/w

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Intecnal Heating. Description At x = 0: (t - t_)k ^ ^ = - = y T V T


f 1

Case No. References 7.1.27

Solution

9, p. 401 Rectangular wave surface heat flux,


t = t , x , T > 0. . *

-2 -T

[ d - T ^ V T - !

(T

l f

T)/V5f],

q = q (T)f x = o, T > o.
0

q (T) = 0, T > 0.
0

0 < T < T,

q (x) = q ,
0 0

(t - O k
Q

nt

<

< nT

^r-

=T i

w +

W^ [ ^ - V ^ -

(T-V

-I

w/vr].

n = 0, 1, . . . q(T) = 0 , n t
i
%

T
0 +
Q

< T < 1 .

X < T < (n + 1 ) T . n - No. c i c y c l e s .


f e x p (- T X ) U l - T ) exp ( - X ) - e x p ( - X
2 2 2

+ X

:(T T> = j
r

V J

+T

dX

X [l - exp (-X )]
, T =
x T l

q lr)0

T = T/T

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description See case 9.1.20 Solution

Case No. References 7.1.28

9, p. 419 Semi-infinite cylinder with convection boundary. t = t , 0 < r < r , z > 0, T = 0.


Q Q

t = t , 0 < r < r , z = 0, t > 0.


x Q

Convection boundary of h, t at r = r , z > 0, T > 0.


Q Q

7.1.29
j

9, p. 419 Case 7.1.28 with:

See case 9.1.21

t = t
T >

i r

r = r , z > 0,
Q

0.
0

t = t

, 0 < r < r

, z

= 0,T>0.

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Plate and semi-infinite solid composite with constant surface heat flux, t = t , 0 < x < <S, 0
Q x

Case No. References 7.1.30 19, p. 3-83

Solution

vvy.
2 g" VcQr

i^== "2m

[exp (m P o ) erfc (m V F O ^ -lj


2

< X < <*>, T = 0 . q = q", x = 0 , T > 0. Heat flux at interface:

, 0 < x. < 6

q /q" = 1 - exp fm F o J erfc (m V?o~) , x = 6 ,


2 m

2 V 1 1> SeL Pig. 7.9

( P

7.1.31

74, p. 211

Semi-infinite rod with convection boundary. t = t , x > 0, T = 0. s


A

t -t

tprt

- I P ^"d

ex

x)

e r f c

(iTBJ '

Bi

d d)

Fo

t = t, x
f

0, T > 0.

+ exp ( Bi X) erfc
d

( T ^ ^ ^ T ^ I )

.
d

cross section area .. perimeter , X = x/d

Th t

Heat flux at x = 0: k ( t ! - t . ) = ?V?oT


e x p (

" d d>

B i

( V 5 I

d^a'

Section 7.1. Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 7.1.32 74, p. 465 Description Semi-infinite plate with fixed surface temperatures. t = t., 0 < x < SL,
00

Solution

Hi_ . to - t. l

Y - t ^ sin (XX) exp (-X* To) i iS t n-l n n \ n /

0<y<,T-0. t = t., x = 0, i., 0 < y < =>, T > 0. t = t, 0 < x <K


Q

1 *

y ATi

S=lil
n

s i n

x x) [exp (XV) erfc L


n n

x /FO* + X VFO") + exp (-X Y) erfc M?o* - X VFoj


n n R

y = 0, X > 0.

- 2 exp

(~n )

Po

erfc

( y)]

Xn = mt.

Section 7.1.

Semi-Infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description Semi-infinite cylinder with fixed surface temperatures. t = t 0 < r < r,
i r

Case No. References 7.1.33 74, p. 466

Solution

n=l + exp {X Z) erfc [Fo + X V F O ] n \ z n / + exp (-X Z) erfc / F O * - X VFo\"j .


n

0 < y < ,

= C.

t = t
t

0 < r <
r =

c,
Q

y = 0, x > 0.

"V

<

< <*>, T

>

0.

r.
7.1.34 74, p. 466 Case 7.1.33 with: convection boundary h, t at r = r , and t = t , 0 < r < r ,
Q Q

W "

2 Bi J (X R) exp (-X Z)
0 n fl

~ n=l
r+

J(X

) (si n \

+\ ) n/
r
( e r f c X

Z = 0, T > 0.

Bi J . (X R) B i J . (A R)
T t B

*\
+ F o

,. / . 2 , , 2 \ H? V>
(
n

( n^

n=l W

B l

+ X

n)

- exp (-X Z) erfc ^

VFO" - Fo*)j .

W "

Bi

Section 7.1. Case No.

Semi-infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Descciption

References

Section 7.1. Case No.

Semi-infinite SolidsNo Internal Heating. Description ' Solution

References

10

Section 7.2. Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Case Ho. References 7.2.1 9, p. 79 Description Steady surface temperature and initial temperature distribution, t = T, + bx, x ^ 0,
T

Solution

t - t0 , * * 2 / *\ 2 * * / *2\ * J - = (1 + Po + Po Fo *) erf {Fa ) + j= Po Po exp f- F


x x 0j

- 0 .

^ bx T T-

PO

_ * *2 FO . x

t = t , x = 0, t > 0.

Po

q " ' OT

kT,

7.2.2

9, p. 79

Case 7.2.1variable heating, t = T , + bx, x 2 0, . 1


T = 0.

(t - t )kB*
o

r + \ e
X - e x

PO

\PO

* -8x / erf (Fo ) + 1 - e


R X + 0 X

t " t , x = 0, x > 0.

erfc (VX - Fo*) - \ e

erfc (Vx + F o * ) .

* Po =

a" " 0
q

X = aB"T

k? e>
x

Section 7.2.

Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description Case 7.2.1 with band heating, t = T, + bx, x >. 0, T = 0. 2 i e r f c [FO*(1 - X)lj + ~ t - 1
2

Case No. References 7.2.3 9, p. 79

Solution t " t , - = Po* jl - 4 i e r f c ( F * ) + 2 i e r f c |Po* (1 + X)l


2 2

+ erf (FO*), 0 < X < 1

= 2 Po* ( i e r f c [FO*(X - 1)1 + i e r f c [Vo*(X + 1)1


2i2

K)) i7

fc

+erf

K ) |,

X> 1 .

* qi"O T Po _ ^0

Section 7.2. Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Case Nu. References


7.2.4 9 , p . 80

Description
I n s u l a t e d boundary and band h e a t i n g . t = t . , X> 0, T = 0. a = 0, x = 0,
T

Solution (t - t , ) k , = 1 - 2 i e r f c [FO*{1 q^"aT

X)]

2 i ' e r f c [FO*(1 + X)l ,


0 < X < 1.

> 0. (t - t.)k - L ^ = 2 i erfc


2

q"'
T

= q A " r 0 < x < d,

[ F O ^ X - 1)] - i e r f c

[ p d j j x + 1)] ) . X > 1

> 0. = 0 , x > d.

q'"

to

-J I

7.2.5

9 , p . 80

I n s u l a t e d boundary and v a r i a b l e h e a t i n g , t = t + bx, x > 0,


Q

(t -

tW
Q

- ^ - exp (-SX) + Po_.


2

Po
\

*
X

Po

*+
X

2X\

erfc

K)

T = 0. o = 0 , x = 0 , T > 0. + | exp (X - 3x) e r f c ( x - F o * ) + | exp (X


2

+ 0x) e r f c ( x + F o * )

q'"

= J"e*
q (

& X

,
q^'OT Po kbx

X > 0 , T > 0.

, X = B Vor

Section 7.2.

Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description Solution ^1


4 f

Case No. References 7.2.6

9, p . 323 Plate and semi-infi n i t e solid composite. t - t 0 . -b < x < f t

. V n=0

n
L

,2

/ (2n + 1) + X\

0 .2 ,

T = 0.

t = t , x = - b , T > 0. 0 ' -b < x < 0, T > 0


q"
1

f(2n + 1) - x |
+

.2
x e r f c

/ 2 n + X\

-e

xe r f c

L 2-vfe J i + x

\2 m')

= 0, x < 0, T > 0.

X .2 . 1 + X x erfc
( t

-1 O'Yvfe * ")]- - < X < 0 n f ,,2._^_ n 2 .


l

2 l V ' h , _ __4 "0*"l 4

V n=0

0 a

i'o"

E?
,

/2n+Jx\ \ 2Vf5 /

i 2 e r f 0

^ ]

2 i 2 e r f c

[ ( * > , + # + " ] } , x > 0.


x
x

_
2 2 x

X- 1
P o

6 = V^7o , X = k A , 3 = YTT'

= JT"' * b

Section 7.2.

Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description (t - t ) k , , , l+(s/2)


0

Case No. References 7.2.7

Solution r p . + (s/2)] (s/2)+l s+2 (-Bi )


x

9, p. 307 Time dependent heating and convection boundary. t = t . , x > 0, T = 0. q'" =q^'T
S / 2

qA/'OTC

D. + (s/2)]

, x exp (Bi + Bi Fo \ erfc (Fo + Bi -v/Fo \

s = - 1 , 0, 1, . . .

7.2.8

9, p . 308 Constant temperature surface and band heating, t = t , x > 0, T = 0.


Q

Surface heat flux: = 2 ierfc [Fo* \ - ierfc |Po* ] ,x =0

qA" at

t = t , x = 0,
Q

> 0.

q'" = 0 , 0 < x < x ,


X > Xj.
q

... = q < " ,


< X <X .

Section 7.2.

Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description Exponential heating. t = t , x>0,t=0. Solution exp (-2 M F o )

Case No. References 7.2.9 54 19. p. 384

2 qj "V5t

ierfc

K)
ex 2M F

[l - exp (M) ]
e r f c

" 4M

eXp

M>

[ P (" x)

( x )

Fo

- M

- exp (2 M Fo*\ erfc (FO + JM^ 1 . Surface temp: *


l to
(

t p J

= 0 5642 - 1 - exp (M ) erfc (M)

M = j Vaf i See Fig. 7.10 7.2.10 74, p. 383 Planar heat pulse and convection boundary. Instantaneous heat pulse occurs at x = 0, x = x, with strength (t - t ) k x
f x

Qa

2VnFo

(X - 1) 4 Fo
2 X 2 + p

V
f

- Bi exp

(X - 1) + B i Fo erfc

'

^ Bi V f o I

m t = t , x > 0, T = 0.

t ,hf

Section 7.2. Case No.

Semi-infinite SolidsWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

i 00

S e c t i o n 8.1.

S o l i d s B o u n d e d by Plane S u r f a c e s N o Internal H e a t i n g .

Case N o . References

Description

Solution

8.1.1

9, p. 94

Infinite plate with steady surface temperature. t = t(x), 0 < x < %, T = 0. t = t , x = 0, H, X >, 0.
Q

t - t

= 2

-n See case 8.1.25 for convection cooling at x = 8 . ,

w
= /

n=l

I*.
1

i sin (rmX) exp I-n T

Pol

f(X) sin (mrx) dX

oo
l

8.1.2

9, p. 96

Infinite plate with steady surface temperature and linear initial temperature. t=t_ T = 0. t = t , x = 0, l ,
Q

t - t ,

+ bx, 0 < x < J l

0 . 2 V (D 8 - t ~ i n=l n , rZ

n-1

2 2 sin (mrx) exp {-n i Po) r

T > 0. _

K M

Section B . l .

S o l i d s Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e p l a t e with steady surface temperature and bilinear i n i t i a l temperature. t = ( t - t > (- c Q

Case No. References 8.1.3 9, p . 97

Solution t - *0 t " 8 V t_ - t " 2 Za " n~0


n 0 w

1
/ 0

(2n
1 }

_
2 n +

<

f "]
ierfc

exp

12U&L. u
4

2 Fo

"

|x|)/ = 1 n=0

a + t > , -s. < x < +,


0

T = 0. t = t , x = 1 , T > 0.
0

| > n 4 2) - l x | l \ L 2VfS J)

IsA"/^
09

l to

W W See Fig. 8.1

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.4 9, p. 98

Description Infinite plate with steady surface temperature and biparabolic initial temperature. t = (t - t ) (a - x ) /
e Q 2 2

Solution

fc

0
n

32 Vn=0

t"t " 2 Z

(2n + I)"

lll

cos

(2n + 1) TX T 2

exp

[.ia-iid^^j

See Fig. 8.2

+ t , -I < x < +., c T = 0. t , x = a, t


0

T > 0 (see case 8.1.3), T 8.1.5 9, p. 100 Infinite plate with steady surface temperature and cosine initial temperature t - t t ) TOS + t , -2. < x < +. c T " 0. t = t , x = ,
Q

Vo

() -(-4-)

<v o

(ft)

T >_ 0.

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case Ho. References 8.1.6 Description Solution

9, p. 97 Infinite plate with 74, p. 113 steady temperature and constant initial temperature. t t., -i. < x < I, T t

CTJ: - E "4^ <V> f n ) n=0


1 n

6XP

F0

Mean temp:

x = 1,
1

T > 0.
IWA'VA'

n=0
1 2

n
1

^ . l 0

^ " . P O < 0 .

Heat loss:

Irt-V^v/*

J. 2pc -

w, (t.- t.) ~ Z X TX^ + sin (X,,) cos (AJ" i 0 _ n I n n X = (2n + l)u/2, See Fig. 8.3
t

V X [X L -..*. .(~n )] !l n ... ..* * Z

Sln

X F

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case Do. References 8.1.7.1 74, p. 220 Description Solution X cos (X x) exp (-X Fo. ) C _nX + sin (X ) V n (X j r n ** cos l)
n

Infinite plate with convection boundary (general). t = f (x), -, < x < +1, T = 0.

t - t =2
f

f x ) (

_ j
fc

c o s

n=l cot (X ) = X
n

JO

X given in Table 14.1


-h,t,. t.,h-

CO

J. 8.1.7.2 3, p. 294 Infinite plate with 74, p. 223 convection boundary constant initial temp.
t = t . , -, < x < +fl,
i

t - t

s i n (X ) cos (XX) exp (-X^Fo)

T = 0. (see case 8 . 1 . 7 . 1 )

t . - t . Z / X + s i n (X ) cos (X ) n=l c o t (X ) = X /T8i n n -f 1 - cos (Vi X) exp (-Bi F o ) , Bi < 0 . 1 t.-t


fc fc f

t - t TT = e r f / * " - ) - exp m i d - X) + Bi Fo] e r f c f V \2 VF3 / \2


X 2 1 C L J

"
+ X

VFO"

+ Bi VFO) /

f + erf c Z \2

\ - exp

feid
L

VFO/

+ X) + B i F o ] e r f c f + Bi V F O ) , \ 2 VFo '
J

See F i g s . 8.4a, b , c , d and e and 9 . I d .

Section 8.1.

Solicis Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with time varying surface temperature, t = t. -I < x < H, T = 0. t = t. + bT,
f

Case Mo. References 8.1.8 1, p. 268

Solution (t - tj) a = Fo + n=0 x cos |{2n + 1) | X1 See Table 8.1, Fig. 8.16 and Fig. 8.25.

X = + ,, T > 0.

os I en

t(r)-

-t(T)

s\/ss/\

8.1.9

9, p. 104

Infinite plate with time varying surface temperature (general), t = t., -. < x < %, x = 0. t = t

=lt

J^ <*> * VW" wo *[
n=0

( 2 n

V' Fo]
at'

+ f(T),

X = H, T > 0.

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesMo Intecnal Heating. Case No. Sefecences 8.1.10 Description Solution
"~

9, p. 104 Infinite plate with J.I1A.4.AIX L 6 J / 4 0 L C H 4 U I exponentially varying surface temperature.

t - t

1 #

- < x < *

i _ T - tx.

-OT cos (X^3) ,-ssr, O O B ( V 5 3 )


T
J

4_ ^ ir ^

n=0

( 2 n

,., + 1. J , , 1fi
v

L "

( 2 n

(-1)" #> X) ^ , , 2/ 4 2 . . , 2 l + p d

T = 0. t = t . + T (1 - e " ) , x = 1, x > 0.
bT

exp I-

(2n

+ 1) TT 1

j-^
2

PoJ cos j -

l"(2n 1

j - Xj ,

+ 1)TT "j 1

b ? (2n + l )

ir a/4A

8.1.11

9, p. 105

I n f i n i t e p l a t e with I n f i n i t e p l a t e with m e n t i a l l y varyi exponentially varying lace temperature surface temperature. t . , -2, < x < H,
T = 0.

i DT cosh (xVPd) T - t. = ^ ^ " 7T


e

V ^

(-1)"
( 2 n + X )

4 P d / 7 r

( 2 n

rf]

t = t. + Te , x = 1, T > 0.

b T

T (2n + l ) n _ 1 f(2n + 1)TI "1 x exp r-* Fo cos < X


J 1

...

-,2_2 2 2

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.1.12 Description Solution

1, p. 299 Infinite plate with periodic surface temperature. t = (t mx - tmn)


1

S = X, cos [(2TTT/T )+ *]
0

"rax t t

mn mx = max surface temp = mean surface temp mn t = cycle time

cos

f^(XCT) + fjtXCT) =
f L

1/2 See Table 8.2

i -1

2<> f (xa) - f (a)


2 2

t(T)H

-t(T)

t {a)
x

f^xa) f (xa)
2

= tan

f^a)

f^Xa) + f (a)
2

t^a)

cos (a) cosh (a), f (a) = sin (a) sinh (a)

a = VriPd = fcVn/aT,, Heat stored during half cycle: 2llpc ( t mx


x

) F(a)/a

df* (a) + df* ( r 1/2 c)


P(CJ)

See Fig. 8.5 fj (a) + t\ (a)

df (a) = cos (a) sinh (a) df (o)


2

sin (a) cosh (a)

sin (0) cosh (0) + cos (a) sinh (a)

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t - t.


= A s i n (our + 9 + <t>)
m 1

Case No. References 8.1.13

Solution

9, p. 105 Infinite plate with periodic surface temperature.

t = t , -a < x < a,
t

T = 0. t = t . + (t - t ) i m i sin ( r + 9 ) , x = 1, uc T > 0. t = maximum surface m temperature.


00 IP

+ 4

' I

( - l ) ( 2 n + 1) [4 Pd cos (9) - (2n + l ) 16 Pd + (2n + l )


2 2 4

n a i n (6)]

n=0
IT
2

II

x exp [- (2n + l )

P o / 4 ] cos [

( 2 n

\ 1/2

l ) l t

x]

cosh (X -VTPd + cos (X V2 Pd) cosh ( V 2 Pd) + cos ("V 2 Pd)

See Fig. 8.6a

tM-

t(r)

= arg

See Fig. 8.6b .

<^^* ^ V M

K-i-

-H

Pd = Hio/ti

Section 8.1.

SolidB Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution t - t. = A s i n (wr + S + if) tm-tx
on
A n

Case No. References 8.1.14

9, p. 105 Infinite plate with periodic surface temperature on one side, constant temperature on the other, t = t 0 < x < Jl,
i #

V
^-

n(-l)

[ n V sin (9) - cos (9) PdJ


4 4
2.4

n=l t = t. + (t - t.) I 'm i sin (tur+ 9), x = I, T > 0. t = t., x = 0, T > 0. t = maximum surface m temperature. x exp (-n
IT

nV +

urV/aT

Fo ) s i n (n ir X) 1/2

A =

cosh (xV2~Pd") - cos (xVTTd) cosh (VFi'd) - cos (V2~Pd)

09 i

sinhfxVH,^,)
< = arg > | sinh , Pd = K w/a .

f ^SO

-t(r)

K-'H

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case Ho. References 8.1.15 Description
fc

Solution " *Q t, - t t, - t ~ 1 0
=
n

9, p. 108 Infinite plate with steady periodic surface surface temperature . . .

on one s i d e , constant temperature on the other. t - t . K - 0. T > 0.


0

2. Y (-1)" n *-. IT n=l n -, n

X
B i

(T.-T*)

s i n

"

(rntX) "
, l i W

n
e

X (T-x") - -^ ~ XT . n
n

1 - e

T ' = T - nff, m X (T- T-M


n V n

X (T-T")

-v *'
T

tr^-f- = f Z j r X x

fcJ

s i n (nirx)

*
1 - e
T L

ri
n

aff < <f

< *r + T ,

n = 1

t t , X = %, iflj
Q

- (mT + T . ) , m "1
V U i

1 ,

T B period of c y c l e .

'

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution

Case No. References 8.1.16

Description

9, p. 109 Infinite plate with steady surface temperature on one side, insulated on the other. q = 0, x = 0, T > 0.

4 V
n 2

(-1)"
+

f(2n + 1)TT "I


s

i-r^ = 7 Z n
(

i L
1 x

J
1

t =t

l f

x = a,

1 -

A (T,-T') n 1 '

mT < T < mT + T , m = 0, 1, 2, . . . . t = t_, x = I, mT


fc

A (T-T ) n - e XT n 1 - e

, x ' = t - mT, m

00

+ T < x < (m + 1)T.


x

"

fc

4 V

(-1)"

f"(2n + l)ir J

T = p e r i o d of c y c l e . e X (T-T - T " ) n 1 X (T-T") n - e XT n 1 - e


2

, T " = T - (mT + T^,

1,

X = a (2n + l ) n

ir /4

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with steady surface heat flux and convection boundaries, (t - t)h 0' *0 -2 Po - Bl See Fig. For Bi * ; . Bl
2

Case No. References 8.1.17 4, p. 82 48

Solution /=/Fo
\
r-

T T

exp
+ Bi + 4 Bi Fo

t = t , 6 < x < %, x = 0.
Q

exp ( Bi 8.18

V So; * '
t= t ,
f 0

>

> o.

"

< -V
GO I

f c

VF5(

t ,hf

See case 8.1.20 for special solutions.

hiH

Section 8 . 1 .

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e p l a t e with steady surface heat flux and variable thermal conductivity t = t , ~Sb < x < +,, T = 0. k = k(t). a is constant.
Q

Case No. References 8.1.18 14 47 74, p . 174

Solution

2 (X - U * - (X - 1) + j + Fo - ^" Z , \ T n=l n T x exp (-rnr Fo)

cos [rnr (x - 1)]

J-/
Q

k(T)dT

"" " -

T = (t - t ) /
0

t ( ) f

k = k(t )
0

For k(t) = k

[ l + 3 (t fc fc

t )]
Q

k(t)

ff
k

0j

k ( I

) d T k(T) dT =

'0

"0

- 0 , 0( - M '
+

B t

fc

2 \

For 3 = 0 , see Fig. 8.7. For 3 = 0 and q


Q

terminated at T = D, see Fig. 8.17.

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with steady surface heat (t - t.)k Solution

Case No. References 8.1.18.1 3, p. 279

flux. t = t.,
1

-1
x

< x < +H,

V x=
n

n=i

T = 0.

V V

= %, T > 0 . J1

rnt

OB i

1*4 i-*|

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.19 3, p. 350

Description Infinite composite plates with convection boundary and infinite thermal conductivity. t = t ,0 < x < & , x > 0.
2 2

Solution

fc

l "
fc

fc

- 2
X

fc

0 - f "

l " 2

t = t

1 ?

< x < %

i. ,
x

X > 0. t = t , 0 < x < , +


Q x

fc

o-f"o~H
fc fc
X

\
+ b

i"2

l ,
2

T = 0. q = 0, x = 0,
X

2 = l
b b

CO i

l 2 = l
= h P C

3
b P C b = P C

h is contact coefficient
b

between 1 and 2.

l 2/ 2 2 V 2 - V 1 l V 3 V 1 l \

k->
h,,t
f

-*,-K*H

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 8.1.20

3, p. 476 Infinite plate with steady surface heat flux and convection boundary, t = t-, 0 < x < %, x = 0.
q

'^V'l-WPo
^ ( - t )k t
f

VSPO/

. < i

T 0

x 0 '

= g

X =

' *

T >

*0*

i<l-tf [fe j(l-*]


+ +
0

-h,t,
00 I

, r [ 1 +(Bl/3)] Bi FO [1 - (T /T)]li x {1 - exp r f \ L 1 + 2(Bi/3)+ 2(Bi /15) JJ T. = penetration time to X = 1

T > T

K-H
8.1.21 3, p. 349 Infinite plate with unsteady surface heat flux; convection boundary and infinite thermal conductivity, t = t , 0 < x < %, T =
f

= l /5a See case 8.1.17 for general solution. (t - t )h


f

\f~2

cos (arr - b) 2
1

2 m +u

exp (-nrr)

m = h/pcS,, b = tan""" (ui/m)

= q.cos (urr), x = 0.
*****"+

. * x
% '
k-> -h,t.
fc

hH

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution Dimensionless temperatures equal the product of solution for semi-infinite solid (case 7.1.1 or 7.1.3) and solution for infinite plate (case 8.1.6 or 8.1.7). See Figs. 9.4a and 9.4b.

Case No. References 8.1.22

Description

2, p. 248 Semi-infinite plate, quarter-infinite plate, infinite rectangular bar, semi- infinite rectangular bar, rectangular parallelepiped. 9, p . 113 I n f i n i t e plate with unsteady surface heat f l u x , t = t . , 0 < x < I, T = 0. q^= 0, x = 0, T > 0. m/2

8.1.23

DO

m/2

n (m/2 + 1) vs V -,. VPo ? T , /->


n=0

i-m+1e r f c l"(2n + 1) - ~A\


c J

2VFO"

OS i

. .m+1 - f(;2n + 1) + X~| + l erfc L 2VFO J

'

*"

T > 0, m - 1 , 0, 1. =

V-i-A

Section 8 . 1 .

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 8.1.23 with t = t , x = 0, T > 0.
r

Case No. References 8.1.24 9, p. 114

Solution (t - ti-) k . V2 q/T'

m+l

( m / 2

X)

y ^

m+1

ri^O erfc [ <


2 n

^ > -

- i^erfc

[<

t o

* ^

8.1.25.1 9 i to

p. 120

I n f i n i t e p l a t e with steady surface temperature, convection boundary and variable i n i t i a l temperature. t = f ( x ) , 0 < x < a, T = 0. t = t , x = 0, T < 0.
Q

co

2\

(t -

^ - 2 > n=l
r-1

exp U* V

. (Bi + X ) s i n a X) ro)\ g-S^ / Bi + X + Bi n


R

x / -'0

[t

- f (X)] s i n (X X) dX

Bi = h V k , X cot (X ) + Bi = 0 n n See case 8 . 1 . 1 for t = t , x = I, T > 0

-h,t

j-H

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description _ 0 *-*> X = 2 Solution

Case No. References

8.1.25.2 74, p. 239 Infinite plate with steady surface temp and convection boundaries. t = t , 0 < x < A,
Q

(i
B

Xp i - cos (Xn ++ A I [l - cos |AJ)-|

n=
cot (\ \ + Bi = 0

T = 0. t = t , x = 0, T > 0.
Q

See Fig. 8.24.

f*-*00 I

o
-h.t.

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution sin (X ) cos (X X) X
n

Case No. References 8.1.26

74, p. 236 Infinite plate with parabolic initial temperature and convection boundary,
2 c c s

*-

., B~

^ S

/_L_ _ i \

+ sin (X ) cos (X )
n n

exp

*)

t - t - (t - t )(x/A) ,

o < x < a, T = o.
t = t , x = 0, T = 0 . c t = t , x = SL, T = 0. s

X tan (XJ = Bi

j-^i-J^-i-^l
00

t ,hf

h,t.

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.27 9, p. 125

Description Infinite plate with steady surface temp and convection boundary, t = t , 0 < x < I, x
Q

Solution

tf-to

Bi X - 2 Bi 1 + Bi

Y n=l

sin (X X) exp (-X


n

Foj

(Bi + B i \

+ X

J sin (X ) n/ n

t = t , x = 0, T > 0.

X cot n

+ Bi = 0

-h.t,

K-iH
8.1.28 9, p. 126 Infinite plate with a steady surface temp. Convection boundary and linear initial temperature, t = (t^- t )x/S, + t ,
Q fl

[Bi (t - t ) / ( t - t ) - Bi - 1
f n 1 p

= X +

Bi + 1

0 < X < S r T = 0. i t = t X = 0, T > 0.


Q f

2 {Bi [(t - t ) / (
f 0

tl

- t )]
0
2

, ^7 - Bi
-h,t.

sin ( X) exp f-X Po) X


n

n=l fBi" + Bi + X M sin (X )

X cot ( ) + Bi = 0 X n n

h-'H

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References

Description

Solution

8.1.29.1 9, p. 126 Infinite plate with two convection temperatures. t = t , -fc < x < +i, T = 0.
Q

" 0
f

BiX
Q

. V

- t

" 2 (Bi
V

1, "

B l

^.2

s i n (g X) exp (< \-&


n

2J .
s

Po; ")

cos (X X) exp ( - X
n 2 2

Fo)

2 "

tn.h"

-h,t

L-i n=l

/ _ . 2 . _. . , 2 \ ( B i + Bi + X J cos (X )

X tan (X ) = Bi, 0 cot (8 ) + Bi = 0 n n n n


I to

[i-^l*-*|
8 . 1 . 2 9 . 2 74, p. 239 I n f i n i t e p l a t e with two convection coefficients, t = t , 0 < x < +1,
Q

t - t t- - t
n

l 1 + B iS.1 + ( B'%\. / B I-i.v) ,, i. ,,


/ aJ

B i

T = 0.

00

k
A =

Bi cos (X XJ+ , U s i n (X X) exp n X n

(< a)

B l

ll/

B i

I
2

sin (X ) cos (X ) + X n n n 2 s i n (X ) + - j - s i n (X )
n

t .h
0

-h .t,
2

h--H

Bi

h l

Vk, Bi

A 2

= h Vk
B i

,. ,. ,

/ n

n\ L

B i +

nV

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 8.1.30

9, p. 127 Infinite plate with convection boundaries and time dependent fluid temperature, t = t , -S, < x < +S,, T = 0. t = <t>(T).
f

. , , - ci t - t. = 2 nBi ~r f
1

* .
2

c o s

<V> -

e x p

rr

Fo

)
n

n=l

f Bi + X+Bi ) cos (X )

xf

exp ( a X ^ x ' / A ) * ( T ' ) dT'

t .hf

-h,t

X tan (X ) = B i . n n
f

| * - { - * p-*-i

L--J

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane surfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t - ti " i "*


fc

Case No. References

Solution cos cos


(VPH

8.1.30.1 74, p. 316 Case 8.1.30 with


f f m m i e fc

fm

CVPI)

X) exp (-pa Fo) - J j V sin (V5d)


53 2

Y 1=1

A cos (X X) exp (-X Foj


n n

1 - X /Pd n (-1)"* 2 Bi ( i
B 1 2 +

X ) ' X)
2

00

An = Mean Temp:
fc

X (Bi
n

2 +

Bi

I in

ni~
fc

fc

exp (-Pd Fo) Vpa (cot (VfoT) - g j VPS"! V exp (-X Fo) X (Bi + Bi + X ) [l -(X /Pd)]
2 2 2

- 2 Bi 2

n=l

^^

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 8.1.30 with Solution
fc

Case No. References 8.1.31 9, p . 127

" 0

fc

i -i

. f

cos g X ) exp ( - A ;
n

FO)

<

<

" 1*1.

>

n=l fei" + X^ + BiJ cos (Xn)

t - t.

Y
x 2 B1

tT^t * "

_4, n=l

&

T + (1 - T) exp nB i
2

M %)]
cos (X )
n

+ X + BiJ
2

x cos (X X) exp (-X T = ( t - t . ) / ( t - t ) , Po. = ( H / r , o i l i u u


n

Poj

I to an

CO

X t a n (X ) = Bi n n

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. RefCase Ho. erences 8.1.32

Description t - t. Bi M = ~
fc

Solution

74 ' ' p. 325

9, Case 8.1.30 with p. 127 t.= (t - t.) sin


u i ( I + ) + t. i HT 1 T > 0.
r

o- i

fc

sin (COT + e + e - & )


Q x

*2 2 Po + 2 Bi
n

cos (E) - sin (E)

cos ( X) exp ( X X -

Foj

fx

(l

Po* /xJ) (*n

B i

'

B i

c o s

<V

i B
Me
I ro
00

= cosh (X Fo ) cos (X Fo ) + i sinh (X Po ) (X Fo ) sin (X Fo )


^1 A *

it

it

it

it

. .

it

Me

= (Fo ) sinh (Fo ) cos (Fo ) - Fo x r * x cos (Po ) + i I Fo

cosh (Fo ) s i n (Fo ) + Bi cosh (Fo )

* * * * , * sinh (Fo ) cos (Fo ) + Fo cosh (Fo ) s i n (Fo ) + Bi sinhs (L) s i n (L)j

Fo

= S, V372a , X t a n (X ) = Bi n n

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo internal Heating. Description < - V WT


fc a 2

Case No. References 8.1.33

Solution Bi X - Bi - 2

9, p. 127 Case 8.1.30 with 89 t = t.+ bt, T > 0.

+ F o

Til
cos (X X) exp (-X Fo j
n 2 2

+ 2 Bi n^l X

(ai

+ X + Bi) cos (X )
n

X tan ( ) = Bi, See Fig. 8.26. X n n (See Fig. 8.1.25 for Bi = .) perfect contact with an i n f i n i t e p l a t e of i n f i n i t e conductivity. t - t., o < x < a t = o.
q = 0 , x = 0 , T > 0. ^x
1 +

(t - V ) k t, ~S^~~

M L .X , 3 + M "I 1 + M L 1 2 " 6(1 + M)J


F +

i ,
2

y il

cos ( y Q exp (-XJ; F o J X (\


2 2

+ M + u) cos (A)

-q

- q , X= t
Q

1 +

l ,
2

T > 0.
2

X cot ( ) = -M X n n p,c JL ,

-"o

I/,(,*(

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.35 9, p. 129

Description Case 8.1.34 with

Solution

g = 0, x = S, + J r T > 0. , t = t , a < K < % , x = o. t = t., 0 < x < SL , T = 0.


2 1 2

t - 1.1
fc

.
= i
+ H

c o s

ft )
2

e x

P I-*

2 po

-,i

i 2- V
n

+ 2M / * n l (V M + = \ n X cot (X ) = -M
+ R

M)

\ n 1/ cos ( ) A / n

8.1.36

9, p. 128

Case 8.1.34 with t = t., x = 0, T > 0.

(t - t )k
t

Y X - 2M n=l X

sin (X X) exp (-X


r

FOjJ

Vl
CD i

(x + M n \ n

+ M ^ cos (X ) / n

X
8.1.37 9, p. 128 Case 8.1.34 with t = t., x = 0, T > 0.
i
2

tan |X )= M \ n/
CD

(tfc - V) < - t

t = t , Jl < x < SL , T = 0.
1 2

t 2 , " ti t ( t t

j }

= n=l A

sin (X X) exp (\ + M \ n
2 2

-0

+ M ) sin (X ) / n

t = t. , 0 < x < JL, T = 0. q


x

= 0, x = J^ + % ,
2

T > 0.

Xn tan i\ n/= M \ \

8.1.38

9, p. 129 Case 8.1.34 with


t = t , x = 0, T > 0.
Q

(t - t )
t

|
= 1-2

^ ^M )sin(x x)exp(-X;F )
n 0 l

= 0 , x = . +il ,T>0.
1 2

(0 " V
n n

fc

n=l

X (x + M + M ) n Vn /

X tan (X ) = M

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description (t - t.)k(l + M)


T >

Case No. References 8.1.39

Solution

9, p. 129 Case 8.1.34 with

V ' l* V
sq x= T >

X= l

ZJT
+

= M Fo 1 - X (1 - X)
+ +?

6(1+ M)

V o' ' "


!(1 M) f n=l A cot (A ) + M = 0 n n 8.1.40 m
o
4 1

+ X ) cos (X X) exp (-X


n n

2 n

FoJ

X (X
n

2 n +

2 + M

9, p. 129

Case 8 1.34 with convection boundary h . t at x = i + .


f x 2

_ (t
t

2_ - t )
2

\ ^

/ V I r/ . _ 2
B x

2 \ n / \2 2
+ A

c Q s

ft

n 2
/

M +

/ ^2 \ n . -]
c o s

\ 1/
}

t = t , A< x < 4 ,
2 x 2

L\
X

1
X / M

n '
B i

)
=

n ^i/*!

lj

T = 0.

t a n

^n

l " n

(See Ref. 82 for solution of material 1 of low conductivity and material 2 of high conductivity)

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description j ^


(t-t.)_2a_ kA y
3

Case No. References 8.1.41


r

Solution
,, . / .2 \ A cos (X X) exp (-X F > ) c ["(si, - X / M ) + (1 + 1/M)' A + Bi cos (X ) n
n n n
2 2 2

.1.40 9 p. 129 Case 8.1.40 with


"1
T

,2 ^2

x > 0.

f T ) , x = 0,
(

n=l

xf Jo

f<T') exp (&n'/l )

*:'.

X tan (X ) = B i , - X /M . n n I n os i 8.1.42 9, p . 129 Case 8.1.34 with a contact r e s i s t a n c e h . between the two plates. (t - t . ) ( + l ) k M *-
VI 1

, F ^ + j (1 - X)
00 2
M B l

3 Bi + 6 + M Bi Bi (i M)
6 +

2 Bi

(1

X_ M J ) K ~ M Bi. c 4 l * <X)
n n n n c n

/ v ^ V n /
2

( x J - M B i J t a n (X ) = B i X .
P

n
h

n ( c
k

Bi

B l

c "

B i

c )

B i

( 1

> n

B i

c " cV l '

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 8 . 1 . 4 3 . 1 9 , p . 324 Description Composite p l a t e s of different materials, t = t , -& < x < ,,,
n n

Solution Region 1 , - a < x < 0:


i

X = 0.

t =

< l-V
v

f c

( L

K )

n^l

x = -A.,, X < 0. t - t , x = l ,
Q 2

cos (A X) s i n (BLA ) - a s i n (A X) cos (BLA ) n n n n X Hi + KS L) s i n (A ) s i n (BLA ) - B (K + L) cos (A ) cos {BLA )1 n n n n n


2 J

X > 0. Region 2 , 0 < x < i> '


2

00

I Ul M

CO

< - V

fc

L - X _ V

,2

s i n (BLA - SA X) n n A [(1 + KB D s i n (A ) s i n (BLAJ - B (K + L) cos (A ) cos (BLA )]


n n n 2

c o t (A ) + a c o t (BLA ) = 0 n n B =ycT[7cy K = k A
2 l f

F o = a./l\,
1

L = l /l
2

X = x/4j

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t - t t ~ t ^"" i-rf- - 1 - 2 2 r i n=l
l

Case No. References

Solution

8.1.43.2 74, p. 441 Composite plates of different materials with insulated surface and convec tion boundary, t = t 0 < x < SL +
i f X

n r "a ( n n *

X / V S

) * K ^ V * ) '

'

< X < L

df ~ Tl - 1 - 2 n=l XT |' 5 n
00

COS

[ \ < " )] L
J

COS

V*>
2

- K sin |~X (X - L)l s i n (X LA'S) ) exp -X*L Fo /A") ,


-h.t,

L < X < 1.

x ( l + KL/VS) cos (Xj] cos ( \ y V K \ + [ ( l + KLA5 + i g r - ^ ) cos (X )

" n & P ) ( m) <V]


X

l +

Sin

K sin

W*>

LX X ? (1 + L) tan (X L / V A ) = 1 - - T (1 + L) tan (X ) Bi n Bi n K tan (X ) tan (X L / ^ ) . n n


B i = hSL /K ,
x 2

L = l^/i. ,
2

Po

= O j T / ^ , A = <X /0.
x

, '

l l l -P c k
2 2 2

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Rectangular parallelpiped. t = t., 0 < x < w 0 < y < b,. 0 < t = 0. t = t . x = C ),
0

Case No. References 8.1.44.1 9, p. 416

Solution
00 CD

t d.

~ i
0

- t

~ 2 " * i n m=0 n=
00 CO 00

_ i6 y

s i n (imrY) s i n (mrz) s i n h | ( 1 - X) \/X

2 <

0 < y < b , 0 < z < d, T > 0. t = t


CD I
i #

m=0

liFO

ISO

m n s i n h (X ) ra,n,o a s i n (mitY) s i n (mtZ) s i n (fcirX) exp (-X_ Fo ) m,n x, w m n X. 'm,n,


t 2 ?

all

X = J l V + (mirw/b ) + (mrw/d) ' m,n,)t m = 2m + 1, n = 2n + 1, X = x/w, X = y / b , Z = z/d

othe:r f a c e s , T > 0

f t
i

JJ

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. 8.1.44.2 References 74, p. 287 Description Rectangular p a r a l l e l e piped with convection boundary, t = t , -l < x < +SL ,
x X

Solution
00 CD

V' o
X

fc

= 1

2 2 2
n=l m=l s=l
+

n l m2 s 3
+

<*nl

X)

O O S

<\n2

Y)

-* -&

< y < +a , < z < +1 ,


2 3

COS

= o.
A

(hi*) P (*nl *! * * + X^ P O )
2 2 3
3

(n,m,s) l ,
=

J_l
X

/ 1\
B i

2 * i
+ X

2 \l/2 n m.s,ij
f

n,m,s,i (

B i

n,m,s,i)

cot (X .) = ( r f - } \ . , Po. = or/A? n,m,s,i \ B I . / n,m,s i i i


n r

Bi

= hlt^/k, i = 1, 2, 3 , X = x/J^, Y = y / , Z = z/&


2

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. 8.1.45 References Description Solution

9, p. 417 Case 8.1.44.1 with

t = t sin (ur + e}, x = o, o < y < b,


Q

0 < z < d, T > 0.

-J* " ^
OS I
fc

x 0 "
fc

,, _ 16 i
2

v \

V \

s i n (imtY) s i n (mrZ) M s i n (urc + e + 4 ) ^__"_' m,n mn


T f

IT ra=0 iu
00 00 00

m n

, ^
~ ~~v ^
11

^
*-*

^
->

Jl s i n (imrY) s i n (mtz) s i n (JluX) ( cos e -X W


/ 2 2 \

s i n

) exp(-Xar/w )

m=0 n=0 A=0

r V
2 2

+ X , n n m,n,J6/
1/2

sinh{(l-X)[(^w/b)
s i n h

-t- (nirw/d) + i v f l }
iw

Vn* c^ )
rn

([ -;;
(

/b)2

; - 2;
{ W)

]v j
2

W = w w/a, See case 8 , 1 . 4 4 , 1 for \

.,X,y,

Z, m, n

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesMo Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.1.46 9, p. 419 Description _ 0 T = 0. t = t , 9 = 0, T > 0. ^ i
=

Solution

Wedge with steady surface t - P e r a t u r e .

| 2 0 0

n=l

^ n ^

{ 2 n

t = t., e = e ,
0

> o.

r
For t = t t - t.
Q f

exp (-<rcu /r )
s

s = (2n + 1) Tt/Sp

B = 0, 8 ,
0

> 0:

h-H

= i

|'0

2,
n=0

s i n

< >(

s6

J (u)du
e x

P (~u A ) "

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Composite slabs with ramp surface temperature. t = t , 0 x < &J+ Z ,
2

Case No. References 8.1.47 33

Solution

Pd ( *

+M)

e x

P (~

X n

F o

!) L +

e x

P (
M

X n

p d

)j

ft >
R

4-^

= 2

nTL
X

n (*n
p 0

X =

) l

x = 0. x = 0 0 < X < 1. "


f

= "'

= lPi i' 2 2 2'

x / X ,

See cases 8.1.34 t o 8.1.42 for other conditions.

t = t , x ^
00 09

= 0, T > " l / o .
+

- 0 , x = ,,

K,
2

\*-li-*\*-i -*\
3

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References
8.1.48

Description h
For n = 1/2: J -pcS, ^r
( t

Solution

19, p. 3-29 I n f i n i t e p l a t e of i n f i n i t e conductivity, transient f l u i d temp and convection boundary. t t , T = 0.


Q

" V
a~^ 3

3/2
= 2 (Bi F o )
J /

exp (-Bi Fo)

t - t + Sr .
f

j~l For n = 1:

(Bi Fo) j - 1 (2j + 1) (j - 1) 1

h
pel

< - V = exp {-Bi Fo) + Bi Fo - 1 &


v2 (t - t) g-^- = 2 |_1 - Bi Fo - exp (-Bi Fo)J + (Bi Fo)'

f c

k->-~ t..h-

~ )

w
MO

h-2*H

Section 8.1.

SolidB Bounded by Plane SurfacesHo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.49 19, p. 3-30

Description Infinite plate of infinite conductivity with convection boundary and harmonic fluid temperature.
fc

Solution t - t mn tmx - tmn

cos

(TIJ)

- \) ))

Ve + i
1

r exp ( pel) " + 1


v

9 = <i>pcX,/h, i> = tan" (6) | Instantaneous surface heat flux: q 9 sin h (t - t ) - , =mx mn >/l + 9 See Fig. 8.9
A 2

f"W

(t

mx ~

W
(TO) - i i |)

COS

(UfT ) .

t = mean temp, mn t = max temp, mx


r

k->
t ,hf

h,t

| 2f*|

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution See Fig. 8.12 for maximum temperature values:

Case No. References 8.1.50 40

Description Infinite plate of infinite conductivity with surfabe reradiation and circular pulse heating, t = t , T = 0,
Q

max

^ax \

'pott J

g =aj?T .

D = heating duration
m/D

*x V "
CD i

'

k -*>

<*r

H- ?H

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite composite plates in perfect contact, convection boundary on one side, insulated on other side, t t , 0 < x < S +
Q

Case No. References 8.1.51 19, p. 3-44 42 43 66

Solution See Fig . 8.14


P

1 1

Aamax ~

fc

o\

D = heating duration

<S , T = 0.
2

c^ = 0 , x = S^ + 6 , T >
2

0.

t ,hf

K*HH

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution See Figs. 8.15a-e for heating. See Figs. 8.15f-l for cooling, t - t f(Fo)

Case No. References 8.1.52 19, p. 3-49 44 68

Description Infinite plate with radiation heating or cooling. t = t , 0 < x < 6,


Q

% -**(*!-*I-o)T = source temp. a


i

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with time-linear surface heat flux. t = t , 0 < x < 6,
Q

Case Ho. References 8.1.53 19, p. 3-68 49

Solution

( t

~i^6

' V

= io^ U

PO /PO

-1 " 2

5X

16/ ' 2 <


^ D ^

5 )

<

Fo

x = o.
Fo
For ^

= aD/S"", X - x/6
^max T/D)

k (t -

*o

X 2 D = duration of heating.

< Fo < FO , Fo > 1 .


D D

h-H
8.1.54 19,
p. 3-68

Case 8.1.53 with


q = <i s i n TTT/D.

See F i g s . 8.19a 6 b 2fi$. (t - t ) = f(2irr/D), Q = q D 0


Q Q x C

150

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution See Figs. 8.20a & b f(ax/6 ) P = G c 6/k
f f 2

Case No. References 8.1.55 19,p. 3-73 51

Description Porous infinite plate with steady surface heat flux and fluid flow. t = t , 0 < x < 5,
Q

= fluid source k G
-t ,k,,c
0

= Pk +
f

U-P)k

= fluid mass flux

p = plate porosity
CD i * in
f

Steady state solution:

k-M

^Tfi

= p exp (-Fx/6)

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.1.56 19, p. 3-75 52

Description Two infinite plates in perfect contact with a steady surface heat flux. t = t, 0 < * < 6 ,
Q 1 Z

Solution See Figs. 8.21 a-d

< - V i
*0 1
6

fc

ewo^)

0 < x < 6 , T = 0.
2 2

V i * ' "

co I

J
8.1.57 19,
p. 3-75

Case 8.1.56 with


k * oo.
i

See Fig. 8.22

48

= f (FOj)

8.1.58

19, p. 3-75 53

Case 8.1.56 with k, > and * a = a sin TTT/D.

See Figs. 8.23 a, b, and c t - t


f (2TTT/D)

eqb

0 -ur.ition of pulse

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t -1


fc

Case No. References 8.1.59

Solution cosh ( B i ^ 0 cosh ( J/ ) * ^


Bi L 2 2

74, p. 245 Thin p l a t e with two convection conditions, t = t , -& < x < +,
Q

X) Sinh (Bi^jL

VBT

= 0.

f "

fc

2w
2

y n=l
n

X sin X cos (X X) exp [- ( x ^ + B i ^ L ) F o J


n n

V i
2w]
f'"2
l
-j

-h ,t
2

"

( 2
2 w

B i

lw

L 2

) [ n

s i n

( n)
2

C O S

( n)]

-i\H
"V,

K tan(X )= B i , B i X = x/w, L = Jt/w Mean temp:

l w

= w/k, B i
h l

2 w

= h w/k

' . " 'o


t f

tanh Bi^
l w 2

'

t ( )

B i , . . ., P* 2 2w
L B l

V n=l

n n

["n

fa

B i

l w *')
2

wl

-4,

X? + Bi,.. L lw

'"

. "i 'Bi? + B i . + X >'.$ lw lw


2

I)

Section 8.1. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References

Description t - t t
f

Solution i -t. . _ M cos CVPoX) exp (-Pd Fo) cos ( V P 3 ) - VPd s i n (VPd)

8.1.60.1 74, p. 320 Infinite plate with evaporation and con vection boundary. t = t., -S, < x < +8,, T = 0. m = n e
0

, x = &.

n=l

1 - Pd/X"
n X

A cos (An X) exp n '


r

-Xn Fo

m = evaporation r a t e .

M-

I
t .hf

-H
h.t, m

2 si ( n ) ymo f M ~ "n ~ X + sin/X \cos/X ). ,' " = h ( t . - t . ) ~ t , n \ n) \ n) f l f cot/X )= X / B i , t . = wet bulb temp.

wb t. i

Section 8 . 1 .

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

8 . 1 . 6 0 . 2 74, p . 321 Case 8 . 1 . 6 0 . 1 with asymmetrical boundary conditions.

t - t.
1 X

"2

V n=l

2 \

- M )Bi X "V" "


2

V m=l

( M

1 " 2

2(1

TBIT" ' 1

s i n

<V *e

K )

F o

2 cos 2 s i n (*n) (\n) , An = X + sin/X )cos/X ) ' *m ~ X - cos/X \sin/X ~

oa
i

cot(X )= X / B i , tan(X )= -X^/Bi


n n m

Mean temp:
fc

.f c

fc

i i

l+2
2

A
1

M ^ \
1 2 2

Biexp^Fo; X (Bi n \
2 2 +

k -)
Bi
+

*f-

^. V " n=l

X ) n/

Section 8.1.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

00

in

Section 8.1. Case N o .

Solids Bounded by Plane S u r f a c e s N o Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

oo
i

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate with uniform internal heating, t = t -J, < x < &,
i #

Case No. References 8.2.1 3, p. 276

Solution (t - t.)k

V *
n

T^h" = I - - 2 ^
n=0 n X = (2n + 1)71/2 See Pig. 8.8

(1

x2)

6XP

(< ) V
F COS

T = 0.

t = t

i t

x * tl,

x > 0,

00

I to

I J t - -l~\

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description


(t - t^k
q

Case Ho. References 8.2.2.1

Solution
^ cos [(2n - 1)TTX] cos
(2n

74, p. 363 Infinite plate with steady surface heat flux and variable internal heating, t = t -fl, < x < +/ T = 0.
i f

P o

(X X)
R

u " *'

1,a

i-1
x
.

"

1)4

1 - exp C-X^ PoJ


00

+ *

q ' " = %" (1 - /). < ^ = q x = SL, x > 0.


0

a " 'ii,

k-&-H -k]
Ul

x exp Xn = mr
<*<T

q"'

-"0

B.2.2.2

74, p. 363 Case 8.2.2.1 with ,III _ i 11 (1 - X"),

(t - t.)k J _ i _ - f to - 2 <-l) -J cos (X X) [l - exp (-*J 0 nl n


n n

Fo)]

and $ given in case 8.2.2.1

Section 8.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SucfaoesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.2.2.3 Description _ - 1 - 4 - = 2g [l - exp ( ] -,
+

Solution

74, p. 364 Case 8.2.?.l with q--i = q " exp (-bX).

[i - ( ! exp ,-b>] -,

x cos (XX) n X) X

[l - exp (-X* *>)] $ 1 - exp


+

and $ given in case 8.2.2.1

8.2.2.4

74, p. 364 Case 8.2.2.1 with


q

(t - t )k ~ = Fo (1 + Pd Fo) + $

J
it*

".= ."(l bT).


q +

,2
$ given in case 8-2.2,1

Section 8.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description (t - t.)k

Solution

8.2.2.5 74, p. 364 Case 8.2.2.1 with q'" = <3o" exp (-be),

_ 4 : . . _ [ i - p -MFo>] *
r ( +
g

* $ given in case 8.2.2.1

8.2.2.6

74, p. 364 Case 8.2.2.1 with


.in

< - V
q

fc

- q'" in

cos (DT)

,,. ,2

Pd

i sin (Pd Po) + *

00

$ given in case 8.2.2.1

J.
8.2.2.7 74, p. 365 Case 8.2.2.1 with q"\ = q'" bx".
( t

fc

)k

(Pd F o ) _
n + 1

a'"

$ given in case 8.2.2.1

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 8.2.3

9 , p . 131 I n f i n i t e p l a t e with time dependent internal heating.

t = t . , -i, < x < a, T = o. ; t = t.,'"xi= a, T > o.


q ' " = f(T).

e-"d-5 (&r-[****]
n=0 xj f ( x ) exp T-Tr (2n + l ) a ( T
2 2

-T'JAjar"

Jo

CO

\-*-l-*\ *-l-*\ 8.2.4 9, p . 132 Case 8 . 2 . 3 with bt ffr) = q ' " e

( t

" V

k o

1_ [cos (xVPd

q>" I
2

[s^BM-
(-l)
n

cos (A X) exp (-A^ Fo)


n

X = (2n + 1 ) 7T/2 n

Section 8.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.2.5 Description Solution

9, p. 132 Case 8.2.1 with q"' = f(x). n=l

x /

f (X) cos 0^

xj dX

CD I Ul J

Section 8.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.2.6 9, p . 132 41 Description I n f i n i t e p l a t e with uniform i n t e r n a l heating and convection boundary. t = t , -1< x < Hi T = 0. Solution

( t

- V*

, , Bi

Bi X

g-'-r B" +B ) + B i i + B lI)/ cos (X ) ' n X t a n (X ) = Bi , See P i g . 8.13 n n


n=l
+

2 Bi

'2 4,

cos (X X) n

X fx n n \

exp

K )

-h.t

03 I U1 03

MH H W
8.2.7 9, p . 132 I n f i n i t e p l a t e with uniform i n t e r n a l h e a t i n g and conv e c t i o n boundary on one s i d e . t = t , 0 < x < X., T = 0. t = t , x = 0 , T > 0.
f

.. _ . .. _ ' ~ f _ (1 + Bi/2)X x 1 + Bi " 2 a S?


,l, 9

. i n
1

_ i 11
y

+ 4 Bi

'2

sin (X X)fl - cos (X l"


2 2 2

, X (X + B i n=l n \ n

+ Bi ) s i n (2X ) / n

exp

>)

h,t

X cot (X ) + Bi = 0 n n'

K*H

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e p l a t e with time-dependent heating, t = t , 0 < x < H, T = 0. t = t^, x = 0, A,
q

Case Mo. References 8.2.8 9, p. 311

Solution (t - t ) k ! l - r/(2 + s / 2 ) 2 s+2 l + s / 2 " (1 + s/2) Bar


Q

> 0.

. . . = fr / ,
.... n=0
L

8 2

s - - 1 , 0, 1, 2 ,

00

1 to

\*-l^\
8.2.9 9, p. 404 I n f i n i t e p l a t e with vari able internal heating, t = t , 0 < x < SL, T = 0.
Q

<*- y
2

t = t , x = S., T > 0. q'" q = q^" + 3 ( t - t ) . = 0, X = 0, X > 0. _


x

^ " l
16 V
+

if.c o s ( V l x )
cos ( V I )

(-1)" exp {[-(2n + 1) V


L

+ 4 B ] Fo/4f cos L(2n + DTTX/2. (2n + 1)

^ n=0

f4B - (2n + 1) V ]

B = eavk

Section 8.2. Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 8.2.10 Description
Q

Solution ( t - t )k Bi cos (Vlx) 2 ~ BTBi cos (V"B) -iTS sin (V~B) ~ B 0 * L


l l l n

9, p. 405 Case 8.2.9 with convection boundary h, t at x = I.


Q

+ 2 Bi

cos (X X) exp
n 2 2

[(B -

X ) Fo ]
fl

V ) L n=0 (B - \ n/ \\ n + Bi(Bi + 1) cos (XJ J n

X tan (X ) = Bi, B = 3A A n n

8.2.11

19, p. 3-29

Infinite plate of infinite G J n [l - (9/Gf) + 6 = LH/C i conductivity, variable specific heat, convection G = (1 + q " X.)/hL(t - t ) , C = .1 - c ) / c , H = hc/pcA boundaries and steady heating. 0. t = t , 0 < x < 21, T H evaluated at t , c evaluated at t c = c B(t- t ). I. = R. x (surface area/volume) = 1 n o 9 = (t - t ) / ( t - t )
f f Q Q f f Q+ Q Q f Q

%
k-t-oo

-h,t \^2i.*\

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Case 8.2.11 for infinite square rod and cube. Infinite plate o f infinite conductivity w i t h surface radiation a n d steady heating, t = t , 0 < x < 2%, T = 0 .
Q

Case No. References 8.2.12 19, p. 3-29 19, p. 3-32

Solution See case 8.2.11, set: L = 2 for square rod L = 3 for cube

8.2.13

in R| + B (1 + S i
Q

tan

" < / >


i 0

tan^d/N) + 4 MN
1/4

9 = T / T , N = (c ' "l./a&'r
i Q

+ 9*J

, M = a^r^t/pcS,

<J = & - < )


r

1
00

= source temp.

rt< > =

en
q'" "Ir

h~2AH

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Case 8.2.13 with simulta neous surface convection and radiation.
g

Case No. References 8.2.14 19, p. 3-33

Solution

/9 - R \
M

/e - R \
2

A
+

= i * [wnrj

2 * \e^R-j r
2

(9 - n ) + 4> ~] ( l - n ) + 4> _
2 2

x f " x = 0, 2%, T > 0.

h ( t

t }

t S r |

- *}
^ = jsVv - n [n Vv - n + (v/2 + n )]} A = fsVv - n [nVv - n - (v/2 + n )]J
2 2 2 2 2 2

-l -l

OS

I to

= n/(y

+ 8n )
2 2 4

A. = (v/2 - v ) / ( v + an )
4

R = - n - V v - n r R = - r i
1 2

+"Vv - r\

<t> = Vn + B / 4 , n = V 3 7 2
,1/3

V =

J + 3 /4

s = h/aJTT

N = Ic q'"i./a&-T*

,1/4 + 9
4

+ s9

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References 8.2.15 19, p. 3-34

Description Infinite plate of infinite conductivity with prescribed heating rates, t = t , T = 0.


Q D

Solution

a.

step input; *rrr = 1 , ?,, = 1 Tnax ^max


I I I _ Q' ''
p

-9=7
QlI "
l

b. c. en < d. * e.

linear input; jjhvr = T r q>"D = 0 . 5 5in Tna~ Tnax Tnax n linear input; )*,,-,' = (1 - _ r ^. unt = 0 . 5 T) Tnax Tnax a''* 2 Q''' circular pulse; g , , , = s i n TIT , " i n =0.5 Tnax Tnax
D D

C S _ _ r2
fl

b-

QTTT O - T

pr8=?(2-7,
sin2irx PCS ^ - 9 = 0 . 06767A

power pulse; f ^ l = (37)" e "

( 1 A

3 )

S ^ _ = 0.5473

l)e-

( l A

- >

o'"

-(1/T-5)

Q'''

f. g.

power pulse, g , , , = ( 5 T ) "rnax exponential pulse; ^LLL .

e .X-"t

.,, ^max
?

0.2795
D

pC6
Q"'

9 = 0. 006869/-47 + ~Z7
\6T
3

2T

Z + ) T /
1 0

- (l/T-5)

( l o 7 )

fi^_

2 7 1 7

flSL.

. ^ [ l

- (10T

1) e " * ]

% ax

Ta n
9 = t - t , D = heating duration
0

x = TA>/ Q''' = total heat input per unit volume durin;j time D See Fig. 8.10

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Infinite plate of infinite conductivity with surface reradiation, steady surface heating, and steady internal heating. See Fig. 8.11 Solution

Case No. References 8.2.16 19, p. 3-35

t = t , x = 0. g = q " + o?^
Q

T ),

x = o, 26.

= source temp.

k00 i V

on

q"

-i*

hr-25-H

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith internal Heating. Description ( t - t )k&


c

Case No. References 8.2.17

Solution

74, p. 386 Infinite plate with two symmetrical planar heat pulses and convection boundaries, t = t , - t < x < +1, T = 0. f
f

Qa

= 2

,i !1. 7T- cos (X X,) cos (X X) A> X + s i n (X ) cos (X ) (X *n 1 n n=l


x exp
" )

Instantaneous pulse occurs at t = 0 , x = x, with 2 strength Q(J/m ) .

X t a n (X ) = Bi . n ri For t = f ( x ) , -H < x < +SL, T = 0: (t - t ) k


f

oo l en ui

= 2 ) ^- rr^-r- cos (X X) exp (-X Po) Zs X + s i n (X ) cos (X ) n ' \ n / n=l


: r

X,

X,

-h,t

cos (X X)dX . n '

h-H *-M

Mean temp: (t m - t )U f
Qa

^, Bi , n=l

cos ( X ^ ) exp (-X FoJ


2

s i n (X )X ( B i n n\

+ Bi + X ) n/

For Bi = i. (t Qa t )kSi
f

= 2 Y

(-l)

n + 1

cos

[(2n - DTTXJJ cos

[(2n -

l)nx]

n=l x exp [-(2n - l ) i r


2

Fo/4] .

Section 8.2.

Solids Bounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description (t - t )k, Qa ^ = 2 \ n=l Solution , s i n (n7rX) exp (-n ir Po)
2

Case No. References 8.2.18

74, p . 387 I n f i n i t e plate with a planar heat pulse, t = t , 0 < x < Z, x 0. =


Q

s i n {mx^

Instantaneous pulse occurs at K = x . , T = 0 with strength Q(J/m } .

nf\
00

-Q

a\

JLJ MH

Section 8.2. Solids Gounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

CD i

en

Section 8.2.

Solids Gounded by Plane SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References

CO

l
03

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.1 Description Solution

2 , p. 240 I n f i n i t e cylinder with 74, p. 131 steady surface temp. t = t . , 0 < r < r, T = 0. i 0
fc

~ 0

V n=l

/ ,2 \

0 n

( X

=V

* -

J.(A ) = 0, see F i g . 9.2 u n Cumulative heating:

n=l
IS

Q "V ^
0

~ i

9.1.2

1, p . 269 9, p. 328

I n f i n i t e cylinder with time dependent surface temp. 0. t = t. 0 < r < r , x r , T > 0. t = t + , r


0 B t Q

cr /a
0

2,} ' 4

( R 2

"

X)

+ 2

6XP

(" n

F o

) ,3

n=l

W> K W

W
See Table 9 . 1 and Fig. 9.8

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.3.1 Solution

Description

74, p. 270 Infinite cylinder with convection boundary and variable initial temp, t = f (r), 0 < r < r , T = 0.

V W >
J

exp(-X Fo)
n

1 > Rp(r) t jJ (X S)dR


f 0 n

t - t

" " n=l 0<V


BiJ (X )
0 n

1<V

-4 /

=X

n J l

(X )
m

9.1.3.2

3, p. 298 Infinite cylinder with convection cooling, t = t 0 < r < r , 1 = 0.


i r Q

t - t f

, V

Bi J ( X
0

n R )

exp (-X; Fo)

h,t.

**-* k
x Cumulative heating:

+ B i 2

)w

J . a > + Bi j { X > = o n 1 n On See Figs. 9.1a-c

1 - exp Qo , n=l
Z

X (x n \ n

Bi )

(< ")] '


2

= 0

l r

c ( t

i "

/ . A - R\ . . . Fo

For Fo < 0 . 0 2 , R 0: " t. _ . /Fo" . (t - V )


11

t -1.) e

B I

VR~
B i

i e r f c

\2^ws)

4 B l

vi

(iR f - )

i 2 e r f c

(ivfl)

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 9.1.4 9, p. 199

Description Infinite cylinder with initial t - t temp varying with radius. t = t


t

Solution

exp
= 2 n=l

(<
2 2

")

VV
n 2 n

- br ,
Q

br!
T > 0.

0 < r < c,
Q

T =0.
Q f

X J (X ) n 1 n 1 J X , + 2 J (A )
l (

t = t, r = r

\
0 n

b c

a (X ) = o

to I

9.1.5

9, p. 201

Infinite cylinder with pe riodic surface temperature, t = t , 0 < r < r , T = 0. t., r,


t Q

t - t.

l_

I (R -Vi Pu,
Q

t r

(t
r , T
0

t.) sin (wr + e ) .

t - t. m I

real

iiTRTpdY

e x p

L ^ + e)]

t = max fluid temp, m

J!, exp (-X Fo) X Pd cos (e ) - X sin (e) L, A 4 , 2\ ,


n

n=l

(xW)
J

W
'(t - t)sin(cOT + e)
m

'

pd =

a)/a

M&SKt'

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description . i _ .2 0 , / ,


R +

Case No. References

Solution , \ ^ exp (-\l Fo) J (A R)

9.1.6.1 9, p. 202 Infinite cylinder with 89 convection cooling and linear time-dependent fluid temp. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.
i# Q

K "

Si)

+2B i

1 2 / 2 2\

Mean temp:
fc

m-

fc

1 L

, 4 \ , , .2 y

*P

r n

(if)
X F o

; )

n=l n V n i \ / see Fig. 9.9

Section 9 . 1 .

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo internal HeatingDescription t - t. Solution J ( Vpd R) exp (-Pd Fo)
i

Case No. References 9.1.6.2

74, p. 317 Case 9 . 1 . 6 . 1 with t - = t_ - (t_ - t . ) e -br f fro ' fm i'

_____ _ !
fm

Vpd J ( Vpd) - ~
Q 0 n

Pd ^ t Vpd)
X F

i - 2 Bi V

J (X R) exp "0'"n"' " * (~ n

)
X

n=l W
Mean temp
fc

(>n

+ Bi2

) t " ( nH]

in

_ i

n,- i fm "

fc

2J. ( V"Pd) exp (-Pd Fo) = 1 i


fc

fc

Vfd J ( Ypd) - ~
Q

P6 J Vpd
1

exp 4 Bi

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t - t.


t
f

Case No. References 9.1.6.3

Solution M ( VPd~R) exp (-Pd Po) J


= 1

74, p. 320 Infinite cylinder with convection and evaporation boundary. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.
i f Q

- t.

~ J (VP3)
Q

(-VPd/Bi)J ( VPa)
1

i = m.e n

= evaporation rate.
/h.t,

IrFfeil.
An = Bi

-A

c o s (A R) exp n
Y<m >
0

K )

~vvK
v

+ Bi2

h(t f

t.)'

vo

J(A ) / J , (X ) = \ / B i 0 n" l n n

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Solution t - t j


c e a l

Case No. References 9.1.7

Description
i 0

9, p. 202 Infinite cylinder with pe riodic convection boundary, t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.


i f Q

Bi I (R"ViPd) exp (iurr + ie)


l ( + B iv

V^7 = "
n=l
X

(i[vrra i VTM, /,
2

vrwgj ~
S i n [ e ) J

+ 2B i

(t

t . ) s i n (turr + e ) ,

t m

= max f l u i d temp.
e

n[

MCOS ( )

3 0 n
O

R )

Vn
x = B i J

/ \ n
w a

1 J n if n

n < Jm u '

= no /

9.1.8

9 , p . 203 I n f i n i t e cylinder with steady surface heat flux. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.


i # Q

(t - t . ) k , / \ 0< n -~ = 2 Fo + (RV2) - (1/4) - 2 > exp (-X Fo) - ~


3

R )

q q

r = r

0'

T y

"


J (X ) = 0 , See F i g . 9.3

=1 ^

nW

For Fo < 0 . 0 2 , R 0 (t - t . ) k _ IFO" . , (X - R \ . F o ( l + 3R) . 2 , / l - R\ . ~ i J - J = 2 ^ ierfc ( p ^ ) + ^ i erfc ( y ^ ) + .


t ) k R 3 / 2

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.9 Description Solution

9, p. 207 Infinite hollow cylinder with steady surface temp.

tTTt: " 2 "i 0


L

6XP

Fo

)
+J

n=l

ViV [ W W ~ V W W "VW o<V VWVV "VW W -


R = r / r , Fo " a r / r
Q 0

oo

to i

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description I n f i n i t e hollow cylinder with d i f f e r e n t surface temp.
1 fc

Case No. References 9 . 1 . 1 0 . 1 9, p . 207

Solution

V n=l x > "n=l


T

/ ,2 _ \

Y V V V

"V i V =V 0 ' '


r =

< r

<

T =

T >

t = t , r > r . , T > 0.

=
J

=-* " 0<V


+ J

exp f-A
V

Pol '

0<V / )
R

[ W

J l n ( 1

*n(R/R )]
i

to

vo

n " iV n " V V*V ' W ' W " ' W W * Wi> W " W W Wi> -
R = r / r , Po = aT/rp
Q

See Fig. 9.7a for t

= t . , and Fig. 9.7b for t

= t..

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description _ V


n

Case No. References

Solution

9.1.10.2 74, p. 282 Infinite hollow cylinder with two convection boundaries and variable i n i t i a l temperatureageneral case, t a f(R), r.< r < r , T = 0 .

e x p

i^i n=l

^ 2 FO) W(X ,R). \ n / n


n + X X J ( X R )

W(XR) - - p i i V V nV n>] 0 n [ x J x , B i . a (X )] y ( X
+ n l ( n + 0 n 0

n R ) !

H ,2
E

2
B i

n =r n[ x /"

0 0

( X

nV

" V l

<W]
2 n

to I

R [f (R) - t

f ]

(X ,R,dR {(X
n

+ B i J ) [Bi. J ( X ,
0 n

a
+

V l M * ~ ( n O E i V nV " W W ] * ) ' .
X + X

Bi

E i V n>
B i

Bi

n W ]
X

[ 0 V nV " Vl< nV]


X

B i

"
8 1

n W V ] " n l n > ] " X Y (X

" [ 0 V nV
B i

C ! W 0

i i

/ k

'

B i

0 i

/ k

'

r / c

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.11 Description Solution

3, p. 409 Infinite hollow cylinder with steady inside surface! temperature, t = t.y r.. < r < r , T = 0.
Q

t - t.

tprr, = - 2. - K )
n=l

Fo

w M

t = t^Jr = r g
r

i #

T > 0.

= 0 , j r = r , t > 0.
Q

A{R.) = Y(X )J(X R.) - J(X )Y(X R.) 0* i' 0' n 0 n l 0 n 0 n l A (R ) = Y (X ) J (X R ) - J (X )Y (X R ) l i 1 n J. n i. l n l n i Y, (X ) J . ( X R.) - J , (X )Y.(X R.) = 0 1* n 0 n i ' 1 ' n' 0 n i '
V

Po = o t r / r , R = r / r
0

N
9.1.12 74, p. 200 I n f i n i t e hollow cylinder with steady surface heat flux. t = r < r < r , T = 0. (t - t . ) k <*n O'O
r

1 - R7
l

ii

2 F

-i
f

r- i *
J J

S
+

i/

-q =q > r = r q = 0, r = r . ,
r 0

Q f

T > o. > 0.

x ,n {R^ + j

T T

1<W 1<V

[ j ( X R)Y,(X R.) - Y (X R)J.(X R.)"| exp (-X Fo^ L0 n l n i 0 n 1 n I'J \ n /


n l n

Po = a r / r , R = r / r
Q

J . rtR.JY. (X ) = Y (X R.) J . (X ) x n i l n x ni 1 n

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case Mo. References 9.1.13 Description
oo co
A 9 m + B n s i n 9)

Solution

9, p. 210 Infinite cylinder with vari able initial temperature and constant surface temp. t = f(r,0), 0 < r < r , t = 0.
Q

_ 0

y y r Z* ^ L m=l n=0
n

-| J

'

t = t , r = r , T > 0.
Q Q

, J (X R) exp (-X* F o )
n m

.1

IT

=
5

"
v

= /
2

/
-IT L

R[f ( r ) " tnl ( >l


n

d 9

'

ir L 0 m'J I0 [JA<Ol
.1

-TT

=
n m

RTf(R,9) - t"l cos (n6)J (X r)dR d9

' *ftVI -i i
1
TT

' T [W]M T |J' ( < J = o


n m X

5 I
2

/
-7T

l " < ' > " nl


L

fc

s i n

( n 9 ) J (X R)dR d9

I0

"

Section 9 . 1 .

S o l i d s Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description V V r ,-]_ n,m m=l n=0
ft

Case No. References 9.1.14

Solution

9 , p . 211 I n f i n i t e cylinder with v a r i able i n i t i a l temp and convect i o n boundary-general case. t = f (r,9), 0 < r < r , T = 0.

_ f

C Q g

Q)

(Q)

-,

n,m _1 _TT 2 I f

j J n n
( X R )

/_ \ \ n
p

,2 A
r a

=-7-5

=r

IdR Rff(R,B) - t J l J (X R)< d6


Q m

2X m
10

x I

Rff(R,B) - t "j cos (n9)J ( X R ) d R d 9


f

'0 -TT m

-\(xW-n )
1
TT

[ W

\
0

\
-TT

R[f(R,9) - t "| s i n (n9)J (X R)dR d9


f n m

X J' (X ) + Bi J (XJ = 0 in n m' n m' See case 9 . 1 . 3 . 2 for f ( r , 9 ) = t or


v

case 9 . 1 . 3 . 1 for f (r,8) = f ( r )

<$ffi? eSav;'rKs!Es

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References

Description

Solution

9.1.15

9, p. 212 Infinite cylindrical sector with steady surface temperature. 0 8 V sin(j9) V ,_ / , 2 .\ j m f ., . dR t = t . , 0 < r < t , 0 < 0 < e , t T ^ T " = ? L 2n + 1 L Tm j -.2 / ^ j ' ^ * n=0 m=l Lj J 0
D T e X P F o 1 n n f T =

t = t ,
Q

r = r , 6 = 0, x > 0.
Q

j = (2n + l)ir/6 , J^aj


0

= 0

10 I

9.1.16

2, p. 248

Semi-infinite cylinder.

Dimensionless temperature equals product of solution for semi-infinite solid (case 7.1.1 or 7.1.3) and solution for infinite cylinder (case 9.1.1 or 9.1.3). See Figs. 9.4a and 9.4b.

9.1.17

2, p. 248

Finite cylinder.

Dimensionless temperature equals product of solution for infinite plate (case 8.1.6 or 8.1.7) and solution for infinite cylinder (case 9.1.1 or 9.1.3). See Figs. 9.4a and 9.4b.

9.1.18

Infinite cylinder in a semi-infinite solid.

See case 7.1.22

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 9.1.19

Description t - t t, 1 "
fc

Solution Bi J ( R X ) sinh
0 n 2 2

9, p . 41S F i n i t e c y l i n d e r . t = t , 0 <r <r , 0 < Z < St,, T = 0 .


Q Q

=2
n

[(1 - Z)X LJ
n

4it B i

_ ,1 \ ,) Un 1 = (Bi + An/ J .o J sinh 1


co
2 2

|H| n
(
2

t =t

1 #

0 <r <r ,
Q

C D

r 2

Z = 0, T > 0 . 0 < r < r , z = I, T > 0.


0

^-, mJ-(RX ) s i n (imrZ) exp I - U

+ (nrn/L)
2 V

Convection boundary h , t_ a t r = r , T > 0.


to I

~ ~ |"(X L ) + (mir) 1 | B i + A 1 J (X , n-X m=l L n J L nj 0 n X J , (X ) = Bi J . (X ) n l n 0* n'


l

Bi = h r / k , R = r / r , Z = z/l,
Q Q

Fo = onr/r , L = V r

9.1.20

9 , p . 418 Case 9.1.18 with convec t i o n boundary h , t a t z = $., x > 0.


fc

2 Bi l" ^

^. J ( ^
0

\,
e J

s h

r* LJ - J]
n

+ B I s i n h

[ v ^ ~ 3i
( L

n-l
P

(
B i 2

B i 2+ X

l) W
(R

[n

c o s h

^n'

+ B i

s i n h

V]
F o

i Y V m(
1

" * m) 0 V
*n) (
B i 2

5 i n ( 2

V "> R l
L

> ) "
W

nfl m=l

("*

) (^n

<)

3 cotg m m

= -Bi L, L = Vr 0

See case 9.1.19 for X , Bi, R, Z, and Fo n

ft^w-'"

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description _ 0_ 4 - t Q x e r f c

Case No. References 9.1.21

Solution j (RX ) . V" 0 n ( .2 X^) J ^ )


B +

9, p. 419 Semi-infinite cylinder with convection boundary. t = 0 < r < r , > 0,


V

2 exp (~X Z) + exp (X Z)

T = 0.

t - t , 0 < r < r ,
x 0

2 = 0, T > 0.

f 2 _ + Z Fo*] - exp (-X Z) erfc I ^ \2 Fo / \2 Fo


n = B

Po

*) /.

Convection boundary h, t at r = r , z > 0, T > 0.

\i l'^n^
Q

* o'^n^
0 Q

li = h r / k , R = r / r , Z = z/t ,

Fo = r /2-^oT
0

A 9.1.22

9, p . 419 Semi-infinite cylinder witn -inrinite cylinder with steady surface temperature. dy surface temperature. t y o < r < V z > o , = 0. t t = t,r= r ,z>0
x Q

i /pi t f Z~0 I9_ = . , _ V 0 V V "Q'""n' I. 2 ^ / L\ P_o \ . , Jo * ,2 \ erf (Z Fo ) + exp (X Z) 1


z J ( B 2

v ^ -

x^TT) [ . K

T > 0. t =t,0< r<r, z = 0, T > 0.


Q Q S e e

o a g e

Xr erfcfz Fo* + ^ A + exp (-ZX ) erfc |Z Fo* ~) 2Fo"/ " \ 2 Fo" \\ 2Fo / \ 2 Fo*/ x , Fo*, R,and Z
n 9 > 1 - 2 0 f o r

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.23 Description Solution

9, p. 420 Cone with steady surface temperature.

t - t.
i

= 1 +

t = t,, o < e < e , T = o. t = t , e = e , T > o.


Q Q 0

^ 2.

(2n + l)r [(n + l)/2] PJX) nT(n/2) [dP (X)/dn]


n x = x
n+1/2

exp (-orru/r ) J / 3/2

(u)du

P (X) = 0 (Legendre polynomial) n u

^ 9.1.24

33

Infinite composite cylinder, t = t., r < r < r., T = 0.


3

t = t q

Q l

r = r , T > 0.
3

)r-rr = I J T 1 "0

P ("*

*>) FG [x2j (R X ) - NX
0 2 n

nJl

(R X )]
2 n

n=l

= 0, r = r,. F =
X R 2 n

vw
2

[V n 3>] [ ^ " ( " V*2 J


G J {RX ( R

~ [ V 2 n> " V l < 2 n>] '

- 0 n> [ ^ D 2 V " V V n > ] ~ V V *[ n 0 2 n> - V l ' V n ' ]


X J (R X

k =

(R
( R

- 1) ' p c
X ) P

3 "

22

Section 9.1.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Solution Bi J (^ R) cosh [X L(l - X)J
0 n n

Case No. References 9.1.25 33

Description Finite cylinder with convection boundary and insulated end. t = t., 0 < r < r , 0 < x < *' 0 T = 0. t = t , 0 < r < r
Q fc Q Q f

- 2TT

" i

fc

X (X + B i ) J(A ) cosh ( L) n n=l V n / D n


2 2

x = 0, x > 0. q = 0,
x

^. ~ , m=0 n=l

(2m + l)BiJ (X R) cos


Q n 2 2 2

[(

2m 2

~ *) (1 - X)7ij
2

0 < r < r , x = %, T > 0.


Q

Convection boundary h,
h 2

L [x + (2at + 1>V/4L 1 ( \ L" J \ n

+ B i ) J(X ) / O n '

' V

a t r =

V
h.t.

vo I

I
|x = ,

WV
Q

= B i

W
Q Q

Bi = hr /k, L = /r , R = r / r , X = x/l,

Fo = orr/r

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.26 33 Description Case 9.1.25 with convection h , t-.j at r = r . Convection boundary 0
Q fc

Solution " . r _ n V 1 2 0' n Ln -I , (x + B i ) J(X ) Tx sinh (X L) + B i , cosh (X L)l n=l \ n J. / Q n l_ n n nJ


x x 2 2

i_ _ " i
fc

h , t :
2 Q

at x = 0. "
Z n

X B^ B i ^
m

B i ; J (X R) cos [X L(l - X)]


0 n m

4; (xV x ) (x Bi ) J ( X ) [(x Bi?)


+ +
0

Bi,l
2

m=l n=l \ n

m/ V n ,

1/

0 n ]\, m x exp [-FO ( x ^


2

2/ 2J X )]

to

Vl n>

(X

= B i

l W '
Bi
2 2

V'V

= B i

2
R = r / r , X = x/S,
Q

B^ = h^/k,

= h JLA, L = H/t ,
Q

l ^ S R K v --...i "--Vi

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 9.1.27 33

Description Finite cylinder with a linear time dependent temperature on one end. t = t^ 0 < r < r ,
Q

Solution

Bi J ( 0 R )
o n 2 2

cosh [ e L ( l - X)]
n

^ " ' i
00 00

4. n=l
n

fe + B i ) j (B ) cosh (3 L) Vn / O n n

0 < x < l, T = 0. t = t. + b(t - t.)T, b(t i 0 0, 0 < T < b t , x = 0, T > b.


Q

3 Bi J . ( B R ] cosh fe L ( l - xfl m o n Lm J (BV

J^ . m=0 n=l
n

\n

+ &\ / fel + B i /) J < ) sin ( mJ 3 m \n O B n

g^ = 0, 0 < r < r , x = I, T > 0. Convection boundary h, t . at r = r 0 '


Q

- [k * M1 - [ - ( * > )])
(2m + l)ir, 3nJ , ( 3 n = Bi J O3nJ ( l )
n n n

o
-X

h.t,

Fo = orrAn, Bi = h r / k , L = /a, R = r / r , X = x/J,,


0 Q

, b
t = f(r)-

3 j

Pd = r b / a 0

9.1.28

33

Case 9 . 1 . 27 with convection boundary h ,


2
fc

Solution identical to that given in case 4.1.25 except multiply the second summation series by

t
fc

at x = 0.

t.)T, t. ^ Pd {exp | ^ T (X: + KL/l>~)\ " < o " I 0 < T < 1/b. t = t , T > 1/b.

[h K *4

- 1}

Convection boundary h w t.: at r = r.

Section 9.1. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.1.29 65 Description I n f i n i t e rod attached to an i n f i n i t e p l a t e . 0 *! ' 0 C < > T = 0 . . 0 <_ r < < , T = 0 *,
fc s fc 0

Solution .
t c

. " V*! i " V 1q b


k b 00

_ _ x , _ 2

_ i _ ,
3

2 v (-D 7i 4 , n
2 2

, > ir P o ) , :
2 2

n=j.
X = 1 , R + .

^ = q~, x = 0 , T

< -V l o
q b

fc

[<* - V l 1 / 2 2 2\ o ^ ~ W i<V
q b J p

V 2

to i IO

_i _

YP f
fm^T

2 4i

f f \ . i
+

, ^
- | ( rc ef
W

r P + S) ' J
2

x ^ P 4 1 erfc ( ^ o

+ 4 i erfc (^=-j - 4 i erfc [ erfc (

yPo ^ )

_|o
ZM

n=0
.
i 2 e r f c

\
([i^i^]-))
+

erfc L
c f c

f^Po
2

J - e r f c ^
Q Q

^J

;{,X =l R = 0.
r

Po = o t ^ / b , X = x / b , R = r / b

Section 9.1. Case No.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesHo Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

Section 9.1. Case Ho.

Solids Bounded by Cylindcical SurfacesNo internal Heating. Descciption Solution

References

VD i to

JJ!*.!***^-' "

".WWSj

Section 9.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description , _


t t ) k

Case Mo. References 9.2.1

Solution ~ J (RX ) exp (-X Fo) ) j^ -i ' n n I n=l


n ,l , l 3 2

9, p. 204 Infinite cylinder with steady internal heating and constant surface temperature.

*fo'

0 _2_,,,

I 4
=

2 R

) _

See Pig. 9.5

V0

i to

9.2.2

9, p. 205 90

I n f i n i t e cylinder with (t - t ) k steady internal heating and convection boundary. 0^0 t = t , 0 < r < r , T = 0. *n1,
f f Q
q

i"
n

K + 2/Bi) - 2 Bi
(

> ^ X ( B i + X ) J(X ) n=l n \ n/ 0 n


2 2 2

. . .

t...

BiJ (X ) = V l V '
0

See Fig. 9.10.

Section 9 . 2 .

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description


fc 1

Case No. References 9.2.2.1

Solution
=

n 74, p. 372 Case 9 . 2 . 2 with g i " = ^in^-bT q^'e t = t,., 0 < r < r , x = 0.
Q

- *-i_ _

po

fr
Pd - Xn 2 Bi

J ( VSdR) a R)
Q

I exp (-Pd Po)

pJ^V^dJ

00

i n=l

J(X n' (r )

Xn

W
I

(n

+ B l

to 9.2.3 9, p. 204 I n f i n i t e cylinder with exponential time-dependent internal:heating. t = t> 0 < r < r, T = 0. (
r f c

- V

q" ^0^0 2_ Pd J

exp t-br) J (RVPd) ^(VPo") Pd


0

exp
n

(-FoX^JpCRXj
l( n

n=l ^ ( x J / P d - l ) J X )

Section 9.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 9.2.4 Description Pipe temp: 0 (t^ - t..)h P It - c. jn r. / i \ -XT -E r * i i- = XT + ( j - r r ) (1 - e ) - e ^ [(XT - 1) "p
E A T

Solution

3, p. 363 Infinite pipe with steady fluid flow and sudden heat generation in the w a n . generation in cne wall. Fluid: t - t T - 0. Pipe: t = t., T = 0. Fluid velocity = V. Wall heating: q'" = q"' T > 0. No axial conduction.
U

x +(E T*) - X*(5,T*) + (j^-rr) e "


f

X T

A(C,T*,X)] , t > (X - 1)5,

Fluid temp: (t - t . ) h P.
- = XT ( X x

_
(1 - e

r
) - e *

Insulated

1 e n

outerwall
< -yJV

1 " n *0 " p
0

"

x [{XT

+ X - 1)I|I(5,T ) - e "

AT

A(C,T X)J
r

, T > (X - 1)5

- v

t , h -<
f

*
,T

6e"

d5

_~ n=0
t, = D / X ,
f

( n l

(nl) >'

-i 0
^*

A = X + B /D ,
f p

= D / (X p

X/V) ,
+ ( E r t

b = h V ff f
f

b = h P/PpOpAp,
2

*, =

J
n=0
rt

-^~2
1**1 / nl

/
0
n

fin+le

"

d 6

A, = flow area, A = pipe section area, f P P. = pipe inside perimeter.


l

< >'
r

J!, ,_,, ^ n=u

,,-jn / * "

See Figs. 9.6a, 9.6b, and 9.6c.

(n!)' u

Section 9.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating.

Case No. References 9.2.5 9, p. 405

Description Infinite cylinder with linear temperaturedependent internal heating.

Solution

(t ~ t )k _ ^ J ( R V P 5 )
Q 0

^_

~
+ 2

exp l(-\l
X

+ Po)Fo] J ( R \ )
Q

o' r'r
9

B J (VPO)
Q

" Po

2/
n=l

n(

P o

" n) l<V

J ( X ) = 0 , Po = Brjj/k, R = r/r
Q n

2 If 3 > 0, steady state solution exists for Po < A .

I W -J

9.2.6

19, p. 3-29

Infinite cylinder of infinite conductivity, variable specific heat, convection boundary, and uniform heating.

See case 8.2.11, set L = 2, radius =

I.

9.2.7

19, p. 3-29

Case 9.2.6 with a short cylinder of length 2A.

See case 8.2.11, set L = 3, radius =

I.

Section 9 . 2 .

S o l i d s Bounded by C y l i n d r i c a l SurfacesWith I n t e r n a l Heating. Description Hollow i n f i n i t e c y l i n d e r with e x p o n e n t i a l l y space varying heat g e n e r a t i o n . t = t . , r . < r < r , T = 0.
Q

Case No. References 9.2.8 63

Solution .2
( t

~ ^ 2
m r

2 2 .. WW Z, ,2., . 2, n=l W ~ 0
T J

, W

/ \

fc

\ /

t = t^T), r = s
2

i r

T > 0.

t = t ( x ) , r = r , T > 0.
2

Fo

q'"

= mc e x p [ - 6 ( r - r ^ ] .

(/ h v w " il W )
0

(T)

Ti(T

exp

Fo

d(Po)

r
j f (X ) ( B r ^
n 2

F o

I
mx exp ( x
2

Foj d(Fo)|
2

^
x

<
x

R = r/r

l f

, (t - t )k3 a Fo = a r / r ' , T ( T ) mr
R

2 exp ["Sr^R - 1)] RB (X R)dR


0 n

/
J

W > " 0 n VV " W W 0 WW * W V W


J (

(X

R)

Section 9.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Solution (t - t ^ k q'''r
+

Case No. References 9.2.9

Description

74, p. 375 Infinite cylinder with a steady surface heat flux and steady internal heating. t = t , 0 < r < r , x = 0.
A Q

Po +
Q

on
s

q". = . "
q

o < r < r ,
Q

> 0.

f- [ Fo - J(l - 2R ) - 2 J
2

J (X R) cap
0 n

( A )

0'

>

*
j'(X ) = 0 0 n

n=l

X J(X ) n 0 n'

I to

9.2.10

74, p. 375 Case 9 . 2 . 9 with ' (1 - R ).

(t - t . ) k
q r

- = i FO + 4 Z a''' r0 0
Q n

V [ i n - W l
^3,2, X J(X ) n Cr n
J 2

2J

(X

n=l

x J (X R) [ l - exp (-X F o ) ] + 4 > $ given in case 9 . 2 . 9

Section 9.2.

Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description


(t - t )k
I I %'I' . o
r
2

Case No. References 9.2.11

Solution
v
\ * '

74, p. 375 Case 9.2.9 with

q'" "%"a

+ br).

5 = FO ( 1 + ~ Pa Fo) + given in case 9.2.9

9.2.12

74, p. 376 Case 9.2.9 with


r

(t

"V
,.,,2
r
I

1 r
Pd

lI

~l I I q'"

exp (-be).

V o

given in case 9,2.9

9.2.13

74, p. 376 Case 9.2.9 with


.III _ q ' II

cos (br).

(t - t )k - r ,,,2 = Pd sin (Pd Fo) + If q'"r 4 given in case 9.2.9 >

9.2.14

74, p. 376 Case 9.2.9 with

( t

- y

_ (PdFo)
n + 1

q-rj

FO +

given in case 9.2.9

Section 9.2. Solids Bounded by Cylindrical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Solution

Case No. References 9.2.15

Description

74, p. 393 Infinite cylinder with pulse heating on a cylindrical surface and convection boundary h, t , 0 < r < r , T = 0
f Q

Q,
J

"IT
=

~Z
n=l
r

(BI

+ x)
n/

J (X

\ ' 0
r

0 n

Instantaneous pulse heating of strength Q. occurs at itrength Q r


l r

0<V
p c r

0, R =

For B i * : <t 00

T = 0.

- V
1

J2oo

V n > 0 ( X ^ ) exp
X R J

K )

*?<*>
A

Mean temp:
i

<**

~ V

P c c

o
n=l 4 Bi
2

nW

) B

X (" n Fo)
2

?<V

(X n

2 +

Bi ) '

. o 2 Section 9-*-

A A v > cylindrical Surfaces* Solids Bounded by c y i m *""

,-With internal Heating.

VD I W M

Section 10.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 10.1.1

2, p. 239 Sphere with steady 74, p. 126 surface temperature. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.
i f Q

t
t

r* - t

f y "*~H T ^_ T n n=l
OD

e x

P i-^

Po) s i n (mrR)
_

= X

L -R2 L n=l

eCfC

T jro T (\ 2zVfe" / ' ~

2R

eCfC

\^ 2^Tiro )J' j' yfe

+ R

Po < 1 .

Mean temp:
CO

t - 10 t. ~m
9 .'_. I \ i I I l 0

6
IT

22 _

, n n=l Cumulative heat r a t e :


CD

,n+l
0 w

n=l

See F i g . 10.1

Section 10.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.1.2.1 74, p. 254 Description t _ V " f " Z n=l
fc 2 n

Solution , ._ _, / ,2 \ A s i n (A R) exp |-A_ Fol n n V n / fX - sin (X ) cos (X )"| R


n L

Sphere with convection . . , boundary-general case t = f (r), 0 < r < r , x = 0.


r n

-1 I I
L

r_
M r

_
c

_ 1 f
J

/ ' x s0 n (X R) dR . i n

tan{Xj V (1 - Bi) See Table 14.2 of roots

10.1.2.2

3, p. 298

Sphere with convection boundary. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.


i f Q

i^. = y
2

t, - t,

n=l Z X cos (X ) = (1 - Bi) s i n (X ) n n n


2

Bi s i n (X ) exp (-X Fo) s i n (X R) n \ n / n X - s i n (X ) cos (X )X R n n n n

Cumulative heat rate:

k- n-1 I
0

[ s i n (X ) - X cos (X )]
R n fl

[l - exp (-X* Fo)]


COS

n On "
f

s i n

<V

Q = f TVrJpc( - t )
ti

See F i g s . 10.2a, 10.2b, and 10.2c

Section 10.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.1.3 Description Solution

9, p. 233 Sphere with initial temp (r) and surface temp 4>(t), general case. nl

2 2 exp(-n I To) s i n (mrR) T

If
o 10.1.4 u 9, p. 235 Sphere with surface temp proportional to time. t , 0 < r < r , t brt + t . , r T
t Q

Rf (R) s i n (mrR)dR - mr(-l)

" - / '

exp(n w

Po X)()>(A)dX

t - t t - .
0 t

Fo R

V " -

, n-1

^ exp(-n Tf Fo) s i n (mtR) n


3

See Table 1 0 . 1 and Fig. 10.8

WRBm.

Section 10.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating.

Case No. References 10.1.5 9, p. 235

Description Sphere with variable init'-' " itial temp. ! ~...* JL V r - ii l = <* " VII' < 0 " ( i0 l 0> ill' "rr 0 nT, Rn K (2n + I ) c n=0 0 < r < r , T = 0.
= c r)/ r + fc fc fc 3 c Q

Solution

expl*-* ^ + 1) Pol sin |"(2n + 1) TIR!


3 L J L J

*= V

r= r

0' * '

I
10.1.6 9, p. 236 Sphere with variable initial temp (parabolic). . . , /.2 _2^ ,/_2+^ . \ t = _ ,. r 2 r2 r fc . t - t n-1 9_ i-L. V 1=11 i t _ -"0 7 * R * Z- n 3 t 3 c T* J n=i.
= s n n (n1T

R) exp(-n i Fo) t

^ c - V ( o " V ( Q o)
Q

0 < r < c,
Q

T " 0.
Qf

t = t, r = r

T > 0.

Section 10.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description _ t


Q

Case No. References 10.1.7

Solution

9, p. 237 Sphere with variable initial temp (trigonometric). t = t + ( / c ) s i n r r / r ) , 0 < r < r , T = 0.


t < ( 1 0 Q

i - t

1 2 s i n (HR) exp(-u Fo)

l U1

10.1.8

9, p . 237 Sphere with variable i n i t i a l temp (exponential). _

_
0

fc

" 0

2ir

,
eXPt

2 2 ,

t -t

Q +

(t c
Q Q

eX

p[ (r - r 3, tprt; - T
b

-^TTBV
[(-l)
n + 1

"

^
2 2

0 < r < r , T t , r = r , T > 0.


Q

x s i n (nTO) B = br

(B

- 2B + n t r ) - 2B exp (-B)"j

Section 10.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description

Case No. References

Solution
CO

10.1.9

9, p. 236

Sphere with two i n i t i a l temperatures.

' 0 H" 0
fc

2
MTR

sin (nirRj) nn
2_2

Rj^ sin (nirRj_)J

n=l

x sin (nTiR) exp(-n IT Fo)

H O

10.1.10

9, p. 237

Sphere with polynorainal i n i t i a l temperature. t = h - ^ +V b r


2 0

2 +

b r
3

fc

^ _ 2 _ l ' 0
fc

s i n

<

nltR)

L i - <-l) **

n + 1 +

- ^

[ ( n V - 2)

+ . . . . , 0 < r < r , T = 0. t = t , r = r , T > 0.


Q Q

, , , n+1 _T . b 2 . 3 3 , . , , , n+1 3 x (-1) - 2J + -- (n u - 6nii) (-1) + ~^j


A

nX
2

[24 - (n n - 12n ir + 24) ( - l )


2

+ ....]} exp(-n ir Fo)

b[ = b r/H, b* = b rJ/R, bj = b ^ / R ,

Section 10.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.1.11 9, p . 238 89 Description Sphere with convection boundary and changing f l u i d temperature, t = t , , 0 < r < r , T = 0. t
f

Solution

( t

" V"

, R Bi - 2 + Bi . 2 Bi
+

= bx + t .

T > 0.

2 br!

"
^,

F o

Til

s i n (RXJexp (-Fo X )
X + B i

n-T Kn u n \l n=i
Mean temp:

<

B i

" ]J

s i n

< Jn

X cot(X ) + Bi = 1 n n

exp (-X Fo)


o

brr

F O

" 15 I " 5i)

B l

~ X (X n=l n \ n

2.

Bi

- Bi) '

See Fig. 10.9

Section 1 0 . 1 . Case No.

S o l i d s Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Case 1 0 . 1 . 1 1 with


1 7

References

Solution t - t. .
fc

10.1.11.174,
P

Bi s i n ( V p a R ) exp (-Pd Fo)


x s i n

'

= t

f m

- (t

f m

- t.)e

~ i ~

fc

"

( B i

" >

f" "

v^?a

c o s

A R s i n (A R) exp 1-X" Fo)

B i

V _S
n+1

1JL_
2

V -S Z.
2 1 / 2

(-l)
A = n Mean temp:
fc

~ n=l

[\

2 n+

(Bi-l) ]

( l - X /P6) X \ n / n
Bi

(l
3 Bi

+Bi2

- )
( Vpd) VPHD exp (-Pd Fo)

m "

fc

[tan

t . - t. rm l 6 Bi
2

Pd RBi - DtanCVPd') + exp (-X Fo) ^ X (X +Bi n=l n \ n


2 2 2 2

\PdJ

- B i ) ( l - X /Pd) ' n '


v

Section 10.1. Case No. 10.1.12

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesMo Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

9, p. 238 Sphere with convection boundary and changing fluid temp, t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0.
i # Q

t t

= (t - tj) sin (OJT + e), T > 0.


m

~ i 2 Bi t m - t . i " Pd R

fc

fc

= max f l u i d temp,

I
Ae
i(t>

X rX

V Pdl-Pd
n=l
X

S i n

(E)

"
l

COS

()

1
Bi

(Bi

"

1)

S i n

( R

V
n

[( n

/ P d

+ 1

- B i ) cos (X ,

x exp f-Fo \ Pd = (at /a

? n

+ 2 ^ - s i n (COT + z + ^

+ 4f )\
2

X cot (X ) + Bi = 1 n n = sinh (to ) cos (to ) + i cosh (to ) s i n (to ) 2 = to, cosh (to_) + (Bi - 1) sinh (to ) = (1 + i ) Y i d / I

Ae

w = R "VPd/2, u

Section 10.1. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Temp of the sphere:
fc
t

Solution

10.1.13 9, p. 240 Sphere enclosed in a finite medium of infinite conductivity. t = t., 0 < r < r , T = 0.
t =

V i

Kr <

1 2M V t. - t M + 1 " 3R Z
t

" 'C

fc

V
2

T =

K 2 MfX* + 9(M + l)X n=l n n


M

M X* + 3(2M + 3)X + 9

sin

^n'

= 0, r = r , T > 0.

x sin (X ) exp (-X Fo.jJ , 0 < R < 1 Temp of the surrounding medium:
co

7 ~~ = * , - 6M y -r-r exp (-X t. - t M + 1 Z, 2 2 ^ n n=l n ' 22 / 3 \ n M = - (R - l) , R = r/r , tan (X ) = j ll ' 3 + MX_ See Fig. 10.3
P Q M X + P 3 X n P w 1 n

Po. J , 1 < R < l)

Section 10.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. -References 10.1.14

9, p. 241 Case 10.1.13, except the sur- Temp of surrounding medium rounding medium transfers ( 3 Bi R MX;) exp (-XJ; F o J heat by convection to a fluid at temp t . i *"? M X + 3X^(3 + 3 - 2M Bi R_) - 9 Bi R , ( l - Bi R_) M n=i n n z z i. t t , 0 < r < r , T = 0.
m
fc

"2

t = t , r > r , x = 0.
Q

22

Exterior surface area = A_

(-J" )'

r/r,

M
o
i

3X

tan(X ) 3(1 - Bi R) + MX" ^ n

Section 10.1. Case Mo. 10.1.15

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Sphere with steady surface heat f l u x , t = t . , 0 < r < r , T = 0.
Q

References 9, p . 242

Solution (t - t . ) k 2 _ 3 10

5 R

Vo

= 3 Fo +

2. V
~8 Z n=l

S i n

Vn

e x p

(" n )

r V

T >

'

^2 X* s i n (X,,) n n

tan(X ) = X
n

See Pig. 10.4

i to

10.1.16

9, p., 246

Hollow sphere with two surface temperatures t = f(r), t < r < r , t = t . , r = \ . , T > 0.
i Q

T__!i
T

(
+

V i ~ i
R

) R 2
+

v
n = 1

/ T

c o s

(nir)

~ i

= 0.

T^

Rrr 2J

n ~ i V * y s i n (rnrR ) n=l

fc

"V

0'

>

"

* 2 2 x s i n (fflTR ) exp(-n IT FO) +

x exp(-n ir Fo) / /
l

(R*+ R)f (R*) s i n (mm*) dR*

R = (r - r . ) / < r . - r.) , R = r / r , Fo = onr/(r - r . ) i"^0 '1' 0 *i'


n u n

Section 10.1.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

Case No. References 10.1.17

9, p. 247 Hollow sphere with steady surface flux, t = t c < c < c T = 0.


i r i Qt

(t - t . ) k

<R - R)
0

"

(l + \
X

2 n

)
R

1 / 2

sin g R
n

-\ R)
n

Vi

RR
Q

t = t . , r = r , , T > 0. -9
r

n-1

n [ 0

( R

0 "

1 ) X

nl

- q , r = r , T > 0.
0 Q

x e x p (-A Fo) t a n (A R - A ) + A = 0 n 0 n n R = r / r . , Fo = orc/r.


I I

10.1.18

9, p . 350

Sphere of i n f i n i t e conductivity enclosed by s h e l l of f i n i t e conductivity.

t - t,Q_ l 0

4K ~R sin [ A ( l - R)] exp (-A Fo)


n 2

2K(1 - R.)A

+ 4R.A s i n
n

[A (l
n

- R.)]

- K sin

[2A (1 R

R.)]

R. < R < 1 .
i

R.K A cos [A (1 - R.)l i n n i


L J

=
F o =

(x R n i
0 f T /

- K ) s i n [A (1 - R.)] . ' n i 2
L J

K= P

c 2 2

/ / p

ll'

r/ft

0'

' 0

Section 10.1. Case No. 10.1.19

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description 2R ^0


n R n = 1

References

Solution

9, p. 351 Composite sphere. t = t 0 < r < r , T = 0. t ~ *0 * - t t o t , r = r , T > 0. i " 0


n i f Q fc fc Q Q

__^ n

^ j

s i n

{X

R _
O

1 }

x j

x exp (-X* FOj) , 0 < R < 1 .

*~

t o

- I n=l

sin

( X ) sin[A (R - 1) X J x exp (-X P o ) , 1 < R < R .


2 Q 2

(X ) = K X s i n
n n

[A X

(R - 1)]+ A X (R
Q n 2

- 1) s i n
2 n

(X >
n R

+ [(1 - KA)/A X ] s i n X cot[A X


n n

(X ) s i n [A X
n

{R - 1)] .
Q

(R - 1)] + 1/A + K [ X
Q

cot (X ) - l ] = 0 . R - r / r . , A(R - 1) i r r a t i o n a l
Q

Fo = crt/r^, A = VSjA^, K = k ^ ,

Section 10.1. Case No. 10.1.20

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Sphere with radiation cooling t = t ,0 < E < r ,x = 0 q = a tf"(T , - T \ ^r \ r=r s/
4 4 x

References 45 19. p. 3-57

Solution See Fig. 10.6

r = r 1*

= sink temp,

10.1.21

72

Prolate spheriod with steady surface temp t = t., throughout solid, T = 0. t = t , on surface of solid, w' T > 0.

t - t. See Figs. 10.7a & b for - t vs Po w i

Section 10.1. Case No. 10.1.22

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description t - t. x__ t - t. f I


c

References

Solution R M Bi s i n ( VPd R) exp (-Pd Fo) 1 - (Bi - 1) s i n (-VPd) + YPd cos ( V P 9 )

74, p. 320 A sphere with convection and evaporation boundary, t = t , 0 < r < r , t = 0.
Q

m = nue"

= evaporation rate. T [l ^
TJA
2 n

R sin (X R) exp (-X Fo)


n v n

H n=l
(-l,
n + 1 2

L
2 +

i -(pd/x u
(Bi 2

'
1

B i [X

1) ]

1 / 2

, M = Ym /h(t - t )
0 f

X + Bi n X cot(X ) = 1 - Bi n n

- Bi

Section 10.1. Case No.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesNo Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

o t

Sucfaces-No internal Heating. Section 10 ,1. solids Bounded by Spherical

o I
i00
1

Section 10.2. Case No.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution

References

10.2.1

1, p. 30? Sphere with steady surface temp and internal heating. t = t . , 0 < r < t , x = 0.
f l

<t - t)k

,,, 2
c

i *,V

" ^

t- V r

- t ,x
Q

> 0.

', 0 > r > r, x > 0.

2 2 x s i n (rniR) exp (-n T Fo). T See P i g . 10.5 for condition t . = t .

Section 10.2.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description (t - t )k --f= ij


*0
C

Case No. References 10.2.2 9 , p. 243

Solution

Sphere with linear internal heating d i s t r i b u t i o n . 0. t = t , 0 < r < r , T


n Q

(1 - 2R

2 2 +

R> ^
2

3 3

t =
_ i i i

i 9 'i "i ( r - r ) / r 0 ' 0 < r < r , T > 0. _


0 Q

c =

v " -

n=0 <

2 n

1 ) 5

.2_2 T x exp [-(2n + 1) TT Fo] s i n [(2n + 1) ITR]

1 0 . 2 . 2 . 1 74, p. 366

Case 1 0 . 2 . 2 with , , b/2


T

00
fc

" i
r E

V n=l

1 r

.
e c f c

/2n-l-_R\

/2n-l+_R jl

b t

X j>

U jr

1 /

-^ - - = 2 R [
Po Po 1 + (b/2)
00

\ 2VFO

J "

e c f o

V 2VF5 />J

i #

0 < r < r , x = 0.
Q

0'

>

'

| i - r

( , * ) *

V n=l

1 Tjb+2

/2n - 1 - R\

.b+2

_ /2n - 1 + R\"ll

Po = q ' - ' T / r / b ( t

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.2.3 Description . . ~V * 1 0 0 Solution
D

9, p. 243- Case 10.2.2, with ... ... (2 2\ , 2 0 < r < r, T > 0. '0'

. . (-1)""
1

( t

, - 2 , 12
D

n=l x exp(-n2TT2 Fo) sin (mtR)

10.2.4

9, p. 244 Case 10.2.2, with q'V'rq"' "-^^


Q

(t

- V = [l - expf-ir2 Po)] sin (TtR) 1 r T j


TT R
Z

sin

(iir/r ),
0

q^'r*

0 < r < r , T > 0.

l CO

Case 1 0 . 2 . 2 with q.'. =qM-exp[b(r-r )I.


0

(t - t )k , , _ , , ,, _ - _ . j ( i _ | _ ( i - - ) exp(BR - B) ( ff

l) e"

00

" H 1 n(n 27 2 + B ) , T , 1
n = 1

s i n (MTR)

e x p (

"

2 2 P_o ) ,

x [ ( - l ) ( 2 B - n ir - B ) - 2Be~ J. Br b.
0

Section 1 0 . 2 .

S o l i d s Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Case 1 0 . 2 . 2 with (t - V * _ 1_ ~ t)k ,, c2 ~ Pd Solution -br [ s i n (RVPd) .1 LR s i n ( V W " "J " _2_ 3
7T R
n

Case No. References 10.2.6 9, p . 245

q'" =

%"*'*.

V 0

lv

n=l Pd = r*b/a .

( - 1 ^ s i n (nirR) n<n"V - Pd)

e x p (

_ 2, 2
n r

F o ) >

10.2.7

9, p . 245

Case 1 0 . 2 . 2 with

(t - t ) k
Q

g " =q "
0 r

'

i <

< V
0, 0 < r < r , .

a0 "r0
q E

it

g-br I f s i n ( R V W ) " I R Pd \ [ s i n ( V W ) " J


R

s i n (V"Pd - RVPd) ) s i n (VPd") f


s i n

|R cos (R^ Pd) - -^szY""PcT

^VPdj]
n

2_ V
n=l

L^
n(n"7T" - Pd)

L _ i ) + i - sin (mtR.)
(

R cos (mrR ) | sin (mrR) exp (-n"ir' Fo)


n

V]

2 2

Pd = r*b/a .

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case Ho. References 10.2.8 Description ft - t )k
n ey [ n 1! P o ) s i n { m R ) 2 2 r R

Solution

9, p. 245 Case 10.2.2 with


g'" '
t >

= f(r), 0 < r < r , -

__0 _ _^_ y __ ^ _ - . y ~ e x p ( - n i r Po) s i n (rniR) / 0 * n=l " -0 n=l 0


n

r
|

1
R

i) R'f(R )
f ( R s 1

(rniR')dR'

R ' ( R ' ) dR' + J

R'f (R') dR' -

R f ( R ' ) dR'

, 2

io.z.9 S ., J
u

9, p. 245 Sphere with steady internal ,...,, < = ,-,*.. /,2 \ 90 heating and convection ~ V 1 2 ,.,,., . at V n ("n ) boundary. .,, * ft" Z t l x J ( x ;^ i - B i ) _,_n, (X ) .2/.2 + B 2 \ .l q ' " r2 = 6 ~ t = t , 0 < r < r ,T =0 q*" = <^'\ 0 < r < r , X cot C y = 1 - Bi T >0 See Fig. 10.10
( t k 5 1 n ( X R ) x p e X F o M ( 1 R + 2 / B l ) 2 2 6 R ; a n J n B Q Q n

h.t

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description
fc

Solution i . Po r t - t, " ^ ~ pa L x exp(-Pd Fo) n=l n 2 [sin (X ) - X cos (X j ] in n nXn - sin (A) "cos (X ) ' n n
1 fc

10.2.9.1 74, p. 366 Case 8.2.9 with ,.. q ^ " e .


_brr q

Bi sin (V"Pd~R) " 1 R [(Bi - 1) sin fv Pd)+ V Pd cos (V Vd)Tj " A


ti_

sin (A R) exp (-X


__
n

\ n

Po)
/

RX

\ ~ 10.2.10
o I to

t a n

1 -"B!

9, p. 246 Sphere with parabolic initial temp and convection boundary.

i r

(t "- 1 )k_ 1 t
C , K n

|"l_

_1

1 T _ 2 Bi
1

0 < r < r , T = 0 (temp dist. for steady state with const, surface temp = t.). q'*' = 1^", 0 < r < r , x > 0.
Q

sin (X R) exp I-A Fol


X+ Bi2 n

. (
X
n

") V
k ( t

B i sin (

]
2

cot (X ) = 1 - Bi, Po =
n

q' " r _ Ij

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.2.11 9, p. 350 Description Sphere of infinite conductivity enclosed by a shell of finite conductivity t = t , 0 < r < r , T = 0.
Q 0 q

Solution .
( q r Jfc

~ o' _ 1 / 1 _ 1_\ _ 4K ,,, 2 3 \R ~ R / ~ R n n


Q

" ... = ^.i, o < r < r ,


q Q

sin [ X ( R
n X 2 K ( R

- 1)] s i n [X (R
n 4 X

- R)] exp (-X^ Fo)


1 }

T > 0. q ' " = 0, c


t

n-1 n |
n

0 n 0

1 ) X

n =

s i

"

C n< 0 "
2

]
n

"
Q

[ V 0 " ^)
R ( )

' .

< r < r ,
Q

T > 0.
i w
Ol

KX cos [X <R - 1)]


K = 3 P

(X - K) sin [X (R
P

- 1)] , 1 < R <

2 2 1 1'

/ P

r / r

i'

10.2.12

19, pp. 3-29

Sphere of i n f i n i t e oond u c t i v i t y , variable s p e c i f i c heat, convective boundary, and steady heating.

See case 8 . 2 . 1 1 , s e t L = 3 , radius

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.2.13 Description (t - t,)k Po + $ Solution

74, p. 370 Sphere with a steady internal heating and steady surface flux.

ft Pof t 3 -

Fo - ^- (3 - 5R ) - 2

10

^ n=l

sin (X R) exp (-A Fo) n \ n ' O n sin (X ) n

tana ) = X n n
n

10.2.13.1 74, p. 370

Case 10.2.13 with q'" = q'"(l - r/r).

(t - t,)k a' 'r~


H

P-F"2
0

2 - (2 + X ) cos ( J X v n/ n
2

sin (X R) n

n=l
2

X R sin n

( ) X n

x [l - exp(-X Fo)] + ft ft given in case 10.2.13.

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References 10.2.13.2 74, P. 370 Description Case 10.2.13 with ,,, _ 2 ,
= q ( 1 R )

Solution

g l I 1

< ~ V
fc

2 Po
n=l

sin

(X R) [l - exp (-X, Fo)]


n

+ * Xra sin (X ) R m

a " "r 0 0
q r

$ given in case 10.2.13. 10.2.13.3 74, p. 370 Case 10.2.13 with q'" = q'" exp(-bR).

( t

"

fc

)k

3 Fo [2 - exp(-b) (b + 2b + 2)]

q'"r 0 0
4

"
+ 2 b

2X - exp(-b) (2 + b
n

+ 2b + X ) sin (XJ sin (X R)


n

2. ~ n=l

72 . 2 ,. . A 2 ^ .2\2 _ X sin (X_) (X_ + b ) R n n \ n / x [l - exp(-X Fo) ] + *


2

$ given in case 10.2.13. 10.2.13.4 74, p. 370 Case 10.2.13 with q'" = q^"(l + bT). (t - t.)k , x = Fo (1 + ~ Pd Fo) + $ a r 0 0 $ given in case 10.2.13.
q

l 2 M

'

10.2.13.5 74, p. 371

Case 10.2.13 with


q

iii

_ >i>
q

e x p

(-bT),

(t - t.)k , . - = ^r [l - exp(-Pd Fo)J + * Pd 3"'r 0 0 $ given in case 10.2.13.


1
2

Section 10.2. Case No.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Case 10.2.13 with q " = q'< 'cos(br). Solution (t - t.)k . = |^ sin (Pd Po) + * given in case 10.2.13.

References

10.2.13.6 74, p. 371

10.2.13.7

74, p. 371

q l I

Case 10.2.13 with , q^.tn:".


= q

... 2
r

$ given in case 10.2.13.


l IO 03

Section 10.2.

Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Description Solution


,1/2 + X ] A
2

Case No. References 10.2.14

74, p. 390 Sphere with pulse heating on a spherical surface and a convection boundary, t = t , 0 < r < r , T = 0.
f Q

(t - t ) p c r *
f

[(Bi - l )

sin
i

(X^)

sin
2

{X R)
n

Q|

~ 4rT Za n=l n+1 2 Bi [ X


2

B i R. R 2-11/2 l) ]
2

Instantaneous pulse of strength Q occurs at


A

e x p

(" n ) *

+ (Bi 2

r = t ,
x

T = 0.

n=

X + Bi n

- Bi

tan(X ) n '
For B i -* : (t - t )pcr 5 For r
f

r^ii'
=

R = r / r

o
( n l I H

i v 1 2 ? Z R~R n=l \, n=l ,2 n

( n 1 T R )

e x

P(~

2 2 T )
F

= 0 i
X S i n ( X

3 (t - t )pcrjj
QI

R )

n n

F o

2TTR ZJ

sin

(X ) c o s ( X

Mean temp:

<*,, - y p

,
4TTR

^
n=l

RTBIS

i-

8 1

" ' *^

,.V2

Vn
">)

s i n

<W

x exp
B
n

6 Bi X (X n n
v 2 2 +

Bi

- Bi) /

Section 10.2. Solids Bounded by Spherical SurfacesWith Internal Heating. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.1 Description Solution

9, p. 285 Initial surface maintained at Solid temp: constant temp: freezing liquid.. t = t , x = 0, T > 0. l/erf (A), 0 < x < w, = erf t = t , x > 0, T = 0. *" 0 Liquid temp: t = melting temp, m t ~ t] 'ft / * \ , _ erf c/FOj^J/erf c (X M a / < \ ) , x > w .
Q
fc

K)

i
I w (solid)
c ( t

XYVT
(liquid)

exp(-X )
'
e r f ( A )

(t

m ~ V H *** (~ V f t )
m " 0
t ) k

s m " V

(t

e r f o ( X )

w = 2Xya T
s

11.1.2

9, p. 287 Solid region maintained at melting temp: freezing liquid, t = t , x < w, T > 0.
m

Liquid temps

= \YTetCcfeo^/expl-X w = 2XVaT
X exp(X ) erfc(X)
2

) , x >w .

t = t , X > 0, T 0.
x

t, < t , t

melting temp.

m m

= (t

- t^

C^/VVTT

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.3 Description Solid temp:
fc

Solution

9, p. 287 Melting of a solid in contact with another solid. t = t , x > 0, T = 0.


t

B- 0

fc

'h>V
''SL,

x =

' fc

T >

m"

fc

erfc (Fo" ) / e r f c ( X Y a . / a ) , x > w. xs ** s

= melting temp.

Liquid temp:
0

fc

- = erf (Fo ) / e r f t m - t, xJl


B K

(X) , 0 < x < w .

\-\-\ (solid)

|t .a .k I (liquid)
e

(solid)

e t f

(X>

* i " S*

V 5

( t

e r f c

( X V

V s"

( t l

"

tm>

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.4 Description Original solid:
fc

Solution

9, p. 288 Liquid freezing on solidproperties of solidified liquid different from original solid. t = t t
Q f

sl - Q t - t m o

fc

VA VA"+

K e r f (X)

[ l + erf

(Fo* )]
gl

, x < 0 .

x < 0, T

0. 0.

Solidified liquid:
fc

t = t . , x > 0, T = melting temp.

a2-

fc

0
~

^ *

( <4 >
2

- t m u

VA + K e r f (A)

0 < x < w .

Liquid: e r f c ( F o ^ J / e r f c (XV o t / < y


g 2 fc m

, x > w .

-i XYVJ _ K exp(-X ) V I + K erf , K= k A (X) , A2

fc

V^r si
(solid)

' W

s 2

VV ,
(liquid)
3 ( t

(solid)

, "l^a**, ~ l
k s 2

M I

P - &2

/ C

V
A

s2 m " V

VT (t
A

- t ) erfc
Q

(XVa /a )
s2

w = 2X V S ^ r

a g l

/a

s 2

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.5

Description w = 2AV"<V^
AT

Solution

9, p. 289 Melting of a solid in contact with another solidproperties of liquid different than original solid. t = t, > t , x < 0, T = 0. 1 m t = t , x > 0, T = 0.
Q

XYVTT
c

k^VH^exp { A ) " h ^ l
( t fc +

A l " V ,
k

( t

" a l ^
e x X

e t f( X )

B2^t
( t

0- m

P(- V s2)
( X

*^ i" V

e r f c

>' 7 ?
S

1 S

See case.11.1.4 for temperatures


i

t 11.1.6 9, p. 289 Solid melts over temp range


of fc

= melting temperature ,

For case 11.1.1, change equation for A to <2 exp[(a - y A / a J e r f c


s

ml

t o

W
> T

t W a ^

( t ^ - t )k VcT
ml &

V m2' * ' - '

fc

erf (A)

lt

ml ' V s * \

For case 11.1.4, change equation for A t o : K e*pl>


s 2

- y X / g J erfc ( X V ^ T y V7T+ K erf (A)

(t

m 2

m l

)k Va^
f c

<V " V **T

Use c for c in the above equations and solutions given in cases li.l.i and 11.1.4.

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.7 Description Solution

9, p. 290 Change of volume during solidification, t = t,


Q

A ( X
+

P -PI[/5
S

x = 0, T > 0.

Sa-h
2 ( t

Jl
X

r*$-4b->g Q

t = tj, x > 0, t = 0.

= melting temperature.

exp (-X ) l - V * J ^ (-^ypfrl) AY V erf (X) " <t - t ) k V a ^ e r f c < X p V T r / p ^ ) " e ^ ^ - t )


m 0 a

e x p

w = 2XY~a~T" s
r

| (solid)

w (liquid)

11.1.8

9, p . 291 Constant heat flux at original solid-liquid boundary. t - t , x > 0, T = 0. m


SJ
=

s a p

S^S"

=* -:V 2x
Q T
3 2

F o

x > ^ 2i ^ T 12x
+
4

+ 1 2

P o

x " ?<Q
, 0 < x < w.

W = QfT - |

+ |

Q T

0'

?'

>

*
Q =

t s = solid temp, t s < tm . , t m = melting temp,

V W ' x "s

Fo

X/x

'

T =

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.9 9, p. 292 Description Convection boundary at original solid-liquid boundary. t = t x > 0, T = 0, t t = melting temp, m
v x

Solution

t
t

- t
tj. X

P BiJ;
2 X

F Bi*
31 , X 0 < x < w.

~ m

> t .
m

x w

w = F Bi F = k (t
s

Fo

P Bi J - ^ (1 + F) FO +
2 x

v\,
)

- t ) / a p y , P o = cyr/x* , B i
f g x

= hx/k

te

(solid)

(liquid)

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.10 55 19. p. 3-87 Description Solidification on plane semih

Solution

infinite solid with convection coefficient between solid-solid and liquid-solid, t = t ,


Q

s
pyk

V
fc

i
N
2

H l K B i + 1) - 1
t >
m

i X

- 1

a < 0, X = 0. t

N=

V o"

'

Bi
l

a
c = 0. t = melting temperature. See P i g . 11 .1

hw s " k s

(Solid) t ,h .

(Solid)

(Liquid)

P. c

Vo

11.1.11 56 19, p. 3-88

Case 11.1.10 with solidified layer of finite heat capacity and heat flow at x = 0 given as q = bt , where t is temp w w at x < 0. "

See Figs. 11.2a and b

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case Ho. References 11.1.12 19, 77 p . 3-88 Description Case 11.1.10 with heat flow 4 at x = 0 given as q = b t
w <

Solution See P i g s . 11.3a and b

11.1.13 19, p. 3-88

Decomposition of a semiinfinite solid, t = t , x >. 0, T = 0.


Q

Char layer: t - t "w "d erf


(FO*

H I

t , x 0, T > 0. t. = w decomposition temp, d I = bVT.

Virgin layer t - t^,


Q

erfc
e r f c

Ka)
V S

Char

Virgin

, x > _
)

S, ' d ~

fc

( b / 2

exp (- /"l) /p^P^Ad- ^ V ^ K ^ ) V^Px/c^! Y b ) e r f (b/2VaJ) " V P ^ ! * ! \ t ~ t / erfc ( b / 2 / c S p " 2 ( t w d / w t ( J

b2

See F i g s . 11.4a and b

h-f

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.14 57 19, p. 3-93 Description Ablation of a semi-infinite solid by convection heating,
fc

Solution See Figs. 11.5a, b and c


d" 0
fc

t = t , x > 0, T = 0.
Q

_ - = 1 - exp [(h/k) ore ] erfc [(h/k) VoTj] t , = Time for free surface to reach temp t .
d

t, = decomposition temp.
d

Steady state ablation velocity a n d temp distribution:


h

< a - V
d Q

fc

"ss ~ p < t - t ) + a]
l to
fc

l i
(Char) (Solid)

fc

r ss, ,.i

'd0
H = heat of ablation

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane Interface. Case No. References 11.1.15 58 19, p. 3-95 Description Case 11.1.15 with heating by a constant surface flux q " . See Fig. 11.6 Preablation time: Solution

Ablation velocity! 'ss


_

p[c(t - t ) + H]
d Q

Section 11.1.

Change of phasePlane interface. Description Solution

Case Ho. References

Section 11.1. Change of PhasePlane interface. Case No. References Description Solution

V
to

Section 11.2. Change of PhaseNonplanar Interface. Case No. References 11.2.1 9, p. 29 Description Liquid freezing on a cylinder. t = t,0<r<R. m t = t., r + , t < t . 1 1 m t = melting temp. Liquid temp:
a El
fc

Solution

(-Fo2) /Ei
2 2

<-X ) , r > r .
s

- i X exp(X ) Ei (-X ) + c ( t
A 2 m

fc

- t^/Y = 0.

- 2X VSJ7

.J ,
(Solid)

(Liquid)

11.2.2

9, p. 295

Liquid freezing on a sphere. t = t , 0 < r < R . m' t t r + -, < t .


r t l m

Liquid temp:
2X

tm -

t1

exp(-X ) - xVi" erfc (X) (2 Fo rJl

exp

l)
,

"
2 2

e r f c

("-)}

r > r (t - tj

X exp(X ) | e x p ( - X ) - Xu e r f c (X)j = ~
(Solid) (Liquid)

= 2X V5T

Section 11.2. change of PhaseNonplanar Interface.

Case No. References 11.2.3 9, p. 296

Description Steady line heat sink t = t , r > 0, T = 0, t , > t . sinK rate = q. 1 m u t = melting temp. S o l i d tempt
( t

Solution

s -

4lt Ei

(~2)

Ei(-X^), 0 < r < r

r
a

= 2X V a t
s

Liquid temp: (t
c

- t.)
> r

m
2 ax

x ^ t ,
m e

s " (-X a /aJ


s 2

p(-X )/4ir * ~

xp(-X o /
l g

a A

)/E

VY/q .
0

11.2.4

9, p. 296

Freezing on steady temp cylinder.

Solid temp: f-^~T


IR 0
2 r

*- V
fc

r =

V V

T >

' -

- an(r/r )/n(r /r )
n s 0

< r < r

0 m

<

V
r > T =

*"V
t

= melting temp,

s ^ s ' V

" r

+ a

= 4 k (t
s

- t )T/YP
Q

(Solid) (Liquid)

Section 1 1 . 2 .

Change of PhaseNonplanar Interface. Description Freezing i n s i d e a tube, tube resistance neglected, convection cooling at r = r .
Q

Case No. References 11.2.5 19, p. 3-87

Solution 2
( 2

m" p^k

a' _ Bi ("A . l \ .. 2, _2 " 2 LUi 2) " ' " *


+ ( 1 0 R 0 R r t

AVI , , WJ ' ~ '

t = t , r = r . t = melting temp.
m 1

Bi = h 8 A , R =

/*

Liquid

Solid

11.2.6

19, p. 3-87

Case 11.2.5 with freezing on outside of tube and convection cooling on i n s i d e .

2^ < n, ~ pyk

SiT/l 2 |_VBi

|\ 2/

2 _
l

] J

11.2.7

19, p. 3-88

Case 11.2.5 with freezing i n s i d e a sphere.

2 m^ a
=

_ B|_ gj_

_ ^

( 1

R 3 )

( 1

R 2 )

"J

<

S^^f^s?-'''?,':--^?'

Section 11.2. Change of PhaseNonplanar Interface.

Case No. References 11.2.8 19, p. 3-88

Description Case 11.2.6 with freezing on outside of sphere. 2 'm " V

Solution

^k

_ B i f/l_+ . ,\ ,_3} 1 (B 1

r L\Bi )

" "2

,, ( R 3_ 1, 2 }
p

" J ' *

" 1

Section 11.2. Change of PhaseNonplanar interface. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 11.2. Change of PhaseNonplanar Interface. Case No. References Description Solution

Section 12.1. Traveling Boundaries. Case Ho. References 12.1.1 Description


Q

Solution

9, p. 389 Semi-infinite solid with t - t . linear! initial temp, time - 7 - = D(l - U) + G + ^ erfc [x(l - U)] dependent surface temp 1 ~ 0 and internal heating t = t "+ dx, x > 0, T = 0. + i exp(40X ) erfc [ x ( l + 0)] + f ( t t ' + tit,-* = 0, T > 0. x 1 (1 + U) exp(4UX ) e r f c [ x ( l + U)] Solid increasing at
2 2

- (1 - U) e r f c [ x ( l - U ) ] j .
Q

velocity u.

B - bT/(t

- t ) , D = dx/(t
0

- t ) , G = q'-'OT/M^ - t )
f l

H = ux/x, X = x/2Vat
10 1

12.1.2

9, p. 389 Semi-infinite solid with convection boundary, t = t , x > 0, T = 0 .


Q

= I ( e r f c [ X ( l - Oj] + 2 Fo Bi -_0 Po Bi
e x p

F F o

. f
+ F o

exp(U/Fo) e r f c [ x { l + 0)] j]
e r f c

Solid increasing at velocity u.

B i ( 1

_ 0

B i

(
X

Bi + 1 - U ) ] .

Bi = hx/k, Po = ax/x , X = x/2 Var, u * UT/X

Section 12.1. Trav ^ing Boundaries. Case No. References 12.1.3 Description Solution t - t f- = exp[ux/2a - xVE cos (<l>/2)] cos [tox - x V b s i n (<|>/2) + e] 0 ~ m

9, p. 389 Semi-infinite solid with steady periodic temp, t = (t - t )cos(ayr + 9 ) ,


Q m

fc

x = 0, x > 0. Solid increasing at velocity u.

0 + j& = b exp(i<t.)
4a

to I

12.1.4

9, p. 389 Cylindrical boundary traveling in an infinite solid, t = t , r > r , T = 0.


Q

t - t 0
t n

_ _ X
=

e I <0)K <UR) cos (n9) n n n

fc

0" i

fc

^
n=u + | V n = n=0

V>
exp(-U P o ) e
2 n

t = t, r = r
Q

Q l

T > 0.

Cylinder traveling at v e l o c i t y u.

cos

(n6)I (U)
n

" exp(-Fo X ) [j
2

L n
2

(XR)Y (X) - Y (XR)J (X)l XdX


ii ij
n J
2

(X + u ) [a (X) + YJ(X>]
e = 1, 6 = 2 i f n > 1 , Fo = orr/rj;, R = r / r
n

U = ur / 2 a

Section 12.1.

Traveling Boundaries. Description


2 2

Case No. References 12.1.5

Solution s i n h L \ U X + Bi X J exp(0X - U) sinh


GO
2

9, p. 391 Thin rod with fixed end temps and convection cooling, t = t , 0 < x < S., x = 0. t = t , x = , T > 0.
+

2 l

yexp(UX- )
D

- '

n n 2

5 i n

t = t , x = 0, T > 0. The end boundaries traveling at velocity u. p = rod p e r i m e t e r . A. = rod s e c t i o n a r e a .


to I

n=l B i + U x exp [-Fo (Bi + a


2 2

2 2 + n 71

<")

+ n Tt )]
2

Bi = hpS, /kA, Fo = o n / A , 0 = ufc/2a, x = x/S.

t .h
0

il

Section 12.1. Traveling Boundaries. Case No. References Description Solution

10 , .

p ^ B = 0-j

FIG. 1.1. Temperature distribution and mean temperature in a porous plate (case 1.1.4, source: Ref. 2, p. 221, Fig. 9.2).

0.2

0.4 0.6 x/B

0.3

1.0

FIG. 1 . 2 . Temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n in an i n f i n i t e p l a t e with internal heating and temperature dependent conductivity (case 1 . 2 . 3 , source: Ref. 3 , p . 132, Fig. 3 . 2 3 ) . _
F x

FIG. 1.3. Teit,perature d i s t r i b u t i o n in a heat generating porous p l a t e (case 1 . 2 . 6 , source: Raf. 2, p. 223, Fig. 9 . 3 ) .

, p 0.60

0.45 0.40 0 1

2 3 4

5 6

8 9 10 11 12

-* b/a (or a/b) FIG. 1 . 4 . Ratio of mean and maximum temperature excesses i n an e l e c t r i c a l c o i l of rectangular cross s e c t i o n (case 1 . 2 . 8 , source: Ref. 1, p . 180, Fig. 1 0 . 5 ) . F-2

h
FIG. 1.5. First-term approximation to the maximum temperature in a solid rectangular rod with internal heating, ^ = VqJjT^TSk 2b, ty ~ " q V o /Bk 2a (case 1.2.10, source: Ref. 2, p. 198, Fig. 8.16).
2

F-3

b/a = 0.2 b/a = 0.4 b/a = 0.6

FIG. 1.6a. Maximum temperature variations on the cooled surface of a f l a t p l a t e having equally spaced adiabatic and constant temperature s t r i p s on the o p p o s i t e surface (case 1 . 1 . 3 0 , source: Ref. 2 7 ) .

F-4

PIG. 1.6b. Heat flux through slabs held at a uniform temperature on one surface and having equally spaced constant temperature strips on the other (case 1.1.30, source: Ref. 88).

F-5

10

b/a = 0.5 b/a = 0.7 b/a = 0.9 10


1

w/a = 0.05

FIG. 1.7. Maximum temperature variation of the cooled surface of a f l a t plate having alternating adiabatic and constant heat-flux s t r i p s on the opposite surface (case 1 . 1 . 3 1 , source: Ref. 28).

F-6

10 E

1ii

i i 1111

rii

i i 111

1 I I I II I

1 1 I I III I

Insulating spot-v

>,H mwL.

ib

10''

v//////////////////m^/m////////M
Insulated surface

hw/k PIG. 1.8. Temperatures at the spot center of a spot-insulated plate having a uniform internal heat source (case 1.2.13, source: Ref. 29). 10
d

"III

I I I 111

1 I I I I I 111

1II

I I I III

1II I I 111,

Insulating spot-v
^ 0 ^

mm.

' ' ' ' "

10 hw/k

FIG. 1.9. Temperatures on the cooled surface and at the spot center of a spot-insulated plate having a constant temperature heat source on one face (case 1.1.32, source: Ref. 2 9 ) . F-7

0.4

0.6

0.8

(y/t)/(1/Bi+1) FIG. 1.10. Hotspot temperatures along plate/rib centerline (Bi = hl/k) (case 1.1.39, source: Ref. 19, p. 3-126, Pig. 7 7 ) .

10 9 8

1 1

Adiabatic wallv.

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Ratio b/a

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Ratio b/a

FIG. 1.11. Conductive shape factors for a rectangular section containing constant temperature tube (case 1.1.44, source: Ref. 87).
F-8

1.6

_- 1.0

o i

/ r

FIG. 2 . 1 . Heat l o s s from i n s u l a t e d tubes (case 2 . 1 . 3 , s o u r c e : p . 123, F i g . 3 . 1 8 ) .

Ref. 3 ,

F-9

1 '

"

I
l


p + + 1)/

=^^^
3

tm

l\ 12:25 1 \ 1 \

'
\
\

V b T = 2.00
0

1 1 1 1

+ o +
E

s
1

1 S. i
" 1.75 1 ^V 1.50

0.00

>
0.6 R 0.8

0s.Y
1.0

0.2

0.4

FIG. 2.2. Temperature distribution and mean temperature in a cylinder with temperature dependent heat source (case 2.2.4, source: Ref. 2, p. 189, Fig. 8.11).

100

FIG. 2.3. Temperature distribution in an infinite plate with a cylindrical heat source, B =V(h + h )/lw r , t = t at r , ^ = t at t = (case 2.2.10, source: Ref. 2, p. 175, Fig. 8.2).
x 2 0 0 0

F-10

0.1 -

0.01 -

0.001

;o 0.0001 " 0.01

0.001

0.01

0.001 0.05

0.4 0.5

FIG. 2.4. The inside surface temperature of an infinite tube with temperature dependent conductivity and heating {case 2.2.17, source: Ref. 16, Fig. 1 ) . Equation (5) given in case solution.

F-ll

CM V)

s/r

FIG. 2 . 5 . Maximum (hot spot) temperatures i n the cross s e c t i o n of a heat-generating s o l i d (cases 2.2.18 and 2 . 2 . 1 9 , source: Ref. 64, F i g . 3).

0.2

0.4

0.6 0.8 1/0 = b/r

1.0

1.2

1.4

FIG. 2.6. Shape factor for a cylinder with two longitudinal holes (case 2 . 1 . 4 4 , source: Ref. 73, Fig. 6 ) . E-12

100 o(e, + >)rft/k5


FIG. 3.1. Steady temperature of thin, nonrotating spherical shell in uniform radiation field (case 3.1.10, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-112, Fig. 68).

F-13

12
10 -

B = 10/l

/
/ /

S\ V
X
V
"

I 6
2

4 / / S
1

2 =-5^1 -2 -1
I I I

= ;

x/b FIG. 4 . 1 . Surface temperature of a semi-infinite s o l i d with heating on the surface over width 2b, which moves at v e l o c i t y u (case 4 . 1 . 8 , source: Ref. 9, p. 270, Fig. 34).

|- |

Heat source width


1 1 1

*-| |

'

>

-i

3 -

Is^"0^ = 0
2 y^.
--~~~^\s'
H

L=1

//

H = O.lXX

= i.o

^ -

1 Leading edge ^
1 1

, x/fi

7"---VI

^ ^t-

-3

-2

FIG. 4.2. Surface temperature of a convectively cooled semi-infinite solid with a traveling strip heat source (case 4.1.9, source: Ref. 3 0 ) . F-14

-0.10 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02

0.02

0.04 0.06 0.08

0-rad PIG. 4.3a. Surface temperature of an i n f i n i t e cylinder with a r o t a t i n g surface band source, $ = 0.01 (case 4 . 1 . 1 0 , s o u r c e : Ref. 30).

TTT

l VZX
0

-0.10-0.08-0.06-0.04-0.02

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

0-rad PIG. 4.3b. (Same conditions as for P i g . 4.3a),

F-15

Nu = 0.2 Nu = 2.0

OIR.tt (4/Pe)

2.0 - I

Pe = 20.0 Pe = 2.0

g(R,f) (4/Pe)

Pe = 20.0 Pe = 2.0

J
-1.5 (b)

L
-1.0

FIG. 4.4. Temperature distribution in a cylinder with a ring heat source (case 4.1.11, source: Ref. 34), 9 = (t - t )2irr k/Q .
f 0 0

9(R,f)

Nu = 0.2 R =1.25 - Pe = 20.0 - Pe = 2.0


0

9(R.f)

PIG. 4.5. Temperature distributions in a hollow cylinder with an inside ring heat source (case 4.1.12, source: Ref. 3 4 ) . 9 defined in Pig. 4.4.

0.9 0.8

0.2 0.1

2.0 Hv/h/kYb

3.0

4.0

5.0

FIG. 5.1. Perfocnance of pin fins (cases 5.1.2, 5.1.14, and 5.1.16 through 5.1.18, source: Ref. 8 and Ref. 7, p. 55, Fig. 3.14.

F-18

^ _ $ \

|n = 1/2;y = ;u. UKVWkVb

[n=1/3:y = y ( x /
b

4 0=
3 u

'2/3l b' 'b u 1/3

(u )
b b b

jn = 0;y = y (x/K);u =2Es/h/ky \ , I 2


u

_ .
b

M b>
u 0

b l t h)
3 / 2 b

, ,u
b

|n = -1;y = v ( x / t ) 4
"b

=4t^hlky

'2< b'
'l( bl
2
U

10=
n

= + ; y = y (x/e) ;u
b

=Cv/h/kV

1 +Vl-4u

0.2

1.0

2.0 Sv/fiTEVb"

3.0

4.0

5.0

FIG. 5 . 2 . Performance of s t r a i g h t f i n s source: Ref. 8 and Ref. 7, p . 56, Fig.

(cases 5 . 1 . 4 , 3.15).

5.1.5, 5.1.7,

5.1.8,

F-19

1.0 0.9

V 0.8 0.7 0.6 <t> 0.5 0.4

0 = l (u )/K (u )
1 e 1 e

t\/h/ky

u = u (x /x )
e b e b

, x / x = 1.0
f h

0.3 0.2 0.1

1.0

2.0 B\/h7kVb

3.0

4.0

5.0

FIG. 5.3. Performance of circumferential fins of rectangular cross section (case 5.1.10, source: Ref. 8 and Ref. 7, p. 57, Fig. 3.16).

F-20

FIG. 5 . 4 .

Curve for calculating dimensions of circular fin of rectangular Ref. 1, p. 234, a = B/irhx(t - t ) .
0 f

profile requiring le&st material (case 5.1.10, source: Fig. 1 1 . 1 1 ) .

F-21

_4
4/3 e b

[i-2/3 b) P'2/3("b)|
+

(u

1-(u /u ) ]||l/3K) ^l-1/3Kj


^=- -2/3("e)/'2/3(e)
|

28Vh7i^T

I 1.0
2.0 3.0

4.0

5.0

Vh7k^r
FIG. 5 . 5 . Performance of cylindrical fins of triangular p r o f i l e (case 5.1.11, source: Ref. 8 and Ref. 7, p. 58, Fig. 3 . 1 7 ) .

F-22

<re*-r K/2h7k^
0

FIG. 5.6. Efficiency of an infinite fin heated by square arrayed round rods (case 5,1.19, source: Ref. 11 and Ref. 10, p. 135, Fig. 2.22). r| = (2/W)s.

F-23

<r *-r )V2h7k6;


e 0

PIG. 5.7. Efficiency of an i n f i n i t e fin heated by equilateral triangular arrayed round rods (case 5.1.20, source: Ref. 11 and Ref. 10, p. 136,
Pig. 2 . 2 3 ) . r* = ( Z W T T ) / ^ .
1

P-24

7
IO

Z = T /T
0

FIG. 5.8. Fin parameter as a function of Z for a straight fin radiating to free space (case 5.1.24, source: Ref. 10, p. 208, Fig. 4.3).

FIG. 5.9. Fin efficiency for a straight fin radiation to free space (case 5.1.24, source: Ref. 10, p. 209, Fig. 4.4).

0.2 0.4 0.6

0.8

1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8


1/2

Profile number (!<.,Tjj/2kb)

FIG. 5.10. Heat flow relationship for a straight fin of rectangular profile radiating to nonfree space (case 5.1.25, source: Ref. 10, p. 216, Fig. 4.8).

0.4

0.8

1.2
1 2

1.6

Profile number ( r ^ T j ^ k b ) '

FIG. 5.11. Efficiency of a straight fin of rectangular p r o f i l e radiating to nonfree space (case 5 . 1 . 2 5 , source: Ref. 10, p. 216, Fig. 4 . 9 ) . F-26

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Profile number K^TJ^/kbo FIG. 5.12a. Fin efficiency for the longitudinal radiating fin of trapezoidal profile with a taper ratio of 0.75 (case 5.1.26, source: Ref. 10, p. 223, Fig. 4.12).

Profiie number I^T^/kb,, FIG. 5.12b. Fin efficiency for the longitudinal radiating fin of trapezoidal profile with a taper ratio of 0.50 (case 5.1.26, source; Ref. 10, p. 224, Fig. 4.13). F-27
3

Profile number K T B / k b
1

FIG. 5.12c. Fin efficiency for the longitudinal radiating f i n of trapezoidal p r o f i l e with a taper ratio of 0.25 (case 5 . 1 . 2 6 , source: Ref. 10, p. 224, Fig. 4 . 1 4 ) .

Profile number K T ^ R / k b
1

FIG. 5.12d. Fin e f f i c i e n c y for the longitudinal radiating f i n of triangular p r o f i l e (case 5.1.26, source: Ref. 10, p. 225, Fig. 4.15). F-28

1.0

1.1

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Temperature ratio Z = T /T


0 e

1.7

PIG. 5.13. Profile number of constant-temperature-gradient longitudinal radiating f i n as a function of b a s e - t o - t i p temperature ratio (case 5 . 1 . 2 8 , source: Ref. 10, p. 233, Fig. 4 . 1 8 ) .

F-29

0.4

0.8
2 1

1.2

Profile number S K T^/kb

FIG. 5.14. Efficiency of constant-temperature-gradient longitudinal radiating fin as a function of p r o f i l e number (case 5 . 1 . 2 8 , source: Ref. 10, p. 232. Fig. 4.17).

0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 Radius ratio p = r /r
n e

FIG. 5.15a.

Radiation fin efficiency of radial fin of rectangular profile.


A
= 0 , 0

Taper r a t i o , X = 1.00; environmental factor, Kj^r^a source: Ref. 10, p. 250, Fig. 4.24). F-30

c a s e

-29,

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
0 e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio p = r /r

FIG. 5.15b. source:

Radiation f i n e f f i c i e n c y of r a d i a l f i n of rectangular p r o f i l e .

Taper r a t i o , X = 1.00; environmental f a c t o r , K J / K J T . = 0.20 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 , Ref. 10, p . 251, F i g . 4 . 2 5 ) .

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio p - r /r

FIG. 5.15c. source:

Radiation f i n e f f i c i e n c y of r a d i a l f i n of rectangular p r o f i l e . G.40 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 ,

Taper r a t i o , X = 1 . 0 0 ; environmental factor, K /K.T* Sef. 10, p . 251, F i g . 4 . 2 6 ) .

F-31

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio p = r /r

FIG. 5.15d. Radiation fin efficiency of radial fin of trapezoidal profile. Taper ratio, \ = 0.75; environmental factor, K./K.T. - 0.00 (case 5.1.29, source: Ref. 10, p. 252, Fig. 4.27).

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
n e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio p = r /r

FIG. 5.15e. source:

Radiation f i n efficiency of radial f i n of trapezoid*" p r o f i l e .

Taper r a t i o , \ = 0 . 7 5 ; environmental factor, K /K T = 0.20 (case 5.1.29, Ref. 10, p . 252, Fig. 4.28).

F-32

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r

FIG. 5.15f. source:

Radiation f i n e f f i c i e n c y of radial f i n of trapezoidal p r o f i l e .

Taper r a t i o , \ = 0.75; environmental factor, K-ZK-.T': = 0 . 4 0 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 , Ref. 10, p. 253, F i g . 4.29).

c o

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r

FIG. 5.15g. source:

Radiation f i n efficiency of radial f i n of trapezoidal p r o f i l e .

Taper r a t i o , X = 0.50; environmental factor, K /K T? = 0.00 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 , Ref. 10, p. 253, F i g . 4 . 3 0 ) .

F-33

ra DC

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r

FIG. 5.15h.

Radiation fin efficiency of radial fin of trapezoidal profile.

Taper ratio, X = 0.5C; environmental factor, S A T : =0.20 (case 5.1.29, source: Ref. 10, p. 254, Fig. 4.31).

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
0 e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r

FIG. 5.15i. Radiation fin efficiency of radial fin of trapezoidal profile. Taper ratio, X = 0.50; environmental factor, K./K^T!: = 0.40 (case 5.1.29, source: Ref. 10, p. 254, Fig. 4.32). F-34

0.25

0.35

0.45

0.55
Q e

0.65

0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r
FIG. 5.15j.

Radiation fin efficiency of radial fin of triangular profile.

Taper ratio, X = 0.00; environmental factor, K /K 1* = 0.00 (case 5.1.29, source: Ref. 10, p. 255, Fig. 4.33).

1.0

1^ u ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
-

0.8

0.6
CO

'5

T^A^Z//
f/ / / / ^- Profile number

i . i
0.55
n e

0.4

^ / / r
0.35

,
0.45

i
0.65

0.25

i 0.75

Radius ratio, p = r /r FIG. 5,15k. source:

Radiation fin e f f i c i e n c y of radial f i n of triangular p r o f i l e . K/si 0.20 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 ,

Taper r a t i o , X = 0.00; environmental factor, Ref. 10, p. 255, Fig. 4 . 3 4 ) .

F-35

0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 Radius rato, p = r /r
Q e

FIG. 5.151. Radiation f i n efficiency of r a d i a l f i n of t r i a n g u l a r p r o f i l e . Taper r a t i o , X = 0.00; environmental f a c t o r , K /K T = 0.40 (case 5 . 1 . 2 9 , source: Ref. 10, p . 256, F i g . 4.35).

o
a

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Base parameter ml

FIG. 5.16a. Efficiency of the side of a capped cylinder fin (case 5 . 1 . 3 0 , s o u r c e : Ref. 10, p . 276, F i g . 5 . 6 ) . F-36

Base parameter mB

PIG. 5.16b. Efficiency of the top of a capped cylinder fin (case 5 . 1 . 3 0 , source: Ref. 10, p. 277, Fig. 5 . 7 ) .

F-37

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

3.2

3.4

36 .

Parameter mil FIG. 5.17. Heat flow ratio qj/qg as a function of mb and temperature excess ratio (t! - tfj/ftg - ff) for the doubly heated rectangular fin (case 5.1.32, source: Ref. 10, p. 410, Fig. 8.10).

F-38

1.0 0.9
X e-

| /
V

1
i

1
i I <6

| I -

>

0.8 07 0.6 0.5 0.4

> c
fici
aj H-

w*
|
0 0.2

N'

o
<0

a > _c

iZ

^ S

1
1
0.4 1 0.6
m

1 0.8 xl l
b

1 1.0

1
1.2

I
1.4 1

FIG. 5.18a. Efficiency of the vertical section of a straight, single Tee fin for u = v (case 5.1.32, source: Ref. 10, p. 398, Fig. 8.4).

0.2

0.4

0.6 0.8 1.0 Parameter m b


x 1

1.2
1

1.4

1.6

FIG. 5.18b. Efficiency of the horizontal section of a straight, single Tee fin for u = v (case 5.1.32, source: Ref. 10, p. 399, Fig. 8.5).

F-39

FIG. 5.19. Effectiveness of the concave parabolic f i n radiating to non-free space (case 5.1.37, source: Ref. 31).

0 0.5 -*

FIG. 5.20. Effectiveness of the convex parabolic f i n radiating to non-free space (case 5 . 1 . 3 8 , source: Ref. 31).

F-40

100 V I I I I 90 80 V, 70 60 A/2R 50 ^-1.5 40 ^-0-3.0 \ \ ^<S-<^5.0 30 20 ^ _ 10 I I I I 0


I I

1-)^
FIG. 5.21. Effectiveness of sheet fin with square array tubes (case 5.1.40, source: Ref. 83, p. 294, Fig. 2 ) .
1

-^No.0 \ _a2NA\
5

kO.01

J J i

0.5- 1
~2

*v ^
v

-5

No

i ^ s ^ :

FIG. 6.1. Temperatures in an infinite region of which the region |x| < b is initially at temperature tg (case 6.1.1, source: Ref. 9, p. 55, Fig. 4 a ) .

F-41

^ 5 * V 0.01 = Fo
0.1N

o!2 0.5 0.5

^ \

2
i

i ^S?
0

FIG. 6.2. Temperatures i n an i n f i n i t e region of which the region r < r i s i n i t i a l l y at temperature t (case 6 . 1 . 4 , source: Ref. 9, p. 55, Fig. 4b).
0

1.0
0.05
s1

3.02SAo.01 = Fo

'

o.ioN

'c 0.5

0.20

0.50 1.00 1_

I XS^5*
0

FIG. 6 . 3 . Temperatures i n an i n f i n i t e region of which the region r < r i s i n i t i a l l y at temperature t (case 6 . 1 . 5 , source: Ref. 9, p. 55, Fig. 4c).
0

F-42

0.4

FIG. 6.4. Temperatures in an i n f i n i t e region with steady temperature tg on the surface r = r (case 6.1.18, source: Ref. 9, p. 337, Fig. 41).
0

log (Fo)
10

FIG. 6 . 5 . Temperature in a cylinder of i n f i n i t e conductivity, i n i t i a l l y at temperature t, i n an i n f i n i t e medium i n d i t i a l l y at t . Numbers on the curves are values of 2 p c / P i C i (case 6 . 1 . 2 1 , source: Ref. 9, p. 342, Fig. 45).
0 0 o

F-43

a
I

0.2-

PIG. 6 . 6 . Temperature in a cylinder of i n f i n i t e conductivity, i n i t i a l l y at temperature t , in an i n f i n i t e medium. Numbers on the curves are values of 2pQCo/Plci (case 6.1.22, source: ref. 9, p. 343, Fig. 46).
u

Embedded sphere

10 20

100 200 Fo->-

1000 2000

10,000

PIG. 6.7. Temperature response of solid sphere 0 < r < r with kj_ and * > initially at tx,o embedded in an infinite solid (r > trf initially at t (case 6.1.26, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-64, Fig. 37).
l f 2 0

F-44

0.6

0.001

0.005 0.010 0.050 0.100 0.500 1.000 Fo->

5.000 10.000

FIG. 6.7. Temperature response of an infinite solid with a constant spherical surface temperature of t (case 6.1.13, source: Ref 74, p. 430, Fig. 10.9).
0

Fo 0.6 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08(1)0.1, 1.0 10.0

I "*K*.

(III) 0.5 0.4


M
T

N c\
-ii

(II) (I) 0.9 0.99 0.8 0.98 0.7 0.97 0.6

lll\
III V II

4? 0.3 0.2

I
0.10 0 10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0.2 40 20

0.5 0.4 0.6 0.8(11)1.0 80 120 160(111)200 x 40 60 80 100 U.2b I I I


F

"I

0.20

-\ I
200

- 0.15
0.10 0.05

I
400 Fo

I
600 800

0 10 00

FIG. 7.1. Temperature distribution in the semi-infinite solid having a steady surface temperature (case 7.1.1 b = 0, source: Ref. 74, p. 95, Figs. 4.4 and
4

' >-

F-45

0.01

FIG. 7.2a. Temperature distribution in the semi-infinite solid with convection boundary condition (case 7.1.3, source: Ref. 5, p. 82, Fig. 4.6).

F-46

1.0000 0.8875

0.3222 0.2579 0.2031 0.1573 0.1198 0.0897 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.50 1.00 5.00 10.00 50.00

BL\/Fo7 -

FIG. 7.2b. The dimensionless excess temperature vs the number B i ( F o ) ^ ' ^ various Fourier numbers for semi-infinite solid with a convection boundary (case 7 . 1 . 3 , source: Ref. 74, p. 207, Fig. 6 . 2 ) .
x x a n d

2y/lTQTQ

FIG. 7 . 3 . Temperature distribution in a s e m i - i n f i n i t e region when the surface temperatur i s harmonic (case 7 . 1 . 1 6 , source: Ref. 7, p. 99, Fig. 4 - 1 9 ) . F-47

o o

PIG. 7.4. Function f Qt-tf )/(t -t )] (case 7.1.22, source: Ref. 4, p. 84, Fig. 4.15).
c f

FIG. 7.5. Temperature distribution across a heated strip of width 2a on the surface of a semi-infinite solid (case 7.1.24, source: Ref. 9, p. 265, Fig. 33).

F-48

1.4

1.6

FIG. 7.6. Temperature response of semi-infinite s o l i d (x > 0) with surface _ temperature t suddenly increasing as power function of time, t = t^ + b t , (case 7 . 1 . 9 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-66, Fig. 39).
n s s

1
Semi-infinite solid q = const
0

2.4

F:

FIG. 7 . 7 . Temperature response, temperature gradient, and heating rate i n a semi-infinite s o l i d after exposure to a constant surface heat flux q (case 7.15, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3 - 8 1 , Fig. 49).
n

F-49

Semi-infinite solid

"o

<

/ D

FIG. 7 . 8 . Temperature response of a semi-infinite s o l i d after sudden exposure to a l i n e a r l y increasing surface heat flux for a duration D, Q = D q / 2 , qg = q x/t) (case 7 . 1 . 1 4 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-82, Pig. 50).
m a x m a x

Fo* ,x /2v^r
2 2

FIG. 7 . 9 . Temperature response of an i n f i n i t e conductivity plate and semii n f i n i t e s o l i d composite with a constant heat f l u x a t x^ = 0 (case 7 . 1 . 3 0 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-84, Fig. 51). F-50

0.6

Vy/V0.5

-S. 0.4
=
q

b"

e*

0.3

r** i^
V2-

0.2

0.1 = - 1 / 4 Opaque*\
1

1 , 1 ,
0.4 0.8 1.2
20

Fot -*
FIG. 7.10. Temperature distributions in a s e m i - i n f i n i t e s o l i d with exponential heating (case 7 . 2 . 9 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-85, Fig. 52).

FIG. 8 . 1 . Temperatures i n a slab with a l i n e a r i n i t i a l temperature distribution (case 8 . 1 . 3 , source: Ref. 9 , p . 97, Fig. 1 0 ) . F-51

10 .
O.ffP^
0.04

->

0.8

O10

0.6-

0.4 ^0.40

Cv^
VV^

1.0

0.2

0.4 X

0.6

0.8

10 .

FIG. 8.2. Temperatures in a slab with a parabolic initial temperature distribution (case 8.1.4, source: Ref. 9, p. 98, Fig. 10).

0.6 -

FIG. 8.3. Temperatures in the infinite plate with a constant intial temperature and steady surface temperature (case 8.1.6, source: Roc. 9, p. 101, Fig. 11). F-52

1.000

0.100 -

0.010 -

0.001 0 1 2 3 4 10

20 Fo

30

50

70

90 110 130 150

300

500

700

FIG. 8.4a. Midplane temperature of an infinite plate of thickness 2S, and convectively cooled, (case 8.1.7, source: Ref. 12, p. 227 and source: Ref. 5, p. 83, Fig. 4-7).

0.0001

0.0005 0.0010

0.0050 0.0100 Fo

0.0500 0.1000

0.50001.000

FIG. 8.4b. Surface temperature of an infinite plate of thickness 21 and correction boundary (case 8.1.7.2, source: Ref. 74 p. 226, Fig. 6.6c).

0.0001

0.0005 0.0010

0.0050 0.0100 Fo

0.05000.1000

0.50001.0000

FIG. 8.4c. Surface temperature of an infinite plate of thickness 2% and convection boundary (case 8.1.7.2, source: Ref. 74, p. 226, Fig. 6.6d). F-54

100.0

FIG. 8.4d. Temperature as a function of midplane temperature for an infinite plate of thickness 2l and convectively cooled (case 8.1.7, source: Ref. 5, p. 86, Fig. 4-10).

10"

10~

FIG. 8.4e. Relative heat loss from an infinite plate of thickness 21 and convectively cooled (case 8.1.7, source: Ref. 5, p. 90, Fig. 4-14 and Ref. 13).

F-55

FIG. 8.5.

The function F(a) (case 8.1.12, source: Ref. 1. p. 301, Fig. 14-3).

FIG. 8.6a. Variation of amplitude of the steady oscillation of temperature in an infinite plate caused by harmonic surface temperature (case 8.1.13, source: Ref. 9, p. 106, Fig. 13).

F-56

-600

-500-

-400

-300-

FIG. 8.6b. Variation in phase of the steady o s c i l l a t i o n of temperature i n an i n f i n i t e plate caused by harmonic surface temperature (case 8 . 1 . 1 3 , source: Sef. 9, p. 107, Fig. 14).

F-57

I 0.3

Fo=joo /0.3
i7 om QJa
0

ma.21 5

1.4 1.2 1.0

"I

I / -

JS/iO.1 0.2
o u.
I
CJ

J/////l* ff////fl
003

J///J J////J XA

0.1

V///SM/J 0.5 jfll&Zi &>'

'

01

=o 0.8 0.6 0.4

' o

10 _ .

/ I
0.2
0.4

i Ul CD

" a

-0.1 1 I I
I I

0.2

i
0.6

i
0.8 1.0

Fo
PIG. 8.7. Temperature distribution in an infinite plate with no heat flow at x = 0 and constant heat flux q at x = S, (case 8.1.18, source: Ref. 9, p. 113, Fig. 15).
0

FIG. 8.8. Temperatures in an infinite plate with constant internal heating q' and surface temperature tj (case 8.2.1, source: Ref. 9, p. 131, Fig. 20).

FIG. 8.9. Quasi-steady state temperature of an infinite conductivity plate with a harmonic fluid temperature (case 8.1.49, source: Ref. 19, Fig. 17b, p. 3-31). F-59

FIG. 8.10. Plate temperature response for prescribed heat inputs (case 8.2.15, source: Ref. 19, p. 3-35, Fig. 18).

F-60

(c#tjj/pC6) FIG. 8 . 1 1 . Temperature response of thin generating p l a t e suddenly exposed t o constant heat input with surface reradiation: (a) heating, (b) cooling (case 8 . 2 . 1 6 , source: Ref. 19, p. 3-36, Fig. 1 9 ) . F-61

FIG. 8.12. Maximum temperature of thin insulated plate suddenly exposed to circular heat pulse with surface reradiations (case 8.1.50, source: Ref. 19, p. 3-38, Fig. 20). 1.00

0.04

0.08 0.12 Fo (a)

0.16 0.20

FIG. 8.13. Temperature response of an infinite plate with uniform internal heating, & = half thickness (case 8.2.6, source: Ref. 19, p. 3-43, Fig. 24), F-62

01 .

0.2

0.3

Ka.max-V^f-V FIG. 8.14a. Insulation weight for substructure protection to t in heating duration D, W^ = Pi&x < 8.1.51, sources Ref. 19 p. 5-48, Fig. 27).
2m a x c a s e

F-63

0.4-

0.5

1 Fo
i

10

20

(a) M = n + (n + 1)/Bi 1.0r


1

n= p C 5 /p C 5
2 2 2 1 1

B^ ' h S , / ^

10 Fo, (b)

20

FIG. 8.14b. heated a t t

Temperature response of thick p l a t e (0 x (a) x / 5

<_ 6 ) convectively
1

= 0 and i n perfect contact at i t s rear face x


2 2 2

= 6 with a = 0.

t h i n p l a t e (0 <. x 6 ) insulated at x = 6 : (b) X . / 6 . = 1 (case 8 . 1 . 5 1 , source:

Ref. 19, p . 3-46, Fig. 2 6 ) .

F-64

50

100

50 100

0.02 Heating: t / t = 1/4


Q s

x/5 = 1

I
50 100 Fo
g s

0.5

50 (dl

100

FIG. 8.15. Temperature response of thick plate (0 < x <_ 6) with insulated rear face x = 6 after sudden _ exposure to uniform radiative environment t at x = 0: (a) heating, t[j/t = 0, x/6 = 0 , (b) heating, t n A s ' / ' > heating, t / t = 1/4, x/6 = 1, (d) heating, t / t = 1/4, x/6 = 1 (case 8.1.52, source; Ref. 19, pp. 3-50, Fig. 29).
= x fi = 1 (c 0 a 0 s

t. = t,

50 100

500

50 100 (f) Fo FIG. 8.15 (Cont.). Temperature response of thick plate (0 x 6) with insulated rear face x = 6 after sudden exposure to uniform radiative environment t at x = 0: (e) heating, tg/t = 1/2, x/6 = 0, (f) heating, t / t = 1/2, x/6 = 1, (g) cooling, t /t = 6, x/6 = 0, (h) cooling, t /t = 6, x/ = 1. 0.5 1
s s 0 s 0 s 0 s

500

500

500

FIG. 8.15 (Cont.). Temperature response of thick plate (0 <_ x 6) with insulated rear face x = 6 after sudden exposure to uniform radiative environment t- at x = 0: (k) cooling, t / t = 2, x/6 = 0, (1) cooling, t /t = 2, x/6 = 1.
0 s 0 s

F-67

500

500

FIG. 8.15 (Cont.). Temperature response of thick plate (0 <_ x <_ 6) with insulated rear face x = 5 after sudden exposure to uniform radiative environment t at x = 0: (i) cooling, t / t = 4, x/6 = 0 , (j) cooling, t / t = 4, x/S = 1.
s 0 s 0 s

F-68

FIG. 8.16. Temperature response of thick plate (0 x 6) with surface temperature t at x = 0, increasing linearly with time and rear face x = 6 insulated or exposed to uniform convective environment tg (case 8 . 1 . 8 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-60, Fig. 3 3 ) .

FIG. 8.17. Surface temperature response of a plate of thickness 2ft exposed to a steady heat flux qg on both s i d e s for a time duration D (case 8 . 1 . 1 8 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-67, Fig. 4 0 ) .

F-69

50

100

(a)

J?

50 Fo

100

(b) FIG. 8.18. Temperature response of a plate with steady heating qg at x = 9. and convection boundary at x = 0 to to (a) x/H = 1, (b) x/H = 0 (case 8.1.17, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-69, Fig. 41).

F-70

QD/2JIS

(a)

to

&

3 2

1 Thick plate x/8 = 1

I
aDIlnb < 0.1v 0 . 6 ^ \
2

0.3 - \ N

--

0 - - x \ ^iwir 0.2-\\\i

_^ -= 25^o.i
% o / /
/
0 0 8

O.16-M0 0.14-Tyigav

^ ^ / 0 . 0 6 -

Thin plate-'~~~~^4425<2&Zs

o.i2-*/2s2S3i0

'ss ]/' . 0 4 /O^/0


C^^r-o.02 r^ZJnnu 5 6 7
^r ^r * V > ^ ^0.03 -^^^"C" 0.025

am

(b)

^55P>0
3
27T7-/D

L*^

FIG. 8.19. Temperature response of an infinite plate exposed to a circular heat pulse cfogjj sin (ITT/D) at x = 0 and insulated at x = 6 (a) x/6 = 0 , (b) x/6 = 1 (case 8.1.54, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-70, Fig. 42).
2

F-71

FIG. 8.20. Temperature response of an infinite porous plate after sudden exposure to a constant heat flux at x = 0 and cooled by steady flow through plate from x = 6 of a fluid initially at t (a) x/6 = 0 , (b) x/6 = 1 (case 8.1.55, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-74, Fig. 44).
Q

F-72

FIG. 8.21. Temperature response of an infinite plate with a constant heat flux q at ^ = 0, in contact with a plate at x- = 6 and insulated on exposed surface of second plate x = 6o ( 8.1.56, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-76, Fig. 45).
0 c a s e 2

F-73

9 5

W
- 1
x = 6

1
1

> i

Two-layer plate (kj/k^Vo^/aij

= 4

'

'

1 ' 0.2

-\ Vs
\

1/4^

"^ 0.4

XT? ' ^_1-

12

""^>i

r.

/ 4 K,-0*

t i l l 2 3

i 4
Fo,

- 0.6 * 4~~" 1/2 __^ - 0.8 -o , 1 , 1 . 1.0 5 6 7 8

W>

FIG. 8.21.

(continued).

F-74

FIG. 8.22. Temperature response of an infinite plate exposed to a constant heat flux q " at xi = 0 and in perfect contact at xx = &i with a plate of thickness 62 insulated at x = 6 (case 8.1.57, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-78, Fig. 46).
2 2

F-75

T
Two-layer plate ,
m a x

sin (*r/D).k o
2 2 2 1 1

eqb- O

1%,ax '/ (" Dk,

n = p C 5 /p C,S =0.1
2

Fo\/2ir = a,D/27rS2

FIG. 8.23. Temperature response of an infinite plate exposed to a circular heat pulse at x = 0 and in perfect contact with an infinite conductivity plate of thickness 6 (case 8.1.58, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-78, Fig. 47).
1 2

F-76

1000

I
2 2 2 1 1

I
1

Two-layer plate P C fi /p C S = 1 100 -0,0/2*5*

10

t <>
1 -,

0.1

0.01

W// /
2 4 6 27rr/D - Two-layer plate P C 8 / P i C 6 = 10
2 2 2 1 1

/ 1
8 10 12

1000
a, D/2TT62

100

0.01

FIG. 8 . 2 3 .

(continued),

F-77

I
43"

0.001

0.005 0.01

FIG. 8.24. Temperature response of an i n f i n i t e p l a t e surface having steady temperature and convection boundaries (case 8 . 1 . 2 5 . 2 , source: Ref. 74, p. 240, Fig. 6 . 1 2 ) .

FIG. 8 . 2 5 . equal to t

Temperature of a f l a t plate having a ramp surface temperature = t j + bt (case 8 . 1 . 3 3 , source: Ref. 74, p. 305, Fig. 7 . 1 ) .

F-78

2Fo 1 + 2/Bi

2Fo 1 + 2/Bi FIG. 8.26. Transient surface temperature of a slab convectively coupled to a linearly changing environment temperature equal to t = t^ + be (case 8 . 1 . 3 3 , source: Ref. 89).
f

F-79

ha i
CD

0.001

FIG. 9.1a. Axis temperature for an infinite cylinder of radius r Fig. 4-8 and Ref. 12).

(case 9.1.3, source:

Ref. 5, p. 84,

FIG. 9.1b. Temperature as a function of axis temperature in an i n f i n i t e cylinder of radius r (case 9 . 1 . 3 , source: Ref. 5, p. 87 and Ref. 12).
Q

lO

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

5 ^ 5 5 ^ 5 5 5 ^-y 4< * *

a o o o *-

FIG. 9.1c. Dimensionless heat loss Q / Q Q of an infinite cylinder of radius r with time (case 9.1.3, source: Ref. 5, p. 90, Fig. 4-15 and Ref. 13).
0

F-81

0.11 I . I i I . I ' I M 0.0011 0 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.2 mBi{Foj

I 3

I 4

I 5

FIG. 9 . I d . Center temperatures for p l a t e s , cylinders, and spheres for small values of h (case 9 . 1 . 3 , 8.1.7 and 1 0 . 1 . , source: Ref. 5, p. 89, Fig. 4-13 and Ref. 1 2 ) , i s half thickness of radius.

FIG. 9 . 2 . Temperature distribution in an i n f i n i t e cylinder with i n i t i a l temperature fcj and steady surface temperature tg (case 9 . 1 . 1 , source: Ref. 9, p . 200, Fig. 24). F-82

FIG. 9.3. Temperature in an infinite cylinder with constant heat flux at the surface (case 9.1.8, source: Ref. 9, p. 203, Pig. 25).

F-83

T = S(X)

T = S(X,)S(X )
2

T = S(X )S(X )S(X )


1 2 3

tw'

Semi-infinite solid
T = P(Fo)

Quarter-infinite solid
T = P(Fo)S(X)

Eighth-infinite solid
T = P(Fo)S(X,)S(X )
2

Infinite plate
T = P(F )P(Fo )
0l 2

Semi-infinite plate
T=P(Fo,)P(Fo )S(X)
2

Quarter-infinite plate
T = P(Fo )P(Fo )P(Fo )
1 2 3

^ ^ ^

\S
, * 2

UV -25,
Infinite rectangular bar
T = C(F )
0l

+ 'yA->
3

i !

2S,

25, Semi-infinite rectangular bar


T = C(Fo )S(X)
1

Rectangular parallelepiped T = C(F )P(Fo )


0l 2

x
i-.

-2r,

-2r, Short cylinder Fo = at/6? = ar/r,


1 i v 2

Infinite cylinder S = semi-infinite solid P = plate C = cylinder

Semi-infinite cylinder

X| = x / 2 / a T = Fo* T = (t-t )/(t - w'


w 0 t

FIG. 9.4a. Product solutions for internal and c e n t r a l temperatures i n s o l i d s with step change i n surface temperature. S(X) given i n Fig. 7 . 2 , P(Fo) given i n F i g . 8 . 4 , C(Fo) given i n F i g . 9.1 (case 7 . 1 . 1 9 , 7 . 1 . 2 0 , 8 . 1 . 2 2 , 9 . 1 . 1 6 , and 9 . 1 . 1 7 , source: Ref. 74, pp. 3 - 6 5 , Fig. 38). F-84

0.01

0.001 Fo, arlh\ FIG. 9.4.b. Central temperatures in an infinite plate, an infinite rod, an infinite cylinder, a cube, a sphere, and a finite cylinder of length equal to its diameter, with all surfaces at temperature tg (case 7.1.29, 7.1.20, 9.1.16, 9.1.17, and 8.1.22, source: Ref. 2, p. 248, Fig. 10-8).

FIG. 9.5. Temperature distribution in an infinite cylinder with steady internal heating and a surface temperature tg (case 9.2.1, source: Ref. 9, p. 205, Fig. 26). _
F 8 5

100.0

"a

i CO

0.4 0.8

2.0

3.0 ore

4.0 Ref. 3,

5.0

FIG. 9.6a. (case 9 . 2 . 4 , source: p . 356, Fig. 7 - 5 ) .

FIG. 9.6b. (case 9 . 2 . 4 , source: p. 364, Fig. 7 - 8 ) .

Ref. 3,

0.1 FIG. 9.6c.

10

50

/(X-1) (case 9 . 2 . 1 , source: Ref. 3, p. 365, Fig. 7-9),

F-87

0.001

0.005 0.010

0.050 0.100
Fo, QT/TQ

0.500 1.000

5.000 10.000

FIG. 9.7a. Temperature response of a hollow cylinder with a steady inside surface temperature equal to the initial temperature, t^ (case 9.1.10, source: Re. 74, p. 156, Fig. 4.24).

0.001

0.005 0.010

0.050 0.100
Fo, UT/TQ

0.500 1.000

5.000 10.000

FIG. 9.7b. Temperature response of a hollow cylinder wit,, a steady outside surface equal to the i n i t i a l temperature, t (case 9.1.10, source: Ref. 74, p. 157, Fig. 4.25).

F-86

FIG. 9 . 8 . Temperature of an i n f i n i t e cylinder having a ramp surface temperature equal to t = t i + br (case 9 . 1 . 2 , source: Ref. 74, p. 312, Fig. 7 . 3 ) .
s

4Fo 1 + 2/Bi

4Fo 1 + 2/Bi FIG. 9.9. Transient surface temperature of a cylinder convectively coupled to a linearly changing environment temperature equal to tf = t^ + br (case 9 . 1 . 6 , source: Ref. 8 9 ) .

F-89

100

- I I I I I 11 I

1II I I I I I

1II I I 11

1I

Fo

FIG. 9.10. Central temperature of an infinite cylinder with uniform internal heating and convection boundary (case 9 . 2 . 2 , source: Ref. 90).

F-90

1.0 0.8 0.6


i

^ffC^:

0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 ,300' | |0.400 0.6 0.8 1.0

0.004

0.010

0.100

(1-R) FIG. 10.1. Temperature distribution in a sphere of radius r with initial temperature t^ and surface temperature t (case 10.1.1, source: Ref. 74, p. 127, Figs. 4.15 and 4.16).
0 0

1.000

3" I

3. 0.050

3 I ID

0.010 0.005 0.003

3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0 15.0 25.0 35.0 45.0 70.0110.0 170.0 250.0 Fo PIG. 10.2a. Center temperature of a conveotively cooled sphere (case 10.1.2, source: Ref. 5, p. 85, Fig. 4-9 and source: Ref. 12).

0.001 0

1.0

2.0

10 nr

0.02

0.1

0.5

2.00 5.00 20.00 100.00

1/Bi FIG. 10.2b. Temperature as a function of center temperature of a convectively cooled sphere (case 1 0 . 1 . 2 , source: Ref. 5, p. 88, Fig. 4-12, and Ref. 1 2 ) .

ala - ~

10 Bi Fo
2

10*

10

10

FIG. 10.2c. Dimensionless heat l o s s Q/QQ of a convectively cooled sphere (case 1 0 . 1 . 2 , source: Ref. 5, p. 91, Fig. 4-16, and Ref. 13).

F-93

FIG. 10.3. Temperature of an infinite conductivity medium surrounding a spherical solid (case 10.1.13, source: Ref. 9, p. 241, Fig. 30).

o u. m
o

"2-

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

0.2

0.4 Fo

0.6

0.8

FIG. 10.4. Temperature in a sphere caused by a steady surface heat flux (case 10.1.15, source: Ref. 9, p. 242, Fig. 3 1 ) . F-94

0-2 R

0-6

1 -0

FIG. 10.5. Temperature distribution i n a sphere with steady internal heating (case 1 0 . 2 . 1 , source: Ref. 9, p. 244, Fig. 32).

F-95

10.00

0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

Fo . FIG. 10.6. Temperature response of solid sphere (0 r rtf cooling by radiation to a sink temperature of 0R: (a) r/r = 0, (b) r/rj^ = 1/2, (c) r/r = 1 (case 10.1.20, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-57, Fig. 30).
x x

T-T T - i
w T

0.6-

0.02

0.06

0.10
OCT

0.40

0.80

Fo, I* FIG. 10.7a. Transient temperature distribution at the center point (x = y = z = 0) for various prolate spheroids (case 10.1.21, source: Ref. 72, Fig. 1),

1.0

1
Cylinder,

1 i-;tPs

T-T,
T

0.6

w- i

0.01

0.04 0.08

0.20

0.601.00

FIG. 10.7b. Transient temperature distribution at the f o c a l point (x = y = 0, z = L2) for various prolate s o l i d s (case 10.1.21, source: Ref. 72, Fig. 2 ) .

F-97

1 0.8 -

^0.80 ^

y^\^ -^^^-<^^
0.6
bJQ

0.4 0.2

-[////^*
t, - t, + bT

n n \i4y\ 0.0 0.1

i
0.2

i
0.3

i
0.4

i
0.5 Fo

t 0.6

i l l 0.7 0.8

0.9

1.0

FIG. 10.8. Temperature of a sphere having a ramp surface temperature equal to t = t + br (case 10.1.4, source: Ref. 74, p. 310, Fig. 7 . 2 ) .
s A

I
0.15 -

05 .
= 0.4
yBi = 100

Bi = ^ s - "
v

- 0.3 < l ^ B i = 10 ~ ~
^-Bi = 1 Bi=i*/** Bi=0^
S

0.10

Bi= 10

- ^
/

/ v

>X

_ - 0.2

0.05 -

ffl\

^*Bi = 0

\v\I
R=1

01 .

1 6Fo 1 + 2/Bi

FIG. 10.9. Transient surface temperature of a sphere convectively coupled to a linearly changing environment temperature equal to tf = t + br (case 10.1.11, source: Ref. 8 9 ) . F-98

100.0

1 I I I II

1/Bi

10.0
CMQ

1000.0

FIG. 10.10. Central temperature of a sphere with uniform internal heating and convection boundary (case 10.2.9, source: Ref. 90).

2 (h2/p7k)(t -t)r >f- ' " ' I ' m


s

' 3
m

FIG. 11.1. Solidification depth in semi-infinite liquid for which solidified phase has negligible thermal capacity and is exposed to convective environments t at free surface x = 0 and t at interface x = w (case 11.1.10, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-88, Fig. 54).
a 0

F-99

0.01

0.05 0.1

0.50

1
2

5 (b /pck)r->-

10

50 100

500 1000

100

s
0.05 -

0.01

0.005 0.01 (h?/pck)r

5 10 50 100

50 100 500 1000

FIG. 1 1 . 2 . Temperature response and s o l i d i f i c a t i o n depth in semi-infinite l i q u i d i n i t i a l l y at t, (a) surface temperature for convective cooling q = bt at x = 0, (b) s o l i d i f i c a t i o n depth (case 11.1.11, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-89, Fig. 5 5 ) . F-100

0.01

0.05 0.1

0.5

1
2

5
{b t%/pck)r

10

50 100

500 1000

10

50 100

50 100 500 1000

FIG. 11.3. Temperature response and solidification depth in semi-infinite liquid initially at t with radiative cooling q = bt$ at x = 0 (a) surface , temperature at x = 0, (b) solidification depth (case 11.1.12, source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-90, Fig. 55). F-101

1.0

Tr

0.8

0.6 b/Zv^" * 0.4

0.2

Semi-infinite solid t = const


w

I
0.0001

L
0.005 0.01 Fo: x1 0.05 0.1 0.5 1

0.0005 0.001

? 0.6

0.01

0.05 Fx2

PIG. 1 1 . 4 . Temperature response of decomposing semi-infinite s o l i d after sudden change i n surface temperature from t to t: (a) 0 _ x H, (b) x < SL < (case 1 1 . 1 . 1 3 , source: Bef. 19, pp. 3-91, Fig. 5 6 ) .
0

F-102

(b)

-ww
Semi-infinite solid {h/pH)(t -t )V ^7a"=1
a d r

10

ww
Semi-infinite solid (h/pH)(t -t )Vyd"=2
a d

0.01 0.1

0.5 r/r
d

1 - 1

10

FIG. 11.5. Ablation depth of s e m i - i n f i n i t e s o l i d (x > 0) after sudden _ exposure to oonvective environment t_(> t ) : (a) (h/pH) ( t - t ) ?d/< = 1/2, (b) (h/pH) ( t - ta) Szpa = 1, (c) (h/pH) ( t - t ) /Ta/Ot = 2 (case 1 1 . 1 . 1 4 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-94, Fig. 5 8 ) .
d a a a a d

F-103

10 5

irmi I i ' i ii

1rni I i i i ii

1mi i I I i

Semi-infinite solid q" = const

5 10 50 100 Wr )-1
d

FIG. 1 1 . 6 . Ablation depth of semi-infinite s o l i d (x > 0) after sudden ^ exposure t o constant surface heat input q" [case 1 1 . 1 . 1 5 , source: Ref. 19, pp. 3-96, F i g . 59)i -: v - - -
:

F-104

TABLE 1.1.

Mean and maximum temperature excesses and their ratio for


J

electrical coils of rectangular and circular cross sections, 8 = t - t, m mean I 8 = t - t (case 1.2.8, source: Ref. 3, p. 220, Table 1 0 - 3 ) . 0 max 0
Cross S e c t i o n , b/a (2k/q'"a )9 (2k/q "a )e * "
6 I 2 2 m

Rectangular
GO

Circular, 1.5 1 0.28 0.59 r = 2a//iF 0.32 0.64 0.50

10 0.625 1.00 0.625

5 0.58 1.00 0.58

2.5

0.66 1.00 0.66

n/ 0

0.52

0.485

0.475

TABLE 1.2a.

Values of (t - t ) / ( t . - t . ) on the Ref. 15, Table 2 ) .


hw/k = 1 0.094 0.146 0.212 0.250 0.270 0.277 hw/k = 0.10 0.011 0.018 0.027 0.032 0.035 0.036 hw/k = 0.01 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004

surface y = 0 of a semi-infinite strip (case 1.1.29, source:


x/w hw/k = 100 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.889 0.931 0.964 0.973 0.977 0.978 hw/k = 10 0.448 0.594 0.725 0,781 0.807 0.814

TABLE 1.2b.

Heat transfer rates through the surface y = 0 of a semi-infinite Ref. 15, Table 1) 9 = (t
hw/k

s t r i p (case 1 . 1 . 2 9 , source:

- t ).

1000 Q/ke 8.603

200 6.827 0.5

100 5.984 0.3

20 3.971 0.08

10 3.107 0.C5

1.0 0.792 0.02

0.1 0.097 0.02

0.01 0.01 0.02

0.001 0.001 0.02

% Error 1 . 8

P-105

TABLE 1 . 3 .

Conductance data for heat flow normal to wall cuts in an i n f i n i t e Ref. 19, p. 3-124). These groups of data are for

plate (case 1.1.37, source:

the four kinds of wall e l a t e s shown in case 1.1.37.


(a) c/a 4 2 1 1/2 1/4

K/K uncut b/a = 1/2 0.902 0.818 0.704 0.610 0.564


1/4 1/8

(b) c/a 3/2 3/4 1/2 1/3

K/K uncut b/a = 1/2 0.747 0.575 0.430 0.296


1/4 1/8

0.760 0.618 0.465 0.363 0.303

0.646 0.480 0.339 0.235 0.182

0.520 0.315 0.209 0.113

0.381 0.217 0.146 0.080

(c) c/a d/a 1/8 3 3/8 5/8

K/K

uncut
1/4 1/8

(d)
c/a d/a

K/K

b/a = 1/2 0.822 0.767 0.721 0.599 0.740 0.698 0.661 0.570 0.627 0.561 0.527

b/a = 1/4
0.507

'uncut 1/8

1/16

0.634 0.546 0.480 0.339 0.486 0.430 0.390 0.299 0.403 0.312 0.276

0.478 0.374 0.311 0.190 0.342 0.284 0.242 0.164 0.270 0.186 0.152
1/2 3/2

0.402 0.469 0.502 0.866 1.010 1.083


1/2

0.362 0.310 0.479


0.338

Ui/8 1/16
3/2

3/16 5/16 12/16


0

0.254 0.329 0.213 0.141

1/2

1/16 3/16

F-106

Values of A. for a triangular cooling array of cylinders (case 2.2.18, source: TABLE.2.1 Ref. 64, Table 2 ) .
B/l

>1

[/')
2

;-h
4

&

3
5

4
7

*5

6
n

7
13

4.0 2.0 1.5 1.3 1.2

-5.05072(10~ ) -5.04988 dO" ) -5.02447(10~ )


2 2

-8.089K10" ) -8.0542(10 )
-4

-1.262(10" ) -1.217(10" ) -1.374(10" )


6 5

-1.97<10" ) -1.64(lO ) 8.34(10~ ) 5.42(10"^)


7 -7

-3.08(10~ ) -1.33(10" )
9

-4.8(10" ) 2.8(10" ) 2.4-(10" ) 1.3(10" )


8 9 U

-7(10" ) 2(10" ) 8(10 ) 4(10" )


10 - 1 1 12

-4.90792(10~ ) -4.69398(10~ ) -4.60073 (10" ) -4.48345(10~ ) -4.15694(10" ) -3.68059(10 )


-2 2 2 2 2

-6.9920(10" ) -2.1203(10* )
4

6.354(10" ) l.W " )


4 4 4

5.23(10~ ) 2.99(10~ )
7

6.7812(10" ) 1.0619(10" ) 1.5384(10~ ) 2.8029(10~ ) 4.3358(10 ~ )


3 3 3 3

1.175 1.15 1.10 1.05

2.2!i. :i.0~ ) 2.736(10" ) 3.782(10" ) 3.169(10~ )


4 4

1.31(10 ) +1.56(10~ )
5

-5

6.27(10~ ) 6.32(10" ) 4.2K10" ) -2.40(10" ) -1.51(10~ )


S 6 7 7

1.7(10 ;)

T 8

9.8(10*7 ) -5 (10" )
7 6 8

10

-K10" ) -2(10" )
9

1 0

1.76(10-9) 1.08(10"9) 5.67(lO )


-5

-7(10~ ) -5(10" ) -9(10" )


8 9

-5 (10" ) -1,7(10T )

TABLE; 2 . 2 .

Values of 6. for a square cooling array of cylinders (case 2 . 2 . 1 9 , source: 3


1

Kef. 64, Table i ) .

s / E

i:i
X 1 1

3
4

h
_5

6
7

,
7

4.0 2.0 1.5 1.3 1.2

-1.25382 (10" ) -1.25098 (10" ) -1.22597(10" ) -1.17022 (10" ) -1.10421 (10 ) -1.05352 (10" ) -9.3721 (10" ) -9.0358 (10~ )
2 2 1 - 1 1

-1.0583(10" ) -1.0428(10" ) -9.060!(10~ )


2 3

-6.120(10" ) -5.713(10" ) -2.08 (10~ )


4 4

-3.898(10 ) -3.177(10" ) 3.33 ( 1 0 )


-5 5

-2.42(10" ) -1.39{10~ ) 8.1 (10~ )


6 6

-1.5(10" ) -2 1 4 6 (10 ) (10 ) (10 ) (10" )


6 5 6 -6 -6 -8

-8
3 1 4 5 1

-0

(10 -)

do" )
(10" )
7

-5.995 (10" ) -2.387 (10" )


4 -3 3

6.13 (10~ ) 1.566(10" ) 2.233(10" ) 2.91K10" ) 3.210(10~ )


3 3 3 3

1.83 3.50

(10 ) (10 )
4 4 -4

-4

3.1 (10~ ) 5.3 (10~ ) 5.8 (10~ ) 2.44(10~ ) -1.20(10" )


4 5 5 5

do" )
(10~ ) dO" )
6 5 8 7

1.15
1.1

3.172 (10" ) 3.6596(10 ) 7.310 (10 i


_3

4.44 (10" ) 4.655(10" ) 2.06 (10" )


4

4.3(10" ) -1.K10" ) -5.8(10" )


5

- 5 . 3(10~ ) - 1 . 6 dO" )

1.05

TABLE 8.1. Values of (t - t,)/(t - t.) for an infinitely wide plate 1 s x whose surface temperature increases proportionally to time, t = t. + br proportionally (case 8 . 1 . 8 , source: Ref. 1, p. 268, Table 13.5),
Fo
X 0

0.08 0.004 0.030 0.082 0.214 0.418


1

0.16 0.045 0.104 0.194 0.353 0.548


1

0.20 0.074 0.142 0.238 0.398 0.586


1

0.32 0.170 0.245 0.346 0.498 0.664


1

0.40 0.231 0.305 0.402 0.545 0.699


1

0.80 0.464 0.522 0.594 0.698 0.802


1

1.60 0.694 0.728 0.770 0.830 0.889


1

2.00 0.752 0.779 0.814 0.862 0.911


1

4.00 0.875 0.889 0.906 0.930 0.955


1

0.33
0.5

0.66
0.8
1

TABLE 8.2. p. 299).

Values of the function (case 8 . 1 . 1 2 , source:

Ref. 1,

a
0

1/8
1

2/8
1

3/8
1

4/8
1

5/8
1

6/8
1

7/8
1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

I 0.98 0.77 0.47 0.27 0.04 0.00


0

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 4.0 8.0


a>

0.98 0.77 0.47 0.27 0.04 0.00


0

0.98 0.77 0.47 0.28 0.05 0.01


0

0.98 0.78 0.48 0.30 0.08 0.01


0

0.98 0.79 0.52 0.36 0.13 0.02


0

0.98 0.81 0.58 0.45 0.22 0.05


0

0.98 0.85 0.68 0.58 0.37 0.14


0

0.99 0.91 0.83 0.77 0.64 0.36


0

F-108

TABLE 9 . 1 .

Values of (t - t . ) / ( t
1

- t.)
s i

for an i n f i n i t e l y long cylinder whose surface increases proportionally to time (t - t . = CT) (case 9 . 1 . 2 , source: Ref. 1, p. 269).
R

Fo

0.08
0

0.16 0.123 0.191 0.287 G.443 0.621


1

0.32 0.354 0.420 0.505 0.628 0.755


1

0.80 0.691 0.725 0.768 0.828 0.888


1

0.016 0.054 0.122 0.268 0.470


1

0.33
0.5

0.66
0.8
1

TABLE 1 0 . 1 . time ( t

Temperatures for a sphere whose

surface temperature increases proportionally to


Q

= t . + bx) (case 1 0 . 1 . 4 , source:

Ref. 1, p. 269, Table 13-7).


R

Fo

0.016
0

0.08 0.054 0.090 0.162 0.312 0.516


1

0.16 0.219 0.290 0.385 0.529 0.686


1

0.32 0.506 0.560 0.626 0.722 0.819


1

0.80 0.792 0.725 0.844 0.884 0.925


1

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.14


1

0.33
0.)

0.66
0.8
1

F-109

F-llO

SECTION 13. 13.1.

MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS

The Error Function and Related Functions.

e r f

< >

=yf

exp(-z ) dz

_2_
V?

Y
^

(-l) (x)

2n+1

{2nil)nl

'

f O C

S n , a 1 1

V a l u e S

. 2 1 _ S2E ( - ) / l - k _

L..3__l_.3_

\
7

large
U e S

*
erf(O) = 0

I*

2x

" 7 ' of fx !

, erf (<) = 1

erf (-x) = - erf (x) erfc(x) = 1 - erf (x)

i erfc(x) =

-f *
/

i" 'erfc(z)dz

, n = 1, 2,

i erfc(x) = erfc(x) 1 2 i e r f c ( x ) =.y=exp{-x ) - x erfc(x) i e r f c ( x ) = j [erfc(x) - 2x i e r f c ( x ) ] 2n i e r f c ( x ) = i ^erf(x)


n n - 2 2

e r f c ( x ) - 2x i
2

n _ 1

erfc(x)

=^exp(-x )

d _, , 4x , 2 . erf (x) = - r s exp(-x } dx


2

13-1

r* M

13.2.

Exponential and Hyperbolic Functions.

e = 2.71828 . . . exp(u) = e sinh (u) = e


u

- e" 5

, sinh (0) = 0

, sinh ( = < <) *

u u cosh (u) = - s - S -

, cosh (0) = 1

, cosh () = <> *

e tanh (u) = e

2 u

-l + 1

, tanh (0) = 0

, tanh ( = 1 <)

Z U

13-3

TABLE 13.2.

Exponential functions (source: e~


u

Re:?. 2, pp. 367-9).

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58

1.000 1.020 1.041 1.062 1.083 1.105 1.128 1.150 1.174 1.197 1.221 1.246 1.271 1.297 1.323 1.350 1.377 1.405 1.433 1.462 1.492 1.522 1.553 1.584 1.616 1.649 1.682 1.716 1.751 1.786

1.000 0.980 0.961 0.942 0.923 0.905 0.887 0.869 0.852 0.835 0.819 0.802 0.787 0.771 0.756 0.741 0.726 0.712 0.698 0.684 0.670 0.657 0.644 0.631 0.619 0.606 0.594 0.583 0.571 0.560

0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.10 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18

1.822 1.859 1.896 1.935 1.974 2.014 2.054 2.096 2.138 2.182 2.226 2.270 2.316 2.363 2.411 2.460 2.509 2.560 2.612 2.664 2.718 2.773 2.829 2.886 2.945 3.004 3.065 3.127 3.190 3.254

0.549 0.538 0.527 0.517 0.507 0.497 0.487 0.477 0.468 0.458 0.449 0.440 0.432 0.423 0.415 0.407 0.398 0.391 0.383 0.375 0.368 0.361 0.353 0.346 0.340 0.333 0.326 0.320 0.313 0.307

1.20 1.22 1.24 1.26 1.28 1.30 1.32 1.34 1.36 1.38 1.40 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.48 1.50 1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.70 1.72 1.74 1.76 1.78

3.320 3.387 3.456 3.525 3.597 3.669 3.743 3.819 3.896 3.975 4.055 4.137 4.221 4.306 4.393 4.482 4.572 4.665 4.759 4.855 4.953 5.053 5.155 5.259 5.366 5.474 5.584 5.697 5.812 5.930

0.301 0.295 0.289 0.284 0.278 0.272 0.267 0.262 0.257 0.252 0.247 0.242 0.237 2.232 0.228 0.223 0.219 0.214 0.210 0.206 0.202 0.198 0.194 0.190 0.186 0.183 0.179 0.176 0.172 0.169

13-4

TABLE 1 3 . 2 . u 1.80 1.82 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.90 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2.00 2.02 2.04 2.06 2.08 2.10 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.20 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.30 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 e
u

(Continued).
u

e"

u 2.40 2.42 2.44 2.46 2.48 2.50 2.52 2.54 2.56 2.58 2.60 2.62 2.64 2.66 2.68 2.70 2.72 2.74 2.76 2.78 2.80 2.82 2.84 2.86 2.88 2.90 2.92 2.94 2.96 2.98

e~

u 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50

e"

6.050 6.172 6.296 6.424 6.554 6.686 6.821 6.959 7.099 7.243 7.389 7.538 7.691 7.846 8.004 8.166 8.331 8.499 8.671 8.846 9.025 9.207 9.393 9.583 9.777 9.974 10.176 10.381 10.591 10.805

0.165 0.162 0.159 0.156 0.153 0.150 0.147 0.144 0.141 0.138 0.135 0.133 0.130 0.127 0.125 0.122 0.120 0.118 0.115 0.113 0.111 0.109 0.106 0.104 0.102 0.100 0.098 0.096 0.094 0.093

11.023 11.246 11.473 11.705 11.941 12.18 12.43 12.68 12.94 13.20 13.46 13.74 14.01 14.30 14.58 14.88 15.18 15.49 15.80 16.12 16.44 16.78 17.12 17.46 17.81 18.17 18.54 18.92 19.30 19.69

0.091 0.089 0.087 0.085 0.084 0.082 0.080 0.079 0.077 0.076 0.074 0.073 0.071 0.070 0.069 0.067 0.066 0.065 0.063 0.062 0.061 0.060 0.058 0.057 0.056 0.055 0.054 0.053 G.052 0.051

20.08 22.20 24.53 27.11 29.96 33.11 36.60 40.45 44.70 49.40 54.60 66.69 81.45 99.48 121.51 148.4 181.3 221.4 270.4 330.3 403.4 665.1 1096.6 1808.0 2981.0 4914.8 8103.1 13360

0.050 0.045 0.041 0.037 0.033 0.030 0.027 0.025 0.022 0.020 0.018 0.015 0.012 0.010 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

10.00 22026

13-5

13.3.

The Gamma Function.


CO

T(x) = /
'o
x

X _ 1

e" du, x > 0

x e~ M
V x

li + - i - + - i - - -122
L
1 2 X

571_
3

"I
""J '

288X

5184X

2488320x

for large positive values of x T(x + 1) = xT(x)

TABLE 13.3.
X
1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.C9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 T(x) 0.99 433 0.98 884 0.98 355 0.97 844 0.97 350 0.97 874 0.96 415 0.95 973 0.95 546 0.95 135 0.94 740 0.94 359 0.93 993 0.93 642 0.93 304 0.92 980 0.92 670 0.92 373 0.92 089 0.91 817

The gamma function (source:


T(x) 0.91 558 0.91 311 0.91 075 0.90 852 0.90 640 0.90 440 0.90 250 0.90 072 0.89 904 0.89 747 0.89 600 0.89 464 0.89 338 0.89 222 0.89 115 0.89 018 0.88 931 0.88 854 0.88 785 0.88 726

Ref. 17, p. 136).


T(x) 0.89 468 0.89 592 0.89 724 0.89 864 0.90 012 0.90 167 0.90 330 0.90 500 0.90 678 0.90 864 0.91 057 Q.91 258 0.91 467 0.91 683 0.91 906 0.92 137 0.92 376 0.92 623 0.92 877 0.93 138

X
1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40

X
1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60

TW
0.88 676 0.88 636 0.88 604 0.88 581 0.88 566 0.88 560 0.88 563 0.88 575 0.88 595 U.C9 623 0.88 659 0.88 704 0.88 757 0.88 818 0.88 887 0.38 964 0.89 049 0.89 142 0.89 243 0.89 352

X
1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.71 1.72 1.73 1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77 1.78 1.79 1.80

x
1.81 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.88 1.89 1.90 1.91 1.92 1.93 1.94 1.95 1.96 1.97 1.98 1.99 2.00

T(x) 0.93 408 0.93 685 0.93 969 0.94 261 0.94 561 0.94 869 0.95 184 0.95 507 0.95 838 0.96 177 0.96 523 0.96 877 0.97 240 0.97 610 0.97 988 0.98 374 0.98 768 0.99 171 0.99 581 1.00 000

13-6

the p o s i t i v e sign used i f -TT/2 < arg u < 3ir/2 and the negative sign used i f -31T/2 < arg u < n / 2 . I 2 (u) - I (u) s i n (nil)

v i \

n' '

For n any p o s i t i v e integer:

K (u) = ( - l )
n

n + 1

| iln (u/2) + y | I ( u )
n

+ J C

J j=0

(u/2) n+2j JMn+j)!

n+j
ra 1 +

j
m

X " X"
,m=l m=l

i j=0 2

-n+2j (u/2)

C - 3 - Ul

where for j=0, \ m=l

=0

For large values of u:


2
,2
,.2 .2, ,, 2
n ( 4

,2,
n

Kn (u, = Jh e" { i + ^rt^ H8u

+ " -

(4n

2!(8u)'

f -

* o( - )l
U

- J (u) = J (u) - J (u) = J (u) - J (u) du n n-l u n u n n+1

h V

U )

' Vl

( U )

"5V

U )

l! V

U )

" Vl<
l

u)

4 - I (u) = I , (u) - - I (u) = I _,, (u) + - I (u) du n* n-l u n* ' n+1* ' u n ' %- K (u) = -a (u) - K (u) = K (u) - K (u) du n n-l u n u n n+1

13-7

13.4.

Bessel Functions.

>li..,n*M Z jinn + j + 1) 3=0

is ceal and u may be complex

J (u) = ( 1 J (u) , if n is an integer -) n ~n J (u) cos (nwi - J_ (u) Y (u) = : n sin ( T ) nf


n n

,Y (u) - 2 U n (u/2) + y) J^u) - J


n

n+2j ^ ^ " f >",

3=0 3+n
1

.m=l

I "- * I "m=l
u

n-1 Y (u/2)" 3=0

n+2j

(n - j - 1) 1

where y = 0.5772... is Euler's constant, and n is any positive integer

!v >

{in (u/2) + Y}J (u) + (u/2) " f


Q

1 +

j) "^ ^L (21)'

("7*l)^ (3!)'
x (uu))

. y jir(n +n+2j 1) wr"+ L j


3=0

For large values of u:

v ^ -<-1* - ^
(

< - - ;;|, ;f 2!(8u)


V2TTU

32)

* (- )l
j
1

$ - exp [-u (n + J) iri] j 1 + 0 ( i f ) ) ,

13-8

TABLE 1 3 . 4 . 1 . (source: u 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Zeco and first-order Bessel functions of the f i r s t kind

Ref 2, pp. 369-71). J (u)


0

Jj/U) 0.0000 0.0499 0.0995 0.1483 0.1960 0.2423 0.2867 0.3290 0.3688 0.4059 0.4400 0.4709 0.4983 0.5220 0.5419 0.5579 0.5699 0.5778 0.5815 0.5812 0.5767 0.5683 0.5560 0.5399 0.5202 0.4971 0.4708 0.4416 0.4097 0.3754

u
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

J (u)
0

^(u)

1.0000 0.9975 0.9900 0.9776 0.9604 0.9385 0.9120 0.8812 0.8463 0.8075 0.7652 0.7196 0.6711 0.6201 0.5669 0.5118 0.4554 0.3980 0.3400 0.2818 0.2239 0.1666 0.1104 0.0555 0.0025 -0.0484 -0.0968 -0.1424 -0.1850 -0.2243

-0.2600 -0.2921 -0.3202 -0.3443 -0.3643 -0.3801 -0.3918 -0.3992 -0.4026 -0.4018 -0.3971 -0.3887 -0.3766 -0.3610 -0.3423 -0.3205 -0.2961 -0.2693 -0.2404 -0.2097 -0.1776 -0.1443 -0.1103 -0.0758 -0.0412 -0.0068 0.0270 0.0599 0.0917 0.1220

0.3391 0.3009 0.2613 0.2207 0.1792 0.1374 0.0955 0.0538 0.0128 -0.0272 -0.0660 -0.1033 -0.1386 -0.1719 -0.2028 -0.2311 -0.2566 -0.2791 -0.2985 -0.3147 -0.3276 -0.3371 -0.3432 -0.3460 -0.3453 -0.3414 -0.3343 -0.3241 -0.3110 -0.2951

13-9

TABLE 1 3 . 4 . 1 . u 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7,6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9
J (u)
0

(Continued.) u 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9
10.0 1C.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 J (u)
0

J (u)
x

J (u)
L

0.1506 0.1773 0.2017 0.2238 0.2433 0.2601 0.2740 0.2851 0.2931 0.2981 0.3001 0.2991 0.2951 0.2882 0.2786 0.2663 0.2516 0.2346 0.2154 0.1944 0.1716 0.1475 0.1222 0.0960 0.0692 0.C419 0.0146 -0.0125 -0.0392 -0.0652

-0.2767 -0.2559 -0.2329 -0.2081 -0.1816 -0.1538 -0.1250 -0.0953 -0.0652 -0.0349 -0.0047 0.0252 0.0543 0.0826 0.1096 0.1352 0.1592 0.1813 0.2014 0.2192 0.2346 0.2476 0.2580 0.2657 0.2708 0.2731 0.2728 0.26S7 0.2641 0.2559

-0.0903 -0.1142 -0.1368 -0.1577 -0.1768 -0.1939 -0.2090 -0.2218 -0.2323 -0.2403 -0.2459 -0.2490 -0.2496 -0.2477 -0.2434 -0.2366 -0.2276 -0.2164 -0.2032 -0.1881 -0.1712 -0.1528 -0.1330 -0.1121 -0.0902 -0.0677 -0.0446 -0.0213 0.0020 0.0250

0.2453 0.2324 0.2174 0.2004 0.1816 0.1613 0.1395 0.1166 0.0928 0.0684 0.0435 0.0184 -0.0066 -0.0313 -0.0555 -0.0788 -0.1012 -0.1224 -0.1422 -0.1604 -0.1768 -0.1913 -0.2028 -0.2143 -0.2224 -0.2284 -0.2320 -0.2333 -0.2323 -0.2290

13-10

TABLE 13.4.1.

(Continued.)

_u 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5

J (u)
Q

J^u) -0.2234 -0.2158 -0.2060 -0.1943 -0.1807 -0.1655 -0.1487 -0.1307 -0.1114 -0.0912 -0.0703 -0.0488 -0.0271 -0.0052 0.0166 0.0380

u 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0

J (u)
Q

J^u) 0.0590 0.0791 0.0984 0.1165 0.1334 0.1488 0.1626 0.1747 0.1850 0.1934 0.1998 0.2043 0.2066 0.2069 0.2051

0.0477 0.0697 0.0908 0.1108 0.1296 0.1469 0.1626 0.1766 0.1887 0.1988 0.2069 0.2129 0.2167 0.2183 0.2177 0.2150

0.2101 0.2032 0.1943 0.1836 0.1711 0.1570 0.1414 0.1245 0.1065 0.0875 0.0679 0.0476 0.0271 0.0064 0.0142

13-11

TABLE 1 3 . 4 . 2 .

Zero and first-order Bessel functions of the second kind (source:

Ref. 2 p . 371-3). u 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

V
^00

u )

^(u)
-CO

u
3.0 3.1 3.2 3,3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 13-12

v>
0.3768 0.3431 0.3070 0.2691 0.2296 0.1890 0.1477 0.1061 0.0645 0.0234 -0.0169 -0.0561 -0.0938 -0.1296 -0.1633 -0.1947 -0.2235 -0.2494 -0.2723 -0.2921 -0.3085 -0.3216 -0.3312 -0.3374 -0.3402 -0.3395 -0.3354 -0.3282 -0.3177 -0.3044

^(u) 0.3247 0.3496 0.3707 0.3878 0.4010 0.4102 0.4154 0.4167 0.4141 0.4078 0.3979 0.3846 0.3680 0.3484 0.3260 0.3010 0.2737 0.2445 0.2136 0.1812 0.1479 0.1137 0.0792 0.0445 0.0101 -0.0238 -0.0568 -0.0887 -0.1192 -0.1481

-1.5342 -1.0811 0.8073 -0.6060 -0.4445 -0.3085 -0.1907 -0.0868 0.0056 0.0883 0.1622 0.2281 0.2865 0.3379 0.3824 0.4204 0.4520 0.4774 0.4968 0.5104 0.5183 0.5208 0.5181 0.5104 0.4981 0.4813 0.4605 0.4359 0.4079

-6.4590 -3.3238 -2.2931 -1.7809 -1.4715 -1.2604 -0.1032 -0.9781 -0.8731 -0.7812 -0.6981 -0.6211 -0.5485 -0.4791 -0.4123 -0.3476 -0.2847 -0.2237 -0.1644 -0.1070 -0.0517 0.0015 0.0523 0.1005 0.1459 0.1884 0.2276 0.2635 0.2959

TABIS 1 3 . 4 . 2 .

(Continued.)

u 6 i6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 873 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

V>
-0.2882 -0>2694 -0:2433 -0;2251 -0.2000 -0.1732 -0.1452 -0.1162 -0.0864 -0.0562 -0.0260 0.0042 0.0338 0.0628 0.0907 0.1173 0.1424 0.1658 0.1872 0.2065 0.2235 0.2381 0.2501 0.2595 0.2662 0.2702 0.2715 0.2700 0.2659 0.2592

Vj/u) -0J1750" -0.1998 -0.2223 -0.2422 -0.2596 -0.2741 -0.2857 -0.2945 -0.3002 -0.3029 -0.3027 -0.2995 -0.2934 -0.2846 -0.2731 -0.2591 -0.2428 -0.2243 -0.2039 -0.1817 -0.1581 -0.1332 -0.1072 -0.0806 -0.0535 -0.0262 0.0011 0.0280 0.0544 0.0799

u
9-0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

* (u)
0

^(u)
0.1043 0.1275 0.1491 0.1691 0.1871 0.2032 0.2171 0.2287 0.2379 0.2447 0.2490 0.2508 0.2502 0.2471 0.2416 0.2337 0.2236 0.2114 0.1973 0.1813 0.1637 0.1446 0.1243 0.1029 0.0807 0.0579 0.0348 0.0114 -0.0118 -0.0347

0li499 0>2383 0.2245 0.2086 0.1907 0.1712 0.1502 0.1279 0.1045 0.0804 0.0557 C.0307 0.0056 -0.0193 -0.0437 -0.0675 -0.0904 -0.1122 -0.1326 -0.1516 -0.1688 -0.1843 -0.1977 -0.2091 -0.2183 -0.2252 -0.2299 -0.2322 -0.2322 -0.2298

10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9

13-13

TABLE 13.4.2.

(Continued.)

_u 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

Y (u)
0

Y (u)
1

_u 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9

r (u)
0

Y (u)
1

-0-2252 -0.2184 -0.2095 -0.1986 -0.1858 -0.1712 -0.1551 -0.1375 -0.1187 -0.0989 -0.0782 -0.0569 -0.0352 -0.0134 0.0085

-0.0571 -0.0787 -0.0994 -0.1190 -0.1371 -0.1538 -0.1689 -0.1821 -0.1935 -0.2028 -0.2101 -0.2152 -0.2182 -0.2190 -0.2176

Q.0301 0.0512 0.0717 0.0913 0.1099 0.1272 0.1431 0.1575 0.1703 0.1812 0.1903 0.1974 0.2025 0.2056 0.2066

-0.2140 -0*2084 -0.2007 -0.1912 -0.1798 -0.1666 -0.1520 -0.1359 -0.1186 -0.1003 -0.0810 -0.0612 -0.0408 -0.0202 0.0005

13-14

TABLE 1 3 . 4 . 3 . (source:

Zero and f i r s t order modified Bessel functions of the f i r s t kind

Ref. 2, p. 373-4). I (u)


0

u
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Ij^U)

u
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

I (u)
0

I^u) 3.953 4.326 4.734 5.181 5.670 6.206 6.793 7.436 8.140 8.913 9.76 10.69 11.71 12.82 14.05 15.39 16.86 18.48 20.25 22.20 24.34 26.68 29.25 32.08 35.18 38.59 42.33 46.44 50.95 55.90

1.0000 1.0025 1.0100 1.0226 1.0404 1.0635 1.0920 1.1263 1.1665 1.2130 1.2661 1.3262 1.3937 1.4693 1.5534 1.6467 1.7500 0.8640 1.9806 2.1277 2.280 2.446 2.629 2.830 3.049 3.290 3.553 3.842 4.157 4.503

0.0000 0.0501 0.1005 0.1517 0.2040 0.2579 0.3137 0.3719 0.4329 0.4971 0.5652 0.6375 0.7147 0.7973 0.8861 0.9817 1.0848 1.1963 1.3172 1.4482 1.591 1.746 1.914 2.098 2.298 2.517 2.755 3.016 3.301 3.613 13-15

4.881 5.294 5.747 6.243 6.785 7.378 8.028 8.739 9.517 10.369 11.30 12.32 13.44 14.67 16.01 17.48 19.09 20.86 22.79 24.91 27.24 29.79 32.58 35.65 39.01 42.70 46.74 51.17 56.04 61.38

TftBLE 13.4.4. (source:

Zero and f i r s t order modified Bessel functions of the second kind

Ref. 2, p. 374-5).

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

oo

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9

0.072 0.064 0.057 0.050 0.045 0.040 0.035 0.031 0.028 0.025 0.022 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.009 0.008

0.089 0.078 0.069 0.060 0.053 0.047 0.042 0.037 0.032 0.029 0.026 0.023 0.020 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.013 0.011 0.010 0.009

1.545 1.116 0.874 0.710 0.588 0.495 0.420 0.360 0.310 0.268 0.233 0.203 0.177 0.155 0.136 0.120 0.105 0.093 0.082

6.270 3.040 1.946 1.391 1.054 0.829 0.669 0.549 0.456 0.383 0.324 0.277 0.237 0.204 0.177 0.153 0.133 0.116 0.102

13-16

13.5. Legendre Polynomials The Legendre polynomial of degree n, of the first kind: , , . ,,n/2 l . 3 5 (n - 1) r. V 2 4 6 .. n L "
U ) = ( 1} 1 +

n(n + 1) 2 2,
u = 2 6

n<n - 2 n J 1 , * 3) ^
M M

...."] , , ,

P (a) = (-1) " V ' '


l

, n

1 ) / 2

* 6 " " Tu * 2 4 ' (n - 1) L < - ^ C31 >


u

3 u u

(n-lM-3)M2 n 4) 5 ...."J
M t u +
2

fn

3f 5f 7

u|<1

P (u) = 1, P (u) = u, P (u) = (3u - l)/2 ,


Q x 2

P,(u) = (5u - 3u)/2 P.(u) = (35u - 30u + 3)/8 , 3 4


r

P (u) = (63u - 70u + 15u)/8, |u|<l


5

The Legendre polynomial of degree n, of the second kind: . , , ,.(n+l)/2 2 4 * 6 " (n - 1) f, Q C ) = (-D 1 3 5 n L
n 1 n

n(n + 1) 2 27"^
u c

^ n(n - 2) (n + 1) (n + 3) 4 ^ T , , +"-Jj" u + _] , n = 3, 5, 7, ...,


1 u

"n

(u) = ( x..n/2

,_,xn/2 2 ' 4 * 6 " n ' r _ (n - 1) ( + 2) 3 l)(n ' 1 3 5 (n - 1) L 31


u + (

n-l n-3Mn,2 n
M M

4) 5 . . . . - |
u +

t n s 2 > 4 t 6

13-17

Q (") H
0

^n(^i).|u|<l
Q (u) = Q (u) P^u) - 1,
x Q

Q (u) = Q(u) P (u) - 3u/2


2 2

Q (u) = Q (u) P (u) - 5u /2 + j,


3 0 3

Q (u) = Q (u) P (u) - 35u /8 + 55u /24 ,


4 Q 4

Q (u) =Q (u, P (u, - I f l L r - i L p ^ u , . ^ i L , ^


n 0 n

13-18

TABLE 13.5.

The first five Legendre polynomials of the first kind (source:

Ref. 2, p . 375-7).

u
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29

Pj/U) 0.0000 0.0100 0.0200 0.0300 0.0400 0.0500 0.0600 0.0700 O.OSOO 0.0900 0.1000 0.1100 0.1200 0.1300 0.1400 0.1500 0.1600 0.1700 0.1800 0.1900 0.2000 0.2100 0.2300 0.2300 0.2400 0.2500 (1.2600 0.2700 0.2800 0.2900

P (u)
2

P (u)
3

v>
0.3750 0.3746 0.3735 0.3716 0.3690 0.3657 0.3616 0.3567 0.3512 0.3449 0.3379 0.3303 0.3219 0.3129 0.3032 0.2928 0.2819 0.2703 0.2581 0.2453 0.2320 0.2181 0.2037 0.1889 0.1735 0.1577 0.1415 0.1249 0.1079 0.0906

P (u)
5

-0.5000 -0.4998 -0.4994 -0.4986 -0.4976 -0.4962 -0.4946 -0.4926 -0.4904 -0.4878 -0.4850 -0.4818 -0.4784 -0.4746 -0,4906 -0.4662 -0.4616 -0.4566 -0.4514 -0.4458 -0.4400 -0.4338 -0.4274 -0.4206 -0.4136 -0.4062 -0.3986 -0.3906 -0.3824 -0.3738

0.0000 -0.0150 -0.0300 -0.0449 -0.0598 -0.0747 -0.0895 -0.1041 -0.1187 -0.1332 -0.1475 -0.1617 -0.1757 -0.1895 -0.2031 -0.2166 -0.2*98 -0.2427 -0.2554 -0.2679 -0.2800 -0.2918 -0.3034 -0.3146 -0.3254 -0.3359 -0.3461 -0.3558 -0.3651 -0.3740

0.0000 0.0187 0.0374 0.0560 0.0744 0.0927 0.1106 0.1283 0.1455 0.1624 0.1788 0.1947 0.2101 0.2248 0.2389 0.2523 0.2650 0.2769 0.2880 0.2982 0.3075 0.3159 0.3234 0.3299 0.3353 0.3397 0.3431 0.3453 0.3465 0.3465

13-19

TABLE 13.5. u
0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59

(Continued.)
P (u)
3

p x

(u)

P (u)
2

P (u)
4

P (u)
5

0.3000 0.3100 0.3200 0.3300 0.3400 0.3500 0.3600 0.3700 0.3800 0.3900 0.4000 0.4100 0.4200 0.4300 0.4400 0.4500 0.4600 0.4700 0.4800 0.4900 0.5000 0.5100 0.5200 0.5300 0.5400 0.5500 0.5600 0.5700 0.5800 0.5900

-0.3650 -0.3558 -0.3464 -0.3366 -0.3266 -0.3162 -0.3056 -0.2946 -0.2834 -0.2718 -0.2600 -0.2478 -0.2354 -0.2226 -0.2096 -0.1962 -0.1826 -0.1686 -0.1544 -0.1398 -0.1250 -0.1098 -0.0944 -0.0786 -0.0626 -0.0462 -0.0296 -0.0126 0.0046 0.0222

-0.3825 -0.3905 -0.3981 -0.4052 -0.4117 -0.4178 -0.4234 -0.4284 -0.4328 -0.4367 -0.4400 -0.4427 -0.4448 -0.4462 -0.4470 -0.4472 -0.4467 -0.4454 -0.4435 -0.4409 -0.4375 -0.4334 -0.4285 -0.4228 -0.4163 -0.4091 -0.4010 -0.3920 -0.3822 -0.3716

0.0729 0.0550 0.0369 0.0185 0.0000 -0.0187 -0.0375 -0.0564 -0.0753 -0.0942 -0.1130 -0.1317 -0.1504 -0.1688 -0.1870 -0.2050 -0.2226 -0.2399 -0.2568 -0.2732 -0.2891 -0.3044 -0.3191 -0.3332 -0.3465 -0.3590 -0.3707 -0.3815 -0.3914 -0.4002

0.3454 0.3431 0.3397 0.3351 0.3294 0.3225 0.3144 0.3051 0.2948 0.2833 0.2706 0.2569 0.2421 0.2263 0.2095 0.1917 0.1730 0.1534 0.1330 0.1118 0.0898 0.0673 0.0441 0.0204 -0.0037 -0.0282 -0.0529 -0.0779 -0.1028 -0.1278

20

TABLE 1 3 . 5 . u
0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 P (u)
2

(Continued.)
P,(u) -0.3600 -0.3475 -0.3342 -0.3199 -0.3046 -0.2884 -0.2713 -0.2531 -0.2339 -0.2137 -0.1925 -0.1702 -0.1469 -0.1225 -0.0969 -0.0703 -0.0426 -0.0137 0.0164 0.0476 0.0800 0.1136 0.1484 0.1845 0.2213 0.2603 0.3001 0.3413 C.3837 0.4274 P (u)
4

P (u)
x

P (u)
5

0.6000 0.6100 0.6200 0.6300 0.6400 0.6500 0.6600 0.6700 0.6800 0.6900 0.7000 0.7100 0.7200 0.7300 0.7400 0.7500 0.7600 0.7700 0.7800 0.7900 0.8000 0.8100 0.8200 0.8300 0.8400 0.8500 0.8600 0.8700 0.8800 0.8900

0.0400 0.0582 0.0766 0.0954 0.1144 0.1338 0.1534 0.1734 0.1936 0.2142 0.2350 0.2562 0.2776 0.2994 0.3214 0.3438 0.3664 0.3894 0.4126 0.4362 0.4600 0.4842 0.5086 0.5334 0.5584 0.5838 0.6094 0.6354 0.6616 0.6882

-0.4080 -0.4146 -0.4200 -0.4242 -0.4270 -0.4284 -0.4284 -0.4268 -0.4236 -0.4187 -0.4121 -0.4036 -0.3933 -0.3810 -0.3666 -0.3501 -0.3314 -0.3104 -0.2871 -0.2613 -0.2330 -0.2021 -0.1685 -0.1321 -0.0928 -0.0506 -0.0053 0.0431 0.0947 0.1496

-0.1526 -0.1772 -0.2014 -0.2251 -0.2482 -0.2705 -0.2919 -0.3122 -0.3313 -0.3490 -0.3652 -0.3796 -0.3922 -0.4026 -0.4107 -0.4164 -0.4193 -0.4193 -0.4162 -0.4097 -0.3995 -0.3855 -0.3674 -0.3449 -0.3177 -0.2857 -0.2484 -0.2056 -0.1570 -0.1023

13-21

TABLE 13.5. u
0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 P (u)
x

(Continued.)
P (u)
3

P (u)
2

P (u)
4

P (u)
5

0.9000 0.9100 0.9200 0.9300 0.9400 0.9500 0.9600 0.97C0 0.9800 0.9900 1.0000

0.7150 0.7422 0.7696 0.7974 0.8254 0.8538 0.8824 0.9114 0.9406 0.9702 1.0000

0.4725 0.5189 0.5667 0.6159 0.6665 0.7184 0.7718 0.8267 0.8830 0.9407 1.0000

0.2079 0.2698 0.3352 0.4044 0.4773 0.5541 0.6349 0.7198 0.8089 0.9022 1.0000

-0.0411 0.0268 0.1017 0.1842 0.2744 0.3727 0.4796 0.5954 0.7204 0.8552 1.0000

13-22

13.6.

Sine, Cosine, and Exponential Integrals.

Sine integral: Si(x) ,= /

SAM.

d u

J. 0
S i {<*) =
TT/2

r
Cosine integral: Ci(x) = I "x

00
C 0 S

r
J )
U

du =8, n(yx) -

I * 'o

Jin y = 0.577215... (Euler's constant)


CD

Exponential integral:

/ SjEi(x) = - I du, <0, > x > 0 x

Logarithmic integral:

S,i(x) = U(x)

//
0

. "

= Ei(An x)

i ( e ) = Ei(x) For small values of x: Si(x) = x , U(x) = -x/Zn(l/x)

Ci(x) a Ei(-x) a i l ( x ) = Jln(l/yx) = y + S,n(x) - x + {X /A) For large values of x: Si(x) = ir/2 - cos (x)/x Ci(x) = s i n (x)/x

Ei(x) = (e*/x) (1 + l l / x + 2 l / x + 3!/x + ) , | x |

13-23

TABLE 1 3 . 6 . (source:

Values of the s i n e , c o s i n e , logarithmic, and exponential i n t e g r a l s ,

Ref. 18, p. 6-9.)

Si(x) 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 G.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 +0.000000 +0.010000 +0.019999 +0.029998 +0.039996 +0.04999 +0.05999 +0.06998 +0.07997 +0.08996 +0.09994 +0.10993 +0.11990 +0.12988 +0.13985 +0.14981 +0.15977 +0.16973 +0.1797 +0.1896 +0.1996 +0.2095 +0.2194 +0.2293 +0.2392 +0.2491 +0.2590 +0.2689 +0.2788 +0.2886

Ci(x)
-CO

Ei(x)
00

Ei (-x)

-4.0280 -3.3349 -2.9296 -2.6421 -2.4191 -2.2371 -2.0833 -1.9501 -1.8328 -1.7279 -1.6331 -1.5466 -1.4672 -1.3938 -1.3255 -1.2618 -1.2020 -1.1457 -1.0925 -1.0422 -0.9944 -0.9490 -0.9057 -0.8643 -0.8247 -0.7867 -0.7503 0.7153 -0.6816

-4.0179 -3.3147 -2.8991 -2.6013 -2.3679 -2.1753 -2.0108 -1.8669 -1.7387 -1.6228 -1.5170 -1.4193 -1.3287 -1.2438 -1.1641 -1.0887 -1.0172 -0.9491 -0.8841 -0.8218 -0.7619 -0.7042 -0.5485 -0.5947 -0.5425 -0.4919 -0.4427 -0.3949 -0.3482

-4.0379 -3.3547 -2.9591 -2.6813 -2.4679 -2.2953 -2.1508 -2.0269 -1.9187 -1.8229 -1.7371 -1.6595 -1.5889 -1.5241 -1.4645 -1.4092 -1.3578 -1.3098 -1.2649 -1.2227 -1.1829 -1.1454 -1.1099 -1.0762 -1.0443 -1.0139 -0.9849 -0.9573 -0.9309

13-24

TABLE 13.6.
X 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.59 Si(x) +0.2985 +0.3083 +0.3182 +0.3280 +0.3378 +0.3476 +0.3574 +0.3672 +0.3770 +0.3867 +0.3965 +0.4062 +0.4159 +0.4256 +0.4353 +0.4450 +0.4546 +0.4643 +0.4739 +0.4835 +0.4931 +0.5027 +0.5123 +0.5218 +0.5313 +0.5408 +0.5503 +0.5598 +0.5693 +0.5787

(Continued.)
Ei(x) -0.3027 -0.2582 -0.2147 -0.17210 -0.13036 -0.08943 -0.04926 -0.00979 +0.02901 +0.06718 +0.10477 +0.14179 +0.17828 +0.2143 +0.2498 +0.2849 +0.3195 +0.3537 +0.3876 +0.4211 +0.4542 +0.4870 +0.5195 +0.5517 +0.5836 +0.6153 +0.6467 +0.6778 +0.7087 +0.7394 Ei (-x) -0.9057 -0.8815 -0.8583 -0.8361 -0.8147 -0.7942 -0.7745 -0.7554 -0.7371 -0.7194 -0.7024 -0.6859 -0.6700 -0.6546 -0.6397 -0.6253 -0.U4 -0.5979 -0.5848 -0.5721 -0.5598 -0.5478 -0.5362 -0.5250 -0.5140 -0.5034 -0.4930 -0.4830 -0.4732 -0.4636

Ci(x)
-0.6492 -0.6179 -0.5877 -0.5585 -0.5304 -0.5031 -0.4767 -0.4511 -0.4263 -0.4022 -0.3788 -0.3561 -0.3341 -0.3126 -0.2918 -0.2715 -0.2517 -0.2325 -0.2138 -0.1956 -0.17778 -0.16045 -0.14355 -0.12707 -0.11099 -0.09530 -0.07999 -0.06504 -0.05044 -0.03619

13-25

TABLE 13.6.

(Continued.)

Si(x) 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 +0.5881 +0.5975 +0.6069 +0.6163 +0.6256 +0.6349 +0.6442 +0.6535 +0.6628 +0.6720 +0.6812 +0.6904 +0.6996 +0.7087 +0.7179 +0.7270 +0.7360 +0.7451 +0.7541 +0.7631 +0.7721 +0.7811 +0.7900 +0.7989 +0.8078 +0.8166 +0.8254 +0.8342 +0.8430 +0.8518

Ci(x) -0.02227 -0.008675 +0.004606 +0.01758 +0.03026 +0.04265 +0.05476 +0.06659 +0.07816 +0.08946 +0.10051 +0.11132 +0.12188 +0.13220 +0.14230 +0.15216 +0.16181 +0.17124 +0.1805 +0.1895 +0.1983 +0.2069 +0.2153 +0.2235 +0.2316 +0.2394 +0.2471 +0.2546 +0.2619 +0.2691

Ei(x) +0.7699 +0.8002 +0.8302 +0.8601 +0.8898 +0.9194 +0.9488 +0.9780 +1.0071 +1.0361 +1.0649 +1.0936 +1.1222 +1.1507 +1.1791 +1.2073 +1.2355 +1.2636 +1.2916 +1.3195 +1.3474 +1.3752 +1.4029 +1.4306 +1.4582 +1.4857 +1.5132 +1.5407 +1.5681 +1.5955

Ei(-x) -0.4544 -0.4454 -0.4366 -0.4280 -0.4197 -0.4115 -0.4036 -0.3959 -0.3883 -0.3810 -0.3738 -0.3668 -0.3599 -0.3532 -0.3467 -0.3403 -0.3341 -0.3280 -0.3221 -0.3163 -0.3106 -0.3050 -0.2996 -0.2943 -0.2891 -0.2840 -0.2790 -0.2742 -0.2694 -0.2647

13-26

TABLE 13.6. x
0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00

(Continued.) Ei(x)
+1.6228 +1.6501 +1.6774 +1.7047 +1.7319 +1.7591 +1.7864 +1.8136 +1.8407 +1.8679 +1.8951 +1.8951 +2.1674 +2.4421 +2.7214 +3.0072 +3.3013 +3.6053 +3.9210 +4.2499 +4.5937 +4.9542 +5.3332 +5.7326 +6.1544 +6.6007 +7.0738 +7.5761 +8.1103 +8.6793 +9.2860 +9.9338

Si ix)
+0.8605 +0:8692 +0.8778 +0.8865 +0.8951 +0.9036 +0.9122 +0.9207 +0.9292 +0.9377 +0.9461 +0.9461 +1.0287 +1.1080 +1.1840 +1.2562 +1.3247 +1.3892 +1.4496 +1.5058 +1.5578 +1.6054 +1.6487 +1.6876 +1.7222 +1.7525 +1.7785 +1.8004 +1.8182 +1.8321 +1.8422 +1.8487

Ci(x)
+0:2761 +0.2829 +0.2896 +0.2961 +0.3024 +0.3086 +0.3147 +0.3206 +0.3263 +0.3319 +0.3374 +0.3374 +0.3849 +0.4205 +0.4457 +0.4620 +0.4704 +0.4717 +0.4670 +0.4568 +0.4419 +0.4230 +0.4005 +0.T751 +0.3472 +0.3173 +0.2859 +0.2533 +0.2201 +0.1865 +0.1529 +0.1196

Ei(-x)
-0.2602 -0.2557 -0.2513 -0.2470 -0.2429 -0.2387 -0.2347 -0.2308 -0.2269 -0.2231 -0.2194 -0.2194 -0.1860 -0.1584 -0.1355 -0.1162 -0.1000 -0.08631 -0.07465 -0.06471 -0.05620 -0.Q4890 -0.04261 -0;03719 -0.03250 -0.02844 -0.02491 -0.02185 -0.01918 -0.01686 -0.01482 -0.01304

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0

13-27

TABLE 13.6. x 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Si(x)
+1.8517 +1.8514 +1.8481 +1.8419 +1.8331 +1.8219 +1.8086 +1.7934 +1.7765 +1.7582 +1.7387 +1.7184 +1.6973 +1.6758 +1.6541 +1.6325 +1.6110 +1.5900 +1.5696 +1.5499 +1.4247 +1.4546 +1.5742 +1.6650 +1.6583 +1.5783 +1.5050 +1.4994 +1.5562 +1.6182

(Continued.) Ei(x)
+10.5263 +11.3673 +12vl610 +13.0121 +13.9254 +14.9063 +15.9606 +17.0948 +18.3157 +19.6309 +21.0485 +22.5774 +24.2274 +26.0090 +27.9337 +30.0141 +32.2639 +34.6979 +37.3325 +40.1853 +85.9898 +191.505 +440.380 +1037.88 +2492.23 +6071.41 +14959.5 +37197.7 +93192.5 +234 956

Ci(x)
+0.08699 +0.05526 +0:02468 +0.004518 -0.03213 -0.05797 -0.08190 -0.1038 -0.1235 -0.1410 -0.1562 -0.1690 -0.1795 -0.1877 -0.1935 -0.1970 -0.1984 -0.1976 -0.1948 -0.1900 -0.06806 +0.07670 +0.1224 +0.05535 -0.04546 -0.08956 -0.04978 +0.02676 +0.06940 +0.04628

Ei (-x)
-0.01149 -0.01013 -0.0 8939 -0.0 7890 -0.0 6970 -0.0 6160 -0.0 5448 -0.0 4820 -0.0 4267 -0.0 3779 -0.0 3349 -0.0 2969 -0.0 2633 -0.0 2336 -0.0 2073 -0.0 1841 -0.0 1635 -0.0 1453 -0.0 1291 -0.0 1148 -0.0 3601 -0.0 1155 -0.0 3767 -0.0 _1245 -0.0 4157 -0.0 1400 -0.0 4751 -0.0 1622 -0.0 5566 -0.0 1918
7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

13-28

TABLE 1 3 . 6 .

(Continued.)

x 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130

S i (x) +1.5482 +1.5315 +1.5668 +1.5969 +1.5870 +1.5587 +1.5516 +1.5707 +1.5867 +1.5792 +1.5616 +1.5586 +1.5723 +1.5824 +1.5757 +1.5630 +1.5622 +1.5799 +1.5640 +1.5737

C i (x) +0.04442 -0.00685 -0.03303 -0.01148 +0.01902 +0.01863 -0.00563 -0.01817 -0.00481 +0.01285 +0.01092 -0.00533 -0.01240 -0.001935 +0.009986 +0.007110 -0.005149 -0.000320 +0.004781 -0.007132

x 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 10 10 10 10 10
2

Si(x) +1.5722 +1.5662 +1.5769 +1.5653 +1.5741 +1.5704 +1.5684 +1.5709 +1.5721 +1.5726 +1.5725 +1.5720 +1.5714 +1.5707 +1.5702 +1.5709 +1.5708 +1.5708 +1.5708 1/2TI

Ci(x) +0.007011 -0.004800 +0.001409 +0.002010 -0.004432 +0.005250 -0.004378 -0.003332 -0.002124 -0.0009320 +0.0000764 +0.0007788 +0.001118 +0.001109 +0.000826 -0.0000306 +0.0000004 -0.0000004 +0.0 0.0

13-29

13-30

SECTION 14.

ROOTS OF SOME CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS

TABLE 14.1.

First six roots of X

tan \

= C.

(Source:

Ref. 74, p. 217.)

c
0
0.001 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

\
15.7080 15.7080 15.7081 15.7082 15.7083 15.7085 15.7086 15.7092 15.7105 15.7118 15.7131 15.7143 15.7207 15.7270 15.7334 15.7397 15.7460 15.7524 15.7587 15.7650 15.7713 15.8026 15.8336 15.8945 15.9536 16.0107 16.0654 16.1177 16.1675 16.2147 16.2594

0.0000 0.0316 0.0447 0.0632 0.0774 0.0893 0.0998 0.1410 0.1987 0.2425 0.2791 0.0311 0.4328 0.5218 0.5932 0.6533 0.7051 0.7506 0.7910 0.8274 0.8603 0.9882 1.0769 1.1925 1.2646 1.3138 1.3496 1.3766 1.3978 1.4149 1.4289

3.1416 3.1419 3.1422 3.1429 3.1435 3.1441 3.1448 3.1479 3.1543 3.1606 3.1668 3.1731 3.2039 3.2341 3.2636 3.2923 3.3204 3.3477 3.3744 3.4003 3.4256 3.5422 3.6436 3.8088 3.9352 4.0336 4.1116 4.1746 4.2264 4.2694 4.3058

6.2832 6.2833 6.2835 6.2838 6.2841 6.2845 6.2848 6.2864 6.2895 6.2927 6.2959 6.2991 6.3148 6.3305 6.3461 6.3616 6.3770 6.3923 6.4074 6.4224 6.4373 6.5097 6.5783 6.7040 6.8140 6.9096 6.9924 7.0640 7.1263 7.1806 7.2281 14-1

9.4248 9.4249 9.4250 9.4252 9.4254 9.4256 9.4258 9.4269 9.4290 9.4311 9.4333 9.4354 9.4459 9.4565 9.4670 9.4775 9.4879 9.4983 9.5087 9.5190 9,5293 9.5801 9.6296 9.7240 9.8119 9.8928 9.9667 10.0339 10.0949 10.1502 10.2003

12.5664 12.5665 12.5665 12.5667 12.5668 12.5670 12.5672 12.5680 12.5696 12.5711 12.5727 12.5743 12.5823 12.5902 12.5981 12.6060 12.6139 12.6218 12.6296 12.6375 12.6453 12.6841 12.7223 12.7966 12.8678 12.9352 12.9988 13.0584 13.1141 13.1660 13.2142

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
10.0

TABLE 1 4 . 1 .

(Continued.)

\
15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 80.0 100.0
OD

1.4729 1.4961 1.5202 1.5325 1.5400 1.5451 1.5514 1.5552 1.5708

4.4255 4.4915 4.5615 4.5979 4.6202 4.6353 4.6543 4.6658 4.7124

7.3959 7.4954 7.6057 7.6647 7.7012 7.7259 7.7573 7.7764 7.8540

10.3898 10.5117 10.6543 10.7334 10.7832 10.8172 10.8606 10.8871 10.9956

13.4078 13.5420 13.7085 13.8048 13.8666 13.9094 13.9644 13.9981 14.1372

16.4474 16.5864 16.7691 16.8794 16.9519 17.0026 17.0686 17.1093 17.2788

14-2

TABLE 1 4 . 2 .

F i r s t five roots of 1 - \

cot \

= C.

( s o u r c e : Ref. 20 p . 442.)

c
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000 1.500 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 7.000 8.000 9.000 1.0.000 11.000 16.000 21.000

\
0.0000 0.1224 0.1730 0.2445 0.2991 0.3450 0.3854 0.4217 0.4551 0.4860 0.5150 0.5423 0.7593 0.9208 1.0528 1.1656 1.2644 1.3525 1.4320 1.5044 1.5708 1.8366 2.0288 2.2889 2.4557 2.5704 2.6537 2.7165 2.7654 2.8044 2.8363 2.8628 2.9476 2.9930

h
7.7253 7.7259 7.7265 7.7278 7.7291 7.7304 7.7317 7.7330 7.7343 7.7356 7.7369 7.7382 7.7511 7.7641 7.7770 7.7899 7.8028 7.8156 7.8284 7.8412 7.8540 7.9171 7.9787 8.0962 8.2045 8.3029 8.3914 8.4703 8.5406 8.6031 8.6587 8.7083 8.8898 9.0019

4.4934 4.4945 4.4956 4.4979 4.5001 4.5023 4.5045 4.5068 4.5090 4.5112 4.5134 4.5157 4.5379 4.5601 4.5822 4.6042 4.6261 4.6479 4.6696 4.6911 4.7124 4.8158 4.9132 5.0870 5.2329 5.3540 5.4544 5.5378 5.6078 5.6669 5.7172 5.7606 5.9080 5.9921

10.9041 10.9046 10.9050 10.9060 10.9069 10.9078 10.9087 10.9096 10.9105 10.9115 10.9124 10.9133 10.9225 10.9316 10.9408 10.9499 10.9591 10.9682 10.9774 10.9865 10.9956 11.0409 11.0856 11.1727 11.2560 11.3349 11.4086 11.4773 11.5408 11.5994 11.6532 11.7027 11.8959 12.0250

14.0662 14.0666 14.0669 14.0676 14.0683 14.0690 14.0697 14.0705 14.0712 14.0719 14.0726 14.0733 14.0804 14.0875 14.0946 14.1017 14.1088 14.1159 14.1230 14.1301 14.1372 14.1724 14.2075 14.2764 14.3434 14.4080 14.4699 14.5288 14.5847 14.6374 14.6870 14.7335 14.9251 15.0625

14-3

TABLE 1 4 . 2 .

(Continued.)

c
31.000 41.000 51.000 1U1.000

\
3.0406 3.0651 3.0801 3.1105

h
9.1294 9.1987 9.2420 9.3317

h
12.1807 12.2688 12.3247 12.4426

6.0831 6.1311 6.1606 6.2211

15.2380 15.3417 15.4090 15.5537

TABLE 1 4 . 3 .

F i r s t f i v e r o o t s of J (X ) = 0 . in n

(Source:

Ref.

20, p .

443.)

m
0 1 2 3 4

X_
2 5.5201 7.0156 8.4172 9.7610 11.0647

2.4048 3.8317 5.1356 6.3802 7.5883

8.6537 10.1735 11.6198 13.0152 14.3725

11.7915 13.3237 14.7960 16.2235 17.6160

14.9309 16.4706 17.9598 19.4094 20.8269

14-4

TABLE 14.4. First six roots of X n p. 217)

J (X ) - CJ (X ) = 0. x n u n
ft

(Source:

Ref. 74.

c
0
0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06

h
0 0.1412 0.1995 0.2814 0.3438 0.3960 0.4417 0.5376 0.6170 0.7465 0.8516 0.9408 1.0184 1.0873 1.1490 1.2048 1.2558 1.4569 1.5994 1.7887 1.9081 1.9898 2.0490 2.0937 2.1286 2.1566 2.1795 2.2509 2.2880 2.3261 2.3455 2.3572 2.3651 2.3750 2.3809 2.4048

3
10.1735 10.1745 10.1754 10.1774 10.1794 10.1813 10.1833 10.1882 10.1931 10.2029 10.2127 10.2225 10.2322 10.2419 10.2516 10.2613 10.2710 10.3188 10.3658 10.4566 10.5423 10.6223 10.6964 10.7646 10.8271 10.8842 10.9363 11.1367 11.2677 11.4221 11.5081 11.5621 11.5990 11.6461 11.6747 11.7915 13.3237 13.3244 13.3252 13.3267 13.3282 13.3297 13.3312 13.3349 13.3387 13.3462 13.3537 13.3611 13.3686 13.3761 13.3835 13.3910 13.3984 13.4353 13.4719 13.5434 13.6125 13.6786 13.7414 13.8008 13.8566 13.9090 13.9580 14.1576 14.2983 14.4748 14.5774 14.6433 14.6889 14.7475 14.7834 14.9309

\
16.4706 16.4712 16.4718 16.4731 16.4743 16.4755 16.4767 16.4797 16.4828 16.4888 16.4949 16.5010 16.5070 16.5131 16.5191 16.5251 16.5312 16.5612 16.5910 16.6499 16.7073 16.7630 16.8168 16.8684 16.9179 16.9650 17.0099 17.2008 17.3442 17.5348 17.6506 17.7272 17.7807 17.8502 17.8931 18.0711

3.8317 3.8343 3.8369 3.8421 3.8473 3.8525 3.8577 3.8706 3.8835 3.9091 3.9344 3.9594 3.9841 4.0085 4.0325 4.0562 4.0795 4.1902 4.2910 4.4634 4.6018 4.7131 4.8033 4.8772 4.9384 4.9897 5.0332 5.1773 5.2568 5.3410 5.3846 5.4112 5.4291 5.4516 5.4652 5.5201

7.0156 7.0170 7.0184 7.0213 7.0241 7.0270 7.0298 7.0369 7.0440 7.0582 7.0723 7.0864 7.1004 7.1143 7.1282 7.1421 7.1558 7.2233 7.2884 7.4103 7.5201 7.6177 7.7039 7.7797 7.8464 7.9051 7.9569 8.1422 8.2534 8.3771 8.4432 8.4840 8.5116 8.5466 8.5678 8.6537 14-5

o.oe
0.1
0.15

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
10.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 80.0 100.0
00

TABLE 14.5.

First five roots of J (X )Y (CX ) = Y ( X ) J ( C X ) .


0 n 0 n Q n 0 n

(Source:

Sef. 9, p. 493.)

_h
1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 15.7014 6.2702 3.1230 2.0732 1.5485 1.2339 1.0244 31.4126 12.5598 6.2734 4.1773 3.1291 2.5002 2.0809

\
62.8302 25.1294 12.5614 8.3717 6.2767 5.0196 4.1816

^5_
78.5385 31.4133 15.7040 10.4672 7.8487 6.2776 5.2301

47.1217 18.8451 9.4182 6.2754 4.7038 3.7608 3.1322

14-6

TABLE 14.6.

F i r s t s i x roots of tan(X > = -X /C.


n

(Source:

Hef. 74, p. 322.)

c
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
10.0 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 80.0 100.0
00

\
1.5708 1.6320 1.6887 1.7414 1.7906 1.8366 1.8798 1.9203 1.9586 1.9947 2.0288 2.1746 2.2889 2.4557 2.5704 2.6537 2.7165 2.7654 2.8044 2.8363 2.8628 2.9476 2.9930 3.0406 3.0651 3.0801 3.0901 3.1028 3.1105 3.1416

\
17.2788 17.2845 17.2903 17.2961 17.3019 17.3076 17.3134 17.3192 17.3249 17.3306 17.3364 17.3649 17.3932 17.4490 17.5034 17.5562 17.6072 17.6562 17.7032 17.7481 17.7908 17.9742 18.1136 18.3018 18.4180 18.4953 18.5497 18.6209 18.6650 18.8496

4.7124 4.^335 4.7544 4.7751 4.7956 4.8158 4.8358 4.8556 4.8751 4.8943 4.9132
c

7.8540 7.8667 7.8794 7.8920 7.9046 7.9171 7.9295 7.9419 7.9542 7.9665 719787 8.0385 8.0962 8.2045 8.3029 8.3914 8.4703 8.5406 8.6031 8.6587 8.7083 8.8898 9.0019 9.1294 9.1986 9.2420 9.2715 9.3089 9.3317 9.4248

10.9956 11.0047 11.0137 11.0228 11.0318 11.0409 11.0498 11.0588 11.0677 11.0767 11.0856 11.1296 11.1727 11.2560 11.3349 11.4086 11.4773 11.5408 11.5994 11.6532 11.7027 11.8959 12.0250 12.1807 12.2688 12.3247 12.3632 12,4124 12.4426 12.5664

14.1372 14.1443 14.1513 14.1584 14.1654 14.1724 14.1795 14.1865 14.1935 14.2005 14.2075 14.2421 14.2764 14.3434 14.4080 14.4699 14.5288 14.5847 14.6374 14.6870 14.7335 14.9251 15.0625 15.2380 15.3417 15.4090 15.4559 15.5164 15.5537 15.7080

.0037

5.0870 5.2329 5.3540 5.4544 5.5378 5.6078 5.6669 5.7172 5.7606 5.9080 5.9921 6.0831 6.1311 6.1606 6.1805 6.2058 6.2211 6.2832

14-7

-1

\4-i

SECTION 15.

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS.

15.1.

Mathematical- Constants.

e = 2i7182818.

Hn 10 = 2.3025851. n = 3.1415926. Y = 0.5772156. (Euler's constant)

15.2.

Physical Constants. Standard acceleration of gravity g


Q

= 9.80665 m/s = 32.1742 f t / s


2

Joule's constant

= 1 . 0 Nm/J = 778.16 fflbf/Btu

Stefan-Boltzmann constant a = 1.355 x 1 0 " = 1712 x 1 0 ~


1 2 1 2

cal/s'cm -K Btn/hr'ft -R
2 4 2

= 5.673 x 10" W/ra 'K Universal gas constant R = 8.3143 J/molK = 0.08205 &*atm/mol*K

= 1 . 9 8 5 9 Btu/lbm'mol'R = 1545.33 ft*lbf/lhm*mol*R = 6.41 x 10~


4

J/kg-mol-K

15-1

15.3.

Conversion Factors.

TABLE 15.1. Conversion factors for length.

ym 1 m 1 cm lUm 1 A 1 in. 1 ft 1 yd
Ul I to

A 10 10 10
1 0

in. 39.37 0.3937 0.3937 x 1 0 0.3937 x 1 0


8 - 4

ft 3.280 0.0328 0.0328 x 1 0 " 0.0328 x 1 0 ~ 0.0833 1 3


4

yd 1.0936 0.0109 0.0109 x 1 0 " 0.0109 x 1 0 0.0277 0.3333 1


4

1 0.01 io6

100 1 10" 10"


4

10 10 1

ID"

10

io-

1
4

- 8

- 8

0.0254 0.3048 0.9144

2.540 30.48 91.440

25.4 x 10

2.540 x 1 0
4

1 12
6

30.48 x 1 0

30.43 x 1 0
4

91.440 x 1 0

91.440 x 1 0

36

TABLE 15.2. Conversion factors for area. 2 . 2 in. 0.1550 1550


4

cm
1 cm 1 m 1 in. = 1ft
2 2 2

m lO"
4

ft

1 = 10
4

1.07639 10.7639 6.9444 1 9

1.1960 x 1 0 1.1960 7.7160 x 1 0 0.11111 1

- 4

1 6.4516 x 1 0 " 929.034 x 1 0

6.4516 929.034 8361.307

1 144
4

- 4

=
2

- 4

1 yd

8361.307 x 1 0 "

1296

TABLE 15.3. Conversion factors for volume. cn a


1 cm
3 3

in.

ft
4

ml
- 4

liter
- 3

;gal 264.170 x 1 0 ~ 432.9"00 x 1 0 " 7.4805 264.178 x 1 0 ~ 264.178 x 1 0 ~


6 6

= 1
3

610.23 x 10~

35.3145 x 1 0 5.7870 x 1 0

999.972 x 1 0 16.3867 28.3162 x 1 0


3

1 in. 1ft 1 ml
3

= 16.3872 = 283.170 x 10 = 1.000028 = 1000.028 = 3785.434


2

; i
1728 610.251 x 1 0 61.0251
- 4

- 4

-6 999.972 x 10" 16.3867 x 10"-3


28.3162 0.001

1
353.15 1 x 1 0
- 7

1
1000 3785.329

1 liter 1 gal

353.154 x 10" 133.680 x 1 0

1
3.785329

231

- 3

TABLE 15.4. Conversion factors for mass. lb


1 lb =1 slugs 0.03108

g
453.59 1.4594 x 1 0
5 4

kg
0.45359 14.594 io3

ton
0.0005 0.016087 1.1023 x l o 1.1023 x l o
- 6

1 slug = 32.174 1 g 1 kg 1 ton

1
6.8521 x 10~ 6.8521 x 10~ 62.162
3

-3 = 2.2046 x 10'
= 2.2046 = 2000

1 10
3

1
5

- 3

9.0718 x 1 0

907.18

TABLB 1 5 . 5 . lhm/ft 1 lbm/ft


3 3

Conversion factors for density. lbm/ii i. 5.787 x 1 0 0.01862 1 4.329 x 10~ 0.03613
3 - 4

slug/in. 0.03108 1 53.706 0.2325 1.9403

lbm/gal 0.13386 4.3010 231 1 8.345

g/cm 0.01602 0.51543 27.680 0.11983 1

=
3

1 32.174 1728 7.4805 62.428

1 slug/ft 1 lbm/gal 1 g/cra


3

= = =

1 lbni/in. =

15-4

TABLE 1 5 . 6 .
lbf/in. 1 lbf/in. = 1
2 2

Conversion factors for pressure.


2

dyne/cm 689.473 x 10
2

kgf/cm

in. H(j 2.0360

nun Hg 51.715

in. H O 27.71

atm
0.06805

bar
0.06895

0.07031

1 dyne/cm = 145.0383 -7 X 10 ' 1 kgf/cm


2

1
980.665 x 10
3

101.972 x io"
8

= 14.2234

1
0.03453 1.3595 -3
x XQ

295.299 -7 x 10 ' 28.959

750.062 x 10
- 6

4.0188 -4 x 10 * 394.0918

986.923

lO"

-9
967.841 x 10
3

735.559

980.665 x 10"
3

1 in. Hg

= 0.4912 = 0.01934

338.64 x 10 1333.223
2

1
0.03937

25.40

13.608 0.5358

0.03342 1.315 x 10~


3

0.03386 1.333 x 10 2.488

15Ul

1 ram Hg

1
1.8665

1 in. H o
2

= 0.03609

24.883 x 10
2

2.537 x 10"
3

0.0735

1
460.80

2.458 x 10"
3

x 10

- 3

1 atra

= 14.6960

101.325 x 10
4

1.03323

29.9212

760
750.0617

1
986.923 -.n-3

1.01325

1 bar

= 14.5038

10

1.01972

29.5299

401.969

TABLE 15.7. fflbf 1 fflbf 1 abs joule = 1 i n t joule = 1 cal 1 I.T. cal 1 Btu 1 i n t kWhr = 1 hphr = 1 liter'atm = =
1

Conversion factors for energy. int joule 1.355597 0.999835


1 cal

abs joule 1.35582


1

I.T. cal 0.32384 0.238849 0.238889 0.99934


1

0.32405 0.23885 0.239045


1

0.73756 0.737682 3.08596 3.08799 778.16 265.567 x LO 74.7354


Btu
4

1.000165 4.18401 4.18676 1055.045 360.0612 x 1 0


4 4

4.1833 4.18605 1054.866 360.000 x 1 0 268.082 x 1 0 101.3111 hp'hr


505.051 x 10 -9 372.505 x 10
4

1.000657 252.161 860.565 x 1 0 641.615 x 1 0 24.2179 liter*atm


133.8054 x 10" 986.896 x 1 0
- 5 3 4 3

251.996 860.000 x 1 0 641.194 x 1 0 24.2020

198.0000 x 1 0

268.4525 x 1 0 101.3278 i n t kW hr

1 fflbf 1 abs joule 1 int joule 1 cal 1 I.T. c a l 1 Btu 1 int kWhr 1 hp'hr 1 liter'atm

128.5083 x 10 -5 947.827 x 10~ 396.572 x 10~ 396.832 x 10~ 1 3412.76 2544.46 0.09604
6

376.553 x 10-9 277.731 x 10~


9

-9
7

0.947988 x 10"
5 S

2.777778 x 10" 116.2028 x 10" 116.2791 x lo" 293.018 x 1 0 1 0.74558 281.718 x 10


- 6

3.7256 x lo"

9.87058 x 10~ 412.918 x 1 0 413.189 x i o 10.4122 255.343 x 1 0 264.935 x 1 0 1


2

155.8566 x lo" 155.9590 x 10 293.010 x 10" 1.3412 1

-8

-7

377.452 x 10"

Table 15.8. abs joule/h abs joule/g cal/g


l.T. cal/g Btu/lb fflbf/lbra i n t . kWhr/g cal/g 0.2390
1

Conversion factors for specific energy.


Btu/lb 0.4299 1.7988
1.8
1
4

r.T. cal/gm 0.2388 0.9993


1

fflb/lbm 334.53 1399.75 1400.69 776.16


3

i n t . k hr/g W 2.777 x 10" 1.162 x 1 0 1.163 x 1 0 6.460 x 10~ 8.302 X l O


9 7

hp hr/lb 1.690 x ltf* 7.069 x 10 7.074 x 10 3.930 .< 10** 5.051 x l o " 608.4 1 1.567 x i o "
7

ftV
10763 4.504 x 10 4.506 x 10 25,037 32.174 3.876 x 1 0 6.370 x 1 0 1
4 4

. = = = -

1
4.184 4.186 2.326 2.989 x 10~ 3.610 x 10
6 3

- 6

hp'tar/lb ftW

5919 S.291 X 10~

1.0007 0.5559 7.144 x 10"* 860,565 1414.5 2.220 x 10"


5

- 6

0.5556 7.139 X 10~ 860,000 1413.6 2.219 X 10"

1 285 x 10~ 1 548 x 10


6

- 1 0

2545
5

3 994 x 10"

1.2046 x 10 1.9B0 X 1 0 0.03108


6

1 0

0.001644 2.580 x 1 0 "

11

Table 15.9.

Conversion factors for specific energy per degree. Cal/gK 0.2390 1 1.0007 1.0007 -4 2.390 x l o ' I .T. c a l / g K Btu/lb'R 0.2388 0.9993 1 1 2.388 x 1 0
- 4

abs j o u l e / g K

W"s/kg*K 10
3

abs joule/g*K =
cal/g*K I . T . cal/g*K btu/lb'H Ws/kgK = = =

1 4.184 4.186 4.186 lO"


3

0.2388 0.9993 1 1 -4 2 388 x 10"

4184 4186 4186 1

Table 15.10.
,

Conversion factors for thermal conductivity. B t u / h r - f f P 241.9 1 0.0833 5780 Btu/h r . f t


2

cal/s cm-C
n II

. ' "F/in.

W/ m-C 0.04.183 1.73 x i o 1.44 x 1 0 1


- 4 - 6

1 eal/s'cnr C 1 Btu/hr'ft- F 1 Btu/hr'ft - F/in. 1 W/m C


2

1 4.13 x 1 0 3.45 x 1 0 23.89

- 3

2903 12 1 69350

ui

co

xaoie J.:>.XJ..
2

tonvecsii

II

- 4

ft /hr ft /hr = stokes = m /nr =


2 2

stokes 0.25806
1

m /hr 0.092903 0.36


1

m /s
2.58 x 1 0
- 5

3.885 10.764 38,750

io1

2.778
10
4

1.778 x 1 0 ~

m /s

3600

TABLE 15.12. Btu ft hr Btu/ft 'hr W/ra


2 2 2

Conversion factors for heat flux. W 2 m 3.154 x 10"


8

kcal . 2 hrm 2.173 8.600 x 1 0


8 7

cal 2 scm 7.536 x 1 0 ~ 2389 36000


- 5 5

= =

1 3.170 x 1 0 0.3687 13277


7

1 1.163 x i o "

2 kcal/hr-m = 2 cal/s*cm =

1
8

4.1868 x 10~

2.778 x 1 0

TABLE 15.13.

Conversion factors for heat transfer coefficient. Btu W m C 5.678 x 10"


7 8 2

hrft F Btu/hr-ft F W/m 'C cal/sec-cm -C = kcal/hr-m -C


2 2 2

kcal 2 o s*cm C 1.356 x 1 0 " 2391


4 4

cal hr'ra C 4.883 8.600 x 1 0 36000


5 7 2

1 1.761 x 1 0 7376 0.2049

1 4.186 x 10" 1.163 x 10"

1 2.778 x 10"

15-9

Is-10

SECTION 16. CONVECTION COEFFICIENTS 16.1. Forced Flow in Smooth Tubes. 16.1.1 Fully Developed Laminar Flow (Source: Ref. 21):

= 4.364 (constant heat rate) = 3.658 (constant surface temp) Fully Developed Turbulent Flow (Source: Ref. 21):

16.1.2

= 6.3 + 0.003 (Re Pr), Pr < 0.1 (constant heat rate) = 4.8 + 0.C03 (Re Pr), Pr < 0.1 (constant surface temp)
6 8

jp = 0.022 Pr' Re" , 0.5 < Pr < 1.0 (constant heat rate) = 0.021 Pr ' Re
5

, 0.5 < Pr < 1.0 (constant surface temp)


9

jp = 0.0155 Pr" Re" , 1.0 < Pr < 20 f = 0.011 Pr- Re - , Pr < 20 Pr - Prandtl number, Re = Reynolds number 16.2. Forced Flow Between Smooth Infinite Parallel Plates. 16.2.1. Fully developed laminar flow (Source: Ref. 21): hs = 4.118 (constant heat rate on both sides) hs = 2.693 (constant heat rate on one side, other side insulated)
3 0 9

16-1

hs = 3.77 (constant surface temperature on both sides) = 2.43 (constant surface temperature on one side, other side insulated) s = spacing of plates 16.3. Forced Flow Parallel to Smooth Semi-Infinite Flat Plates Laminar Flow. 16.3.1. Laminar flow: = 0.332 P r
1 / 3 1 / 2 x 3 / 4 1 / 3

Re

[l - ' X /X)
t 0

]~

, (constant surface temperature)(Source: Ref.7)

X = unheated starting length X = distance from leading edge

= 0.453 P r

1 / 3

Re

1 / 2 x

[l - ( X / X )
Q

3 / 4

]~

1 / 3

, (constant heat rate) (Source: Ref. 21)

16.3.2.

Turbulent flow (Source: Ref. 21):

| * = 0.0295 P r ' R e x

[ l - (X /X) Q

9 /

L 0

]~

1 / 9

(constant surface temperature)

0.6 hx = 0.0307 Pr Re 0.8 [T - (X /X) 9/10~l-l/9 (constant heat rate) _ 1 J , k 16.4. Fully Developed Flow in Smooth Tube Annuli. 16.4.1. Laminar flow (Source: Sef. 21):
Nu..
1 d

( d

o- i>
k

11
9

W t
Nu oo
n

V o - i>
k

1 - (q./q )9* i! ^o o

(Subscripts i and o refer to inner and outer surfaces, q is surface heat flux, Nu., and Nu _ are inner and outer surface Nusselt numbers when only one
11 OO

surface is heated and 6 is an influence coefficient given in Table 16.1.) 16-2

TABLE 1 6 . 1 .

Tube-annulus solutions for constant heat rate i n f u l l y developed

laminary flow and temperature p r o f i l e s .

_
r.r i o
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Nu.. 11 CO
8.499 6.583 5.912 5.580 5.385

Nu oo

4.364 4.883 4.979 5.099 5.240 5.385

9. l CD
0.905 0.603 0.473 0.401 0.346

0.1041 0.1823 0.2455 0.299 0.346

1.0

16.4.2.

Turbulent flow (Source: Ref. 22):

7 (d - d.) - 0.023 Re" Pr"


k o i Ad

(d / d . ) ' , R e
o l

4 5

Ad

A j

1 0 , & d = d - A.
o l

16.5.

Forced Flow Normal to Circular Cylinders. 16.5.1. Local Coefficients (Source: Ref. 22):

"

- 1 . " Pr * H^-

[ l - ( 6 / 9 0 ) ] , 0 < 9 < 80

6 = cylinder angle from stagnation point 16.5.2. Average Coefficients (Source: Ref. 7 ) :

J * = 0.43 + C Re P r K a

3 1

TABLE 1 6 . 2 .
C

R e

m 0.500 0.618 0.805

1-4,000 4,000-40,000 40,000-400,000 16-3

0.533 0.193 0.0265

16.6.

Forced Flow Normal to Spheres. 16.6.1. Average Coefficients (Source: Ref. 7):

r ^ = 0.37 R e ' k d

Pr

0 , 3 3

,
0

20 < Re^, < 150,000 a


3 3

^ = 2 + 0.37 Re" P a ' , Re,, < 20 r K d


16-7. Free Convection on Vertical Plates and Cylinders.

16.7.1.

Local Coefficients (Source: Ref. 7 ) :

jp = 0.508 (Pr) (0.952 + P r ) ~

1/2

1 / 4

(Gr )
x

1 / 4

, GrPr < 1 0

jj = 0.0295 ( P r )

7 / 5

[l + 0.494 ( P r )

2 / 3

]"

2 / 5

(Gr)

2 / 5

, GrPr > 1 0

16.8.

Free Convection on Horizontal Cylinders.

16.8.1.

Average Coefficients (Source: Ref. 2 3 ) :

f = C (Gr Pr,
d

TABLE 16.3.

Gr p
d

C 0.40
_:L

m 0 1/16 1/7 1/4 1/3

0-10~
5

IO~ -IO
-1

0.97 1.14 0.53

10 -10~ 10 -10
9 4 9

10 -10

12

0.13

16-4

16.9.

Free Convection From Horizontal Square Plates.

16.9.1.

Average Coefficients (Source: Ref. 23):

^ = C (Gr P r ) , L = plate dimension K L

TABLE 16.4.

Condition Upper surface heated or lower surface cooled Lower surface heated or upper surface cooled Upper surface heated or lower surface cooled

Gr
it

pr

10 - 2 x 1 0
5

0.54
1 0

1/4 1/4 1.3

3 x 10 - 3 x 1 0 2 x 10 - 3 x 1 0
7

0.27 0.14

1 0

16.10.

Free Convection from Spheres.

16.10.1.

Average Coefficients (Source: (Ref. 5):

= 2 + 0.43 (Gr. P r ) K a 16.11.

1 / , 4 f

10 < Gr. Pr < 1 0 a

Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces.

16.11.1.

Enclosed Vertical Air Spaces (Source: Ref. 1)i

r 1
0.18 (Gr ) s I 0.065(Gr ) s
1 / 4

Gr

<

2,000

(s/L) (s/L)

1 / 9 f

2,000 < Gr s

< 20,000 < 10


7

1 / 3

1 / 9

, 20,000 < Gr

16-5

k s L

= effective thermal conductivity = width of air space = length of air space

16.11.2.

Enclosed Horizontal Air Spaces (Source: Ref. 1):

0.195 (Gr ) 5 0.068 (Gr ) s 16.12.

1 / 4

, 1 0 < Gr S
5

< 4 x 10

1 / 3

, 4 x 1 0 < Gr s

Film Condensation.

16.12.1.

Vertical PlatesAverage Coefficients (Source: Ref. 5)i

1/3
1.47 Re^ P (P
a a

-1/3

, Re. < 1800

- P )g
v

1/3

<V A " < V


v

= 0.007 Rejj' , Re

fc

> 1800

Re. = (4hAt )/i u X , vw v & At = temp difference between saturated vapor and wall
H

in

= heat of evaporation at saturation vapor temp

Po,ko,po = viscosity, thermal conductivity and density of liquid

16.12.2.

Horizontal TubesAverage Coefficients (Source: Ref. 5):

1/4
^ = 0.725

16-6

16.13.

Fool Boiling,

_^p_^_i
At
t

1 / 2

. r^f

(source:

Re

. X9,

= temp difference between wall and saturated vapor number at saturated liquid temperature a - surface tension at liquid vapor interface

c. ,u ,Pn,Prj, = specific heat, viscosity, density and Prandtl

= heat of evaporation

C _ = surface coefficient (see Table 16.5)

TABLE 16.5. Values of C


Surface-fluid combination Water-nickel Water-platinum Water-copper Water-brass CCl.-copper Benzene-chromium ii-Pent ane- chromi u n r Ethyl alcohol-chromium Isopropyl alcohol-copper 35% K CO -copper 50% K C0 -copper
3

and n (source: Ref. 19). n 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

sf

0.006 0.013 0.013 0.006 0.013 0.101 0.015 0.0027 0.0025 0.0054 0.0027 0.0030

n-Butyl alcohol-copper

16-7

'i.

Ib-S

SECTION 17. CONTACT COEFFICIENTS An empirical correlation developed by Shevts and Dyban (Ref. 24) gives estimated thermal contact coefficients for many common ferrous and non-ferrous metals in contact, including dissimilar metals.
hr/k = (IT/4) [l + 8 5 ( P / S )
0,8

k = thermal conductivity of the gas phase P = contact pressure r = height of a micro-element of roughness plus the height of the wave for one surface S = permissible rupture stress A theoretical approximation of contact coefficients developed by French and Rohsenow (Ref. 25) can be found by using Fig. 17.1 and the following properties: C = constriction number, P/M P = contact pressure M = Meyer hardness of the softer contact material B = gap number = 0.335 C
m = 0.315 (VATT)
0 , 1 3 7

A = interface area (one side) I = effective gap thickness, 3.56(4. + i. ) if ( , + J ) < 280 S , uin. (smooth contacts), or 0.46 (JL + t, ) > 280 uin. (rough contacts) ..,., - mean (or rms) depths of surface roughness k. = equivalent conductivity of interstitial fluid, for liquids use k
f

= k evaluated at t = (t + t,)/2, for gases: k 2 - a )/Pr(y + 1 ) ^ + a


3 j 2

k K

= 1 + 8 y (v/v) (a + a
L 2

4CTAG E t
2

2 " 1 2

17-1

k_ = fluid conductivity at zero contact pressure Pr = Prandtl number V = mean molecular velocity Y = ratio of specific heats v = kinematic viscosity evaluated at t a = accommodation coefficient e = surface emissivity o = Stefan-Boltzmann constant K = conductivity number, I: (k + k )/2k k k. = conductivity of first solid evaluated at

k_ = conductivity of second solid evaluated at


fc =

[ 2

fc

(k

l l

fc

2 2

f c

) / ( k

2 J

/ 2

Some thermal contact data assembled by P. J. Schneider from various sources (Ref. 19) is given in Fig. 17.2. Also, some additional data from Ref. 26 showing the effects of machining processes and surface matching is given in Fig. 17.3.

17-2

TABLE 17.1.

Interface conditions for contact data given in Fig. 17.2.


RMS surface Mean contact Gap material -4 vacuum (10 mm Hg) 4 vacuum (10 mm Hg) 4 vacuum (10 mm Hg) temp (P)

Curve

Material pair aluminum (2024-T3) aluminum (2024-T3) aluminum (2024-T3 aluminum (75S-T6) aluminum (75S-T6) aluminum (7SS-T6) aluminum (2024-T3) aluminum (75S-T6) stainless (304) stainless (304) stainless (416) stainless (416) magnesium (AZ-31B) magnesium (AZ-31B) copper (OFHC) stainless/aluminum iron/aluminum tungsten/graphi te

finish (Uin.)' 48-65 8-18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-J 1 W

110

no
110 200 200 200

6-8 (not flat) 120 65 10 6-8 (not flat) 120


42-60 10-15

air air air


lead foil (0.008 in.) brass foil (0.001 in.) 4 vacuum (10 mm Hg) 4 vacuum (10 mm Hg)

no
200 85 85 200 200 85 85 115 200 80 270

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

100 100
50-60i (oxidized) 8-16 (oxidized)

air
brass foil (0.001 in.) vacuum (10 mm Hg) 4 vacuum (10 mm Hg) vacuum (10~ mm Hg)

7-9
30-65

air air air

TABU! 17.2.

Interface conditions for contact data given in Fig. 17.3.


Roughness RMS (uin.) Block Fluid in 2 Temp

Curve

Material Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel Cold rolled steel 416 Stainless 416 Stainless 416 Stainless 416 Stainless Stainless

Finish Shaped Shaped Shaped Milled Milled Shaped Shaped Lapped Ground Ground Ground Ground Milled

Gap Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Air

(F)
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 400 200 400
Clean

Condition Parallel cuts, rusted Parallel cuts, clean Perpendicular cuts, clean Parallel cuts, rusted Parallel cuts, clean Perpendicular cuts, clean Parallel cuts, clean Clean

a b c d e f g h i

10CQ-1000 1000-1000 1000-1000 125-125 125-125 63-63 63-63

4-4
100-100 100-100 30-30 30-30 195-195

J
k 1 m

* Sexier
5X10"

1
1

FIG. 1 7 . 1 .

Thermal contact c o e f f i c i e n t from theory (source:

Ref. 2 5 ) .

17-5

20 10

/>'V
J

h i

~p2/3
i i ' I i i 11 I I I I 11.

' I i i i il

10

50 p - lb/in.

100
2

200

500 1000

FIG. 1 7 . 2 .

Thermal contact coefficient data (source:

Ref. 19),

17-6

0.016

0.014 Parallel cuts 0.012

0.010 r-

0.008 Perpendicular cuts 0.006 c o 0.004 c o o

0.002

100

200

300
2

400

500

Contact pressure lb/in.

FIG. 17.3.

Thermal contact c o e f f i c i e n t for bare s t e e l surfaces, (source:

Ref. 26, s e c t i o n G502.5, p. 5 ) .

17-7

ft-%

Tlarmal prgpattlea of M 1 K M M t i ' . i

"I - '
Uq/ifi JUiBlnm Fata 1034 (4.51 Ca, l , S t KQI 901* ( 4 . U Hg. 0.51 Mol tot* ii.i\ arUIuMi avail*i Coppti rare Puta tan CCMMcelal tuans* ( t *"1 I l l i c i t MM* (3St 1st ml bin ( l i t i n , 0.1* 5tii (31* ". 15 Nil Sanaa l U n t * ? , o.* %%\ . io"
J

MAa-u - 10 "
O.U O.M

m/ii in
1.4 1.1 1.1 3.1 3.0 .H 4.0 I.I 1.1

lVn 1.01 0.9* 0.91 0.1) 0.9)

.o

to 115. 0.01 0,00 O.M II.0 1.) IK.

30 117. 0.11 0.17 1.7 14.0 t.O 105. 0.43

90 13.) 0.40 0.40 3.1 40.0 3.3 13.3 0.11

ioo 3.0 0.(1 D.*J 3.1 9.9 1.4. 4.1 1-3 0.51

ion 2.4 1.0 0.11 3.0 3.01 1.1 I.I 0.14 0.30 D.ll 0.19 0.17 ].] O.M

4os 1.4 1.4

too 1.1

Mo 7.1

IOOO

uoo

1.70 3.TT 3.15 3.70 1.15 7.1*


l.M I.H

0.10
O.M

1.14 4.54 0.34 0.41 0.41 0.31 0.40 0.30 0.43 0.40
O.U

1.41 0.(7 3.1 1.1 D.ll

1.1* 0.11 1.1 1.5 1.01

1.07 0.T1 l.T

D.19 3.45 l.f

0.7) 0.(1 1.*

0.90 0.19 0.33 D.D7 0.44 O.Df 0.07 1.17 0.17 0.10 a.u 0.10

O.IB

1.47
I.U

0.75 0.35
1.5

1.59 i.li l.fD 1.11 H-12 7.n i.n 7.15


7.U 7.H 7.H

O.011

0.OT 0.11 0.01

0.15 0.30 0.15 3.012 4.3 l.T

0.17 0.11 0.17 0.11 3.5 1.)

C*tonlc*l (10t Ml. 3t la) conatantan (404 Mil Mmiaanln 1131 Rn, n Soldi Irani Fora run Mcauaht two. i < a . c> Stay caat Iron (3.01 C, O.tt 311 SAI 10H ataal (D.ll C, 0.3* Mnl AMI U4D ataal 11.M HI. 0.TI CrJ tflckal atsal IM Ml, O.tt Hnj Invar (3U VI, SI Co) SAI 4130 i t H l (11 Cr, 0.51 Hn> M i l M4 auLalaa* (1) Ci. 1M HI) MSI H i atalnlasa ,U Cr, U t Mil ludi Part Soldat IK* lb. Lit bloat UoaaaiBBi nra fun (ft U. It 11) (131 AI, Si) Pur a 101 SB) Soldar ISO* Pn> SOI So) Ml

0.21 0.13
1.3

O.015 34.3 T.l

0.011 19.0 13.0

0.1B 1.1 0.(1 0.51 9.31 3.0 0.51 0.11 0.34 0.11 0.14 0.11 0.2a 0.11 O.lt 3.1 a.U 0.)1 0.11 O.J* 0.13 0,73 0.33 0.11 0.31 0.3) 0.1> 0.35 0.33 0.30 3.0 0.11 3.C 0.30

0-43 O.tt D.42 0.47 0.44 0.44 0.4C 0.44 0.30 0.44 0.13 0.11 1.17 1.00 1.00

o.ao O.ID 0.31 0.44 0.3* 0.29 O.I4 0.41 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.37 0.44 0.77 1.9. O.70 O.St
1.4

D.DI

0.33

0.14 0.34 0.10 a.00

0.43 D.ll 0.34 0.13 0.37 0.13 9.13 0.37 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.)) 0.14

o.oa

.00 7, I t
7.W

o.u
0.001 0.001 1.71 0.3* 0.37 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.5* 1.45 (.0 0.04 0.0} ti.OJ 0.0) 0.01 3.3 U.) 0.3] 0.1* 1.71 14.0 1(1. 0.010 f.l 11.7

0.0( 0.031 D.031 0.51

0.1C D.Of O.M 0.44

0.1T 0.04 0.09 0.40

0.00 11.34 10.30


I.H

0.53 1.74 1.14 1.11 ID. 33 4.10 1.2* 1.14 4.51 1.40
O.U

7.2 11.1

3.) >.

1.1 1.7 0.50 0.10

0.(1 1.* 0.(3 0.44 1.4 1.1 0.30 O.10

0.71 V.5 O.U O.fl 1.1 D.IO 1.) 0.44 1.1 0.(7 1.1 0.T3 l.D D.T( 1.5 1.5

o.i
0.39 0.49 0.94 0.4) a.M 0.45 0.44 0.37 0.13 0.19 0.14 0.34

Moljbdanuai Ickali

3.77 l.i 0.04 0.035

1.0 ).4 0.14 0.0(5

l.( l.t 0.17 0.045

Fata OmanlcUl I4.H Alt Nonal (301 Cu, L41 Fa) Inoootl X-TS0 l i l t Cr, I t Fa) MlduoM (10 Cr) NlcUca* V (241 Fa, 1** Cr]

0.91 0.19 0.23 n.ia 0.11 0.10 0.94 0.71 0.(7 0.41
4.3 1.5 1.3

0.1) 0.14 O.U

0.17 0-i.J 0.15 0.11 0.71 0.44 4.1

0.21 O.U 0.11 0.41 0.74 0.44 .1

0.35 0.35 0.33 0.44 0.71 0.41 1.7

0.2* 0.31 O.K 0.4* 0.13 0.4( 1.1

Mfobluai PlltltaU Plateoliau ttarlaai IllVMt

Poia Plica Fota Fata FBI* Starling CT.lt Cm

1.97 31.45 1*.I4 31.04 10.41 10. Jl 10.04 7.10 1.44 li.l
M.J

3.1 4.1 1.4 II.

0.71 1.1 O.M 7.0

0.51 0.71 O.U 0.40 4.5

0.51 0.72 0.41 0.51 4.1

0.19 0.73 0.10 0.44 4.3

Tim

atactic ( l i t Cu] Fur. Soldu (401 Fbi

0.33 0.11 0.14 0.11 0.90 0.91 0.13 O.lf

0.a"7 0.91 0.91 I.t 0.33 0.075 O.ll


1.2

0.41 0.13 0.3S 0.73 0.10 0.0} 0.13 0.43

9.15 0.94 O.S1


3.4 O.U

6.73 0.93

D.tt

Mttaldu YnngitFnt Tltanliai

Fun Iu Fu A-U0 ft (SI Al, 3-S tat

o.st
2.0

0.10
1.*

0.9)
1.4

0.9)
1.3

0.(0
1.2

9.41
1.1

4.IL 4.41 IF.07


7.U

0.39

0.39 0.0*1

0.1) O.U
O.M

0.30 0.14 a.M

0.21

0.33

Oranlnai Ilnei

Fata

0.22

0.35

o.ia

0.44

0.4*

Puta

18-1

TABLE I B . 2 .

Thermal p c o p e r t i e s o m i s c e l l a n e o u s s o l i d s ( s o u r c e i

ReEs. 35 t o 3B). Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y fk), (W/m'K) x 10

P c o p e r t i e s a t 300 K (m /s) x 10 10 K

(kg/m ) Ceramics) ( F o l y c r y s t a l U n e , 99.5% purity,96% solid) 3.B4 BeO HgO SiO Th0 Tio
2

400

600

BOO

1000

1200

0.79 1.00 0.92 0.75 0.23 Q.71 0.46

36.0 272.0 4B.0 1.4 13.0 6.0 1.6

0.12 0.92 0.16 0.008 0,06 0.03 0.007

550, 4240. 750. 11. 1B0. 100.

260. 1960. 350. 15. 100. 70. 17.

160. 1110. 220. 18. 70. 50. IB.

100. 700. 140. 22. 50. 40. 19.

80. 470. 90. 29. 40. 30. 19.

2.97 3.21 (high p u r i t y fused) 2.21 9.58 3.91 5.2B


2

zca

Glassesi
Boco&Uicate (Pycex)
2

2.21 2.52 2.21 2.60 2.70 0.35

0.71 0.66 1.00 0.67

1.1 0.9 1.4 1.1 5.2 0.046

0.007 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.02 0.002 0.73 0.79 l.U 5.2 0.C1 0.48 0.66 0.002 1.9 0.89 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.3 2.2 2.8 3.5 1.7 1.3 6.6 8.4 10. 8. 11. 9. 11. 15. 13.

Soda l i m e (75% S i 0 ) Vitreous s i l i c a (1001 S i c y


2

Z i n c ccown (65% Si(> )

00 I to

Insulations:

(Foe high temps.) (90% M ^ ) G.B3 D.B4

Alumina, f u s e d

Asbestos p a p e r ( l a m i n a t e d ) Diatomaceoi-a e a r t h s i l i c a (powder) F i r e b r i c k (50% SiO , 37% A 1 0 J


2 3

0.B1 0.19

0.92 1.13 0.84

0.34 0.050 0.036 0.046

0.005 0.002 0.005

Magnesite (S5% MgO) Micro q u a r t z f i b e r Rockwool Ziroonia Insulations: Fiberglass Fiberglass (loose)' (grain) (Foe lew temps.) (Foaaglas) (Hlanket)

0.05 0.16 1.81

0.90

0.18

Expanded g l a s s

0.17 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.08 0,08

0.062 0.040 0.038 0.022 0.038 0.017

0.31 0.12

0.51 0.24 0,17

(board) (blanket] (powder) (labnabs)


-

S i l i c a aerogel

P o l y s t y r e n e foam

0.12

0.24 0,12

Polystyrene foaa ( I D

atmabs)

TABI I B . 2 . P r o p e r t i e s at 300 II

(Continued.) Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y ( k ) , <W/m*K) x 1 0 "


2

P.
Material Plasticac A c r y l i c , PMKA ( P l e x i g l a s ) Nylon 6 Polyvinyl chloride T e f l o n , PTPB Polyethylene, high denaity Rocks: Granite Harble Sandstone Shale Hoods: Salaa ( a c r o s s g r a i n , oven dry) 0.16 0.46 0.67 0.40 0.42 2.60 2.50 2.20 2. G O (rigid) 1.18 1.16 1.40 2.16 D.95 (kg/a ) x 10"
3 3

c. (J/kg'R) x 1 0
_ U

k. K/m'K

a.
| n / s ) * 10*
3

10 K

20

50

100

200

400

GO O

BOO

1000

1200

1.4G 1.59 1.00 1.05 2.30

0.16 0.25 0.15 0.40 0.E0

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002

0.6 0.3 1.0

0.7 0.9 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.S

1.2 1.6 1.5 4.5 5.5

0.79 0.88 0.92 0.71

3.4 1.8 5.3 1.8

0.017 O.00B 0.026 0.010

30. 17. 44. 15.

24. 11. 30. 14.

0.059 2.72 2.38 2 . B0 2.90 0.11 0.17 0.10 0.11 0.001 0.001 O.0D1 0.001

I-"
W

Douglaa l r Oak, red Pine, vhlte Redwood Miscellaneous: Carbon black (powder) Carbon (petroleum coke) Graphite (*TJ| (H t o g r a i n s ) * ( 1 to grains) Graphite (cytolytic) (n t o g r a i n s ) ( 1 t o graina) Concrete Hlca Rubber (hard) Gypaun board Sand (dry)

0.19 2.10

0.84 0.84

0.021 1.9

0.001 0.011 21. 25. 19. 4200. 1100. 170. 130. 23000. 1000. 580. 420. 50000. 390. 1200. B60. 32000. 150. USD. 900. 14600. 70. 25. 2B. 30.

1.73 1.73 2.20 2.20 2.20 1.96 1.19 0.82 1.52

0.B4 0.B4 0.84 0.84 0.67 0.88 1.88 0.80

129.0 98.0 2000.0 9.0 l.B 0.43 0.16 0.11 0.33

0.89 0.67 10.8 0.05 0.012 0.002 0.001

5. 4. 810. 270.

950. 730. 9300. 40.

770. 590. 6800. 30.

640. 490. 5300. 20.

0.003

TABIiE 1 8 . 3 . point

Thermal p r o p e r t i e s of some metals a t 10 K above t h e i r melting Refs. 35 and 3 8 ) .

(source:

mp. Metal Aluminum Copper Iron Lead Lithium Mercury Potassium Sodium NaK (eutectic) Tin Zinc K 933.2 1356. 1810. 600.6 453.7 234.3 336.8 371.0 262. 505.1 692.7

k, W/m'k 91 167 41 16 43 7 54 87 13 31 50

PF

c.
3

Y kJ/kg 395.4 205. 281.6 24.7 663.2 11.3 61.5 114.6 60.2 102.1

kg/m

kJ/kg -k 1.09 0.49 0.82 0.21 4.25 1.34 0.84 1.34 1.00 0.23 0.50

2390 7940 7020 10700 520 13650 820 930 850 6980 6640

18-4

TABLE 18.4. Room temperature total emissivities (source: Ref. 3 7 ) .


Silver (highly polished) Platinum (highly polished) Zinc (highly polished) Aluminum (highly polished) Monel metal (polished) Nickel (polished) Copper (polished) Stellite (polished) Cast iron (polished) Monel metal (oxidized) Aluminum paint 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.25 0.43 0.55 Brass (polished) Oxidized copper Oxidized steel Bronze paint Black gloss paint White lacquer White vitreous enamel Asbestos paper Green paint Gray paint Lamp black 0.60 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

18-5

TABLE 18.5.

Total emissivities of miscellaneous materials

(source;

Ref. 3 7 ) .

Temp, Material Alloys 20Ni-25Cr-55Fe, oxidized 60Nl-12Cr-2BFe, oxidized B0Ni-20Ct, oxidized


200 500 270 560 100 600

Emissivity Material Iron, rusted 0.90 0.97 0.69 0.82 0.87 0.87 0.S9 0.022 0.028 0.60 0.11 0.19 0.048 0.061 0.61 0.59 0.035 0.035 0.81 D.81 0.81 0.08 0.13 0.23 0.19 0.24 0.02 0.15
0.6 0.6

Temp,

Emissivity 0.65 0.94 0.94 0.05 0.63 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.19 0.24 0.43 0.43 0.045 0.06 0.12 0.19 0.37 0.85 0.037 0.047 0.096 0.152 0.191 0.80 0.B5 0.02 0.035 0.08 0.28

C
25 25 350 100 200 25 100

wrought, d u l l oxidized Lead, unoxidized oxidized Mercury, unoxidized Molybdenum, unoxidized

1300 Aluminum, unoxidized


25 100 500

1000 1500 2000

Monel m e t a l , o x i d i z e d N i c k e l , unoxidized

200 600 25 100 500

oxidized Bismuth, unoxidized B r a s s , oxidized unoxidized Carbon, unoxidized

200 600 25 100 200 600 25 100 25 100 500

1000 oxidized Platinum, unoxidized


200

1200
25 100 500

1000 1500 S i l i c a brick S i l v e r , unoxidized S t e e l , unoxidized oxidized 1000 1100


100 500 100

Chromium, unoxidized C o b a l t , unoxidized Columbian, unoxidized Copper, unoxidized oxidized calorized c a l o r i z e d , oxidized P i c e brick Gold, unoxidized Gold enamel I r o n , unoxidized oxidized

100 500

1000 1500 2000


100

liquid
200

liquid
25 200 600

o.eo
0.79 0.79 0.94 0.97 0.52 0*5? 0.21 0.26 0.043 0.05 0.024 0.032 0.071 0.15 0.23 0.28 0.05

1000
100 500 200 600

0.26 0.26 0.18 0.19 0,75 0.02 0.03 0.37 0.05 0.74 0.84 0.89 0.21 0.29 0.64 0.78 0.95 0.95 Zinc, unoxidized Tungsten, unoxidized Tin, unoxidized Tantalum, unoxidized S t e e l p l a t e , rough c a l o r i z e d , oxidized

40 400 200 600

1000
100 500 100 100 100 500

1500 2000
25 100 25 100 500

1200 c a s t / unoxidized c a s t , oxidized c a s t , strongly oxidized


100

1000 1500 2000


300

liquid
200 600

40 250

18-6

TABLE 1 8 . 6 .

Electrical r e s i s t i v i t y of sane canon metals (source:


Resistivity, (ifl'cm Temp. coefficient 20C Specific gravity, g/cm

Ref. 37).
Melting point.

Metal Advance. Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Bismuth Brass Cadmium Calido. Climax Cobalt Constantan Copper: annealed see nichrome See constantan

20c

c
659 630

2.824 41.7 33.3

0.0039 .0036 .0042 .004 .002 .0038

2.70

6.6
5.73

271 900 321


1250 1480 1190 1083

120 7 7.6 87 9.8 49


1.7241 1.771

9.8 8.6 8.6 8.1


8.71

.0007 .0033 .00001 .00393 .00382

8.9
8.89 8.89

hard-drawn Eureka. Excello Gas carbon German silver, 18% Ni Gold Ideal. See constantan See constantan

1500 3500 1100 1063

92
5000

.00016 -.0005 .0004 .0034

8.9

8.4
19.3

33
2.44

Iron, 99.98* pure Lead Magnesium Manganin Mercury Molybdenum, drawn Monel metal Nichrome Nickel Palladium Phosphor bronze Platinum Silver Steel, E . B. B. Steel, B. B. Steel, Siemens-Martin Steel, manganese Tantalum Therlo
8

10 22 4.6 44
95.783

.005 .0039 .004 .00001 .00089 .004 .0020 .0004 .006 .0033 .0018 .003 .0038 .005 .004 .003 .001 .0031 .00001 .0042 .0045 .0037

7.8
11.4 1.74

1530

327 651 910


-38.9 2500 1300 1500 1452 1550

8.4
13.546

5.7 42 100 7.8 11 7.8 10


1.59 10.4 11.9

9.0 8.9 8.2 8.9


12.2

8.9
21.4 10.5

750
1755

960
1510 1510 1510 1260 2850

7.7 7.7 7.7 7.5


16.6

IB 70
15.5

47
11.5

8.2 7.3 19 7.1

232
3400

Tin
Tungsten, drawn Zinc

5.6 5.8

419

"Trade mark.

18-7

XABI 18.7.

Thermal conductivity integrals of miscellaneous materials (source:


A 0 = 7 Ik.) r k = 7J -2 k d t , W/m x 10

Hef. 76).

C a p p e r TeffPr K 6 8 10 15 JO 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 16 90 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 290 300 O.F.E i . e . G. 1 14. 5 2 5 . .2 6 1 . .4 110 160 22 B 285 338 426 496 554 5B6 606 654 700 788 874 956 1040 1120 1320 1520 Hi-purity annealed 166 382 636 1270 1790 2160 2410 25BD 2700 2060 2960 3030 3070 3090 3140 3180 3270 3360 3440 3520 ' 3600 3800 4000

8 A 1 u Bl i n u m Brass (Pb) 2024-T4 0.060 0.197 0.347 0.872 1.60 2.51 3.61 4.91 6.41 9.91 14.1 IB.9 22.0 24.2 30.1 36.3 50.1 65.4 82.1 100 119 171 229 6063-T5 0.,850 2. 05 3..60 9.,00 16. ,5 25. ,8 36. .5 46. 8 62. .0 89. ,5 117 143 158 167 190 211 253 293 333 373 413 513 613 SHE 1020 0.088 0.231 0.431 1.17 2.22 3.52 5.02 6.74 8.67 13.1 1B.1 23.6 27.1 29.5 35.5 41.7 54.5 67.5 80.5 93.5 107 139 172 less

3 t e e l Stain Znconel (annealed) 0.0133 0.0348 0.0653 0.1B2 0.356 0.592 0.B82 1.22 1.60 2.47 3.45 4.52 5.19 5.66 6.85 8.06 10.6 13.1 15.7 18.3 21.0 28.0 35.4 Soft solder 0.425 1.05 1.03 4.IB 6.86 9.66 12.5 15.3 18.1 23.4 28.5 33.6 36.7 38. B 44.1 49.4 60.3 71.4 82.6 93.8 105 133 162 G l a s s Jlass 2.. 1 1 x 1 0 4..43 6,. 8 1 13 . 1 20., 0 27.,9 36, ,8 47. ,1 58. .6 84. .6 115 151 175 194 240 292 40B 542 694 050 1030 1500 1990
- 3

a n d

p l a s t i c s perspex
- 3

H a t e Constantan
3

r i a l Ag s o l d e r 0.059 0.14B 0.26S 0.6B8 1.25 1.92 2.67 3.52 4.47 6.62 9.12 12.0 13. 15.2 18.7 22.6 31.1 40.6 51.0 62.2 74.0 105 138

nylon 0..32 x 1 0 0..B0 1,. 4 8 4,,10 0 .23 13. .9 20. ,8 2 9 . ,0 38. .5 60. .4 85. 9 113 131 142 173 204 269 336 405 475 545 720 895

0.053 0.129 0.229 0.594 1.12 1.81 2.65 3.63 4.76 7.36 10.4 13.9 16.2 17.7 22.0 26.5 36.5 47.8 60.3 73.8 BB.3 128 172

0.0063 0.0159 0.0293 0.0816 0.163 0.277 0.424 0.607 0.824 1.35 1.98 2.70 3.17 3.49 4.36 5.28 7.26 9.39 11.7 14.1 16.6 23.4 30.6

1.18 x 10" 2.38 3.59 6.69 10.1 14.4 19.6 25.9 33.0 49.5 68.3 BB.5 101. 110. 132. 155. 200. 247. 294. 342. 390. 510. 630.

0.024 0.066 0.128 0.375 0.753 1.24 1.81 2.44 3.12 4.57 6.12 7.75 8.75 9.43 11.1 12.8 16.2 19.7 23.2 26.9 30.6 40.6 51.6

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46.

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U.S. Government Printing Office: 1980/10-798-002/5513